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a comparison of brain lysosomal enzyme activities in four experimental togavirus encephalitides. 1978204753
[interferonogenic activity of gossypol, a low-molecular substance].the interferonogenic activity of gossipol, a low molecular substance of polyphenolic nature was shown in the cell cultures of chick embryos and organisms of mice. pronounced prophylactic efficiency of the drug in mice with experimental infection caused by the west nile virus was found. definite parallelism between the intensity of interferonogenesis and the protection level from the virus affection due to the use of gossipol in mice was noted. difference between gossipol and other known low mole ...1978206198
antiviral effects of amphotericin b methyl ester.the methyl ester of amphotericin b (ame) is water soluble, retains antifungal activity, and is significantly less toxic in mammals than amphotericin b. in contrast to amphotericin b, which is not water soluble, ame exhibits antiviral effects against vesicular stomatitis virus, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, sindbis virus, and vaccinia virus in a plaque reduction assay. no antiviral effects could be demonstrated against the unenveloped adenovirus type 4 or echovirus type 11. the extent of vi ...1978206201
murine interferon system regulation: isolation and characterization of a mutant 3t6 cell engaged in the semiconstitutive synthesis of interferon.we describe the isolation and characterization of a virus-resistant mutant of murine 3t6 cells. the mutant, designated 3t6-vrb2, displays a high degree of resistance to infection by members of the toga-, rhabdo- and picornavirus classes. the level of this resistance to infection is similar to the parent 3t6 pretreated with approximately 100 lu/ml of interferon. upon co-cultivation of 3t6-vrb2 cells with interferon-sensitive mouse cells, an antiviral state is induced in the latter cells as measur ...1978208779
[viral co-carcinogenesis and other aspects of viral interaction]. 1978209638
length of glycoprotein spikes of vesicular stomatitis virus and sindbis virus, measured in situ using quasi elastic light scattering and a resistive-pulse technique. 1978213892
efficient transfer of interferon-induced virus resistance between human cells.the rate of development of interferon-induced virus resistance in a mixture of two human cell types (u and wish) is determined by the cell type (wish) in the mixture which responds first. this phenomenon has been shown with two types of interferon assay procedure, and with both vesicular stomatitis virus and sindbis virus. the transfer of virus resistance from one human cell (wish) to another (u) (homospecific transfer) is much more efficient than the transfer from mouse l cells to wish cells (h ...1978214520
the entry into host cells of sindbis virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and sendai virus.we have compared the mechanisms of entry into host cells of three enveloped viruses: sendai virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) and sindbis virus. virus entry by membrane fusion should antigenically modify the surface of a newly infected cell in such a way that it will be killed by anti-viral antibody and complement. on the other hand, virus entry by a mechanism involving uptake by the cell of the whole virion should not make cells sensitive to antibody and complement. as expected, cells new ...1978215317
alphaviruses in peninusular malaysia: i. virus isolations and animal serology.a survey of the activity of three alphaviruses (sindbis, getah and chikungunya) in peninsular malaysia was conducted between 1962 and 1970. serum samples were examined from 3,917 vertebrates representing a wide variety of wild and domestic animals throughout the peninsula for hemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralizing antibodies. a total of 548,939 mosquitoes were collected from different habitats, including jungle, rural, suburban and urban areas, and the majority of the females taken were ex ...197834888
amino-terminal sequence analysis of the structural proteins of sindbis virus.the structural proteins of sindbis virus, an enveloped virus which belongs to the togavirus family, have been subjected to automated edman degradation using improved techniques. extensive nh2-terminal sequences of about 50 residues were determined for each of the two membrane glycoproteins. in both cases the nh2 terminus of the molecule was found to be similar in composition to typical water-soluble proteins. the viral capsid protein was found to have a blocked alpha-amino group. this is consist ...1978275841
endoribonuclease activity associated with animal rna viruses.a specific endoribonucleolytic activity was detected when detergent-lysed vesicular stomatitis of sendai virus was incubated with the precursor to escherichia coli trna tyr. the cleavage products produced and the characteristics of the reaction were similar to those previously reported for human kb cell rnase nu. like rnase nu, the virus-associated reaction generates 5'-hydroxyl and 3'-phosphate groups at the cleavage sites. at protein concentrations similar to those used to test vesicular stoma ...1978202740
isolation of sindbis virus from the frog rana ridibunda. 197825014
comparative studies on sindbis virus strains isolated in slovakia.two variants of sindbis virus strains were distinguished according to the dextran sulphate (ds) marker. large-plague strains freshly isolated from cricetus cricetus and rana ridibunda produced exclusively small plaques after ds treatment. the prototype sindbis virus strain produced both large and small plaques after ds treatment. kinetic haemagglutination-inhibition tests revealed a higher reactivity of freshly isolated strains than of the prototype strain. for differentiation of newly isolated ...197826202
identification of a sindbis virus strain isolated from hyaloma marginatum ticks in sicily. 197827971
