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arbovirus infections.arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) infections are increasingly important causes of neurologic disease in the united states through both endemic transmission and travel-associated infections. this article reviews the major arbovirus infections that can cause neurologic disease likely to be encountered in the united states.026633778
powassan meningoencephalitis, new york, new york, usa.disease caused by powassan virus (powv), a tick-borne flavivirus, ranges from asymptomatic to severe neurologic compromise and death. two cases of powv meningoencephalitis in new york, usa, highlight diagnostic techniques, neurologic outcomes, and the effect of powv on communities to which it is endemic.023969017
biological transmission of arboviruses: reexamination of and new insights into components, mechanisms, and unique traits as well as their evolutionary trends.among animal viruses, arboviruses are unique in that they depend on arthropod vectors for transmission. field research and laboratory investigations related to the three components of this unique mode of transmission, virus, vector, and vertebrate host, have produced an enormous amount of valuable information that may be found in numerous publications. however, despite many reviews on specific viruses, diseases, or interests, a systematic approach to organizing the available information on all f ...016223950
imported arbovirus infections in canada 1974-89.from 1974 to 1989, sera from symptomatic patients with histories of recent travel outside canada were tested for antibodies to several arboviruses, principally of the alphavirus and flavivirus families. diagnostic seroconversions were documented in 84 individuals from six provinces, including one alphavirus (chikungunya) and 83 flavivirus seroconvertors. dengue 1 virus was isolated from the blood of one patient. most flavivirus seroconvertors were likely infected with dengue virus, but infection ...022529717
underreporting of viral encephalitis and viral meningitis, ireland, 2005-2008.viral encephalitis (ve) and viral meningitis (vm) have been notifiable infectious diseases under surveillance in the republic of ireland since 1981. laboratories have reported confirmed cases by detection of viral nucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid since 2004. to determine the prevalence of these diseases in ireland during 2005-2008, we analyzed 3 data sources: hospital in-patient enquiry data (from hospitalized following patients discharge) accessed through health intelligence ireland, laborat ...023965781
discovery of dengue virus ns4b inhibitors.the four serotypes of dengue virus (denv-1 to -4) represent the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral pathogens in humans. no clinically approved vaccine or antiviral is currently available for denv. here we report a spiropyrazolopyridone compound that potently inhibits denv both in vitro and in vivo. the inhibitor was identified through screening of a 1.8-million-compound library by using a denv-2 replicon assay. the compound selectively inhibits denv-2 and -3 (50% effective concentration [ec50], ...026018165
state health department perceived utility of and satisfaction with arbonet, the u.s. national arboviral surveillance system.we assessed the perceived utility of data collected through arbonet, the national arboviral surveillance system, and evaluated state health department user satisfaction with system function.022753981
the tortoise or the hare? impacts of within-host dynamics on transmission success of arthropod-borne viruses.arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are maintained in a cycle of alternating transmission between vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. arboviruses possess rna genomes capable of rapid diversification and adaptation, and the between-host trade-offs inherent to host alternation impose well-documented constraints on arbovirus evolution. here, we investigate the less well-studied within-host trade-offs that shape arbovirus replication dynamics and transmission. arboviruses generally establish l ...026150665
assessment of arbovirus surveillance 13 years after introduction of west nile virus, united states.before 1999, the united states had no appropriated funding for arboviral surveillance, and many states conducted no such surveillance. after emergence of west nile virus (wnv), federal funding was distributed to state and selected local health departments to build wnv surveillance systems. the council of state and territorial epidemiologists conducted assessments of surveillance capacity of resulting systems in 2004 and in 2012; the assessment in 2012 was conducted after a 61% decrease in federa ...026079471
flavidb: a data mining system for knowledge discovery in flaviviruses with direct applications in immunology and vaccinology.the flavivirus genus is unusually large, comprising more than 70 species, of which more than half are known human pathogens. it includes a set of clinically relevant infectious agents such as dengue, west nile, yellow fever, and japanese encephalitis viruses. although these pathogens have been studied extensively, safe and efficient vaccines lack for the majority of the flaviviruses.025544857
powassan virus in mammals, alaska and new mexico, u.s.a., and russia, 2004-2007.powassan virus is endemic to the united states, canada, and the russian far east. we report serologic evidence of circulation of this virus in alaska, new mexico, and siberia. these data support further studies of viral ecology in rapidly changing arctic environments.024274336
powassan virus encephalitis, minnesota, usa. 023750562
