feline and canine coronaviruses: common genetic and pathobiological features.a new human coronavirus responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) was identified in 2003, which raised concern about coronaviruses as agents of serious infectious disease. nevertheless, coronaviruses have been known for about 50 years to be major agents of respiratory, enteric, or systemic infections of domestic and companion animals. feline and canine coronaviruses are widespread among dog and cat populations, sometimes leading to the fatal diseases known as feline infectious per ...201122312347
seroepidemiology of respiratory (group 2) canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and bordetella bronchiseptica infections in urban dogs in a humane shelter and in rural dogs in small communities.this prospective study evaluated seroepidemiologic features of canine respiratory coronavirus (crcov), canine parainfluenza virus (cpiv), and bordetella bronchiseptica infections in dogs in an urban humane shelter and in rural/small community dog populations in western canada. seroprevalence of crcov and cpiv was low compared with other countries; seroprevalence of b. bronchiseptica was moderate to high in most populations examined. rural dogs were 0.421 times (p ≤ 0.0001) less likely to be posi ...201122294792
the evolutionary processes of canine coronaviruses.since the first identification of the virus in 1971, the disease caused by canine coronavirus (ccov) has not been adequately investigated, and the role that the virus plays in canine enteric illness has not been well established. only after the emergence in 2002 of sars in human has new attention been focused on coronaviruses. as a consequence of the relatively high mutation frequency of rna-positive stranded viruses, ccov has evolved and, with the biomolecular techniques developed over the last ...201122315601
characterization of a recombinant canine coronavirus with a distinct receptor-binding (s1) domain.canine alphacoronaviruses (ccov) exist in two serotypes, type i and ii, both of which can cause severe gastroenteritis. here, we characterize a canine alphacoronavirus, designated ccov-a76, first isolated in 1976. serological studies show that ccov-a76 is distinct from other ccovs, such as the prototype ccov-1-71. efficient replication of ccov-a76 is restricted to canine cell lines, in contrast to the prototypical type ii strain ccov-1-71 that more efficiently replicates in feline cells. ccov-a7 ...201222609354
prevalence of antibodies for selected canine pathogens among wolves (canis lupus) from the alaska peninsula, usa.we collected blood samples from wolves ( canis lupus ) on the alaska peninsula, southwest alaska, us, 2006-11 and tested sera for antibodies to canine adenovirus (cav), canine coronavirus (ccv), canine distemper virus (cdv), canine herpesvirus (chv), canine parainfluenza (cpi), canine parvovirus (cpv), neospora caninum , and toxoplasma gondii . detected antibody prevalence was 90% for cav, 28% for ccv, 12% for cdv, 93% for chv, 0% for cpi, 20% for cpv, 0% for n. caninum, and 86% for t. gondii . ...201627195683
characterization of canine coronavirus spread among domestic dogs in vietnam.canine coronavirus (ccov) is an important pathogen that causes enteritis in dogs, but there is no information on ccov infection in vietnam. to examine the prevalence of ccov infection among vietnamese dogs, 201 serum samples were analyzed by virus-neutralization (vn) test. the results showed that antibody against ccov-ii was present in 87 dogs (43.3%). to detect genes of ccov, fecal samples collected from 30 diarrheic and 50 healthy dogs were examinated by rt-pcr, confirming that 2 diarrheic dog ...201727840394
enteropathogen infections in canine puppies: (co-)occurrence, clinical relevance and risk factors.laboratory confirmation of the causative agent(s) of diarrhoea in puppies may allow for appropriate treatment. the presence of potential pathogens however, does not prove a causal relationship with diarrhoea. the aim of this study was to identify specific enteropathogens in ≤12 month old puppies with and without acute diarrhoea and to assess their associations with clinical signs, putative risk factors and pathogen co-occurrence. faecal samples from puppies with (n=113) and without (n=56) acute ...201627771056
prevalence and phylogenetic characterization of canine coronavirus from diseased pet dogs in beijing, china. 201627502905
occurrence of canine parvovirus in dogs from henan province of china in 2009-2014.there is no information concerning the genotype of canine parvovirus (cpv) currently circulating in henan province, china. therefore, the aim of the present study was to provide insights into the epidemiology and molecular characterization of cpv circulating in henan province from 2009 to 2014.201627377264
genetic and antigenic characterization of recombinant nucleocapsid proteins derived from canine coronavirus and canine respiratory coronavirus in characterize the antigenicity of nucleocapsid proteins (np) derived from canine coronavirus (ccov) and canine respiratory coronavirus (crcov) in china, the n genes of ccov (ccov-bj70) and crcov (crcov-bj202) were cloned from swabs obtained from diseased pet dogs in beijing and then sequenced. the recombinant nps (rnps) were expressed in escherichia coli and purified by nickel-affinity column and size exclusion chromatography. sequencing data indicated that the n genes of ccov-bj70 and crcov-b ...201627084706
prevalence and risk factors for viral exposure in rural dogs around protected areas of the atlantic forest.despite the crucial role of domestic dogs as reservoirs for zoonosis and some of the most threatening diseases for wild carnivores such as distemper and parvovirosis, little is known about the epidemiological features and the risk factors involved in pathogen exposure of dogs that live in human/wildlife interfaces and actually contacts wildlife. through a cross-sectional serological approach and questionnaire survey, we assessed the prevalence along with individual and environment-associated ris ...201626822375
co-circulation of canine coronavirus i and iia/b with high prevalence and genetic diversity in heilongjiang province, northeast trace the evolution of canine coronavirus (ccov), 201 stool samples from diarrheic dogs in northeast china were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (rt-pcrs) targeting the partial m and s genes of ccov, followed by an epidemiological analysis. m gene rt-pcrs showed that 28.36% (57/201) of the samples were positive for ccov; of the 57 positive samples, ccov-i and ccov-ii accounted for 15.79% (9/57) and 84.21% (48/57), respectively. a sequence comparison of the partial ...201626771312
