TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
identification of a bovine mucosal-disease virus isolated in sweden as myxovirus para-influenzae 3. 196018990778
growth of bovine parainfluenza-3 virus in chick tissues growing on polythene. 196414235697
isolation and transmission studies with bovine parainfluenza-3 virus. 196414266839
isolation of bovine parainfluenza-3 virus in chick embryos. 196414197901
cytopathic effects and immunofluorescence produced by the j 121 strain of bovine parainfluenza 3 virus in tissue culture. 19654285368
antigenic relationship of the human and bovine parainfluenza 3 viruses using the ouchterlony technique. 19664286953
cytochemistry of cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions induced by bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (sf-4) in human cell cultures. 19664287733
comparative cytopathology of rinderpest and bovine parainfluenza 3 viruses in cell cultures. 19664290608
on the classification of bovine parainfluenza 3 viruses. 19674290283
studies with bovine parainfluenza - 3 virus in u.a.r. (egypt).a bovine strain of myxovirus parainfluenza-3 (mp3) virus, designated s virus, was isolated from lung tissue collected from cattle with respiratory illness in 1963. the virus agglutinates mammalian and avian erythrocytes, and is sensitive to ether, sodium desoxycholate and trypsin. it grows in primary calf kidney, buffalo kidney, dog kidney, camel kidney and ms cell cultures. the s virus forms well-defined plaques in buffalo and calf kidney cells on the 5th or 6th day after inoculation. examinati ...196717649582
susceptibility of various types of cell cultures to three strains of bovine parainfluenza 3 virus. 19684296234
preliminary studies on the development of a bovine parainfluenza 3 virus vaccine. 19684297204
a potentiating-factor-dependent neutralizing antibody in calves and rabbits against bovine parainfluenza 3 virus. 19684306980
an electron microscopic comparison of three strains of bovine parainfluenza-3 virus. 19694307446
pathogenesis of bovine parainfluenza 3 virus infection in organ cultures. 19694310552
interference between bovine parainfluenza 3 virus and a street strain of rabies virus in rabbits. 19704315630
potentiating-factor dependency and molecular size of neutralizing antibodies produced in bovine parainfluenza 3 virus infection. 19704320654
experimentally induced infection of in utero bovine fetuses with bovine parainfluenza 3 virus. 19724333638
inoculation of hamsters with a temperature sensitive (ts) mutant of parainfluenza 3 virus.the multiplication pattern of a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant of bovine parainfluenza 3 virus was studied in hamsters and compared with that of a virulent virus strain. the ts mutant was recovered regularly from the nasal mucosa and not from the lungs, whereas the virulent virus multiplied in the lungs as well as in the nasal mucosa.the serological response induced by the mutant was comparable to that obtained after inoculation of the virulent virus.this ts mutant may be a potential candidat ...19724338168
failure to induce fetal infection by inoculation of pregnant immune heifers with bovine parainfluenza 3 virus. 19734350519
a three year field study of preconditioning native illinois beef calves sold through a cooperative marketing association--1969 to 1971.during the fall of 1969, 1970 and 1971, central illinois practitioners preconditioned (pc) 1,576 beef calves at a cost range of $3.02 to $4.72. the pc program included weaning calves 30 days before sale, having calves eating grain from a bunk and drinking from a tank, vaccinated against blackleg, malignant edema, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) and bovine parainfluenza virus (pi3). calves were tagged in the right ear with the green certified preconditioned for health (cph) tag of the ame ...19734270429
infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis i. experimental or both eyes of 20 calves were inoculated one or more time with variou(s combinations of microorganism (live oor killed moraxella bovis, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine adenovirus, bovine parainfluenza-3 virus and mycoplasma bovoculi) by conjunctival instillation or direct inoculation of the conjunctivea or cornea. the eyes of all the calves received natural or artificial ultraviolet irradiation. neither the adenovirus nor parainfluenza-3 virus became established in the eye o ...1975163126
[adaptation of bovine parainfluenza 3 virus to cells of the chick embryo allantoic cavity]. 1975175226
the pulmonary clearance of pasteurella hemolytica in calves infected with bovine parainfluenza-3 virus.the purpose of this study was to determine if parainfluenza-3 virus in calves interfered with normal pulmonary bacterial clearance. three groups (a, b and c) of four calves each were exposed to an aerosol of parainfluenza-3 virus. three days later the four hour pulmonary clearance of pasteurella hemolytica was determined on the first group (a), seven days later on the second (b) and 11 days later on the third (c). group a had a mean pulmonary bacterial retention of 3.6 +/- 3.5%. group b was 83.1 ...1976187305
probable role of viruses in calfhood diseases.bovine enteroviruses, bovine viral diarrhea virus, rotavirus (formerly called reovirus-like agent), coronavirus-like agent, bovine adenovirus, and bovine parainfluenza-3 virus have been isolated from calves suffering from neonatal disease. the experimental disease produced by these viruses is not necessarily severe or fatal, but under farm and ranch conditions, each probably serves as an added to mortality from neonatal disease. after initial losses following the introduction of a virus into a h ...1977190279
cell receptors for paramyxoviruses.treatment of chick embryo fibroblasts, calf kidney and bhk cells for 30 minutes with the enzyme neuraminidase from vibrio cholerae causes an enhancement of the per cent of attached ndv virions. this enhancement does not depend on the multiplicity of infection. the quantity of spontaneously eluted and cellbound virus is two times greater than the quantity of the same virus derived from control cells. n-acetyl-neuramin lactose inhibits the effect of vibrio cholerae neuraminidase. after prolonged a ...1977199141
serological relationships between certain avian and animal avian paramyxovirus designated robin/hiddensee/19/75 proved to be related to the yucaipa virus group in cross haemagglutination inhibition test (hit). whereas the prototype parainfluenza viruses did not react with the antiserum raised against the robin virus, a newly isolated bovine parainfluenza 3 virus was shown to be inhibited up to half the homologous titre. possible antigenic relationships between avian, mammalian and human paramyxoviruses are discussed.197774944