tick-borne encephalitis vaccines.tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) is a disease that is found from western europe across asia and into japan. in recent years the incidence rate has been increasing as has the endemic range of the virus. tick-borne encephalitis is caused by three genetically distinct sutypes of viruses within a single tbe virus (tbev) serocomplex. these three subtypes consist of far-eastern subtype tbev (tbev-fe), siberian subtype (tbev-sib) and european subtype (tbev-eu). each of these subtypes cause clinically dist ...023997980
powassan virus encephalitis in southeastern ontario. 06254625
a case of powassan virus encephalitis.a case of encephalitis due to powassan virus, probably transmitted through tick-bite, is reported in an 8-year-old boy. there was a 50-fold increase in neutralization titre against powassan virus, but the virus could not be isolated. other virological investigations were negative.the patient survived and early physiotherapy and speech re-education could be instituted. nine months after onset of illness the patient showed moderate sequelae, despite a very severe illness.04829843
powassan virus: isolation of virus from a fatal case of encephalitis. 195913652010
powassan virus: surveys of human and animal sera. 196018017788
isolation of a virus closely related to powassan virus from dermacentor andersoni collected along north cache la poudre river, colo. 196013838002
powassan virus: field investigations in northern ontario, 1959 to 1961. 196220327133
powassan and silverwater viruses: ecology of two ontario arboviruses.powassan virus was isolated from a pool of ixodes marxi ticks collected during late august 1962, from a red squirrel, tamiasciurus hudsonicus, and from blood obtained from a red squirrel during early october 1962 near powassan, ontario, where a child contracted fatal encephalitis due to this virus in september 1958. the frequent detection of powassan virus neutralizing antibody in sera of squirrels captured during autumn, but rarely at other seasons, and the frequent i. marxi infestation of squi ...196313932161
powassan virus: morphology and cytopathology.powassan virus, a north american tickborne group b arbovirus, multiplied after simultaneous inoculation into bottles or tubes of virus and trypsinized suspension of continuous-line cultures of rhesus monkey kidney cells, strain llc-mk2. cytopathic effects comprising cell rounding and cytoplasmic vacuolation were first observed five days after inoculation. mixture of powassan antiserum with virus before inoculation into tissue cultures inhibited the appearance of cytopathic effects. hemagglutinin ...196414146854
powassan virus: field investigations during the summer of 1963. 196414205898
powassan virus: summer infection cycle, 1964.between may 1, and september 15, 1964, neutralizing antibody to powassan virus was detected in sera from 163 of 464 forest mammals captured in the powassan-north bay area of northern ontario. these included 159 of 358 groundhogs and four of 43 red squirrels. acquisition of antibody by juvenile groundhogs occurred principally during july and august. powassan virus strains were isolated from tick pools containing two to 15 ixodes cookei per pool which were removed from eight of 91 groundhogs in th ...196414230913
interferon production in powassan virus infections of chickens. 19655836041
the first isolations of powassan virus in new york state. 196514328910
powassan virus: vernal spread during 1965.powassan virus was isolated from seven pools of ixodes cookei ticks removed from groundhogs (marmota monax) collected near north bay, ontario, between may and august 1965, including five pools obtained during spring. tick pools, each comprising one to nine ticks, contained 2.0 to 5.5 log(10) tcd(50) of virus upon titration in monolayer cultures of primary swine kidney cells. powassan virus neutralizing antibody prevalence in sera of the current season's groundhogs increased steadily from zero du ...19665904925
a chick embryo attenuated strain (tp21 e5) of langat virus. 3. the ability to protect against homologous virus and powassan virus in cross-challenge experiments. 19665920389
powassan virus: persistence of virus activity during 1966.powassan virus isolations were achieved from three of 60 pools of ixodes cookei ticks removed from 286 groundhogs (marmota monax) which were collected some 200 miles north of toronto between may 5 and september 5, 1966. virus yields per pool of one to 11 ticks ranged from 10(2.5) to 10(6.0) tcd(50) for primary swine kidney tissue cultures, and positive pools were collected on june 24, july 15 and august 10. powassan neutralizing antibodies were detected by mouse inoculation tests in 143 of 362 a ...19676019677
westward extension of powassan virus prevalence. 19685657172
powassan virus transmission by ixodid ticks infected after feeding on viremic rabbits injected intravenously. 19695798511
localization of powassan virus in dermacentor andersoni ticks by immunofluorescence. 19694905045
california encephalitis and powassan virus activity in british columbia, 1969. 19705466318
powassan virus infection in the grey squirrel. 19714399143
immunization of mice against russian spring-summer virus complex and monkeys against powassan virus with attenuated langat e5 virus. duration of protection. 19734630881
a non-fatal human case of powassan virus encephalitis. 19734684890
powassan virus infection. a report of three human cases of encephalitis. 19744856896
[isolation of the powassan virus from haemaphysalis neumanni dönitz, 1905 ticks in the maritime territory]. 19744439875
experimental milk-borne transmission of powassan virus in the goat.a lactating goat with a 74-day-old kid was inoculated with 10(3) mouse 50% lethal dose (ld50) of powassan virus. no ensuing viremia could be detected, but virus was secreted in the milk on postinoculation days 7 through 15, with a titer of 10(5) ld50/ml on day 12. neutralizing antibody was found in the serum on days 22 through 36 and in the milk on day 36. the offspring was not inoculated but was allowed to continue feeding on its mother's milk. it developed neutralizing antibody by day 22. sinc ...1977190910
