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immunofluorescent staining study of the salivary glands of mosquitoes infected with group a arboviruses. 19734590688
protein-lipid interactions. 19724592575
[interaction of virus and lysosome (author's transl)]. 19734596204
an electron microscope study of sindbis virus rna. 19744598643
in vitro studies of cell-mediated immunity in an acute viral infection. 19744598885
[detection of group a arboviruses in mosquito salivary glands by the immunofluorescence method]. 19744614585
[immune cytolysis of cells infected with sindbis virus]. 19744614588
[behavior of microsomal mannosyl-transferases in cells carrying an arbovirus infection]. 19724622409
[monocatenary ribonucleic acids of an arbovirus of group a: sindbis virus]. 19724622410
comparisons of togaviruses: sindbis virus (group a) and kunjin virus (group b). 19724625020
effects of ionic strength on the release of dengue virus from vero cells. 19724631144
viral rnas associated with ribosomes in sindbis virus-infected hela cells.virus specific rna ribosome complexes were isolated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation of cytoplasmic extracts from hela cells infected at 42 c with an rna(+) mutant (ts2) of sindbis virus. viral rna-ribosome complexes were accumulated by infected cells treated with sodium fluoride and cycloheximide. the rna-ribosome complexes were characterized by (i) their sensitivity to the action of ribonuclease or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, (ii) their density in cesium chloride gradients, and ...19734632442
identification of polysomal rna in bhk cells infected by sindbis virus.polysomes were prepared from sindbis virus-infected bhk cells. the major species of rna in these polysomes was identified as 26s rna (interjacent rna) by (i) disrupting the polysomes with edta; (ii) treating the infected cells with puromycin; and (iii) isolating polysomes from cells infected with a temperature-sensitive mutant that does not form nucleocapsids. small amounts of 42s rna and 33s rna were also found in polysomes.19734633684
some characteristics of lower molecular weight arbovirus rna's. 19724636723
[filiation relationship between specific ribonucleic acids of a group a togavirus]. 19724639773
heterogeneity in the poly(a) content of the genome of sindbis virus. 19724640690
effect of double-stranded rnas from sindbis virus-infected cells on rabbit reticulocyte and chick embryo cell-free protein synthesis. 19724641255
[classification and identification of arboviruses]. 19724642703
[replication intermediaries in ribonucleic acid synthesis of group a togavirus]. 19724655816
elimination of repeated clot formation in mouse ascitic fluid containing arbovirus antibodies.repeated clot formation in mouse ascitic fluids containing antiviral antibody was eliminated by acid precipitation of the fibrinogen.19724672320
specific membranous structures associated with the replication of group a arboviruses.intracytoplasmic membranous structures of a unique type were associated with the replication of three group a arboviruses: semliki forest virus (sfv), sindbis virus, or western equine encephalomyelitis virus. the structures, referred to as type 1 cytopathic vacuoles (cpv-1), were membrane-limited and characteristically lined by regular membranous spherules measuring 50 nm in diameter. the membranous spherules typically contained a fine central density, but were neither virus cores nor virions. d ...19724672392
morphology and morphogenesis of sindbis virus as seen with freeze-etching techniques.freeze-etch electron microscope studies of the morphogenesis and morphology of sindbis virus confirmed results obtained by other workers employing thin-sectioning techniques. the 68-nm virion was found to have a nucleocapsid 36 nm in diameter surrounded by a double-layered, unit membrane. the membranous envelope is acquired as the capsid buds through the plasma membrane of the infected cell. the freeze-etch technique also provided the following new information. (i) at any one time, budding occur ...19724672393
inhibition of sindbis virus release by media of low ionic strength: an electron microscope study.release of sindbis virus from infected cells is inhibited by lowering the ionic strength of the medium. to determine the nature of the inhibited step, we examined, by electron microscopy, both freeze-etched and thin-sectioned preparations which had been fixed with either glutaraldehyde or formaldehyde. inhibitory medium had two different effects on sindbis virus release: virus budding was partially inhibited, and those virions which did mature were precipitated on the surface of the cell. freeze ...19724672394