bovine trypanosomiasis: effect on the immune response of the infected host.yearling cattle were inoculated with a recently isolated field strain of trypanosoma congolense. dinitrophenylated ovalbumin, a bacteriophage, or bovine parainfluenza-3 virus injected into the cattle during the first 5 weeks of infection resulted in peak serum antibody titers lower but not much lower than those produced by noninfected cattle. primary and secondary antibody responses of inoculated cattle required more time to reach peak titers. peripheral blood lymphocyte concentrations decreased ...1979224735
characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3.bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (piv-3) has a buoyant density of 1.197. the rna of piv-3, like that of sendai virus, is a single continuous chain which lacks polyadenylic acid sequences and tends to self-anneal to a marked extent. it has a sedimentation coefficient of 42s and a molecular weight of 4.5 x 10(6), being slightly smaller than sendai virus rna (47s, 5.3 x 10(6)). piv-3 has 5 main structural proteins, of which 2 are glycoproteins. the molecular weights of protein 1, protein 2, protei ...1979228163
comparative studies on haemagglutinating activity and immunogenicity of bovine parainfluenza-3 virus strains. 19826320610
lack of virus-specific bacterial adherence to bovine embryonic lung cells infected with bovine parainfluenza virus type 3.infection of bovine embryonic lung cells with bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 did not induce in vitro, virus-specific, hemadsorption-related adherence of corynebacterium pyogenes, haemophilus somnus, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus zooepidemicus, pasteurella haemolytica, listeria monocytogenes, escherichia coli, pasteurella multocida, brucella sp., or salmonella typhimurium.19836302133
serology of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3: comparison of the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutination enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of antibody to bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 has been compared with the hemagglutination inhibition test on 130 field sera, and seven other paired sera showing a significant raise of titers. the elisa was found to be four to 64 times more sensitive than the hemagglutination inhibition test and the two tests demonstrated a good correlation.19836309348
effects of bovine parainfluenza-3 virus on phagocytosis and phagosome-lysosome fusion of cultured bovine alveolar macrophages.bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (pi-3v) replicated in cultured bovine alveolar macrophages (bam) in vitro. cytopathic changes included spindle cell and giant cell formation, diffuse cell lysis, and cellular detachment progressing to total destruction of the monolayer. direct immunofluorescent microscopy revealed viral antigen in greater than 90% of bam on post-inoculation day (pid) 3. virus titers in culture supernatants increased by a factor of 1.6 x 10(6) tcid50 by pid 6. candida glabrata was pha ...19836314852
cell mediated immunity of calves to bovine parainfluenza-3 virus; leukocyte migration inhibition and leukocyte aggregation response. 19846328797
antibody and complement-mediated cytotoxicity for bovine parainfluenza-3 virus-infected antibody-complement-mediated cytotoxicity assay was employed to determine whether susceptible host cells infected with bovine parainfluenza-3 virus could be destroyed by the humoral immune mechanism. the cytotoxicity assay yielded 21.5% to 76.9% specific release of 51cr with sera collected from calves 28 days after inoculation with the virus. a multiplicity of infection of 5, a postinfection period of 2 days, an antibody dilution of 1:10, and an incubation period of 12 hours with antibody and ...19846331235
prevalence of antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus-1, and bovine parainfluenza-3 virus in sheep and goats in quebec.serum samples were collected from 1,075 clinically normal sheep and goats from 77 flocks in 7 agricultural regions of quebec from june to august 1982. sheep and goats were tested for antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and bovine herpes-virus-1 by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique and for parainfluenza-3 virus by the hemagglutination inhibition test. the prevalence of antibodies in animals to respiratory syncytial virus was 31%; to bovine vira ...19846089626
experimental parainfluenza virus infection in mice: growth and spread of a highly pathogenic variant of parainfluenza 3 virus in the mouse brain.we had previously showed that following intracerebral inoculation of newborn mice, the 910 n and m strains of bovine parainfluenza 3 virus induce a non-lethal hydrocephalus and a lethal disease with marked thymic and splenic atrophy, respectively. moreover, only the m virus was lethal for 2-week-old mice. in the present study, we demonstrate that the m virus multiplies and spreads in the mouse brain invading the thalamus, hypothalamus and brain stem beyond the ependyma whereas the 910 n virus ca ...19852982350
effect of recombinant dna-derived bovine and human interferons on replication of bovine herpesvirus-1, parainfluenza-3, and respiratory syncytial viruses.antiviral effects of recombinant dna-derived bovine (bo) and human (hu) interferons (ifn) on the replication of bovine herpesvirus-1, parainfluenza-3, and respiratory syncytial viruses were studied. bovine monolayer cultures were treated with recombinant dna-produced bo ifn-alpha 1, bo ifn-beta 2, hu ifn-alpha a, or hu ifn-alpha a/d and then challenge exposed with bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, or vesicular stomatitis virus. treatment with ...19863008606
differences in bovine parainfluenza 3 virus variants studied by monoclonal antibodies against viral glycoproteins.we previously showed that of three bovine parainfluenza 3 virus strains the m strain, which is neurovirulent for young mice, has an extensive syncytium-inducing activity, whereas avirulent sc and 910n strains are weak in this activity. it was also demonstrated that both m and sc strains have very low hemagglutination and neuraminidase activities, while the 910n strain shows these activities to high levels. in the present study, monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were raised against the glycoproteins o ...19863024407
