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replication of sindbis virus. 3. an electron microscopic study of virus maturation using the surface replica technique. 19734585892
immunofluorescent staining study of the salivary glands of mosquitoes infected with group a arboviruses. 19734590688
arbovirus infections of sentinel cattle in australia and new guinea. 19734378391
viral infection and resistance in immunosuppressed host. 3. intracerebral challenge with sindbis virus in immunized or interferon inducer given mice. 19734405394
analysis of sindbis virus and its soluble antigens in preparations concentrated by precipitation with polyethylene glycol or ammonium sulfate. 19734148115
viral infection and resistance in immunosuppressed host. iv. abolition of potentiated togavirus a infection by a resistance inducer of the double-stranded rna type. failure of an exogenous interferon preparation. 19734148213
isolation of sindbis virus from the reed warbler (acrocephalus scirpaceus) in slovakia. 19734148218
influence of incubation temperaure on interferon mechanism in cells of testudo graeca kidney. 19734148898
interferon induction by, and antiviral effect of poly (ri)--poly (rc) in experimental viral infection. 19734150030
[survey with human sera from west cameroon (author's transl)]. 19734150072
field studies on the feeding habits of mosquitoes in the highveld region of south africa. 19734151015
evidence for circulation of sindbis virus and other arboviruses by using sentinel animals in western slovakia. 19734152182
immunochemical studies of sindbis virus variants. 19734197817
effects of actinomycin d and ultraviolet and ionizing radiation on pichinde virus.actinomycin d (0.05 mug/ml) suppresses the synthesis of ribosomal rna of baby hamster kidney (bhk21) cells. the production of infectious pichinde virus was enhanced in the presence of actinomycin d, although the production of virus particles was not substantially different from cultures inoculated in the absence of the drug. by prelabeling bhk21 cells with (3)h-uridine and then allowing the virus to replicate in the presence of actinomycin d, it was possible to show that ribosomal rna synthesize ...19734199107
[use of ultrasound for increasing the activity of arbovirus antigens in serological reactions in vitro]. 19734203622
[study of chronic forms of arbovirus infections in birds. 1. experiments with west nile, sindbis, bhandja and sicilian mosquito fever viruses]. 19734204261
glycoproteins as components of cellular membranes. 19734122628
inhibition of murine leukemia virus replication by poly(vinyluracil) and poly(vinyladenine).poly(1-vinyluracil) and poly(9-vinyladenine), as well as the corresponding polynucleotides poly(uridylate) and poly(adenylate), inhibit acute murine leukemia virus infection in mouse-embryo cells, but they do not significantly inhibit the replication of sindbis and vesicular stomatitis viruses. the polymers were most effective as inhibitors when added during an early stage of virus replication. effects of vinyl polymers on the rna-dependent dna polymerase from the virions of murine leukemia viru ...19734123932
effects of polyadenylic acids on functions of murine rna tumor viruses.single-stranded polyribonucleotides, which competitively inhibit murine rna tumor virus reverse transcriptase in vitro, were tested as inhibitors of various virus functions in cell culture. the compounds had two concentration-dependent effects. at high concentrations (100 mug/ml), both poly(adenylic acid) [poly(a)] and poly(2'-o-methyladenylic acid) [poly(am)] inhibited the uptake of radioactively labeled leukemia virus by swiss mouse embryo cells, but neither had a similar effect on sindbis vir ...19734128377
morphological variants of sindbis virus obtained from infected mosquito tissue culture cells.tissue-cultured aedes albopictus cells infected with morphologically homogeneous sindbis virus were found to produce progeny virions which could be divided into three classes based on size. the thickness of the envelope was constant on all three sizes of progeny virions suggesting that the variability in size rested with the viral nucleocapsid. it is suggested that the three classes of virions have icosahedral nucleocapsids composed of common subunits organized in decreasing triangulation number ...19734128381
antigenic components of group a arbovirus virions.three group a arboviruses, sindbis (sin), western (wee) and eastern equine encephalitis (eee), were selectively degraded with a nonionic detergent to yield a core particle and a soluble envelope component. antigenic analysis by using radioimmune precipitation techniques revealed marked antigenic similarity among the core particles of the three viruses. the soluble envelope component exhibited antigenic specificity similar to that of intact virions. a close relationship between sin and wee envelo ...19734128825
sindbis virus maturation. 19734121292