prevalence of canine coronavirus (ccov) in dog in japan: detection of ccov rna and retrospective serological analysis.we collected rectal swabs from dogs in japan during 2011 to 2014, and canine coronavirus (ccov) nucleocapsid gene was detected by rt-pcr. the relationship between ccov infection and the manifestation of diarrhea symptoms was investigated, and a correlation was noted (df=1, χ(2)=8.90, p<0.005). the types of ccov detected in samples from ccov-infected dogs were ccov-i in 88.9% and ccov-ii in 7.4%, respectively. we retrospectively investigated the seroprevalence of ccov-i in dogs in japan during 19 ...201626460314
co-circulation of the rare cpv-2c with unique gln370arg substitution, new cpv-2b with unique thr440ala substitution, and new cpv-2a with high prevalence and variation in heilongjiang province, northeast trace evolution of canine parvovirus-2 (cpv-2), a total of 201 stool samples were collected from dogs with diarrhea in heilongjiang province of northeast china from may 2014 to april 2015. the presence of cpv-2 in the samples was determined by pcr amplification of the vp2 gene (568 bp) of cpv-2. the results revealed that 95 samples (47.26%) were positive for cpv-2, and they showed 98.8%-100% nucleotide identity and 97.6%-100% amino acid identity. of 95 cpv-2-positive samples, types new2a (ser ...201526348721
prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of canine kobuviruses in diarrhoetic dogs in northeast china.canine kobuviruses (cakvs) are newly recognized picornaviruses that have been recently detected in dogs in the u.s.a., italy, u.k., the republic of korea and tanzania. to trace the evolution of cakv strains, a total of 201 fecal samples from rectal swabs of diarrheic dogs, which were obtained from may 2014 to april 2015 in northeast china, were detected by reverse transcription-pcr targeting a partial (504 bp) fragment of the 3d gene. furthermore, a phylogenetic analysis of the cakv strains iden ...201626256044
full-genome sequence of pantropic canine coronavirus.pantropic canine coronavirus (ccov) was first detected in young dogs in italy in 2005, but the complete genome sequence of this virus had not yet been determined. here, we report the full-length genome sequence of the prototype strain cb/05, which showed that this virus is genetically similar to ccov-iia viruses.201525953186
establishment of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection and differentiation of canine distemper virus infected and vaccinated animals.although widespread vaccination against canine distemper virus (cdv) has been conducted for many decades, several canine distemper outbreaks in vaccinated animals have been reported frequently. in order to detect and differentiate the wild-type and vaccine strains of the cdv from the vaccinated animals, a novel reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) method was developed. a set of four primers-two internal and two external-were designed to target the h gene for the ...201525769803
characterisation of different forms of the accessory gp3 canine coronavirus type i protein identified in cats.orf3 is a supplemental open reading frame coding for an accessory glycoprotein gp3 of unknown function, only present in genotype i canine strain (ccov-i) and some atypical feline fcov strains. in these latter hosts, the orf3 gene systematically displays one or two identical deletions leading to the synthesis of truncated proteins gp3-δ1 and gp3-δ2. as deletions in cov accessory proteins have already been involved in tissue or host switch, studies of these different gp3 proteins were conducted in ...201525665789
canine adenovirus type 1 in a fennec fox (vulpes zerda).a 10-mo-old female fennec fox (vulpes zerda) with drooling suddenly died and was examined postmortem. histologic examination of different tissue samples was performed. vacuolar degeneration and diffuse fatty change were observed in the liver. several diagnostic methods were used to screen for canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and canine adenovirus (cadv). only cadv type 1 (cadv-1) was detected in several organs (liv ...201425632689
antiviral activity of a bacillus sp. p34 peptide against pathogenic viruses of domestic animals.p34 is an antimicrobial peptide produced by a bacillus sp. strain isolated from the intestinal contents of a fish in the brazilian amazon basin with reported antibacterial activity. the aim of this work was to evaluate the peptide p34 for its in vitro antiviral properties against canine adenovirus type 2 (cav-2), canine coronavirus (ccov), canine distemper virus (cdv), canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2), equine arteritis virus (eav), equine influenza virus (eiv), feline calicivirus (fcv) and felin ...201425477947
role of the lipid rafts in the life cycle of canine coronavirus.coronaviruses are enveloped rna viruses that have evolved complex relationships with their host cells, and modulate their lipid composition, lipid synthesis and signalling. lipid rafts, enriched in sphingolipids, cholesterol and associated proteins, are special plasma membrane microdomains involved in several processes in viral infections. the extraction of cholesterol leads to disorganization of lipid microdomains and to dissociation of proteins bound to lipid rafts. because cholesterol-rich mi ...201525381058
characterization of pantropic canine coronavirus from brazil.characterization of canine coronavirus (ccov) strains currently in circulation is essential for understanding viral evolution. the aim of this study was to determine the presence of pantropic ccov type iia in tissue samples from five puppies that died in southern brazil as a result of severe gastroenteritis. reverse-transcriptase pcr was used to generate amplicons for sequence analysis. phylogenetic analysis of the ccov-iia strains indicated that they were similar to those found in other countri ...201425294661
genotypic characterization of canine coronaviruses associated with fatal canine neonatal enteritis in the united states.emerging canine coronavirus (ccov) variants that are associated with systemic infections have been reported in the european union; however, ccov-associated disease in the united states is incompletely characterized. the purpose of this study was to correlate the clinicopathological findings and viral antigen distribution with the genotypic characteristics of ccov in 11 puppies from nine premises in five states that were submitted for diagnostic investigation at cornell university between 2008 an ...201425253797
m gene analysis of canine coronavirus strains detected in korea.the purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic features of canine coronavirus (ccv) strains detected in korea. m gene sequences obtained for isolates from 22 dogs with enteritis over a 5-year period were evaluated. sequence comparison revealed that the 22 korean ccv strains had an 87.2 to 100% nucleotide homology. comparing to the typical reference ccv strains (type ii), the nucleotide sequence of korean strains had homology ranged from 86.3% to 98.3% (89.1% to 99.2% for the amino acid ...201425234323