[low temperature thresholds of reproduction of group a arboviruses in tissue culture]. 19724672889
viral rna species in bhk-21 cells infected with sindbis virus serially passaged at high multiplicity of infection. 19724672930
formation of sindbis virus proteins: identification of a precursor for one of the envelope proteins.exposure of sindbis virus-infected chicken embryo cells to a short pulse of radioactive amino acids revealed the formation of primarily three proteins: the nucleocapsid (c) of the virus, one of the viral envelope proteins (e1), and a glycoprotein that did not appear in the virion. this third protein (pe2) has now been identified as a precursor of the other viral envelope protein (e2) on the basis of two observations: (i) the simultaneous disappearance of radioactive pe2 and appearance of labeled ...19724673887
demonstration of double-stranded ribonucleic acid in concentrates of rna viruses. 19724673907
replication of sindbis virus. i. relative size and genetic content of 26 s and 49 s rna. 19724675142
replication of sindbis virus. ii. multiple forms of double-stranded rna isolated from infected cells. 19724675143
studies of interferon production in aedes albopictus mosquito cells. 19734683227
[comparative study of the thermal inactivation of the hemagglutinating and infectious activity of the venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus]. 19734705385
response in measles antibodies of the guinea-pig treated with interferon inductors. 19734709856
interference mediated by a variant of sindbis virus. i. isolation of an avirulent variant and in vivo interference. 19734723081
rat interferons. i. biological properties of interferons in rat serum. 19734730814
chromatographic purification of the sindbis virus: comparison of different methods. 19734733054
altered pattern of viral rna synthesis in cells infected with standard and defective sindbis virus. 19734734328
protein synthesis directed by an rna temperature-sensitive mutant of sindbis virus.the structural proteins of wild-type sindbis virus were shown to arise by posttranslational cleavage of larger precursors. the proteins synthesized in wildtype infection were compared with those specified by ts-11, a temperature-sensitive mutant unable to synthesize viral rna at the restrictive temperature. abnormally large, virus-specific proteins were found in the mutant-infected cells after the shift from 28 c to 41.5 c. these large polypeptides were presumably precursors which were cleaved t ...19734734648
induction of an interferon-like substance in persistently infected aedes albopictus cells. 19734735533
agglutination of sindbis virus and of cells infected with sindbis virus by plant lectins.we have examined the agglutination of sindbis virus and of chick and hamster cells infected with sindbis virus by two of the plant lectins, concanavalin a and ricinus communis agglutinin. both lectins agglutinate the virus by binding to the polysaccharide chains of the envelope glycoproteins. both chick and hamster cells exhibit increased agglutination by the lectins after infection by sindbis virus. in the case of chick cells infected with sindbis virus, this increase in agglutinability occurs ...19734735591
homologous viral interference in aedes albopictus cultures chronically infected with sindbis virus.complete homologous interference is demonstrated in cultures of aedes albopictus cells chronically infected with sindbis virus. the interference occurred before there was any detectable rna synthesis by the superinfecting virus.19734735592
defective-interfering particles of sindbis virus. i. isolation and some chemical and biological properties. 19734735935
enzymatic iodination of sindbis virus proteins.sindbis virus was iodinated by using the enzyme lactoperoxidase, an iodination technique which labels only surface proteins. by this technique, the two viral glycoproteins are labeled, and the internal viral protein is not. the two glycoproteins are iodinated to strikingly different extents. this difference in susceptibility to iodination apparently is due to the position or conformation of the glycoproteins in the envelope spikes of the virion and not to differing contents of tyrosine, the amin ...19734736110
large-molecular-weight precursors of sindbis virus proteins.infection of chicken embryo fibroblasts with a temperature-sensitive mutant of sindbis virus at the nonpermissive temperature leads to the accumulation of a large-molecular-weight protein. we have shown that this protein contains (14)c-arginine tryptic peptides present in the three virion proteins. we have also found that a slightly smaller protein which is detected in sindbis-infected bhk cells contains the (14)c-arginine tryptic peptides of the two envelope proteins but not those of the capsid ...19734736531