replication of sindbis virus. iii. an electron microscopic study of virus maturation using the surface replica technique.we have examined surface replicas of chick embryo cells infected with sindbis virus. in some cells the virus buds over extensive areas of the cell surface, although there are areas where budding virus is clustered and other regions almost devoid of budding figures. in other cells, virus budding occurs primarily or exclusively at the periphery of the monolayer cells. budding in these cells often occurs in long processes extending from the cell, which have widths from one to several virion diamete ...197318620201
the effect of measles virus infection on t and b lymphocytes in the mouse. i. suppression of helper cell activity. 19744139203
biological and physical properties of the suckling mouse cataract agent grown in chicken embryos.experiments were carried out with the suckling mouse cataract agent (smca) in an attempt to better characterize the nature of this agent. despite the fact that high titers of smca were found in the chorioallantoic fluid of inoculated chicken embryos, the agent did not replicate in chicken embryo epithelial cell cultures. smca did not interfere with sindbis virus plaque formation and was not inhibited by chicken interferon or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. the agent was relatively resistant to ...19744205951
host dna synthesis-suppressing factor in culture fluid of tissue cultures infected with measles virus.host dna synthesis is suppressed by the culture fluid of cell cultures infected with measles virus. this activity in the culture fluid is initiated somewhat later than the growth of infectious virus. ninety percent of host dna synthesis in hela cells is inhibited by culture fluid of 3-day-old cell cultures of vero or hela cells infected with measles virus. this suppressing activity is not a property of the virion, but is due to nonvirion-associated component which shows none of the activities of ...19744207526
[animal experiments on the effect of viruses on wound healing (author's transl)]. 19744211298
biochemical studies on degenerative neurological disorders. i. acute experimental encephalitis. 19744211835
haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies to arboviruses in a human population in greece. 19744155197
comparative susceptibility of eight mosquito species to sindbis virus. 19744149270
translation of sindbis virus 26 s rna and 49 s rna in lysates of rabbit reticulocytes. 19744416702
features of cross protection between sindbis and venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses in mice--relationship of route of immunization to protection. 19744427105
structural studies of spherical viruses. 19744437182
[editorial: molecular bases of chronic viral infections]. 19744446575
formation of rna and protein in cells infected with standard and defective sindbis virus. 19744449518
[viral specific rna synthesis in sindbis infected "aedes albopictus" mosquito cells i. - evidence for a 18s rna species in infected cells (author's transl)]. 19744463758
[production of antiviral immune ascitic fluids from laboratory animals]. 19744465651
the glycolipids and phospholipids of sindbis virus and their relation to the lipids of the host cell plasma membrane. 19744472788
homologous interference induced by sindbis virus.homologous interference during sindbis virus infection has been investigated. prior infection of either chicken embryo fibroblast or bhk(21) cell cultures results in reduced yields of progeny virions of the superinfecting genotype. this reduction in yield results from a reduction in the number of cells in the cultures capable of producing the superinfecting genotype. the development of interference parallels the attachment kinetics of sindbis virus. interference requires an active viral genome s ...19744473566
defective interfering passages of sindbis virus: nature of the intracellular defective viral rna.bhk cells infected with defective-interfering passages of sindbis virus accumulate a species of rna (20s) that is about half the molecular weight of the major viral mrna (26s). we have performed competitive hybridization experiments with these species of rna and have established that 20s rna contains approximately 50% of the nucleotide sequences present in 26s rna. our further studies, however, demonstrate that 20s rna is unable to carry out the messenger function of 26s rna. we found very littl ...19744473568
electron microscopic study of human adenoviruses with different interferon inducing ability. 19744473885
homologous interference in aedes aegypti cell cultures infected with sindbis virus. 19744474862
department of biological sciences, university of warwick, coventry, cv47al, england. 19744475093
antiviral activity of 3-methyleneoxindole.3-methyleneoxindole (mo), an oxidation product of the plant auxin indole-3-acetic acid, can selectively inhibit the replication of herpes-, mengo-, polioviruses, and sindbis virus. the antiviral action of mo, a sulfhydryl binding compound, is neutralized by 2-mercaptoethanol if the latter is added soon after exposure of infected cells to mo. if addition of 2-mercaptoethanol is delayed, the antiviral action of mo appears to be irreversible. data are presented which indicate that the antiviral act ...19744477949
[synthetic polynucleotides. a comparative analysis of detection of antiviral activity in tissue culture]. 19744478059