emergence of pathogenic coronaviruses in cats by homologous recombination between feline and canine coronaviruses.type ii feline coronavirus (fcov) emerged via double recombination between type i fcov and type ii canine coronavirus (ccov). in this study, two type i fcovs, three type ii fcovs and ten type ii ccovs were genetically compared. the results showed that three japanese type ii fcovs, m91-267, kuk-h/l and tokyo/cat/130627, also emerged by homologous recombination between type i fcov and type ii ccov and their parent viruses were genetically different from one another. in addition, the 3'-terminal re ...201425180686
canine enteric coronaviruses: emerging viral pathogens with distinct recombinant spike proteins.canine enteric coronavirus (ccov) is an alphacoronavirus infecting dogs that is closely related to enteric coronaviruses of cats and pigs. while ccov has traditionally caused mild gastro-intestinal clinical signs, there are increasing reports of lethal ccov infections in dogs, with evidence of both gastrointestinal and systemic viral dissemination. consequently, ccov is now considered to be an emerging infectious disease of dogs. in addition to the two known serotypes of ccov, novel recombinant ...201425153347
nucleic acid-based differential diagnostic assays for feline coronavirus.feline coronavirus (fcov) is a pleomorphic, enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded rna virus. owing to the differences in its genotype, fcov belongs to a separate clade along with other viruses, such as transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) and canine coronavirus (ccov), which can be isolated from cats. in this study, a pcr assay was developed to differentiate these coronaviruses concurrently. multiplex differential rt-pcr was performed with primers based on the highly conserved coronavi ...201425088974
detection and genetic characterization of canine parvovirus and canine coronavirus strains circulating in district of tirana in epidemiological survey for canine parvovirus 2 (cpv-2) and canine coronavirus (ccov) was conducted in albania. a total of 57 fecal samples were collected from diarrheic dogs in the district of tirana during 2011-2013. the molecular assays detected 53 and 31 cpv- and ccov-positive specimens, respectively, with mixed cpv-ccov infections diagnosed in 28 dogs. the most frequently detected cpv type was 2a, whereas iia was the predominant ccov subtype. a better comprehension of the cpv-ccov epidemi ...201424928599
molecular and serological surveillance of canine enteric viruses in stray dogs from vila do maio, cape verde.infections caused by canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in dogs worldwide. prior to this study, no information was available concerning the incidence and prevalence of these viruses in cape verde archipelago.201424755118
presence of infectious agents and co-infections in diarrheic dogs determined with a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based panel.infectious diarrhea can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or protozoan organisms, or a combination of these. the identification of co-infections in dogs is important to determine the prognosis and to plan strategies for their treatment and prophylaxis. although many pathogens have been individually detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr), a comprehensive panel of agents that cause diarrhea in privately owned dogs has not yet been established. the objective of this study was to use ...201424433321
new and emerging pathogens in canine infectious respiratory disease.canine infectious respiratory disease is a common, worldwide disease syndrome of multifactorial etiology. this review presents a summary of 6 viruses (canine respiratory coronavirus, canine pneumovirus, canine influenza virus, pantropic canine coronavirus, canine bocavirus, and canine hepacivirus) and 2 bacteria (streptococcus zooepidemicus and mycoplasma cynos) that have been associated with respiratory disease in dogs. for some pathogens a causal role is clear, whereas for others, ongoing rese ...201424232191
molecular characterization of canine coronavirus strains circulating in characterize canine coronavirus (ccov) circulating in diarrheic puppies in brazil, 250 fecal samples collected between 2006 and 2012 were tested. by using rt-pcr to partially amplify the m gene, ccov rna was detected in 30 samples. sequence analysis of the m protein grouped eight strains with ccov-i and another 19 with ccov-ii prototypes. to genotype/subtype the ccov strains and assess the occurrence of single or multiple ccov infections, rt-pcr of the s gene was performed, and 25/30 ccov-pos ...201424216489
clinical, hematological, and biochemical findings in puppies with coronavirus and parvovirus enteritis.the clinical and laboratory findings in puppies naturally infected with canine coronavirus (ccov) and/or canine parvovirus (cpv) were compared with findings in uninfected puppies. lymphopenia was the only parameter related to ccov infection that was statistically significant; vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, hemorrhagic fluid diarrhea, leukopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, hypoglycemia, and hypoproteinemia were correlated with cpv infection.201324155496
infection of cats with atypical feline coronaviruses harbouring a truncated form of the canine type i non-structural orf3 gene.feline and canine coronaviruses (fcov and ccov, respectively) are common pathogens of cats and dogs sometimes leading to lethal infections named feline infectious peritonitis (fip) and canine pantropic coronavirus infection. fcov and ccov are each subdivided into two serotypes, fcov-i/ii and ccov-i/ii. a phylogenetic relationship is evident between, on one hand, ccov-i/fcov-i, and on the other hand, ccov-ii/fcov-ii, suggesting that interspecies transmission can occur. the aim of the present stud ...201324121017
mast cells in canine parvovirus-2-associated enteritis with crypt abscess.the role of mast cells (mcs) in allergic reactions and parasitic infections is well established. their involvement in host immune response against bacterial and viral infections is reported. in this study, investigation is made to determine if mcs are associated with canine parvovirus-2 (cpv-2)-induced enteritis with crypt abscess (eca). mast cell count (mcc) was made on toluidine blue-stained intestinal sections from a total of 34 dogs. these included 16 dogs exhibiting eca positive for cpv-2 a ...201323558973
canine coronavirus, greece. molecular analysis and genetic diversity characterization.canine coronavirus (ccov) is an etiologic agent of diarrhea in dogs and is known to have spread worldwide. mild disease or asymptomatic carriage are probably in many cases common outcomes of infection. to date, two different genotypes of ccov are known, ccov type i (ccov-i) and ccov type ii (ccov-ii). ccov type ii is divided in two subtypes, ccov-iia (classical strains) and ccov-iib, with ccov-iib emerging as a result of a putative recombination between ccov-iia and transmissible gastroenteritis ...201323410992