interspecies interactions of arboviruses. iii. competition for virus envelope antigens in mixed getah and sindbis virus populations.interactions of getah and sindbis virus populations in mixed infections of 5 tissue systems were competitive or neutral. the type of interaction is regulated by the host cell and virus population density. on reproduction in mouse brains and spev cell cultures the mixed population exhibited antigenic markers of getah virus; in syrian hamster kidney and chick embryo cell cultures those of sindbis virus; and in chinese hamster kidney cell cultures the antigenic markers of both viruses. mixed popula ...197829465
detection of sindbis and west nile viruses in the blood of living birds by indirect haemagglutination. 197830270
effect of sindbis virus infection on hydrocortisone-induced hepatic enzymes in mice. 197823548
[persistence of the sindbis virus in cultures producing oncornavirus].continuous lines were obtained from primary cultures of balb/c mouse embryo cells which were found by electron microscope and reverse transcriptase reaction to produce permanently oncoronavirus type c after exogenous infection with rauscher leukemia virus (rlv). sindbis virus (sv) was inoculated into virogenic cultures 398 days after infection with rlv. the system in characterized by rapid (3-21 days) disappearance of the infectious arbovirus from the medium and the cells, long-term (over 5 mont ...197878589
[immune ascitic fluids in rats to the sindbis virus].data are presented concerning preparation of universal immune ascitic fluid (iaf) to sindbis virus possessing a high activity and specificity in different serological tests: cft, hi, nt, agdpt, and direct immunofluorescence test. the advantages of rat iaf over the serum of these animals consists in a higher specific activity, lower amount of nonspecific hemagglutination inhibitors and waste protein substances. rat iaf may be used for production of highly specific diagnostic preparations.197878592
synthesis of sindbis virus complementary dna by avian myeloblastosis virus rna-directed dna polymerase.sindbis virus 42 s rna was efficiently transcribed into complementary dna (cdna) by avian myeloblastosis virus alphabeta dna polymerase using oligo- (dt) or single-stranded calf thymus dna as primers. both of the sindbis virus cdna products were able to protect 60% of 125i-labeled sindbis virus rna, at near equal weight ratios, from rnaase a and t1 digestion. using hybridization kinetics, the crt 1/2 value for hybridization of the calf thymus-primed cdna product with excess sindbis rna was deter ...197878725
[comparison of double triple integration systems]. 197880887
solid phase indirect radioimmunoassays for the rapid diagnosis of sindbis virus antigen.indirect radioimmunoassays have been developed for the rapid detection of sindbis virus. dilutions of sindbis virus from tissue culture fluids have been immobilized and allowed to react with rabbit anti-sindbis virus antibodies. the bound antibodies were assayed either by 125i-labelled anti-rabbit igg-antibodies or alternatively by addition of human complement and 125i-labelled anti-human c1q antibodies or 125i-labelled protein a.197884855
effects of neuraminidase of the phenotype of sindbis virus grown in fibroblasts obtained from patients with i-cell disease. 1978568847
replication of sindbis virus. vii. location of 5-methyl cytidine residues in virus-specific rna. 1978568849
mutants of sindbis virus. iii. host polypeptides present in purified hr and ts103 virus particles.the amounts of host-encoded protein present in purified sindbis virions of both the hr strain and of a mutant (ts103) which makes multicored particles were examined. cells were labeled with [35s]methionine before infection and with [3h]methionine postinfection. virions were purified by velocity sedimentation and isopycnic banding, and their polypeptides were examined by polyacrylamide gels in a sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing discontinuous buffer system. host prelabeled material was found prin ...1978569218
biological activity of hepatitis b antigens in cell culture.direct interference by purified hepatitis b surface antigen or virus particles was not demonstrated in tissue culture. significant levels of interferon were not induced. the surface antigen did not block the adsorption of other viruses.1978569686
human arthropod-borne virus infections in nigeria. serological and virological investigations and shaki, oyo state.during the early dry season of 1972, an arbovirus surveillance was carried out is shaki. on hundred and twenty human blood samples and 304 sera were processed for virus isolation and serology respectively. a high prevalence of antibodies to 8 arbovirus antigens was found in the community. percentage of positive sera was as follows: chikungunya (24%) sindbis (19%), yellow fever (55%), dengue (54%), west nile (58%) and wesselsbron (67%). human infections by ilesha virus (35%) and ingwavuma (15%) ...1978570581
the outer boundary of the cytoskeleton: a lamina derived from plasma membrane proteins.we prepared the cytoskeletal framework by gently extracting cells with triton x-100. lipids and soluble proteins were removed, leaving a complex meshlike structure which contains the cell nucleus and is composed of the major cell filament networks as well as the microtrabeculae with attached polyribosomes. the surface sheet or lamina covering this structure contains most of the cell surface proteins by the following criteria. intact cells are labeled externally with radioiodine and then extracte ...1979573666
isolation of sindbis virus 26 s rna by cdna-cellulose chromatography. 197986459
interactions of retroviruses with chemical carcinogen. i. noncovalent binding of unactivated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. 197989755