[neural pathway of powassan virus spread in the central nervous system of white mice].electron microscopic investigation of the brains and lumbar spinal cords of adult albino mice infected with powassan virus was carried out. virus particles were found within all parts of neurons (perikarya, dendrites, axon), as well as within synaptic apparatus and intercellular gaps of the central nervous tissue. the possibility of the virus spread both throughout the cytoplasm of nerve cells and their processes and the extracellular spaces of the brain was confirmed. localization of virions wi ...1978206238
light and electron microscope study of the neurotropism of powassan virus strain p-40.brains of adult white mice inoculated with the p-40 strain of powassan virus isolated in primorsky krai (u.s.s.r) from ticks were studied by light and electron microscopy. accumulations of virus particles were found in neurons and their dendrites and axons, in glial cells, and in intercellular spaces. in the nerve cells, most prevalent were changes of the type of chromatolysis and formation of small vacuoles, associated with the alteration of the endoplasmic reticulum induced by virus morphogene ...197935957
powassan virus meningoencephalitis: a case report. 1979223757
powassan virus in ixodes cookei and mustelidae in new england.powassan virus was recovered from a pool of 3 nymphal and 1 adult female ixodes cookei removed from a striped skunk (mephitis mephitis) trapped in massachusetts during 1967 and from a pool of 9 nymphal i. cookei from a long-tailed weasel (mustela frenata) captured in connecticut during 1978. virus was detected in the blood of both mammals. hemagglutination-inhibiting (hi) antibody to powassan virus was demonstrated in 16.0% of the skunks sampled in connecticut, and neutralizing antibody was dete ...1979230364
[role of powassan virus in the etiological structure of tick-borne encephalitis in the primorsky kray].composite studies conducted annually in the primorsky kray showed the tick-borne encephalitis virus to play the main etiological role in the group of encephalites with the spring-summer incidence. in 1976--1978, virological studies of 69 cases of the disease yielded 11 strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus. in 1978, from the blood of clinically normal woman after a tick bite strain 555 was first isolated which was identified as powassan virus, and antigenemia was observed for 53 days using th ...19806247844
[experimental monkey encephalitis caused by powassan virus].a comparative study of the experimental infection of monkeys caused by brain p-40 of powassan virus isolated in the primorye territory of the ussr and by the prototype canadian strain lb was carried out. powassan virus was found to be pathogenic for macaca rhesus. clinical and pathomorphological picture of the experimental encephalitis was studied. full identity of the infection caused in the monkeys by the strain p-40 and the canadian strain lb of powassan virus has been proved. on electronmicr ...19816263023
powassan virus infection in snowshoe hares (lepus americanus).sera from snowshoe hares (lepus americanus) trapped near rochester, alberta, canada were tested for powassan virus antibody by the constant virus/serum dilution neutralization test. of 1264 serum samples tested, 137 had an antibody titer of at least 1:4 for powassan virus. ten hares were inoculated with powassan virus in the laboratory. viremia lasted 4-5 days and ceased with the appearance of powassan antibody in the serum. neutralizing antibody reached a peak titer of 1:119 on day 15 post-inoc ...19816264168
powassan virus encephalitis resembling herpes simplex encephalitis.a boy from new york traveling in nova scotia had olfactory hallucinations and other signs of temporal lobe involvement, leading to a diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. the patient was treated with vidarabine and made a complete recovery. however, hemagglutination inhibition, complement fixation, and neutralization tests identified powassan virus (pow) as the pathogen. shortly before his trip to nova scotia, the patient had traveled in an area where pow encephalitis had occurred in humans ...19836297420
isolation of francisella tularensis and powassan virus from ticks (acari: ixodidae) in ontario, canada. 19846327984
[comparative analysis of the electrophoretic mobility of the high-molecular virus-specific proteins of flaviviruses].a comparative study of high molecular virus-specific proteins in cells infected with flaviviruses from 5 serological subgroups was carried out. proteins nv5, nv4, and v3 were found to have similar electrophoretic mobility in viruses of the tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) complex with the exception of powassan virus protein. proteins nv5 and nv4 of mosquito-borne flaviviruses differ in electrophoretic mobility both from the corresponding proteins of the tbe complex viruses and from each other. prot ...19846152087
antigenic relationships among viruses of the tick-borne encephalitis complex as studied by monoclonal antibodies.tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) monoclonal antibodies showed haemagglutination-inhibiting (hi) activity against viruses belonging to the tbe complex except of powassan virus. the hi titre with kyasanur forest disease virus was lower than with tick-borne encephalitis virus, when monoclonal antibodies were incubated with the antigen at +4 degrees c for 30 min. langat virus could be distinguished from other viruses of the tbe complex when the antigen was incubated with monoclonal antibodies at +4 deg ...19846201061