monoclonal antibodies reveal extensive antigenic differences between the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoproteins of human and bovine parainfluenza 3 viruses.a panel of twenty monoclonal antibodies to the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) glycoprotein of human parainfluenza 3 (pi3) virus has been obtained and tentatively classified into four different groups based on reactivity in hemagglutination inhibition (hi), neuraminidase inhibition (ni), and plaque neutralization (nt) tests. the antibodies were tested for cross-reactivity with bovine pi3 virus, sendai virus, and simian virus 5 (sv5). only two of these antibodies showed similar reactivities with ...19862417412
structural proteins of bovine parainfluenza-3 virus.six structural proteins of bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (pi-3v) labeled with [35s]-methionine could be resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). five structural proteins of this virus had been previously reported. the 6 proteins found in this study were: l, a 180,000 (180 kd) molecular weight (mw) large protein; p, 83 kd phosphoprotein; hn, 69 kd hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein; np, 66 kd nucleocapsid protein; f, 55 kd fusion glycoprotein; and m, 38 kd matrix protein. selec ...19872821671
nucleotide sequence of the bovine parainfluenza 3 virus genome: its 3' end and the genes of np, p, c and m proteins.we present the nucleotide sequence of bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (bpiv3) genome from its 3' end to the opening region of the f gene, through the np, p plus c, and m genes. comparison of the sequence with those reported for other paramyxoviruses indicated that bpiv3 was most similar to human parainfluenza 3 virus (hpiv3), and also very similar to sendai virus in the structural make-up of its genome and the amino acid sequences of its gene products, suggesting that these three viruses constitute ...19873031614
nucleotide sequence of the bovine parainfluenza 3 virus genome: the genes of the f and hn analysing complementary dna clones constructed from genomic rna of bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (bpiv3), we determined the nucleotide sequence of the region containing the entire f and hn genes. their deduced amino acid sequences showed about 80% homologies with those of human parainfluenza 3 virus (hpiv3), about 45% with those of sendai virus, and about 20% with those of sv5 and newcastle disease virus (ndv), indicating, together with the results described in the preceding paper on the np, p ...19873031615
antigenic analysis of human and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 strains with monoclonal antibodies.the antigenic characteristics of eight human strains and two bovine strains, one of which is represented by two plaque variants, of parainfluenza virus type 3 were analysed. the strains and variants were compared using 52 monoclonal antibodies against five, two, six and six epitopes of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn), fusion, nucleocapsid and matrix viral proteins respectively, employing radioimmuno-precipitation and immunofluorescence assays. the human strains, seven of which were isolate ...19873039045
differences in bovine parainfluenza 3 virus variants studied by sequencing of the genes of viral envelope determining gene nucleotide sequences we compared the primary structures of the membrane (m), fusion (f), and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) proteins of bovine parainfluenza 3 virus strains, m, sc, and mr which are substrains derived from a wild strain yn. the m and sc viruses are indistinguishable in having very weak hemagglutination (ha) and neuraminidase (na) activities, but m virus' syncytium-inducing (si) activity is considerably higher than that of the sc virus. however, the results s ...19882829426
effect of cloned human interferon-alpha 2a on bovine parainfluenza-3 virus. brief report.pretreatment of bovine turbinate (btu) cells with cloned human interferon (ifn)-alpha 2a reduced the yield of infectious bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (pi-3 v). intracellular synthesis of hn glycoprotein was reduced on postinfection day 1 (pid 1), but it recovered to normal levels subsequently. however, reduction of this protein persisted in the released virus through pid 2. thin section electron microscopy demonstrated a drastically reduced release of mature virions and an accumulation of viral ...19882829793
bovine parainfluenza-3 virus proteins recognized by antibodies of aerosol-exposed calves.bovine parainfluenza-3 (bpi-3) virus proteins were radiolabeled with [35s]methionine. control serum containing antibodies to bpi-3 virus obtained from calves that had been immunized by aerosol exposure and by im inoculation and sera of cattle that were exposed to bpi-3 virus by aerosol only were used to immunoprecipitate bpi-3 virus proteins. the immunoprecipitates were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. viral proteins with estimated molecular weights of 72,00 ...19882854712
attenuation of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 in nonhuman primates and its ability to confer immunity to human parainfluenza virus type 3 challenge.bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (piv-3) was evaluated as a candidate live-virus vaccine to protect against infection with human piv-3. the level of replication of bovine and human piv-3 and the efficacy of immunization with bovine piv-3 in protecting against subsequent challenge with human piv-3 was evaluated in nonhuman primates. the duration and magnitude of replication of human and bovine piv-3 in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of new world monkeys was similar, and animals infected ...19882831282
syncytium formation by recombinant vaccinia viruses carrying bovine parainfluenza 3 virus envelope protein genes.the highly syncytium-inducing m strain and the weakly syncytium-inducing sc strain of bovine parainfluenza 3 virus differ by a single amino acid substitution in each of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) and membrane (m) proteins, while their fusion (f) proteins are identical (t. shioda, s. wakao, s. suzu, and h. shibuta, virology 162:388-396, 1988). we constructed recombinant vaccinia viruses which express separately the m virus hn (vac-mhn), sc virus hn (vac-schn), m virus m (vac-mm), sc vir ...19892547990
defective transport of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein of bovine parainfluenza-3 virus in interferon treated cell.a defective transport of bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (pi-3v) hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) glycoprotein was evidenced in interferon (ifn)-treated bovine turbinate (btu) cells. indirect immunofluorescence performed with monoclonal antibody to pi-3 hn glycoprotein demonstrated accumulation of this protein in the perinuclear cytoplasm of ifn-treated cells. untreated, infected control cells had a generalized widespread fluorescence. unfixed control cells showed a uniform surface fluorescence in ...19892482015