a serological survey for viral antibodies in wild ducks. 19734736770
induction of interferon in perfused whole rat-lung cultures. 19734746917
age-dependent resistance of mice to sindbis virus infection: reticuloendothelial role. 19734762950
a survey for antibodies to arboviruses in domestic fowls in queensland. 19734777213
serologic examination of some domestic animals from south moravia on the presence of antibodies to selected arboviruses of the a, b, california and bunyamwera groups. 19734777760
large scale irrigation and arbovirus epidemiology, kano plain, kenya. ii. preliminary serological survey. 19734779116
surveys of haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody to arboviruses in aborigines and other population groups in northern and eastern australia, 1966-1971. 19734784056
serologic survey of kuwait population for evidence of group a arbovirus infection. 19734789151
[formation of active polynucleotide complexes on the surfaces of cells]. 19734789975
[polyribosomes and ribonucleic acids associated with polyribosomes in cells infected by a togavirus, the sindbis virus]. 19734791966
analysis of antigenic activities of enzymatically digested sindbis virus envelopes. 19734793409
proteins specified by sindbis virus in chick embryo fibroblast cells. 19734795358
defective-interfering particles of sindbis virus. ii. homologous interference. 19734795463
a more precise and sensitive hemagglutination reduction assay for interferon. 19734795518
lack of uptake of intact polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid by cells. 19734795764
system for studying uninfected and virus-infected cell cultures in hyperbaric chambers.equipment and techniques previously used to investigate the effect of hyperbaric gases on bacteria were modified to permit comparable investigations with uninfected and virus-infected tissue cell cultures. this report describes the modified equipment and related methodology. use of the system is illustrated with findings on the effect of oxygen-helium mixtures at 68 atm on cell physiology and virus growth in two cell types. our results suggested that, under those experimental conditions, several ...19734796161
biosynthesis of the sindbis virus carbohydrates.the sequence in which sugars are added to the sindbis virus glycoproteins was studied. infected cells contain three glycosylated virus-specific proteins: the two virion glycoproteins and the immediate precursor to the smaller virion glycoprotein. larger sindbis-specific proteins are not glycosylated. the cell-associated forms of both of the virion glycoproteins contain glucosamine, mannose, galactose, and fucose. the glycosylated precursor contains only glucosamine, mannose, and some galactose. ...19734796898
defective interfering passages of sindbis virus: chemical composition, biological activity, and mode of interference.defective interfering (di) particles of sindbis virus, appearing between the eighth and fourteenth passages, cosediment with and have the same buoyant density as standard virus. virion rna from such late passages is heterogeneous by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, whereas early passage rna is homogeneous. no differences were found in the virion proteins from such passages. cells co-infected with early and late passage virus synthesize as much intracellular viral-specific rna and protein as i ...19734798187
relation between ionic coupling and morphology of established cells in culture. 19734798836
[the biophysical characteristics of viral structures in chronic sindbis infection]. 19734799466
[the relationship between the induction of interferon synthesis by a heat sensitive sindbis virus mutant and the quantity of virus specific rna in the chicken fibroblast culture]. 19734799467
[identification of specific ribonucleic acids of the sindbis virus bound to different fractions of the endoplasmic reticulum]. 19734803140
pathogenesis of temperature-sensitive mutants of sindbis virus in the embryonated egg. i. characterization and kinetics of viral multiplication.exploratory experiments were performed with temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of sindbis virus for studies on viral pathogenesis in the embryonated egg, a host which is immunologically underdeveloped. parent and mutants were found to be virulent at the permissive temperature (33 c), but only the mutants were attenuated at the nonpermissive temperature (38.5 c). the degree of attenuation varied with the mutant and the route of inoculation. chicks which survived infection by ts mutants at a nonpe ...19744808853