canine kobuviruses in diarrhoeic dogs in italy.canine kobuviruses (cakvs) are newly recognized picornaviruses recently detected in dogs in the us. by molecular analysis of the whole genome, cakv that appeared genetically closest to the murine kobuvirus (mukv) and to the human aichi virus (aiv), may be classified in the kobuvirus genus as new genotype (cakv type 1) within the species aichivirus a. to date, there are no information on the epidemiology of these novel viruses in other continents. in this study, by screening a collection of 256 d ...201323806200
full-length genome analysis of canine coronavirus type i.canine coronavirus types i (ccov-i) and ii (ccov-ii) are usually responsible for mild enteritis in dogs. while the ccov-ii genome has been completely sequenced, to date there are no complete genomic sequence data available publicly for ccov-i. thus, the aim of the present study was to analyze the full-length genome of a ccov-i prototype strain that had been recovered from a dog with diarrhea in italy. ccov-i strain 23/03 has a genome of 30,000 nucleotides, excluding the 3' poly(a) tail, displayi ...201526221765
parasitology and serology of free-ranging coyotes (canis latrans) in north carolina, usa.coyotes (canis latrans) have expanded recently into the eastern us and can serve as a source of pathogens to domestic dogs (canis lupus familiaris), livestock, and humans. we examined free-ranging coyotes from central north carolina, us, for selected parasites and prevalence of antibodies against viral and bacterial agents. we detected ticks on most (81%) coyotes, with amblyomma americanum detected on 83% of those with ticks. fifteen (47%) coyotes were positive for heartworms (dirofilaria immiti ...201525984773
full genome analysis of a novel type ii feline coronavirus ntu156.infections by type ii feline coronaviruses (fcovs) have been shown to be significantly correlated with fatal feline infectious peritonitis (fip). despite nearly six decades having passed since its first emergence, different studies have shown that type ii fcov represents only a small portion of the total fcov seropositivity in cats; hence, there is very limited knowledge of the evolution of type ii fcov. to elucidate the correlation between viral emergence and fip, a local isolate (ntu156) that ...201323239278
european surveillance for pantropic canine coronavirus.highly virulent pantropic canine coronavirus (ccov) strains belonging to subtype iia were recently identified in dogs. to assess the distribution of such strains in europe, tissue samples were collected from 354 dogs that had died after displaying systemic disease in france (n = 92), hungary (n = 75), italy (n = 69), greece (n = 87), the netherlands (n = 27), belgium (n = 4), and bulgaria (n = 1). a total of 124 animals tested positive for ccov, with 33 of them displaying the virus in extraintes ...201323100349
pathogens of wild maned wolves (chrysocyon brachyurus) in brazil.the maned wolf, chrysocyon brachyurus, is an endangered neotropical canid that survives at low population densities. diseases are a potential threat for its conservation but to date have been poorly studied. we performed clinical evaluations and investigated the presence of infectious diseases through serology and coprologic tests on maned wolves from galheiro natural private reserve, perdizes city, minas gerais state, southeastern brazil. fifteen wolves were captured between 2003 and 2008. we f ...201223060508
enteropathogens identified in dogs entering a florida animal shelter with normal feces or determine the frequency of enteropathogens in dogs entering an animal shelter with normal feces or diarrhea.201222812470
cross sectional and longitudinal surveys of canine enteric coronavirus infection in kennelled dogs: a molecular marker for biosecurity.previous studies have suggested that kennelled dogs are more likely to test positive for cecov than household pets. here we describe both cross sectional and longitudinal studies in two rescue kennels and two boarding kennels, together with molecular diagnostics, to provide a new insight into the epidemiology of cecov. prevalence of cecov in the cross sectional studies tended to be higher in the rescue kennels (13.8% and 33.3%) than the boarding kennels (5.3% and 13.5%). in each kennel, type i c ...201222543007
a pantropic canine coronavirus genetically related to the prototype isolate cb/05.we report the genetic and biological characterisation of a novel pantropic canine coronavirus (ccov), strain 450/07, which caused the death of a 60-day-old miniature pinscher. at the genetic level, this virus was strictly related to the prototype strain cb/05, but displayed some unique features. after experimental infection with the new pantropic isolate, most inoculated dogs showed diarrhoea and acute lymphopenia. gross lesions and histological changes were mainly evident in the gut and lymphoi ...201222542271
validation of a fecal scoring scale in puppies during the weaning puppies weaning is a high risk period. fecal changes are frequent and can be signs of infection by digestive pathogens (bacteria, viruses, parasites) and indicators of nutritional and environmental stress. the aim of this study was to define a pathological fecal score for weaning puppies, and to study the impact on that score of two intestinal viruses (canine parvovirus type 2 and canine coronavirus). for this, the quality of stools was evaluated on 154 puppies between 4 and 8 weeks of age (1 ...201222520179
molecular characterization of feline infectious peritonitis virus strain df-2 and studies of the role of orf3abc in viral cell tropism.the full-length genome of the highly lethal feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) strain df-2 was sequenced and cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) to study the role of orf3abc in the fipv-feline enteric coronavirus (fecv) transition. the reverse genetic system allowed the replacement of the truncated orf3abc of the original fipv df-2 genome with the intact orf3abc of the canine coronavirus (ccov) reference strain elmo/02. the in vitro replication kinetics of these two virus ...201222438554
fatal outbreaks in dogs associated with pantropic canine coronavirus in france and belgium.infection with pantropic canine coronavirus was detected during outbreaks in france and belgium. this was concurrent in most cases with canine parvovirus 2c. one outbreak was a deadly acute systemic disease with a single pantropic canine coronavirus infection. this is the first report of a fatality associated with pantropic canine coronavirus alone outside italy.201222320357