priming increases the amount of interferon mrna in poly(ri).poly(rc)-treated l cells.priming by mouse interferon pre-treatment resulted in an accumulation of interferon mrna in poly(ri).poly(rc)-treated l cells, starting early in the period of interferon synthesis. on electrophoresis, the priming activity of an interferon preparation co-migrated with the antiviral activity, which suggests identity of the functional principle(s) for these activities.197994345
h-2-linked control of cytotoxic t-cell responsiveness to alphavirus infection. presence of h-2dk during differentiation and stimulation converts stem cells of low responder genotype to t cells of responder phenotype.secondary tc cells generated against sindbis virus (sin) are restricted to dk. all other h-2k or d regions tested show low specific responsiveness. f1 hybrids between low and high responders show dominance of responsiveness but lack complementation. when balb/c (kdiddd) low responder fetal liver stem cells were allowed to mature in irradiated high responder recipients c3h.oh (kdiddk) a response to dk plus sin could be generated with tc cells of balb/c origin. this result, together with the failu ...1979107264
[comparative antiviral and interferonogenic activity of natural and synthetic interferon inducers in vitro and in vivo].biological activities of the rna replicative form of phage f2, a natural interferon inductor and poly-i -- poly-c, a synthetic polyribonucleotide complex were studied comparatively. differences in the comparative interferonogenic and antiviral activity of the inductors were as dependent on the type of the cell system. it was shown that deae-dextran increased the interferon-inducing activity of rff2 in the cell culture by 4 to 8 times. the dynamics of the interferonogenic and antiviral activity o ...1979110250
regulation of the interferon system: evidence that vero cells have a genetic defect in interferon production.a clone of vero cells was isolated and shown to be totally unable to synthesize interferon and insensitive to the toxic effect of poly(ri).poly(rc) treatment. cells of this clone and mouse l cells were fused by treatment with polyethylene glycol or sendai virus. hybrid cell clones were isolated following selection in medium containing hypoxanthine, thymidine and ouabain. the hybrids were sensitive to the antiviral effect of poly(ri).poly(rc) and synthesized mouse, but not primate, interferon. i ...1979113494
comparison of the structural properties of sindbis and semliki forest virus nucleocapsids.the envelope spikes of sindbis and semliki forest virus are arranged in a t = 4 icosahedral surface lattice and, by deduction, it has been suggested that the nucleocapsid proteins are similarly arranged. after treatment of the virions with a non-ionic detergent the released nucleocapsids sediment in sucrose gradients at about 160s and 150s and have densities in cscl of 1.42 g/ml and 1.425 g/ml, respectively, for sindbis and semliki forest virus. at ph 6.0 sindbis nucleocapsids do not contract li ...1979118237
adoptive transfer of cross-protection among alphaviruses in mice requires allogeneic stimulation.cell-mediated (t-effector cell) immunity is proposed as playing the major role in cross-protection between sindbis and semliki forest viruses, which are alphaviruses that do not elicit cross-neutralizing antibodies. in adoptive transfer experiments, t-cells from spleens of sindbis virus-immunized mice were found to confer specific cross-protection to semliki forest virus upon recipient mice. this cross-protection was observed in the outbred icr strain of mice and when transfers were made between ...1979157981
inhibition of interferon action by chinoform.chinoform, iodochlorhydrozyquin, was found to suppress the antiviral action of interferon. chick embryo fibroblast cells treated with the mixture of interferon and chinoform were more sensitive to sindbis virus infection than cells treated with interferon alone. no evidence for a direct inactivation of interferon molecule by chinoform was obtained. treatment with chinoform of cells previously exposed to interferon also removed a cellular antiviral state induced by interferon. chinoform suppresse ...1979158703
[kyzylagach virus (family togaviridae, genus alphaviruses), a new arbovirus isolated from culex modestus mosquitoes trapped in the azerbaijani ssr].a strain of leiv 65a virus was isolated in 1969 from culex modestus mosquitoes collected in the kyzylagach preserve, the azerbaijan ssr, in a colony of ciconiiformes birds. investigations of the antigenic properties of this virus by the complement fixation and neutralization tests as well as by electron microscopy showed it to belong to alphaviruses of the togaviridae family. kyzylagach virus had one-way relations with sindbis virus. some biological and biophysical-biochemical properties of the ...1979159565
effect of sindbis birus infection on survival of mice in the cold.mice infected with 10(9) plaque-forming units (pfu) of sindbis virus 9 h prior to exposure to cold (5 degrees c) died more rapidly after entering the new environment than saline-injected control mice. the early deaths occurred in animals singly housed without bedding and only when food was withheld. because deaths could be prevented by providing the infected animals with food, it was concluded that metabolic alteractions resulting from the virus infection were responsible for the deaths. as evid ...1979159887
novel antiviral activity found in the media of sindbis virus-persistently infected mosquito (aedes albopictus) cell cultures.aedes albopictus (mosquito) cells persistently infected with sindbis virus for a period of 6 months release into the medium a low-molecular-weight material capable of specifically reducing the yields of sindbis virus during the "acute phase" of infection in mosquito cells. the antiviral activity was produced in detectable levels at 3 days after infection, and its concentration in the extracellular medium increased thereafter. the antiviral activity was inactivated by treatment with the enzyme pr ...197934732