pathogenesis of temperature-sensitive mutants of sindbis virus in the embryonated egg. ii. control of the infectious process.viral infection in the embryonated egg was controlled through appropriate temperature shifts. through such control of the infection, certain groups of key tissues were implicated in the pathogenic processes that lead to death of the embryo, whereas other tissues were eliminated as relatively unimportant. temperature shift-down experiments suggested that some mutants could resume the infectious process after relatively long periods (ribonucleic acid-negative mutants, sts-4 and sts-17) at the nonp ...19744808854
proteins specified by sindbis virus in hela cells.hela cells infected with sindbis virus were found to contain five species of nonvirion proteins besides the structural proteins of the virus. some of the nonvirion proteins were found to serve as precursors to the viral structural proteins in a pulse-chase experiment.19744810781
structural components of oriboca virus.analysis of purified oriboca virions by neutral, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis indicated the presence of three structural polypeptides designated v-1, v-2, and v-3 on the basis of their relative electrophoretic mobilities in 8% gels. polypeptides v-2 and v-3 are glycopeptides associated with the virion envelope as demonstrated by the preferential incorporation of labeled glucosamine into the polypeptides and by release of the polypeptides from the intact virion by the ...19744821489
cleavage of a viral envelope precursor during the morphogenesis of sindbis virus.in cells infected with a temperature-sensitive mutant of sindbis virus, the cleavage of the precursor to one of the viral envelope proteins does not occur at the nonpermissive temperature. this precursor is found associated with the plasma membrane fraction obtained from the infected cell. since this is the site at which the virus matures, this finding suggests that during sindbis virus replication the precursor to the smaller proteins associates with the cell membrane and is then cleaved during ...19744821491
sindbis virus replicative intermediates: purification and characterization. 19744833537
comparative electrophoretic studies on the structural proteins of selected group a arboviruses. 19744841596
distribution of the receptor sites for sindbis virus on the surface of chicken and bhk cells.sindbis virus was adsorbed to chicken cells or to bhk cells, and the distribution of virus over the surface of the cell was examined by electron microscopy of surface replicas. the distribution of virus particles on the cell was used to indicate the position of virus receptors at the cell surface. when purified sindbis virus was adsorbed at 37 c to cells prefixed with glutaraldehyde, the virus particles were evenly distributed over the surface of most cells. there was a large variability from ce ...19744851414
effects of different rnas and components of the cell-free system on in vitro synthesis of sindbis viral proteins.cell-free extracts from krebs ascites cells and rabbit reticulocytes synthesized a variety of viral-specific proteins when programmed with several different kinds of sindbis viral rnas. the rnas included purified virion rna (42s) and two species (26s and "33s") of purified intracellular viral messenger rnas from viral-infected bhk cells. proteins formed in vitro were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, rate-zonal centrifugation in urea-sucrose gradients, two-di ...19744851742
glycoproteins of sindbis virus: priliminary characterization of the oligosaccharides.the carbohydrate content of sindbis virus was determined by gas chromatographic analysis. the two viral glycoproteins were found to be approximately 8% carbohydrate by weight. mannose is the sugar present in the largest amount. smaller amounts of glucosamine, galactose, sialic acid, and fucose were also detected. each of the two viral glycoproteins appears to contain two structurally unrelated oligosaccharides. two of the three sindbis-specific glycoproteins found in infected chick cells were sh ...19744852175
replication of sindbis virus. v. polyribosomes and mrna in infected cells.cells infected with wild-type sindbis virus contain at least two forms of mrna, 26s and 49s rna. sindbis 26s rna (molecular weight 1.6 x 10(6)) constitutes 90% by weight of the mrna in infected cells, and is thought to specify the structural proteins of the virus. sindbis 49s rna, the viral genome (molecular weight 4.3 x 10(6)), constitutes approximately 10% of the mrna in infected cells and is thought to supply the remaining viral functions. in cells infected with ts2, a temperature-sensitive m ...19744854117