an evaluation of four serological tests for the detection of antibodies to bovine parainfluenza virus type 3.haemagglutination-inhibition (hi), virus neutralization (vn), haemolysis-inhibition (hli-1, hli-2) tests, and two new haemofusion-inhibition (hfi-1, hfi-2) tests, developed by us, were tested for the detection of antibodies to bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bpiv-3) in sera of 45 steers randomly selected from a herd naturally infected by bpiv-3. twelve seronegative animals were then vaccinated with formalin-inactivated vaccine and 15 days later tested by the above-mentioned assays. linear reg ...19892561663
antigenic variation of human and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 strains.three human and six bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (piv3) strains were examined by the use of 60 monoclonal antibodies (mabs). fifty-three mabs to the human c243 strain were directed against six, four, nine and seven epitopes of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn), fusion (f), nucleocapsid (n) and matrix proteins, respectively. seven mabs to the bovine strain were directed against three epitopes of the hn protein and three epitopes of the f protein. each strain was characterized in elisa an ...19901695673
sequencing analyses and comparison of parainfluenza virus type 4a and 4b np protein genes.the nucleotide sequences of the cdna copies of the mrna coding for the nucleocapsid proteins (nps) of human parainfluenza viruses type 4a (piv-4a) and type 4b (piv-4b) were determined. the copy of piv-4a np mrna contained 1885 nucleotides encoding a protein with a calculated molecular weight of 62,561. the same number of amino acids with a similar molecular weight (62,425) were predicted for the piv-4b np protein. comparisons on the nucleotide sequence and the amino acid sequence of np protein b ...19902152988
sequence determination of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) gene of human parainfluenza type 2 virus and the construction of a phylogenetic tree for hn proteins of all the paramyxoviruses that are infectious to humans.the nucleotide sequence of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) gene of human parainfluenza type 2 virus (piv-2) was determined. the piv-2 hn gene was 2112 nucleotides excluding poly(a) tail. there was a single large open reading frame in the mrna which encoded a protein of 571 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 63,262. analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence revealed that there were fourteen potential glycosylation sites and a major hydrophobic region near the n-terminus, whi ...19902152995
analysis of bovine parainfluenza-3 virus replication in bovine embryonic lung cells by indirect fluorescent antibody and hemadsorption assays.the temporal manifestation of bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (bpi3v) proteins in the cytoplasm and on the surface of bovine embryonic lung (bel) cells was characterized by indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) and hemadsorption (had) assays. intracellular proteins appeared earliest at 0.5 h post inoculation (p.i.) and the infection spread to virtually all cells by 48 h p.i. viral proteins on the surface of cells were seen first at 16 h p.i., and by 48 h p.i. the entire cell monolayer was ifa positiv ...19902155247
molecular cloning and sequence analysis of human parainfluenza type 4a virus hn gene: its irregularities on structure and activities.we cloned the cdna of human parainfluenza type 4a virus (piv-4a) hn gene by reverse-transcription of virus-specific mrnas and genomic rna, and determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the hn gene. the predicted hn protein sequence of piv-4a showed significant relatedness with those of other paramyxoviruses, sv5, ndv, muv, piv-3, bpiv-3, indicating a common ancestor. the homologies between the viruses suggested that piv-4a is more closely related to ndv, sv5, and muv than to the parainfluen ...19902155512
sequence analyses of the 3' genome end and np gene of human parainfluenza type 2 virus: sequence variation of the gene-starting signal and the conserved 3' end.we cloned and determined the nucleotide sequences of cdnas against nucleocapsid protein (np) mrna and the genomic rna of human parainfluenza type 2 virus (piv-2). the 3' terminal region of genomic rna was compared among piv-2, mumps virus (muv), newcastle disease virus (ndv), measles virus (mv), piv-3, bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (bpiv-3), sendai virus (sv), and vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), and an extensive sequence homology was observed between piv-2 and muv. although no significant ...19902173261
the structural proteins of a porcine paramyxovirus (lpmv).the porcine paramyxovirus is a newly identified agent of a fatal disease in piglets, endemic in mexico since 1980, where it was seen around the town of la piedad, michoacan, mexico (hence lpm virus). at least six [35s]methionine-labelled proteins could be resolved by sds-page and five of them were clearly immunoprecipitated. selective labelling of lpmv-infected cells with [3h]glucosamine revealed two bands with an mr of about 66k and 59k, corresponding to the two viral glycoproteins, the haemagg ...19902313267
identification of a putative cellular receptor for the lentivirus visna mechanism by which viral tropism may be controlled is by the expression of a specific virus receptor on the cell surface. this paper reports the identification of a putative cellular receptor for visna virus, the prototype virus of the family lentiviridae. using a virus overlay protein blot assay we identified a group of polypeptides of apparent mr 30k to 33k which interacts with visna virus and is present on permissive but not non-permissive cells. a rat polyclonal anti-ovine major histocom ...19911651984
the effect of some physical and serological treatments on haemofusing activity of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3.bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 irrespective of the time of its harvesting from madin-darby bovine kidney cells, expressed little or no haemofusing activity. treatment of the virus by freezing and thawing, sonication or antibody and complement enhanced this activity. moreover haemofusing activity did not correlate with the viral capacity for fusion of susceptible cells in monolayer cultures.19911725092