molecular characterization of canine parvovirus and canine enteric coronavirus in diarrheic dogs on the island of st. kitts: first report from the caribbean region.although canine parvovirus (cpv) and canine enteric coronavirus (ccov) are important enteric pathogens of dogs and have been studied extensively in different parts of the world, there are no reports on these viruses from the caribbean region. during 2015-2016, a total of 104 diarrheic fecal samples were collected from puppies and adult dogs, with or without hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, on the caribbean island of st. kitts (kna). by pcr, 25 (24%, n=104) samples tested positive for cpv. based on a ...201728847699
rapid and sensitive detection of canine distemper virus by real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification.canine distemper, caused by canine distemper virus (cdv), is a highly contagious and fatal systemic disease in free-living and captive carnivores worldwide. recombinase polymerase amplification (rpa), as an isothermal gene amplification technique, has been explored for the molecular detection of diverse pathogens.201728810858
surveillance for antibodies against six canine viruses in wild raccoons (procyon lotor) in japan.raccoons (procyon lotor) are found worldwide. they are frequently seen in crowded inner cities as well as in forests or wooded areas, often living in proximity to humans and their pets. we examined sera from 100 wild raccoons in japan for antibodies to six canine viruses with veterinary significance to assess their potential as reservoirs. we also aimed to understand the distribution of potentially infected wildlife. we found that 7% of samples were seropositive for canine distemper virus (cdv), ...201728715293
a molecular survey for selected viral enteropathogens revealed a limited role of canine circovirus in the development of canine acute gastroenteritis.canine circovirus (caninecv) is a canine virus, whose pathogenetic role is still uncertain. based on recent data suggesting its role as entheropathogen, a case-control study was conducted between 2013 and 2016 to investigate the association of caninecv with gastroenteritis in dogs, alone or in combination with other viral pathogens, including canine parvovirus (cpv), canine coronavirus (ccov) and canine distemper virus (cdv). a total of 219 dogs suffering from acute gastroenteritis disorders and ...201728532806
identification of enteric viruses circulating in a dog population with low vaccine coverage.although the use of vaccines has controlled enteric diseases in dogs in many developed countries, vaccine coverage is still under optimal situation in brazil. there is a large population of nonimmunized dogs and few studies about the identification of the viruses associated with diarrhea. to address this situation, stool samples from 325 dogs were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for the detection of common enteric viruses such as canine adenovirus (cadv), canine coronavirus (ccov), canine ...201829588198
a multiplex taqman real-time pcr for detection and differentiation of four antigenic types of canine parvovirus in china.canine parvovirus (cpv) is an important pathogen in domestic dogs, and the original antigenic types cpv-2 and its variants, cpv-2a, 2b and 2c, are prevalent worldwide. a multiplex taqman real-time pcr method was developed for the detection and differentiation of four antigenic types of cpv. a set of primers and probes, cpv-305f/cpv-305r and cpv-2-305p (for cpv-2)/cpv-2a-305p (for cpv-2a, 2b and 2c), was able to differentiate cpv-2 and its variants (cpv-2a, 2b and 2c). another set of primers and ...201829499233
detection and genetic characterization of mamastrovirus 5 from brazilian dogs.mamastrovirus 5 (mastv5), belonging to the astroviridae (astv) family, previously known as canine astrovirus or astrovirus-like particles, has been reported in several countries to be associated with viral enteric disease in dogs since the 1980s. astroviruses have been detected in fecal samples from a wide variety of mammals and birds that are associated with gastroenteritis and extra enteric manifestations. in the present study, rt-pcr was used to investigate the presence of mastv5 in 269 dog f ...201829456114
improving virus taxonomy by recontextualizing sequence-based classification with biologically relevant data: the case of thealphacoronavirus 1species.the difficulties related to virus taxonomy have been amplified by recent advances in next-generation sequencing and metagenomics, prompting the field to revisit the question of what constitutes a useful viral classification. here, taking a challenging classification found in coronaviruses, we argue that consideration of biological properties in addition to sequence-based demarcations is critical for generating useful taxonomy that recapitulates complex evolutionary histories. within thealphacoro ...201829299531
serologic survey of selected viral pathogens in free-ranging eurasian brown bears ( ursus arctos arctos) from slovakia.we tested sera of 24 free-ranging european brown bears ( ursus arctos) from six regions of slovakia for antibodies to 10 viral agents. we tested sera by an indirect fluorescence antibody test for antibodies to canine distemper virus (cdv), canine coronavirus (ccv), canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2), canine adenovirus, canine parainfluenza virus type 2 (cpiv-2), and canine herpesvirus type 1 (chv-1). we used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to hepatitis e virus, blu ...201930289326
vaccination against coronaviruses in domestic animals.the current pandemic of covid-19 has set off an urgent search for an effective vaccine. this search may well benefit from the experiences of the animal health profession in the development and use of coronavirus vaccines in domestic animal species. these animal vaccines will in no way protect humans against covid-19 but knowledge of the difficulties encountered in vaccinating animals may help avoid or minimize similar problems arising in humans. diverse coronaviruses can infect the domestic spec ...202032563608
unveiling patterns of viral pathogen infection in free-ranging carnivores of northern portugal using a complementary methodological approach.pathogen surveillance in free-ranging carnivores presents challenges due to their low densitie and secretive nature. we combined molecular and serological assays to investigate infections by viral pathogens (canine parvovirus (cpv), canine distemper virus (cdv) and canine coronavirus (ccov)) in portuguese carnivores (canis lupus, vulpes vulpes, lutra lutra, martes foina, m. martes, meles meles, and genetta genetta) over a period of 16 years. additionally we explored spatio-temporal patterns of v ...202032062189
identification of pantropic canine coronavirus in a wolf ( canis lupus italicus) in italy.we report a case in an italian wolf ( canis lupus italicus) of pantropic canine coronavirus infection, which has previously been detected only in dogs. the wolf was coinfected by canine parvovirus type 2b and canine adenovirus type 2, which highlighted the crucial role of epidemiologic surveys in european wild carnivores.201930376395