evidence for covalent attachment of fatty acids to sindbis virus glycoproteins.selective binding of lipid to glycoprotein was detected when [3h]palmitate-labeled sindbis virus particles or viral-infected cells were disrupted by heating with sodium dodecyl sulfate, and glycoproteins were isolated by electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate/10% polyacrylamide gels. the smaller glycoprotein (e2) retained 2 to 3 times more labeled lipid than did the larger ei glycoprotein, and the cell-associated glycoprotein precursor (pe2) bound even less lipid. no lipid was associated with ...1979287008
eukaryotic mrna cap binding protein: purification by affinity chromatography on sepharose-coupled m7gdp.a 24,000-dalton polypeptide that binds strongly and can be specifically crosslinked to the 5'-terminal cap structure m7gpppn in eukaryotic mrnas has been detected in protein synthesis initiation factor preparations [proc. natl. acad. sci. usa (1978) 75, 4843--4847]. this polypeptide has been purified to apparent homogeneity by one chromatographic passage through an affinity resin prepared by coupling the levulinic acid o2',3'-acetal of m7gdp to ah-sepharose 4b. translation, in hela cell extracts ...1979291969
interactions between immune cells and antibody in protection from fatal sindbis virus encephalitis.transfer of anti-sindbis virus serum, obtained from peripherally inoculated donors, protected mice from an otherwise fatal intracerebral infection with neuroadapted sindbis virus (nsv). f(ab)'2 preparations of serum were not protective, indicating that the fc piece of immunoglobulin g was important. complement-depleted animals were protected with anti-nsv serum, ruling out as essential the complement-fixing function of the fc piece. the presence of protective antibody correlated with the ability ...1979311344
in vitro heterologous cytotoxicity by t effector cells from mice immunized with sindbis virus.an in vitro correlate of cell-mediated cross-protection among alpha-viruses was demonstrated by cytotoxicity of sindbis-immune spleen cells from mice to both sindbis and semliki forest virus (sfv)-infected target cells. this cytotoxicity was shown to be mediated by the t cell population of the spleen and was independent of the presence of macrophages or b cells. the time when the level of the lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity (lmc) to sfv-infected cells was maximal coincides with the time when im ...1979314471
cross protection among togaviruses in nude mice and littermates.after immunization with sindbis virus, t-cell deficient nude mice, compared to normal littermates, were equally protected against challenge with sindbis virus. however, the nude mice showed about one-tenth the protection observed with normal littermates after challenge with semliki forest virus at a dose of 100 ld50. this consistent with our previous interpretation that sensitized t-cell populations play a major role in cross protection between the two togaviruses. the remaining low level of spe ...1979316446
haemolysis by two alphaviruses: semliki forest and sindbis virus.purified preparations of semliki forest (sfv) and sindbis virus haemolyse red blood cells from several species of animals and birds. the optimal haemolysis by sfv was obtained at ph 5.8 with 1-day-old chick erythrocytes incubated at room temperature. considerable variation in haemolytic activity was observed between different virus preparations purified by different methods. the haemolytic activity of sfv was inhibited by antisera against whole virus or isolated envelope proteins but not with an ...197939116
the effect of ribonuclease on the replicative forms of sindbis virus rna.three species of double-stranded rna, designated rf i, rf ii, and rf iii in order of decreasing size (25), are produced by ribonuclease treatment of extracts of chicken embryo cells infected for 6 hours with sindbis virus. only one class of replicative form rna is present in extracts not treated with ribonuclease; this class contains some molecules which can be enzymatically cleaved to produce the other two replicative forms. at a low level of enzyme (0.001 microgram/ml) the major species obtain ...197939537
quantitative and rapid assays of togaviruses by immunofluorescence.for the quantitative assay of selected togaviruses, suspensions of bhk cells were inoculated with virus and grown in spinner cultures. at intervals, dependent on the growth characteristics of the viruses, about 10(3) cells were centrifuged on to microscope slides and then stained with fluorescent antibody. for rapid demonstration (2--3 hr) of specific viral antigens, virus was bound in successive dilutions onto microscope slides and stained. binding of specific anti-virus antibodies in both meth ...197940420
detection of antibodies to alphaviruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.cell culture-derived antigens detected antibodies to alphaviruses in human sera with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. results correlated with those from hemagglutination inhibition and neutralization tests.1979393723
[characteristics of the response of mice with temporary immunodepression to the administration of live or inactivated vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis].mice with immunity defects caused by administration of cyclophosphane were inoculated with an inactivated vaccine or langat virus (tp-21 strain) considered to be an approximate model of the vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis. in mice with depressed immune response, the asymptomatic infection caused by langat virus turns into acute form and encephalitis with a fatal outcome develops in 86--100%. pre-treatment with inactivated tick-borne encephalitis vaccine did not protect the animals with t ...1979217179