experimental encephalitis in monkeys caused by the powassan virus.we have carried out a comparative study of the experimental infection of monkeys with the p-40 strain of the powassen virus, isolated in the primor'e territory of the ussr, and with the canadian prototype lb strain. the powassan virus was found to be pathogenic for macaca rhesus. the clinical and pathomorphological picture of the experimental encephalitis was studied, and the full identity of the infection produced in the monkeys by the p-40 strain and the canadian lb strain of the powassan viru ...19852987750
powassan viral encephalitis: a review and experimental studies in the horse and rabbit.powassan virus strain m794, a member of the flavivirus genus known to infect man and animals in canada, was inoculated intracerebrally into rabbits and horses. no clinical signs were observed in rabbits, but widespread encephalitis resulted, characterized by lymphoid perivascular cuffing, lymphocytic meningitis, and lymphocytic choroiditis. in horses, eight days after inoculation, prominent neurological signs occurred and lesions were those of non-suppurative encephalomyelitis, neuronal necrosis ...19852996203
two kinds of monoclonal antibodies to tick-borne encephalitis virus.two types of monoclonal antibodies (ma) of the ken and nek series prepared to tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus differed in the spectrum of their reactivity in serological tests and in their ability to react with individual representatives of the tbe virus complex. the ken series ma were induced to the 4072 strain isolated from the blood of a patient in the u.s.s.r. the nek series ma were prepared to the skalica strain isolated from a bank vole in czechoslovakia. both groups of ma belonged to ...19862874724
california serogroup and powassan virus infection of cats.one hundred and seventy five sera from cats in ontario, canada, were tested for hemagglutination inhibition (hi) antibodies to three arboviruses; namely, powassan (pow) of the flavivirus serogroup, and snowshoe hare (ssh) and jamestown canyon (jc) viruses of the california (cal) serogroup. all sera were negative for antibodies to pow virus. twelve cats possessed cal serogroup antibodies including 3 with antibodies to ssh alone, 6 with antibodies to jc alone, and 3 with antibodies to both ssh and ...19872825952
[electron microscopic study of the an-750 strain of powassan virus isolated in the soviet union].electron microscopic examinations of brains of white mice inoculated with the an 750 strain isolated for the first time from adult mosquitoes and with the prototype lb strain of powassan virus were carried out. the method of combination of light and electron microscopy used in the study permitted to compare ultrastructural changes in one cell with the results of light microscopy. sizes of virions and their localizations in the brain cells were determined. virus particles were found in large and ...1987211734
isolation of powassan virus from a spotted skunk in california. 19873029440
evidence that the mature form of the flavivirus nonstructural protein ns1 is a dimer.evidence is presented which indicates that the dengue-2 virus nonstructural protein ns1 (soluble complement fixing antigen) exists in infected bhk and mosquito cell cultures as part of a stable oligomer. identification of the dissociation products of the isolated oligomer and comparison of the number of n-linked glycans in native and denatured ns1 is consistent with the idea that the high-molecular-weight form of ns1 is a homodimer. by analyzing lysates of bhk cells infected with st. louis encep ...19882827377
agents of equine viral encephalomyelitis: correlation of serum and cerebrospinal fluid antibodies.a survey was conducted by testing 115 paired equine serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples by hemagglutination-inhibition for antibodies to powassan and snowshoe hare viruses, and by virus neutralization for antibodies to equine herpesvirus type 1. twenty-five samples were from horses with spontaneous neurological disease and the remainder from horses euthanized because of various nonneurological disorders. all sera and cerebrospinal fluids were negative for antibodies to powassan virus. fifty-on ...19882836046
[a survey of antibodies to arboviruses in residents in south-western part of yunnan province].in order to provide serological evidence for arbovirus infection in yunnan province, 760 samples of human sera collected from nine counties in south-western part of yunnan province were examined for hi antibodies to 11 arboviral antigens. the viruses used in this experiment included 3 alphaviruses (may, vee and chik) and 8 flaviviruses (je, mve, kun, den3, den4, kfd, lgt and pow). 275 samples were found positive for hi antibodies to alphaviruses (36.2%) and 189 of them (68.7%) reacted with may v ...19892544277
leg weakness associated with powassan virus infection--ontario. 19892547526
differentiation of strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus by means of rna-dna hybridization.cloned cdna and synthetic deoxyoligonucleotides, complementary to various parts of the genomic rna of tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev), strain sofjin, were used to distinguish between strains of tbev and other flaviviruses. the cdna probe hybridized with strains of tbev and related flaviviruses of the tbe complex except for powassan virus, and it did not react with flaviviruses of the japanese encephalitis and dengue subgroups. viruses of the tbe complex and some strains of tbev were differe ...19902374007