comparative survey of canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine enteric coronavirus infection in free-ranging wolves of central italy and south-eastern france.diseases likely affect large carnivore demography and can hinder conservation efforts. we considered three highly contagious viruses that infect a wide range of domestic and wild mammals: canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2), canine distemper virus (cdv) and canine enteric coronaviruses (cecov). infection by either one of these viruses can affect populations through increased mortality and/or decreased general health. we investigated infection in the wolf populations of abruzzo, lazio e molise natio ...201432214941
wild canids, domestic dogs and their pathogens in southeast brazil: disease threats for canid conservation.wild canids are under many pressures, including habitat loss, fragmentation and disease. the current lack of information on the status of wildlife health may hamper conservation efforts in brazil. in this paper, we examined the prevalence of canine pathogens in 21 free-ranging wild canids, comprising 12 cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 7 chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf), 2 lycalopex vetulus (hoary fox), and 70 non-vaccinated domestic dogs from the serra do cipó national park area, southeast ...201032214695
the effect of protected areas on pathogen exposure in endangered african wild dog (lycaon pictus) populations.infectious diseases impact african wild dogs (lycaon pictus), but the nature and magnitude of this threat likely varies among populations according to different factors, such as the presence and prevalence of pathogens and land-use characteristics. we systematically evaluated these factors to assist development of locally appropriate strategies to mitigate disease risk. wild dogs from 16 sites representing five unconnected populations were examined for rabies virus, canine distemper virus (cdv), ...201232226083
serological survey on canine coronavirus antibodies in giant pandas by virus neutralization order to survey the infectious situation of canine coronavirus (ccv) in giant panda population, a virus neutralization test detecting specific antibodies against ccv in giant panda's sera was established by using two-fold dilutions of serum and 100 tcid50 of the virus. the 62 sera samples of giant pandas, which were gathered from zoos and reserve region of sichuan province, china were detected. the neutralization antibody titer of 1:4 was recognized as the positive criterion, 8 sera samples w ...200432214748
coronavirus infections in companion animals: virology, epidemiology, clinical and pathologic features.coronaviruses are enveloped rna viruses capable of causing respiratory, enteric, or systemic diseases in a variety of mammalian hosts that vary in clinical severity from subclinical to fatal. the host range and tissue tropism are largely determined by the coronaviral spike protein, which initiates cellular infection by promoting fusion of the viral and host cell membranes. companion animal coronaviruses responsible for causing enteric infection include feline enteric coronavirus, ferret enteric ...202032933150
molecular evidence for vaccine-induced canine distemper virus and canine adenovirus 2 coinfection in a fennec fox.a 61-d-old fennec fox (vulpes zerda), 11 d after receiving a multivalent, modified-live virus vaccine containing canine distemper virus (cdv), canine adenovirus 2 (cadv-2), parainfluenza virus, parvovirus, and canine coronavirus, developed oculonasal discharge, and subsequently convulsions, and hemoptysis, and died. microscopic changes in the cerebrum were evident, including neuronal degeneration and necrosis; intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies were observed in astrocytes. cdv was de ...202032560597
pathogen exposure in endangered island fox (urocyon littoralis) populations: implications for conservation management.island fox (urocyon littoralis) populations on four california channel islands have declined severely since 1994. canine distemper (cdv) was suspected to be responsible for the decline of the santa catalina island fox, so knowledge of infectious disease exposure in the remaining island fox populations was urgently needed. this study reviewed previous pathogen exposure in island foxes and investigated the current threat by conducting a serologic survey of foxes on all islands and sympatric feral ...200632226080
canine parvovirus is diagnosed and neutralized by chicken igy-scfv generated against the virus capsid protein.canine parvovirus (cpv) can cause acute and highly contagious bloody enteritis in dog. to obtain antibodies against cpv, hens were immunized with virus-like particles (vlp) of cpv-vp2. the igy single chain fragment variables (scfv) were generated by t7 phage display system and expressed in e. coli system. the titer of the primary scfv library reached to 1.5 × 106 pfu/ml, and 95% of the phages contained the target fragments. the cpv-vlp and cpv-vp2 protein showed similar reaction values to the pu ...202032883344
molecular characterization of canine coronaviruses: an enteric and pantropic approach.canine coronavirus (ccov) generally causes an infection with high morbidity and low mortality in dogs. in recent years, studies on coronaviruses have gained a momentum due to coronavirus outbreaks. mutations in coronaviruses can result in deadly diseases in new hosts (such as sars-cov-2) or cause changes in organ-tissue affinity, as occurred with feline infectious peritonitis virus, exacerbating their pathogenesis. in recent studies on different types of ccov, the pantropic strains characterized ...202033005986
cultivation techniques for animal coronaviruses: emphasis on feline infectious peritonitis virus, canine coronavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, and porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus.techniques are described for the growth and characterization of some mammalian coronaviruses. because of the fastidious nature of their growth requirements, most will replicate only in cells derived from the natural host or a closely related species. fetal cat cells are used to grow fipv, and porcine cells are used to grow tgev and hev. however, ccv will replicate in both feline and canine cells. although all four of these viruses prefer to replicate in a cell in the stationary phase of growth, ...198832214595
lifestyle as risk factor for infectious causes of death in young dogs: a retrospective study in southern italy (2015-2017).infectious diseases are a common cause of death in young dogs. several factors are thought to predispose young dogs to microbiological infections. identifying the cause of death is often a challenge, and broad diagnostic analysis is often needed. here, we aimed to determine the infectious causes of death in young dogs aged up to 1 year, examining how it relates to age (under and over 6 months), lifestyle (owned versus ownerless), breed (purebred and crossbreed), and gender. a retrospective study ...202032566119