complete exchange of viral cholesterol.the exchange of the cholesterol in the membranes of two enveloped viruses, sindbis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, with cholesterol present in lipid vesicles and in serum was measured. biosynthetically labeled viral cholesterol underwent spontaneous and complete transfer to both lipid vesicles and to serum. the rate with which and the extent to which this process occurred were very similar for these two viruses. during incubation with lipid vesicles in excess, half of the viral cholesterol ...1979217416
host defenses in herpes simplex infections of the nervous system: effect of antibody on disease and viral spread.balb/c mice passively immunized with antibody to herpes simplex virus type 1 and challenged in the footpad with 10(5.7) plaque-forming units of herpes simplex virus type 1 were shown to be protected from neurological disease and death compared with control mice treated with normal serum or antibody to sindbis virus. one hundred percent of untreated mice had virus recoverable from dorsal root ganglia by 48 h after infection. whereas amputation of the infected limb at 48 h had no effect, antibody ...1979217828
cellular interactions determine the rate and degree of interferon action.the rate and degree of interferon action on mouse embryo (me), mouse l, and human amnion (wish) cells were found to be dependent on the cell density. the most precipitous drop in interferon action occurred just below cell confluency. this effect was shown with both vesicular stomatitis virus and sindbis virus and at both constant and variable input multiplicities of infection. at both "high" and "low" cell densities, cells attached to a surface develop viral resistance faster than suspended cell ...1979217833
lipid-saccharide intermediates and glycoprotein biosynthesis in a temperature-sensitive chinese hamster cell mutant.the characterization of a temperature-sensitive chinese hamster cell mutant has been continued with the aim of localizing the apparent defect in glycoprotein synthesis (tenner et al., '77). although the mutation is lethal, a demonstration of the ability of the mutant cells to support proliferation of mengo virus at the nonpermissive temperature indicates that the general metabolic processes of the cells remain intact at a time when glycoprotein synthesis is severely depressed. a quantitative stu ...1979217883
absence of interferon production in a newly established human cell line.a cell line established from human embryonic lung, hel-r66, was demonstrated to be highly susceptible to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, vaccinia virus, newcastle disease virus (ndv), japanese encephalitis virus (jev), western equine encephalitis (wee) virus, sindbis virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), and rabies virus. the maximal yields of ndv, jev, wee virus, and rabies virus in this cell line exceeded by 2--4 logs those in control human embryonic lung cells. inability of this cell l ...1979218901
restricted replication of two alphaviruses in ricin-resistant mouse l cells with altered glycosyltransferase activities.two mouse l cell variant lines (cl 3 and cl 6) selected for resistance to the toxic plant lectin ricin were restricted in their ability to replicate the two alphaviruses sindbis virus and semliki forest virus. cl 3 cells have been shown to exhibit increased cmp-sialic acid:glycoprotein sialyltransferase and gm3 synthetase activities, whereas cl 6 cells have been shown to contain decreased udpgalactose:glycoprotein galactosyltransferase and udp-n-acetylglucosamine:glycoprotein n-acetylglucosaminy ...1979219229
arrangement of glucose residues in the lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor of asparaginyl oligosaccharides.the lipid-linked oligosaccharide synthesized in vitro, in the presence of 1.0 microm udp-[3h]glc, gdp-[14c]man, and udp-glcnac has been isolated and the structure of the oligosaccharide has been analyzed. the oligosaccharide contains 2 n-acetylglucosamine, 9 mannose, and 3 glucose residues. the n-acetylglucosamine residues are located at the reducing terminus. the 3 glucose residues are arranged in a linear order at one of the nonreducing termini in the sequence glc 1,2--glc 1,3--glc--(man)9 (gl ...1979220251
synthesis and processing of protein-linked oligosaccharides in vivo. 1979220252
[antiviral activity of interferon and its inducers in human lymphoblastoid and somatic cells].the antiviral effect of interferon inductors, such as poly-i--poly-c, phage f2 rna replicative form and low molecular inductor gsn and their influence on cellular dna synthesis were studied in the cultures of lymphoblastoid (inplanting lines raji namalva) and somatic human cells. the semliki forest virus used as the test organism multiplicated well in cells raji accumulating up to 9 lg bou/ml. the two-strand rna was less active in the lymphoid cells than in the somatic ones. gsn was 10 times mor ...1979220908
antiviral action of benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-diones: 5-nitro-2-(2-dimethylaminoethyl) and 5-nitro-2-[2-(1-pyrrolidine)-ethyl] derivatives.two benzo[de]isoquinoline-diones, namely 5-nitro-2-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-dione and 5-nitro-2-[2-(1-pyrrolidine)-ethyl]-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-dione, caused inhibition of the viral replication, when assayed against herpes simplex and vaccinia viruses in chick embryo cell cultures. influenza and sindbis virus replication were unaffected by these chemicals. virucidal effects were unobserved. the inhibitory activity is time-related. ocular and dermal infections with vac ...1979221156
assay of human interferon in vero cells by several methods.four methods for the assay of human interferon in vero cells were compared based on the inhibition of viral cytopathic effect (cpe) in tubes, the inhibition of cpe in microplates, the reduction of plaques, and the inhibition of quantitative hemadsorption. for inhibition of cpe, sindbis virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, poliovirus type 2, and vaccinia virus were used for challenge. in the plaque reduction method, sindbis virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and poliovirus were employed, and newcas ...1979222803