the p gene of bovine parainfluenza virus 3 expresses all three reading frames from a single mrna editing site.the p gene of bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (bpiv3) contains two downstream overlapping orfs, called v and d. by comparison with the mrna editing sites of other paramyxoviruses, two editing sites were predicted for bpiv3; site a to express the d protein, and site b to express the v protein. examination of the bpiv3 mrnas, however, indicates that site b is non-functional whereas site a operates frequently. insertions at site a give rise to both v and d protein mrnas, because a very broad distribut ...19911846805
molecular evolution of human paramyxoviruses. nucleotide sequence analyses of the human parainfluenza type 1 virus np and m protein genes and construction of phylogenetic trees for all the human paramyxoviruses.the nucleotide sequences of the np and m genes of human parainfluenza type 1 virus (hpiv-1) were determined. the np gene was 1677 nucleotides long excluding polyadenylic acid. the np gene contained a single large open reading frame (orf), which encoded a polypeptide of 524 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 57,736. the m gene 1173 nucleotides long excluding the poly(a) tract and the sequence also contained a single large orf which encoded a polypeptide of 348 amino acid with a mol ...19921605738
suppression of lymphocyte proliferation by parainfluenza virus type 3-infected bovine alveolar macrophages.lymphocytes stimulated with concanavalin a (con a) or antigen in the presence of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (piv-3) infected bovine alveolar macrophages (bam) or monocytes, had depressed [3h]thymidine incorporation. this failure of lymphocytes to incorporate radiolabel required live virus, was time dependent and was most pronounced when bam were infected for 48 hr prior to the addition of lymphocytes. the rate of infection of alveolar macrophages and the release of infectious virus into c ...19938393834
bovine parainfluenza-3 virus selectively depletes a calcium-independent, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase c and inhibits superoxide anion generation in bovine alveolar macrophages.bovine parainfluenza-3 (pi-3) virus inhibits oxygen-dependent bacterial killing by phagocytes, a key pulmonary defense, thus predisposing the host to intrapulmonary bacterial superinfection. pi-3 virus inhibited opsonized zymosan or pma-activated superoxide anion (o2-) generation in bovine alveolar macrophages. the respiratory virus influenza also inhibits o2- generation by phagocytes, however, the mechanisms(s) of viral inhibition differs from pi-3. pi-3 did not trigger o2- generation before in ...19948027547
identification of an aprotinin antiviral domain.digestion of the proteinase inhibitor aprotinin, by clostripain, a cysteine proteinase, yielded five oligopeptide fragments. two fragments exhibited both antiviral and antibacterial activities, two fragments only antiviral activity, and one fragment showed no antimicrobial activity. one of the former oligopeptides showed antiviral activity against human herpes simplex virus type 1 and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3. it consisted of the hexapeptide y-f-y-n-a-k corresponding to amino acids 21-2 ...19947514546
cell-to-cell contact not soluble factors mediate suppression of lymphocyte proliferation by bovine parainfluenza virus type 3.we have previously characterized the ability of parainfluenza virus type 3-infected (piv-3) and noninfected bovine alveolar macrophages (bam) to support lymphocyte proliferation. while uninfected macrophages support proliferation of lymphocytes stimulated with concanavalin a (con a), ovalbumin, and interleukin 2 (il-2), lymphocyte [3h]thymidine incorporation was suppressed in the presence of piv-3-infected bam. since viral infection of macrophages has been shown to alter arachidonic acid metabol ...19947598785
paramyxovirus mrna editing leads to g deletions as well as insertions.paramyxoviruses are thought to edit their p gene mrnas co-transcriptionally, by a mechanism in which the polymerase stutters and reads the same template base more than once. sendai virus (sev) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bpiv3) are closely related viruses, but sev edits its p gene mrna with the insertion of a single g residue (at approximately 50% frequency) within the sequence 5' a6g3, whereas bpiv3 inserts 1 to approximately 6 gs at roughly equal frequency within the sequence 5' a6g ...19947957115
effects of supplemental chromium on antibody responses of newly weaned feedlot calves to immunization with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and parainfluenza 3 virus.the objective of this study was to determine the effect of supplemental dietary chromium (cr) on antibody responses of feedlot calves. fifty-five newly weaned calves were divided into two groups, 28 that received supplemental cr and 27 that did not, and were immunized with a commercial vaccine against bovine infectious rhinotracheitis virus (ibr) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3(pi-3). sera harvested from blood sampled preimmunization, and at days 14 and 28 postimmunization (pi), were assay ...19948004541
a live attenuated bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 vaccine is safe, infectious, immunogenic, and phenotypically stable in infants and children.the safety, infectivity, immunogenicity, transmissibility, and phenotypic stability of an intranasal bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bpiv-3) candidate vaccine was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hpiv-3)-seronegative children, 92% were infected, and 92% developed a serum hemagglutination-inhibiting (hai) antibody response to bpiv-3 and 61% to hpiv-3. geometric mean hai titers were 1:40 to bpiv-3 and 1:16 to hpiv-3. in stud ...19957751684
recombinant type 5 adenoviruses expressing bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 glycoproteins protect sigmodon hispidus cotton rats from bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 infection.cotton rats were used to study the replication and pathogenesis of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bpiv3) and to test the efficacy of the f and hn glycoproteins in modulating infection. in vitro cultures of cotton rat lung cells supported the growth of bpiv3 as shown by virus recovery, immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, and syncytium induction. intranasal (i.n.) inoculation of cotton rats with 10(7) pfu resulted in peak recovery of virus after 2 days (8 x 10(4) pfu/g of lung tissue) and ...19957769692