one-step multiplex taqman probe-based method for real-time pcr detection of four canine diarrhea viruses.viral canine diarrhea has high morbidity and mortality and is prevalent worldwide, resulting in severe economic and spiritual losses to pet owners. however, diarrhea pathogens have similar clinical symptoms and are difficult to diagnose clinically. thus, fast and accurate diagnostic methods are of great significance for prevention and accurate treatment. in this study, we developed a one-step multiplex taqman probe-based real-time pcr for the differential diagnosis of four viruses causing canine ...202032534013
indomethacin and resveratrol as potential treatment adjuncts for sars-cov-2/covid-19.the ongoing pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (sars-cov-2, also known as covid-19) has led to unprecedented challenges for the global healthcare system. this novel coronavirus disease phenotype ranges from asymptomatic carriage to fulminant cytokine storm with respiratory failure, polyorgan dysfunction and death. severe disease is characterised by exuberant inflammation resulting from high circulating cytokines such as interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis facto ...202032412158
etiology and genetic evolution of canine coronavirus circulating in five provinces of china, during the outbreaks of covid-19 in worldwide, coronavirus has once again caught the attention of people. canine coronavirus is widespread among dog population, and sometimes causes even fatal cases. here, to characterize the prevalence and evolution of current circulating canine coronavirus (ccov) strains in china, we collected 213 fecal samples from diarrheic pet dogs between 2018 and 2019. of the 213 samples, we found 51 (23.94%) were positive for ccov. co-infection with canine parvovirus (cpv), ...202032311431
extreme genomic cpg deficiency in sars-cov-2 and evasion of host antiviral defense.wild mammalian species, including bats, constitute the natural reservoir of betacoronavirus (including sars, mers, and the deadly sars-cov-2). different hosts or host tissues provide different cellular environments, especially different antiviral and rna modification activities that can alter rna modification signatures observed in the viral rna genome. the zinc finger antiviral protein (zap) binds specifically to cpg dinucleotides and recruits other proteins to degrade a variety of viral rna ge ...202032289821
genotyping and phylogenetic analysis of canine parvovirus circulating in egypt.this study aimed to detect and characterize current genotypes of canine parvovirus (cpv) in egypt during 2018.202032255975
circulation of pantropic canine coronavirus in autochthonous and imported dogs, italy.canine coronavirus (ccov) strains with the ability to spread to internal organs, also known as pantropic ccovs (pccovs), have been detected in domestic dogs and wild carnivores. our study focused on the detection and molecular characterization of pccov strains circulating in italy during the period 2014-2017 in autochthonous dogs, in dogs imported from eastern europe or illegally imported from an unknown country. samples from the gut and internal organs of 352 dogs were screened for ccov; putati ...202032163663
prevalence of selected cardiotropic pathogens in the myocardium of adult dogs with unexplained myocardial and rhythm disorders or with congenital heart determine the prevalence of nucleic acid from selected cardiotropic pathogens in endomyocardial biopsy samples from dogs with unexplained myocardial and rhythm disorders (umrd) and compare prevalence with that for a group of control dogs with congenital heart disease (chd).201931687895
detection of selected viral pathogens in dogs with canine infectious respiratory disease in assess the prevalence of canine parainfluenza virus, canine adenovirus type 2, canine distemper virus, canine respiratory coronavirus and influenza virus a infections in: (1) privately-owned or, (2) kennelled dogs showing signs consistent with canine infectious respiratory disease and, (3) clinically healthy dogs in vienna, austria.201931301071
molecular characterization of hlj-073, a recombinant canine coronavirus strain from china with an orf3abc deletion.canine enteric coronaviruses (ccovs) are important enteric pathogens of dogs. ccovs with different variations are typically pantropic and pathogenic in dogs. in this study, we isolated a ccov, designated hlj-073, from a dead 6-week-old male pekingese with gross lesions and diarrhea. interestingly, sequence analysis suggested that hlj-073 contained a 350-nt deletion in orf3abc compared with reference ccov isolates, resulting in the loss of portions of orf3a and orf3c and the complete loss of orf3 ...201931152250
simultaneous detection and differentiation of canine parvovirus and feline parvovirus by high resolution melting analysis.canine parvovirus (cpv) and feline parvovirus (fpv) are causative agents of diarrhea in dogs and cats, which manifests as depression, vomiting, fever, loss of appetite, leucopenia, and diarrhea in young animals. cpv and fpv can single or mixed infect cats and cause disease. to diagnose sick animals effectively, an effective virus diagnostic and genome typing method with high sensitivity and specificity is required.201931077252
multiplex pcr methods for detection of several viruses associated with canine respiratory and enteric diseases.viral respiratory and intestinal infections are the most common causes of canine viral illness. infection with multiple pathogens occurs in many cases. rapid diagnosis of these multiple infections is important for providing timely and effective treatment. to improve diagnosis, in this study, two new multiplex polymerase chain reactions (mpcrs) were developed for simultaneous detection of canine respiratory viruses (crv) and canine enteric viruses (cev) using two separate primer mixes. the viruse ...201930830947
multiplex detection of five canine viral pathogens for dogs as laboratory animals by the luminex xtag assay.more and more dogs have been used as a disease model for medical research and drug safety evaluation. therefore, it is important to make sure that the dogs and their living houses are special pathogen free. in this study, the development and evaluation of a luminex xtag assay for simultaneous detection of five canine viruses was carried out, including canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, canine parainfluenza virus, canine adenovirus, and rabies virus. assay specificity was accomplished by ...201830174654
a fast and simple one-step duplex pcr assay for canine distemper virus (cdv) and canine coronavirus (ccov) detection.the one-step polymerase chain reaction (one-step pcr) detection assay is an innovative pcr detection method, eliminating nucleic acid extraction steps, in which samples can be directly added to pcr reagents for testing. for simultaneous detection of cdv and ccov, a sensitive and specific one-step duplex pcr (one-step dpcr) assay was developed with two pairs of primers that were designed based on h and m gene sequences of cdv and ccov, respectively. the one-step dpcr with optimized detection cond ...201830141131