dimethyl sulfoxide enhancement of phlebotomus fever virus plaque formation.dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso)incorporated into an agar overlay containing deae-dextran enhanced plaque formation in vero cells by naples sandfly fever virus passaged in mouse brain or vero cell cultures. no plaques were visible when dmso was used without the deae-dextran, some plaques were rarely visible (less than 0.5mm) when deae-dextran was used without the dmso, and up to 10-fold more plaques were clearly visible (0.5-1.5 mm) when both chemicals were used. the combined enhancing effect of dmso a ...1979223461
glycopeptides of murine leukemia viruses. i. comparison of two ecotropic viruses.the glycopeptides obtained by pronase digestion of two ecotropic strains of murine leukemia virus (mulv) were compared by gel filtration. four different glycopeptide size classes, designated g(1), g(2), g(3), and g(4), with molecular weights of approximately 5,100, 2,900, 2,200, and 1,500, respectively, were shown to be associated with rauscher mulv virions grown in jls-v9 cells. various sugar precursors, including glucosamine, galactose, fucose, and mannose were incorporated into g(1) and g(2), ...1979228050
[viral interaction with stimulated and nonstimulated human tonsil cells].interferon induction and the course of infection with paramyxovirus (newcastle disease virus) and alphaviruses (venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, sindbis, semliki forest viruses) in human tonsillar cell cultures were studied in comparison with continuous burkitt lymphoma, raji, and nawalva cells. the virus inducers stimulated production of dozens and hundreds iu50/ml of interferon in tonsillar cell cultures. no virus replication could be detected either in intact or phytohemagglutinin-stimula ...1979230646
the effect of interferon induction on complement level in rat.relatively high levels of interferon were achieved in rat sera by intracardial inoculation with sindbis virus followed 15 min later by intraperitoneal application of dimethylsulfoxide. at intervals when interferon titres reached the maximum, the levels of complement were decreased as compared with the control group of rats. single administration of dimethylsulfoxide did neither induce interferon nor influence the complement levels in sera of rats of the dobrá voda breed tested. similar results w ...1979230679
[inhibition of vaccinia, sindbis and para-influenza virus replication by isatin beta-thiosemicarbazone derivative and methisazone in vitro and in vivo]. 1979232050
membrane biogenesis. in vitro cleavage, core glycosylation, and integration into microsomal membranes of sindbis virus glycoproteins.sindbis virus 26s rna has been translated in a cell-free protein-synthesizing system from rabbit reticulocytes. when the system was supplemented with edta-stripped dog pancreas microsomal membranes, the following results were obtained: (a) complete translation of 26s rna, resulting in the production, by endoproteolytic cleavage, of three polypeptides that are apparently identical to those forms of c, pe2, and e1 that are synthesized in vivo by infected host cells during a 3-min pulse with [35s]m ...1979422651
carbohydrate structure of sindbis virus glycoprotein e2 from virus grown in hamster and chicken cells.sindbis virus was used as a probe to examine glycosylation processes in two different species of cultured cells. parallel studies were carried out analyzing the carbohydrate added to sindbis glycoprotein e2 when the virus was grown in chicken embryo cells and bhk cells. the pronase glycopeptides of sindbis glycoprotein e2 were purified by a combination of ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. four glycopeptides were resolved, ranging in molecular weight from 1,800 to 2,700. structures ...1979430605
oligonucleotide mapping studies of standard and defective sindbis virus rna.oligonucleotide mapping studies of the rna from standard and defective interfering particles of sindbis virus demonstrate that 3'- and 5'-terminal regions of the genome are conserved in the defective rnas. these studies also suggest that defective rnas contain multiple deletions.1979430611
ribosome-protected fragments from sindbis 42-s and 26-s rnas.sindbis virus 42-s and 26-s rnas labeled with 32p were purified from infected chick embryo fibroblasts. the rna's were incubated in the presence of a wheat germ cell-free translating system under conditions that yielded 40-s and 80-s initiation complexes. after digestion with rnase a, ribosome-protected fragments were isolated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and compared with respect to number, size, cap content and oligonucleotide composition. the two rna species yielded several fragments ...1979436845
biological activity of sera obtained by hyperimmunizing rabbits with interferon from mouse l cells.rabbits immunized with interferon from mouse l cells for long periods of time produced interferon-neutralizing antibodies with titers from 1:80 to 1,2000. the anti-interferon sera also contained antibodies against antigens contaminating the interferon preparations such as albumin, bovine gamma-globulin, chicken albumin, extract from l cells, and sindbis virus antigens. some sera also displayed cytotoxic activity against cells of transplantable murine leukemia. these antibodies could be removed b ...1979444043
serologic examination of human population in south moravia (czechoslovakia) on the presence of antibodies to arboviruses of the alfavirus, flavivirus, turlock groups and bunyamwera supergroup.a statistically representative group of human population from the south moravian region (cssr) was examined on the presence of antibodies against the following arboviruses: lednice, sindbis, tick-borne encephalitis, west nile, tahyna and calovo. the ascertained absence of antibodies to the lednice virus is an evidence that at present this virus is of no epidemiological importance in the region studied. no antibodies to sindbis, west nile and calovo viruses were demonstrated. 17.8 to 42.0% of ant ...1979447128