[the differentiation of viruses of the tick-borne encephalitis complex by means of rna-dna hybridization].nucleic acid spot hybridization with cloned cdna of tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus, strain sofjin, was used to differentiate strains of tbe and other flaviviruses. the cdna probe reacted with strains of tbe and flaviviruses of tbe subgroup with the exception of powassan virus. the probe did not react with viruses of japanese encephalitis and gendue subgroups. the viruses of tbe subgroup and some strains of tbe virus were differentiated from tbe strain sofjin by thermal stability of rna-dna ...19911713371
[the specific reactivity of cdna and deoxyoligonucleotide probes, complementary to the tick-borne encephalitis virus genome, with the rna of strains of different geographical origins].hybridization experiments with rna of 143 tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus strains isolated in different parts of the distribution area were used to study the reactivity of kdna- and a set of 10 synthetic deoxyoligonucleotide probes. the kdna probe under certain conditions was shown to hybridize with rna of all the strains under study, and under other (strict) hybridization conditions did so selectively with a small number of strains. the capacity of oligonucleotide probes for hybridization w ...19921290224
[pathomorphology of experimental infection caused by powassan virus isolated in the primorskiń≠ territory].pathomorphology of the infection caused by powassan virus strains isolated in the primorsky kray was studied in white mice. the central nervous system of the animals sacrificed in the time course of the infectious process was studied by light and luminescent microscopy. severe diffuse inflammatory-degenerative changes were found in the brain and spinal cord. immunofluorescence revealed cytoplasmic localization of the virus antigen in neurons, glial and connective tissue cells.1992206027
classification of a new member of the tbe flavivirus subgroup by its immunological, pathogenetic and molecular characteristics: identification of subgroup-specific pentapeptides.the antigenic, pathogenic and molecular characteristics of turkish sheep encephalitis (tse) virus, strain tte80, were compared with other members of the tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus complex. monoclonal antibodies with defined specificity for the flavivirus envelope glycoprotein distinguished tse virus from louping ill (li), western or far eastern tbe, langat and powassan virus in indirect immunofluorescence, haemagglutination-inhibition and neutralization tests. on the other hand, tse vir ...19938249442
complete genomic sequence of powassan virus: evaluation of genetic elements in tick-borne versus mosquito-borne flaviviruses.the complete nucleotide sequence of the positive-stranded rna genome of the tick-borne flavivirus powassan (10,839 nucleotides) was elucidated and the amino acid sequence of all viral proteins was derived. based on this sequence as well as serological data, powassan virus represents the most divergent member of the tick-borne serocomplex within the genus flaviviruses, family flaviviridae. the primary nucleotide sequence and potential rna secondary structures of the powassan virus genome as well ...19938097605
medically important arboviruses of the united states and canada.of more than 500 arboviruses recognized worldwide, 5 were first isolated in canada and 58 were first isolated in the united states. six of these viruses are human pathogens: western equine encephalitis (wee) and eastern equine encephalitis (eee) viruses (family togaviridae, genus alphavirus), st. louis encephalitis (sle) and powassan (pow) viruses (flaviviridae, flavivirus), lacrosse (lac) virus (bunyaviridae, bunyavirus), and colorado tick fever (ctf) virus (reoviridae, coltivirus). their scien ...19948118792
[biological properties and antigenic interconnection between tiuleniy and karshi flaviviruses].biological properties of flaviviruses tyuleny and karshi, new for the science, were studied. the viruses are highly pathogenic for laboratory animals; they replicate fairly well in primary chick embryo cells and ps cells. bhk-21 cells were found susceptible to replication of karshi virus. tyuleny and karshi viruses were found capable of initiating and maintaining a persistent infection in primary brain cell cultures from suckling syrian hamsters for at least 3 months. both the viruses showed cyt ...19947716902
[genome sequence and antigen structure of the powassan virus: analysis of genetic elements of tick-transmitted flaviviruses]. 19957886964
experimental transmission of powassan virus (flaviviridae) by ixodes scapularis ticks (acari:ixodidae).transmission experiments were performed with ixodes scapularis ticks from an uninfected laboratory colony. immature and adult ticks were exposed to powassan (pow) viremic hamsters and rabbits, respectively. oral infection rates for engorged larvae, nymphs and females fed on pow-infected hosts were 10%, 40%, and 57%, respectively. transstadial transmission rates for nymphs exposed to pow virus as larvae, adults exposed as larvae, and adults exposed as nymphs, were 9.5%, 10%, and 54%, respectively ...19968940987
a new tick-borne encephalitis-like virus infecting new england deer ticks, ixodes dammini.to determine if eastern north american ixodes dammini, like related ticks in eurasia, maintain tick-borne encephalitis group viruses, we analyzed ticks collected from sites where the agent of lyme disease is zoonotic. two viral isolates were obtained by inoculating mice with homogenates from tick salivary glands. the virus, which was described by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of the amplification products, was similar to, but distinct from, powassan virus ...19979204297