potentiation by viral respiratory infection of ovalbumin-induced guinea-pig tracheal hyperresponsiveness: role for tachykinins.1. we investigated whether virus-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea-pigs could be modulated by pretreatment with capsaicin and whether viral respiratory infections could potentiate ovalbumin-aerosol-induced tracheal hyperresponsiveness. 2. animals were inoculated intratracheally with bovine parainfluenza-3 virus or control medium 7 days after treatment with capsaicin (50 mg kg-1, s.c.). four days after inoculation, tracheal contractions were measured to increasing concentrations of sub ...19957582502
bovine respiratory syncytial virus replicates minimally in bovine alveolar macrophages.the interaction between two different bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) strains and bovine alveolar macrophages (bams) was studied in vitro. bovine respiratory syncytial virus replicated minimally in bams and most of the virus produced remained cell-associated. approximately 1 out of 1,000 bams produced infectious virus, a number that further declined during the 7 days of culture. in contrast, bams exposed to bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (pi3v) produced high amounts of infectious virus. ...19957503690
comparisons of the f and hn gene sequences of different strains of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3: relationship to phenotype and pathogenicity.the genes for the f and hn glycoprotein of a pathogenic field isolate of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bpiv3) were isolated, converted to cdna, and sequenced using dideoxynucleotides. the resulting nucleotide sequences were converted to protein sequence and were compared to previously sequenced glycoprotein genes with amino acid differences in the glycoproteins of isolates expressing different phenotypes. the hn glycoprotein, involved in the attachment and release of the virus, and the f gl ...19968809388
ultrastructure of equine morbillivirus.the ultrastructure of the equine morbillivirus (emv) which was implicated in the death of one human and fourteen horses in queensland, australia during september 1994 and a 36 year old man from queensland in october 1995 is described. the ultrastructure of the virus and the intracellular virus-specific structures are characteristic for the family paramyxoviridae. cytoplasmic nucleocapsids were observed within the infected cells monolayers, endothelial cells (lung) of infected horses and the neur ...19968822630
evaluation of a live attenuated bovine parainfluenza type 3 vaccine in two- to six-month-old infants.a safe and effective parainfluenza type 3 (piv-3) virus vaccine is needed to prevent serious piv-3-associated illness in infants younger than 6 months of age. in previous studies a live bovine piv-3 (bpiv-3) vaccine, which was developed to prevent human piv-3 (hpiv-3) disease, was shown to be safe, infectious, immunogenic and phenotypically stable in 6- to 36-month-old infants and children.19968858666
the bovine parainfluenza virus type-3 (bpiv-3) hemagglutinin/neuraminidase glycoprotein expressed in baculovirus protects calves against experimental bpiv-3 challenge.despite the availability of numerous vaccine schedules, "shipping fever", an acute bronchopneumonia brought on in part by a complex of bovine respiratory viruses, remains a major source of economic loss in the beef and dairy industries. we are exploring new strategies of bovine vaccine design which we hope may provide more effective and more cost-efficient control of these pathogens. in this report, we examined the possible use of subunit vaccines, using as an example the hemagglutinin/neuramini ...19979178475
[molecular evolution of paramyxoviruses].we reviewed immunological relationships between paramyxoviruses and molecular evolution of paramyxoviruses. (1) paramyxoviruses are divided into two groups by the basis of the immunological relationship, i.e., parainfluenza type 1 virus group and type 2 virus group; (2) according to the np and m proteins sequences, paramyxoviruses are divided into parainfluenza type 1 virus and type 2 virus groups; the former group is composed of hpiv-1, sv, hpiv-3 and bpiv-3, and the latter group consists of hp ...19979301318
induction of procoagulant activity in virus infected bovine alveolar macrophages and the effect of lipopolysaccharide.three viruses known to be associated with the bovine respiratory disease complex were evaluated in vitro for potential impact upon the procoagulant activity (pca) of bovine alveolar macrophages (bam). cultures of bam were inoculated with bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (pi-3), cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (cpbvdv), non-cytopathic bvdv (ncpbvdv), or bovine herpes virus type 1 (bhv-1) and incubated for several time periods (24, 48, 72, 96 h). bam were then exposed to e. coli lipopolysa ...19979343337
functional characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion proteins expressed by adenovirus recombinants.we constructed replication-competent human adenovirus type 5 (had5) recombinants (had5-hn and had5-f) containing the bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bpiv3) hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) or fusion (f) gene under the control of the simian virus 40 (sv40) regulatory sequences. these genes were inserted in the early region 3 (e3) of the had5 genome in the e3 parallel orientation. expression of hn or f in had5-hn- or had5-f-infected cell extracts, respectively, was observed by immunoprecipitati ...199810325535
rescue of a bovine respiratory syncytial virus genomic rna analog by bovine, human and ovine respiratory syncytial viruses confirms the "functional integrity" and "cross-recognition" of brsv cis-acting elements by hrsv and orsv.the nucleotide sequences of the 3' leader and 5' trailer regions were determined for genomic rna of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) strain a-51908. the leader and trailer sequences are '45' and '161' nucleotides in length, respectively. the functionality of brsv leader and trailer sequences and their recognition by hrsv and ovine respiratory syncytial virus (orsv) proteins were examined with a in vitro transcribed brsv genomic rna analog carrying the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyl tr ...199910550670