comparison of sindbis virus and immunoglobulin glycopeptides in mouse myeloma cells. 1979447657
two small virus-specific polypeptides are produced during infection with sindbis virus.we have identified and characterized two small virus-specific polypeptides which are produced during infection of cells with sindbis virus, but which are not incorporated into the mature virion. the larger of these is a glycoprotein with an approximate molecular weight of 9,800 and is found predominantly in the medium of infected cells. three independent lines of evidence demonstrate conclusively that this 9,800-dalton glycoprotein is produced during the proteolytic conversion of the precursor p ...1979448798
studies on the morphology of alphaviruses. 1979462801
na+ and k+ concentrations and the regulation of protein synthesis in sindbis virus-infected chick cells. 1979462804
effect of incubation time on the generation of defective-interfering particles during undiluted serial passage of sindbis virus in aedes albopictus and chick cells. 1979462807
[accelerated method of determining the antiviral activity of interferon inducers in experimental infection].by the example of trials of two typical interferon inducers: a double-stranded complex of synthetic polyribonucleotides poly (i).poly (c) and polyacrylic acid the use of the proposed rapid method for the determination of the antiviral activity of interferon inducers in an experimental infection of mice with an alphavirus is described. the method permits to perform a statistically treated evaluation of the antiviral effect of a group of preparations within 96 hours. the mean standard error of the ...1979462928
the pathogenesis of sindbis virus infection in athymic nude mice. 1979469246
purification and amino acid compositions of the structural proteins of sindbis virus. 1979473598
requirements for the insertion of the sindbis envelope glycoproteins into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.previous work has shown that the sindbis structural proteins, core, the internal protein, and pe2 and e1, the integral membrane glycoproteins are synthesized as a polyprotein from a 26s mrna; core pe2 and e1 are derived by proteolytic cleavage of a nascent chain. newly synthesized core protein remains on the cytoplasmic side of the endoplasmic reticulum while newly synthesized pe2 and e1 are inserted into the lipid bilayer, presumably via their amino-termini. pe2 and e1 are glycosylated as nasce ...1979479287
a radioisotopic technique for measuring the mononuclear inflammatory response in sindbis virus-induced encephalitis of mice.the mononuclear inflammation occurring in sindbis virus-induced encephalitis of mice has been measured by means of pulse labelling with [125i]udr at a defined time after infection. the method should be applicable to other studies of encephalitis and of mononuclear cellular infiltration occurring in other organs as a result of disease or infection.1979479615
proteins specified by togaviruses in infected aedes albopictus (singh) mosquito cells.yields of greater than 10(7) p.f.u./ml at 28 or 37 degrees c of the alphavirus sindbis and the flavivirus kunjin were obtained in the aedes albopictus (singh) cell line, the latent periods being 4 to 6 and 10 to 12 h, respectively. despite a high background of host protein synthesis, virtually all the virus-specified proteins of the flaviviruses kunjin, dengue-2 and japanese encephalitis were labelled and resolved by slab gel electrophoresis of infected and uninfected cell proteins. in contrast, ...1979479844
heterologous interference in aedes albopictus cells infected with alphaviruses.maximum amounts of 42s and 26s single-stranded viral rna and viral structural proteins were synthesized in aedes albopictus cells at 24 h after sindbis virus infection. thereafter, viral rna and protein syntheses were inhibited. by 3 days postinfection, only small quantities of 42s rna and no detectable 26s rna or structural proteins were synthesized in infected cells. superinfection of a. albopictus cells 3 days after sindbis virus infection with sindbis, semliki forest, una, or chikungunya alp ...1979480461
the extreme 5'-terminal sequences of sindbis virus 26 and 42 s rna. 1979483569
differential effects of ouabain on host- and sindbis virus-specified protein synthesis. 1979494493
the effect of membrane-active agents on sindbis virus morphogenesis.in chicken cells infected by sindbis virus and exposed to a variety of membrane-active compounds, virus release was inhibited. in infected cells exposed to antiserum directed against the virion glycoproteins e1 or e2, retinol, cortisone, pb++ or insulin, the processing of two sindbis virus precursor polypeptides which lead to the formation of virion polypeptides was inhibited. the b-protein, which is the precursor to both envelope proteins, accumulated in cells treated by these compounds. this p ...1979500330
absence of a cleavable signal sequence in sindbis virus glycoprotein pe2.partial nh2-terminal sequence analysis has been performed on some products that result from the translation of 26 s mrna of sindbis virus either in vivo or in vitro. in vivo products were obtained after pulse-labeling of virus-infected cells. in vitro products were obtained after cell-free translation either in the absence or presence of microsomal membrane vesicles from dog pancreas. the sequence data indicate that the selective translocation across the microsomal membrane required for a distin ...1979500711