african swine fever virus infection in the argasid host, ornithodoros porcinus porcinus.the pathogenesis of african swine fever virus (asfv) infection in ornithodoros porcinus porcinus was examined in nymphal ticks infected with the asfv isolate chiredzi/83/1. at times postinfection (p.i.) ranging from 6 h to 290 days, ticks or dissected tick tissues were titrated for virus and examined ultrastructurally for evidence of virus replication. the asfv infection rate in ticks was 100% in these experiments, and virus infection was not associated with a significant increase in tick mortal ...19989499019
spontaneous and engineered deletions in the 3' noncoding region of tick-borne encephalitis virus: construction of highly attenuated mutants of a flavivirus.the flavivirus genome is a positive-strand rna molecule containing a single long open reading frame flanked by noncoding regions (ncr) that mediate crucial processes of the viral life cycle. the 3' ncr of tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus can be divided into a variable region that is highly heterogeneous in length among strains of tbe virus and in certain cases includes an internal poly(a) tract and a 3'-terminal conserved core element that is believed to fold as a whole into a well-defined se ...19989499069
etiology of acute childhood encephalitis at the hospital for sick children, toronto, 1994-1995.of 145 patients admitted to our hospital because of encephalitis-like illness, 50 patients hospitalized for > or =72 hours underwent standardized microbiological investigations. a confirmed or probable etiologic agent was identified in 20 cases (40%), including mycoplasma pneumoniae (9 cases). m. pneumoniae and enterovirus (2), herpes simplex virus (4), epstein-barr virus (1), human herpes-virus 6 (hhv-6) (1), hhv-6 and influenza virus type a (1), influenza virus type a (1), and powassan virus ( ...19989502462
viral meningitis. 199820401229
acute childhood encephalitis and meningoencephalitis: diagnosis and management.this paper seeks to discuss the differential diagnosis of childhood encephalitis and to review the course of investigation in a child presenting with encephalopathy, encephalitis and meningoencephalitis. the paper also reviews the current understanding of acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (adem) and presents the crucial therapeutic alternatives in the management of childhood encephalitis, including adem and infectious diseases.199820401194
charged residues in the transmembrane domains of hepatitis c virus glycoproteins play a major role in the processing, subcellular localization, and assembly of these envelope proteins.for most membrane proteins, the transmembrane domain (tmd) is more than just an anchor to the membrane. the tmds of hepatitis c virus (hcv) envelope proteins e1 and e2 are extreme examples of the multifunctionality of such membrane-spanning sequences. indeed, they possess a signal sequence function in their c-terminal half, play a major role in endoplasmic reticulum localization of e1 and e2, and are potentially involved in the assembly of these envelope proteins. these multiple functions are su ...200010729138
standardization of immunoglobulin m capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for routine diagnosis of arboviral infections.immunoglobulin m antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (mac-elisa) is a rapid and versatile diagnostic method that readily permits the combination of multiple assays. test consolidation is especially important for arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) which belong to at least three virus families: the togaviridae, flaviviridae, and bunyaviridae. using prototype viruses from each of these families and a panel of well-characterized human sera, we have evaluated and standardized a comb ...200010790107
rapid detection of west nile virus from human clinical specimens, field-collected mosquitoes, and avian samples by a taqman reverse transcriptase-pcr assay.the authors report on the development and application of a rapid taqman assay for the detection of west nile (wn) virus in a variety of human clinical specimens and field-collected specimens. oligonucleotide primers and fam- and tamra-labeled wn virus-specific probes were designed by using the nucleotide sequence of the new york 1999 wn virus isolate. the taqman assay was compared to a traditional reverse transcriptase (rt)-pcr assay and to virus isolation in vero cells with a large number ( app ...200011060069
biophysical characterization and vector-specific antagonist activity of domain iii of the tick-borne flavivirus envelope protein.the molecular determinants responsible for flavivirus host cell binding and tissue tropism are largely unknown, although domain iii of the envelope protein has been implicated in these functions. we examined the solution properties and antagonist activity of langat virus domain iii. our results suggest that domain iii adopts a stably folded structure that can mediate binding of tick-borne flaviviruses but not mosquito-borne flaviviruses to their target cells. three clusters of phylogenetically c ...200111264392
mutational evidence for an internal fusion peptide in flavivirus envelope protein e.the envelope protein e of the flavivirus tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus promotes cell entry by inducing fusion of the viral membrane with an intracellular membrane after uptake by endocytosis. this protein differs from other well-studied viral and cellular fusion proteins because of its distinct molecular architecture and apparent lack of involvement of coiled coils in the low-ph-induced structural transitions that lead to fusion. a highly conserved loop (the cd loop), which resides at the ...200111287576