viral proteins formed in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte system programmed with rna from a temperature-sensitive mutant of sindbis virus.viral messenger rna was isolated from bhk cells infected with a temperature-sensitive mutant of sindbis virus and was further purified using an oligo(dt) column. addition of this mrna cell-free extracts from rabbit reticulocytes led to formation of discrete authentic viral capsid protein when the reaction was performed at 29 c. however, this same protein-synthesizing system failed to make discrete viral capsid when incubated with the viral rna at 39 c. instead, larger-molecular-weight polypeptid ...19744855391
temperature-sensitive virus from aedes albopictus cells chronically infected with sindbis virus.cultures of aedes albopictus cells persistently infected with wild-type sindbis virus (sv-w) give rise to small plaque-forming mutants which are also temperature sensitive. these mutants, designated sv-c, are neutralized by antiserum produced against sv-w. mutant ts clones were isolated from sv-c by plaque purification. after serial undiluted passage in bhk or mosquito cells, each of the clones gave rise to ts(+) revertants which, however, remained mutant with respect to plaque morphology. ninet ...19744855741
phosphorylated proteins of sindbis virus.the capsid and two membrane proteins of sindbis virus, grown in chicken cells, contain 0.03 to 0.1 mol of phosphate per mol of protein.19744855763
replication of sindbis virus. iv. electron microscope study of the insertion of viral glycoproteins into the surface of infected chick cells.the appearance of sindbis virus-envelope glycoproteins in the surfaces of chicken embryo fibroblasts was studied by an indirect labeling technique. this technique involved treating infected cells sequentially with rabbit immunoglobulin g (igg) specific for sindbis virus followed by hemocyanin-conjugated goat (anti-rabbit igg) igg; surface replicas of these cells were then prepared and examined in the electron microscope. as early as 2 h after infection (and at least 1 h before mature virions wer ...19744858787
characterization of a particulate replicative structure in sindbis virus infected cells. 19744859246
interferon production by the spleen of rats after intravenous injection of sindbis virus or heat-killed escherichia coli. 19664860822
immunofluorescent demonstration of double-stranded rna in the cytoplasm of sindbis virus-infected cells. 19704918274
[changes in the hereditary properties of sindbis virus in long-term cultivation under conditions of lowered temperature]. 19704919238
effect of immunity on interferon production. 19714934213
inflammatory response to viral infection. 19714943906
interferons: therapeutic prospects. 19704950660
[multiplication of the sindbis virus in drosophila melanogaster (dipterous insect) in experimental conditions]. 19674962181
[multiplication of the sindbis virus and metamorphosis of calliphora erythrocephala (meig.)]. 19674962233
[comparative effects of 2 inhibitiors of ribonucleic acid synthesis, actinomycin d and rubidomycin on sindbis virus ribonucleic acid biosynthesis]. 19684973820
[variations of the thermosensitivity of developing sindbis virus as a function of the cellular system]. 19694980201
interferon content of organs and serum after intravenous inoculation of mice with sindbis virus. 19684980766
[titration of chicken interferon in the chicken-sindbis virus system. mathematical study of the dose-response curve]. 19694981967
purification of two plaque variants of sindbis virus. 19704992466
[action of frog virus 3 (fv3) on the synthesis of rna by sindbis virus]. 19714995280
a large and small plaque variant of sindbis virus obtained by serial passages in tissue culture of chick embryo cells. 19725039381
specificity of the inflammatory response in viral encephalitis. i. adoptive immunization of immunosuppressed mice infected with sindbis virus.the viral-induced perivascular inflammatory response in sindbis virus encephalitis of mice was shown to be immunologically specific. mice were inoculated intracerebrally with sindbis virus, and 24 hr later a single dose of cyclophosphamide was given which ablated the inflammatory response. 3 days after virus inoculation, cells and/or sera from specifically and nonspecifically sensitized donor mice were given, and the inflammatory reactions, virus content, and antibody response of recipients were ...19725043410
[potentiation of the antiviral action of interferon by cycloheximide]. 19725051237
isoelectric focusing of viruses in polyacrylamide gels. 19725053106
identification of a second glycoprotein in sindbis virus. 19725058841
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