interferon induction by viruses. ii. sindbis virus: interferon induction requires one-quarter of the genome--genes g and a.we have measured the amounts of interferon formed by chick cells 'aged' in vitro in response to different amounts of infectious wild-type sindbis virus. our results suggest that one plaque-forming unit is enough to induce maximum interferon formation. with higher m.o.i. the yield of interferon is less. to inactivate the interferon-inducing activity of sindbis virus, four times more u.v.-radiation was needed than to inactivate the infectivity of the virus. this suggests that only 25% of the virus ...1979501335
[change in the nature of the persistence of alpha- and flaviviruses in the body of balb/c strain mice with a mixed infection with leukovirus].the features of pathogenesis of infection caused in adult balb/c mice intraperitoneally infected with sindbis virus, virulent or attenuated strains of west nile (wn) virus, individually or in combination with rauscher leukemia virus (rlv) were studied. the influence of the latter on the course of togavirus infections was characterized by 3 features: (a) different effects on the visceral and neural phases of the pathogenesis (increased period of viremia and virus reproduction in the viscera did n ...1979506204
biophysical studies on circle formation by sindbis virus 49 s rna. 1979513134
replication of standard and defective ross river virus in bhk cells: patterns of viral rna and polypeptide synthesis.virus-specific macromolecule synthesis has been examined in bhk cells infected with ross river virus. unpassaged virus (r-0) and tenth-passage virus (r-10) have been compared. in infected cells r-0 generates i) 45s, 28s, 33s and 26s viral rnas, ii) virus-specific precursor polypeptides of mol. wt. 127,000, 95,000 and 61,000 and iii) viral envelope proteins (mol. wts. 52,000 and 49,000) and nucleocapsid protein (mol. wt. 32,000). thus in terms of virus-specific rna and polypeptide synthesis, the ...1979518301
establishment of persistent infection in bhk-21 cells by temperature-sensitive mutants of sindbis virus.twelve temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of sindbis were examined for their ability to establish persistent infection in bhk-21 cells at 39 degrees c. five of these mutants were able to initiate colony formation in infected cultures, which followed an extensive c.p.e. two of the mutants were able to establish persistent infections which survived beyond the fifth cell passage p.i. the ability to initiate colony formation was correlated with low reversion of the ts mutation, or with ability to in ...1979521804
virulence of temperature-sensitive mutants of sindbis virus in neonatal mice.the virulence in neonatal mice of temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of sindbis virus was determined by measurements of mean survival time and 50% lethal dose after intracerebral injection. for 11 ts mutants, mean survival time was determined by the ribonucleic acid (rna) phenotype, rna+ mutants killing the mice sooner than rna- mutants for the same titer of virus injected. mortality caused by seven ts mutants was, with one exception, correlated with the proportion of revertants recovered after ...1979528057
sindbis virus rna replication. i. properties of the 38s rna species.four species of single-stranded virus rna (49s, 38s, 33s and 26s) were detected in chick embryo fibroblasts infected with sindbis virus. the relative amounts of these rnas were unaffected by the m.o.i. there was also no significant difference in the molar proportions of the four rna species when purified virion rna was used as the inoculum. these findings suggest that the 38s and 33s species represent products of the transcription of non-defective virion rnas. kinetic analyses of rna synthesis i ...1979528982
[origin and formation of different types of vacuoles induced by the multiplication of the alphavirus sindbis virus in various cell systems].spherule-containing vacuoles and nucleocapsid-bearing vacuoles (cytopathic vacuoles types 1 and 2 respectively of grimley et al. 1968) induced by alphavirus sindbis were studied in brains from newborn mice, chicken embryo fibroblasts, and two lines of tumoral glial cells from muridae. endoplasmic reticulum (er) elements and finely granular electron-dense material also seen in contact with nucleocapsids seemed to be involved in the formation of the classical single-membrane spherule-containing va ...1979534962
infections in sentinel pigeons by sindbis and west nile viruses in south africa, with observations on culex (culex) univittatus (diptera: culicidae) attracted to these birds. 1979537007
functional defects of rna-negative temperature-sensitive mutants of sindbis and semliki forest viruses.defects in rna and protein synthesis of seven sindbis virus and seven semliki forest virus rna-negative, temperature-sensitive mutants were studied after shift to the restrictive temperature (39 degrees c) in the middle of the growth cycle. only one of the mutants, ts-6 of sindbis virus, a representative of complementation group f, was clearly unable to continue rna synthesis at 39 degrees c, apparently due to temperature-sensitive polymerase. the defect was reversible and affected the synthesis ...1979541824
cross-reactive killer t lymphocytes in a flavivirus infection.splenocytes from mice immunized intravenously with one dose of langat or yellow fever viruses were cytotoxic for target cells infected with virulent tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus; cytotoxicity was measured by 51cr release from target l929 cells. no significant lysis of the tbe virus-infected taget cells with splenocytes from sindbis virus-infected mice was noted.19806106380
sindbis virus receptor protein of bhk cells.exposure of cultured bhk 21 cells to very low concentrations of non-ionic detergent nonidet p40 resulted in the elution of cellular proteins located on the outer surface of the plasma membrane. one of these proteins, partially purified by affinity ultrafiltration and cosedimentation with sindbis virions, seems to be the "receptor molecule" of sindbis virus.19806107024
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