essential role of cyclization sequences in flavivirus rna replication.a possible role in rna replication for interactions between conserved complementary (cyclization) sequences in the 5'- and 3'-terminal regions of flavivirus rna was previously suggested but never tested in vivo. using the m-fold program for rna secondary-structure predictions, we examined for the first time the base-pairing interactions between the covalently linked 5' genomic region (first ~160 nucleotides) and the 3' untranslated region (last ~115 nucleotides) for a range of mosquito-borne fla ...200111413342
phylogeny of north american powassan virus.to determine whether powassan virus (pow) and deer tick virus (dtv) constitute distinct flaviviral populations transmitted by ixodid ticks in north america, we analysed diverse nucleotide sequences from 16 strains of these viruses. two distinct genetic lineages are evident, which may be defined by geographical and host associations. the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of lineage one (comprising new york and canadian pow isolates) are highly conserved across time and space, but those of linea ...200111413377
tick-borne langat/mosquito-borne dengue flavivirus chimera, a candidate live attenuated vaccine for protection against disease caused by members of the tick-borne encephalitis virus complex: evaluation in rhesus monkeys and in mosquitoes.langat virus (lgt), strain tp21, a naturally avirulent tick-borne flavivirus, was used to construct a chimeric candidate virus vaccine which contained lgt genes for premembrane (prem) and envelope (e) glycoprotein and all other sequences derived from dengue type 4 virus (den4). the live virus vaccine was developed to provide resistance to the highly virulent, closely related tick-borne flaviviruses that share protective e epitopes among themselves and with lgt. toward that end the chimera, initi ...200111483771
nucleotide sequencing and serological evidence that the recently recognized deer tick virus is a genotype of powassan virus.deer tick virus (dtv) is a recently recognized north american virus isolated from ixodes dammini ticks. nucleotide sequencing of fragments of structural and non-structural protein genes suggested that this virus was most closely related to the tick-borne flavivirus powassan (pow), which causes potentially fatal encephalitis in humans. to determine whether dtv represents a new and distinct member of the flavivirus genus of the family flaviviridae, we sequenced the structural protein genes and 5' ...200111551648
genomic sequencing of deer tick virus and phylogeny of powassan-related viruses of north america.powassan (pow) virus is responsible for central nervous system infection in humans in north america and the eastern parts of russia. recently, a new flavivirus, deer tick (dt) virus, related to pow virus was isolated in the united states, but neither its pathogenic potential in human nor the taxonomic relationship with pow virus has been elucidated. in this study, we obtained the near-full-length genomic sequence of the dt virus and complete sequences of 3 genomic regions of 15 strains of pow-re ...200111716135
nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assays for rapid detection of west nile and st. louis encephalitis viruses.the development and application of nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (nasba) assays for the detection of west nile (wn) and st. louis encephalitis (sle) viruses are reported. two unique detection formats were developed for the nasba assays: a postamplification detection step with a virus-specific internal capture probe and electrochemiluminescence (nasba-ecl assay) and a real-time assay with 6-carboxyfluorescein-labeled virus-specific molecular beacon probes (nasba-beacon assay). the sen ...200111724870
outbreak of powassan encephalitis--maine and vermont, 1999-2001.powassan (pow) virus, a north american tickborne flavivirus related to the eastern hemisphere's tickborne encephalitis viruses, was first isolated from a patient with encephalitis in 1958. during 1958-1998, 27 human pow encephalitis cases were reported from canada and the northeastern united states. during september 1999-july 2001, four maine and vermont residents with encephalitis were found to be infected with pow virus. these persons were tested for other arbovirus infections found in the nor ...200111787585
human surveillance for west nile virus infection in ontario in 2000.the first reports of west nile virus (wnv) infection in the united states in 1999 prompted ontario to establish a surveillance protocol to monitor for the possible spread of the virus into the province. surveillance components included evaluation of dead birds, sentinel chickens, mosquito pools and human disease. we report the results of human surveillance in 2000.200211800244
use of immunoglobulin m cross-reactions in differential diagnosis of human flaviviral encephalitis infections in the united states.to define the virus specificity of the immunoglobulin m (igm) antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (mac-elisa) among the medically important members of the japanese encephalitis (je) virus serocomplex of flaviviruses, 103 igm-positive human serum samples from patients with confirmed west nile (wn) virus, st. louis encephalitis (sle) virus, or je virus infections were assembled and simultaneously tested against all three viral antigens in a standardized mac-elisa. of the serum sampl ...200211986257
first isolation of west nile virus from a patient with encephalitis in the united states.west nile virus (wnv) was isolated from a patient who developed encephalitis while undergoing treatment with chop (cyclophosphamide, hydroxydoxorubicin, vincristine [oncovin], predisone) and rituximab for a non-hodgkin b-cell lymphoma. both standard reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and taqman rt-pcr established the diagnosis of wnv infection from cerebrospinal fluid (csf). several whole blood samples and one serum sample underwent further testing. csf and serum samples we ...200212498649