a survey of canine respiratory pathogens in new zealand dogs.aims to determine which of the common canine respiratory pathogens circulate among selected populations of healthy and diseased dogs in new zealand. methods coagulated blood samples for serology and oropharyngeal swabs for virology were collected from healthy dogs (n=47) and from dogs with acute respiratory disease (n=49). for diseased dogs a convalescent blood sample was also collected 3-4 weeks later. oropharyngeal swabs were subjected to virus isolation and tested for canine parainfluenza vir ...201829924957
prevalence and genome characteristics of canine astrovirus in southwest china.the aim of this study was to investigate canine astrovirus (caastv) infection in southwest china. we collected 107 faecal samples from domestic dogs with obvious diarrhoea. forty-two diarrhoeic samples (39.3 %) were positive for caastv by rt-pcr, and 41/42 samples showed co-infection with canine coronavirus (ccov), canine parvovirus-2 (cpv-2) and canine distemper virus (cdv). phylogenetic analysis based on 26 caastv partial orf1a and orf1b sequences revealed that most caastv strains showed uniqu ...201829846155
a multiplex pcr method for the simultaneous detection of three viruses associated with canine viral enteric infections.the aim of this study was to establish a multiplex pcr (mpcr) method that can simultaneously detect canine parvovirus (cpv-2), canine coronavirus (ccov) and canine adenovirus (cav), thereby eliminating the need to detect these pathogens individually. based on conserved regions in the genomes of these three viruses, the vp2 gene of cpv-2, the endoribonuclease nsp15 gene of ccov, and the 52k gene of cav were selected for primer design. the specificity of the mpcr results showed no amplification of ...201829675651
effect of selected gastrointestinal parasites and viral agents on fecal s100a12 concentrations in puppies as a potential comparative model.previous data suggest that fecal s100a12 has clinical utility as a biomarker of chronic gastrointestinal inflammation (idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease) in both people and dogs, but the effect of gastrointestinal pathogens on fecal s100a12 concentrations is largely unknown. the role of s100a12 in parasite and viral infections is also difficult to study in traditional animal models due to the lack of s100a12 expression in rodents. thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate fecal s100a12 con ...201829665827
in silico perspectives on the prediction of the plp's epitopes involved in multiple sclerosis.multiple sclerosis (ms) is the most common autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (cns). the main cause of the ms is yet to be revealed, but the most probable theory is based on the molecular mimicry that concludes some infections in the activation of t cells against brain auto-antigens that initiate the disease cascade.201728959348
epidemiological and phylogenetic analysis of canine kobuviruses in tangshan, china.canine kobuviruses (cakov) have been found in healthy and diarrheic dogs as well as asymptomatic wild carnivores in various countries. in order to investigate the prevalence and evolution of cakov in tangshan, china, 82 dog fecal samples from pet hospitals in tangshan were subjected to rt-pcr targeting a segment of the 3d gene of cakov. using this method, we identified cakov in 14 samples (17.07%, 14/82). of the cakov-positive samples, 78.57% (11/14) and 50% (7/14) were positive for canine parvo ...202032643035
molecular detection and characterization of carnivore chaphamaparvovirus 1 in dogs.canine chaphamaparvovirus (cachpv) is a newly recognised parvovirus discovered by metagenomic analysis during an outbreak of diarrhoea in dogs in colorado, usa, in 2017 and more recently detected in diarrhoeic dogs in china. whether the virus plays a role as canine pathogen and whether it is distributed elsewhere, in other geographical areas, is not known. we performed a case-control study to investigate the possible association of cachpv with enteritis in dogs. cachpv dna was detected both in t ...202033069035
molecular diversity of alphacoronavirus 1 in dogs and cats in colombia.alphacoronavirus 1 (subgenus tegacovirus, genus alphacoronavirus, family coronaviridae), which encompasses transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), feline coronavirus (fcov) and canine coronavirus (ccov), is an important pathogen that can cause severe gastroenteritis and is distributed worldwide. ccov has two different genotypes: ccov type i, which has a high identity with fcov-i, and ccov type ii, which is divided into two subtypes, ccov iia (pantropic) and ccov iib, which is related to fcov ...202032665984
generation and evaluation of igy-scfv based mimetics against canine parvovirus.antibody mimetics may be used for various biomedical applications, especially those for which conventional antibodies are ineffective. in this study, we developed a smaller molecular chicken igy mimetic peptide (igy-peptide) based on the complementarity-determining regions (cdrs) of the anti-canine parvovirus (cpv) igy-scfv prepared previously. the mimetic peptide showed no cross-reactivity with canine distemper virus (cdv) and canine coronavirus (ccv) and showed excellent protective properties ...202133985573
the virus-host interface: molecular interactions of alphacoronavirus-1 variants from wild and domestic hosts with mammalian aminopeptidase n.the alphacoronavirus-1 species include viruses that infect numerous mammalian species. to better understand the wide host range of these viruses, better knowledge on the molecular determinants of virus-host cell entry mechanisms in wildlife hosts is essential. we investigated alphacoronavirus-1 infection in carnivores using long-term data on serengeti spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) and molecular analyses guided by the tertiary structure of the viral spike (s) attachment protein's interface wit ...202133786949
the gut viral metagenome analysis of domestic dogs captures snapshot of viral diversity and potential risk of coronavirus.the close relations between dogs (canis lupus familiaris) and humans lay a foundation for cross species transmissions of viruses. the co-existence of multiplex viruses in the host accelerate viral variations. for effective prediction and prevention of potential epidemic or even pandemic, the metagenomics method was used to investigate the gut virome status of 45 domestic healthy dogs which have extensive contact with human beings. a total of 248.6 gb data (505, 203, 006 valid reads, 150 bp in le ...202134307533
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