two nucleotides immediately upstream of the essential a6g3 slippery sequence modulate the pattern of g insertions during sendai virus mrna editing.editing of paramyxovirus p gene mrnas occurs cotranscriptionally and functions to fuse an alternate downstream open reading frame to the n-terminal half of the p protein. g residues are inserted into a short g run contained within a larger purine run (angn) in this process, by a mechanism whereby the transcribing polymerase stutters (i.e., reads the same template cytosine more than once). although sendai virus (sev) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bpiv3) are closely related, the g inserti ...19999847338
immune responses and protection induced by dna vaccines encoding bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 glycoproteins.this study was designed to assess the parameters influencing the magnitude and type of immune responses generated to plasmids encoding the hemagglutinin/neuraminidase (hn) and fusion (f) proteins of bovine parainfluenzavirus type 3 (bpiv3). mice immunized with plasmids expressing hn or f under control of the rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat promoter were primed, but they did not develop measurable immune responses. in contrast, strong humoral and cellular immune responses were induced wit ...199910405354
a recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 3 (piv3) in which the nucleocapsid n protein has been replaced by that of bovine piv3 is attenuated in primates.the shipping fever (sf) and kansas (ka) strains of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bpiv3) are restricted in their replication in rhesus monkeys 100- to 1,000-fold compared to human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hpiv3), and the ka strain also was shown to be attenuated in humans. to initiate an investigation of the genetic basis of the attenuation of bpiv3 in primates, we produced viable chimeric hpiv3 recombinants containing the nucleoprotein (n) open reading frame (orf) from either bpiv3 ka or ...200010708435
sequence determination and molecular analysis of two strains of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 that are attenuated for primates.the kansas/15626/84 (ka) and shipping fever (sf) strains of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bpiv3) replicate less efficiently than human piv3 (hpiv3) in the upper and lower respiratory tract of rhesus monkeys, and bpiv3 ka is also highly attenuated in humans and is in clinical trials as a candidate vaccine against hpiv3. to initiate an investigation of the genetic basis of the observed attenuation phenotype of bpiv3 in primates, the complete genomic sequences of ka and sf genomes were determi ...200010872880
bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bpiv3) fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoproteins make an important contribution to the restricted replication of bpiv3 in primates.this study examines the contribution of the fusion (f) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) glycoprotein genes of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bpiv3) to its restricted replication in the respiratory tract of nonhuman primates. a chimeric recombinant human parainfluenza type 3 virus (hpiv3) containing bpiv3 f and hn glycoprotein genes in place of its own and the reciprocal recombinant consisting of bpiv3 bearing the hpiv3 f and hn genes (rbpiv3-f(h)hn(h)) were generated to assess the effect ...200010982335
expression of the surface glycoproteins of human parainfluenza virus type 3 by bovine parainfluenza virus type 3, a novel attenuated virus vaccine vector.bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bpiv3) is being evaluated as an intranasal vaccine for protection against human piv3 (hpiv3). in young infants, the bpiv3 vaccine appears to be infectious, attenuated, immunogenic, and genetically stable, which are desirable characteristics for an rna virus vector. to test the potential of the bpiv3 vaccine strain as a vector, an infectious dna clone of bpiv3 was assembled and recombinant bpiv3 (r-bpiv3) was rescued. r-bpiv3 displayed a temperature-sensitive ph ...200011090161
recombinant bovine/human parainfluenza virus type 3 (b/hpiv3) expressing the respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) g and f proteins can be used to achieve simultaneous mucosal immunization against rsv and hpiv3.recombinant bovine/human parainfluenza virus type 3 (rb/hpiv3), a recombinant bovine piv3 (rbpiv3) in which the f and hn genes were replaced with their hpiv3 counterparts, was used to express the major protective antigens of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in order to create a bivalent mucosal vaccine against rsv and hpiv3. the attenuation of rb/hpiv3 is provided by the host range restriction of the bpiv3 backbone in primates. rsv g and f open reading frames (orfs) were placed under the contro ...200111312329
antibody responses to bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (piv3) vaccination and human piv3 infection in young infants.a phase 2 clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the antibody responses to bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bpiv3) vaccination in young infants. three groups were tested as follows: placebo (n=66) and 10(5) (n=64) or 10(6) (n=62) tcid(50) of bpiv3. the vaccine or placebo was administered intranasally at ages 2, 4, 6, and 12-15 months, and serum specimens were collected at ages 2, 6, 7, 12-15, and 13-16 months. serum hemagglutination inhibition (hi) and iga antibody titers against bpiv3 and h ...200111509996
serum amyloid p component inhibits influenza a virus infections: in vitro and in vivo studies.serum amyloid p component (sap) binds in vitro ca(2+)-dependently to several ligands including oligosaccharides with terminal mannose and galactose. we have earlier reported that sap binds to human influenza a virus strains, inhibiting hemagglutinin (ha) activity and virus infectivity in vitro. these studies were extended to comprise five mouse-adapted influenza a strains, two swine influenza a strains, a mink influenza a virus, a ferret influenza a reassortant virus, a influenza b virus and a p ...200111530187
chimeric bovine respiratory syncytial virus with attachment and fusion glycoproteins replaced by bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion proteins.chimeric bovine respiratory syncytial viruses (brsv) expressing glycoproteins of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bpiv-3) instead of brsv glycoproteins were generated from cdna. in the brsv antigenome cdna, the open reading frames of the major brsv glycoproteins, attachment protein g and fusion protein f, were replaced individually or together by those of the bpiv-3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) and/or fusion (f) glycoproteins. recombinant virus could not be recovered from cdna when the brs ...200111533200