tick-borne encephalitis.tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) is one of the most dangerous human infections occurring in europe and many parts of asia. the etiological agent tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev), is a member of the virus genus flavivirus, of the family flaviviridae. tbev is believed to cause at least 11,000 human cases of encephalitis in russia and about 3000 cases in the rest of europe annually. related viruses within the same group, louping ill virus (liv), langat virus (lgtv) and powassan virus (powv), also ...200312615309
flavivirus capsid is a dimeric alpha-helical protein.the capsid proteins of two flaviviruses, yellow fever virus and dengue virus, were expressed in escherichia coli and purified to near homogeneity suitable for biochemical characterization and structure determination by nuclear magnetic resonance. the oligomeric properties of the capsid protein in solution were investigated. in the absence of nucleic acid, both proteins were predominantly dimeric in solution. further analysis of both proteins with far-uv circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated ...200312768036
tick-borne encephalitis with hemorrhagic syndrome, novosibirsk region, russia, 1999.eight fatal cases of tick-borne encephalitis with an unusual hemorrhagic syndrome were identified in 1999 in the novosibirsk region, russia. to study these strains, we sequenced cdna fragments of protein e gene from six archival formalin-fixed brain samples. phylogenetic analysis showed tick-borne encephalitis variants clustered with a far eastern subtype (homology 94.7%) but not with the siberian subtype (82%).200312781020
epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of west nile virus antibodies in domestic mammals.we evaluated the ability of epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) to detect west nile virus (wnv) antibodies in domestic mammals. sera were collected from experimentally infected horses, cats, and pigs at regular intervals and screened in elisas and plaque reduction neutralization tests. the diagnostic efficacies of these techniques were similar.200312791902
viral meningitis and encephalitis: traditional and emerging viral agents.in the united states, the annual number of central nervous system (cns) infections that occur as a result of viral agents far exceeds that of infections caused by bacteria, yeast, molds, and protozoa combined. the recent incursion of west nile virus (wnv) into north america has led to a dramatic change in the incidence and epidemiology of summer-associated viral cns disease. as a result of increased testing for wnv, lesser known viral causes of cns infection have been identified. even the epidem ...200312881794
characterization of a siberian virus isolated from a patient with progressive chronic tick-borne encephalitis.a strain of tick-borne encephalitis virus designated zausaev (za) was isolated in siberia from a patient who died of a progressive (2-year) form of tick-borne encephalitis 10 years after being bitten by a tick. the complete genomic sequence of this virus was determined, and an attempt was made to correlate the sequence with the biological characteristics of the virus. phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this virus belongs to the siberian subtype of tick-borne encephalitis virus. comparison o ...200312477807
the importance of the q motif in the atpase activity of a viral helicase.ns3 proteins of flaviviruses contain motifs which indicate that they possess protease and helicase activities. the helicases are members of the dexd/h box helicase superfamily and ns3 proteins from some flaviviruses have been shown to possess atpase and helicase activities in vitro. the q motif is a recently recognised cluster of nine amino acids common to most dexd/h box helicases which is proposed to regulate atp binding and hydrolysis. in addition a conserved residue occurs 17 amino acids ups ...200314623116
tick-borne flaviviruses.tick-borne encephalitis (tbe), one of the most dangerous neuroinfections in europe and asia, is caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev) and currently involves approximately 11,000 human cases annually, mostly in russia. this chapter describes the main problems associated with the epidemiology, ecology, pathogenesis, and control of this disease. we have attempted to review the factors that influence the incidence and distribution of tbe, and to discuss possible reasons for the different cl ...200314714436
solution structure of dengue virus capsid protein reveals another fold.dengue virus is responsible for approximately 50-100 million infections, resulting in nearly 24,000 deaths annually. the capsid (c) protein of dengue virus is essential for specific encapsidation of the rna genome, but little structural information on the c protein is available. we report the solution structure of the 200-residue homodimer of dengue 2 c protein. the structure provides, to our knowledge, the first 3d picture of a flavivirus c protein and identifies a fold that includes a large di ...200414993605
evolution and dispersal of encephalitic flaviviruses.there are two major groups of encephalitic flaviviruses, those that infect and are transmitted by ticks, particularly ixodes spp. and those that infect and are transmitted by mosquitoes, particularly culex spp. the tick-borne encephalitic flaviviruses exhibit evolutionary characteristics that are largely determined by the protracted life cycle of the tick, its habitat and the prevailing climatic conditions. these viruses appear to have evolved gradually from non-encephalitic viruses that radiate ...200415119763
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