a chimeric human-bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 expressing measles virus hemagglutinin is attenuated for replication but is still immunogenic in rhesus monkeys.the chimeric recombinant virus rhpiv3-n(b), a version of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hpiv3) that is attenuated due to the presence of the bovine piv3 nucleocapsid (n) protein open reading frame (orf) in place of the hpiv3 orf, was modified to encode the measles virus hemagglutinin (ha) inserted as an additional, supernumerary gene between the hpiv3 p and m genes. this recombinant, designated rhpiv3-n(b)ha, replicated like its attenuated rhpiv3-n(b) parent virus in vitro and in the upper an ...200111581420
a single amino acid substitution in the viral polymerase creates a temperature-sensitive and attenuated recombinant bovine parainfluenza virus type 3.bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bpiv3) is under development as a live virus vaccine vector. the rna genome of a recombinant bpiv3 harbored four nucleotide changes, one of which resulted in a mutation of the viral polymerase (a. a. haller et al., 2000, j. virol. 74, 11626-11635). the contribution of this conservative amino acid substitution (i1103v) in the polymerase to the temperature-sensitive and attenuation phenotypes of r-bpiv3 was investigated by creating a new virus, r-bpiv3(i), that ex ...200111601905
the immunology of the bovine respiratory disease complex.the bovine respiratory disease complex continues to be an economically important syndrome in an era when immunologic control is likely to become increasingly important. recent studies have yielded a better understanding of the interaction, at the molecular level, of various pathogens with the bovine immune system. improved challenge models for important viral pathogens such as bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus have provided evidence of the efficacy of immune resp ...200111692507
viroligo: a database of virus-specific oligonucleotides.viroligo is a database of virus-specific oligonucleotides. the viroligo database consists of two tables, common data and oligo data. the oligo data table contains pcr primers and hybridization probes used for detection of viral nucleic acids and the common data table contains the experimental conditions used in their detection. each oligonucleotide entry contains links to pubmed, genbank, ncbi taxonomy databases and blast. as of july 2001, the viroligo database contains a complete listing of oli ...200211752293
mucosal immunization of rhesus monkeys against respiratory syncytial virus subgroups a and b and human parainfluenza virus type 3 by using a live cdna-derived vaccine based on a host range-attenuated bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 vector backbone.reverse genetics was used to develop a two-component, trivalent live attenuated vaccine against human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hpiv3) and respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) subgroups a and b. the backbone for each of the two components of this vaccine was the attenuated recombinant bovine/human piv3 (rb/hpiv3), a recombinant bpiv3 in which the bovine hn and f protective antigens are replaced by their hpiv3 counterparts (48). this chimera retains the well-characterized host range attenuation ph ...200211773385
viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review.this review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or parainfluenza 3 virus-induced clinical mastitis, while an intramammary inoculation of foot-and-mouth disease virus resulted in necrosis of the mammary gland. subclinical mastitis has been induced after a ...200212119136
neutralizing antibody responses in preconditioned calves following vaccination for respiratory viruses.calf preconditioning programs that include vaccinations against common respiratory pathogens are beneficial; however, optimal vaccination protocols have not been determined. in the study described here, calves were placed in a preconditioning program and assigned to one of nine vaccine regimens, each consisting of some combinations of killed or modified-live virus vaccines against bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), parainfluenza-3 (pi-3) virus, and bovine respirato ...200219750742
effects of human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus antigen insertion in two 3' proximal genome positions of bovine/human parainfluenza virus type 3 on virus replication and immunogenicity.a live attenuated bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (piv3), harboring the fusion (f) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) genes of human piv3, was used as a virus vector to express surface glycoproteins derived from two human pathogens, human metapneumovirus (hmpv) and respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). rsv and hmpv are both paramyxoviruses that cause respiratory disease in young children, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. rsv has been known for decades to cause acute lower respira ...200314512532
evaluation of attenuation, immunogenicity and efficacy of a bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (piv-3) vaccine and a recombinant chimeric bovine/human piv-3 vaccine vector in rhesus monkeys.restricted replication in the respiratory tract of rhesus monkeys is an intrinsic property of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bpiv-3) strains. this host range phenotype of bpiv-3 has been utilized as a marker to evaluate the attenuation of bpiv-3 vaccines for human use. two safety, immunogenicity and efficacy studies in primates evaluated and compared three human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hpiv-3) vaccine candidates: biologically derived bpiv-3, a plasmid-derived bpiv-3 (r-bpiv-3) and a chim ...200314645907
bovine viral diarrhoea, bovine herpesvirus and parainfluenza-3 virus infection in three cattle herds in egypt in 2000.this study reported field outbreaks of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv) infection, either alone or mixed with bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1) and/or parainfluenza-3 virus (pi-3v) in egypt during 2000. in lower egypt, young calves in three cattle herds in el-minufiya province, el-fayoum province and in governmental quarantine in el-behira province, showed symptoms of enteritis, either alone or accompanied by respiratory manifestations. the affected herds were visited and the diseased animals were ...200315005546
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