formation of sindbis virus capsid protein in mammalian cell-free extracts programmed with viral messenger rna.extracts from krebs ii ascites cells and rabbit reticulocytes effectively synthesize viral proteins with sindbis viral mrna isolated from sindbis-infected bhk cells. the major product is identical to sindbis capsid protein on the basis of its electrophoretic mobility in sodium dodecyl sulfate-acrylamide gels and two-dimensional tryptic-peptide fingerprints. various amounts of several additional discrete polypeptides are formed, depending on the components of the cell-free extracts. one of these ...19744525296
the role of immunological response in infections of the central nervous system. 19744548628
an electron microscope study of sindbis virus rna. 19744598643
in vitro studies of cell-mediated immunity in an acute viral infection. 19744598885
[detection of group a arboviruses in mosquito salivary glands by the immunofluorescence method]. 19744614585
[immune cytolysis of cells infected with sindbis virus]. 19744614588
arthropod-borne viruses in australia and their relation to infection and disease. 19744214338
[interaction of poly i-c with membranes of cells stimulated to produce interferon and of cells not so stimulated]. 19744219771
interferon production by individual cells. 19744361456
virion-bound protein kinase in semliki forest and sindbis viruses.semliki forest virus and sindbis virus (alphaviruses belonging to the togavirus group) grown in bhk-21 cells possessed very low levels of virion-associated protein kinase activity. for comparison, vesicular stomatitis virus, also grown in bhk-21 cells, contained a virion-bound protein kinase which had a specific activity 80 times greater than that of the alphaviruses. the alphavirus protein kinase was unmasked by the nonionic detergent nonidet p-40 but was not activated by cyclic nucleotides. ph ...19744364899
inhibition of sindbis virus replication in hela cells by poliovirus.concomitant infection of hela cells with poliovirus and sindbis (sb) virus allowed replication of poliovirus only. the poliovirus-induced interference with the replication of sb virus was dependent partially on the multiplicity of sb virus used for infection. the observed interference was not sensitive to guanidine. translation, but not replication of poliovirus, appears to be needed for the restriction of sb virus. superinfection of sb virus-infected cultures with poliovirus was followed by inh ...19744365117
mechanism of sindbis virus-induced intrinsic interference with vesicular stomatitis virus replication.heterologous viral interference is induced by sindbis virus against vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) in a manner analogous to intrinsic interference with newcastle disease virus replication. interference in both systems (i) depends upon early expression of the inducing virus genome, (ii) shows similar kinetics of induction, (iii) does not involve interferon action, and (iv) appears to be manifest as an all-or-none effect. vsv can be added to the list of viruses blocked by intrinsic interference. ...19744365326
adult and embryonic gecko cells in vitro: growth characteristics, infection by rabies, sindbis and polyoma viruses, and transformation by sv40. 19744365679
transformation by adenovirus type 12 of rat embryol fibroblasts cultivated in the presence of interferon. 19744366216
lipid and protein organization in vesicular stomatitis and sindbis viruses. 19744361923
cytomegalovirus interference in vitro.cytomegalovirus (cmv) was shown to induce a state of viral interference in human embryo fibroblast cultures (hef). this interference was characterized by: (i) requirement for infectious virus; (ii) a latent period (48 to 96 h) for establishment of the interference; (iii) activity against a representative group of heterologous viruses; (iv) loss of interfering activity when challenged with a high multiplicity of infection; (v) lack of effect on adsorption of virus; (vi) mediation by a soluble pro ...19744362773
effects of l-glutamine deprivation on growth of hvj (sendai virus) in bhk cells.l-glutamine requirement for viral maturation was found in bhk-hvj cells, a cell line of baby hamster kidney cells persistently infected with hvj (sendai virus). synthesis of envelope protein in bhk-hvj cells was markedly suppressed by deprivation of l-glutamine, whereas development of nucleocapsid (s) antigen was less affected. more detailed examination of this phenomenon was carried out by using a cytolytic system. growth of hvj in bhk cells cultured in media deprived of various amino acids was ...19744362861
effect of ionic strength on the binding of sindbis virus to chick cells.sindbis virus can adsorb to chicken embryo fibroblasts in two different ways. "loosely" bound virus can be washed off the cell with buffers of ionic strength 0.2 or greater, whereas "tightly" bound virus remains attached under these conditions. when sindbis virus is adsorbed to chick cells at 4 c from a buffer of ionic strength 0.17, 40 to 50% of the adsorbed virus is loosely bound, the remainder tightly bound. infection of chick cells by sindbis virus has only small effects on the total amount ...19744363248
[morphogenesis of sindbis virus in intestinal and salivary gland cells of the mosquito aedes aegypti]. 19744366341
measurement of the sequence complexity of cloned moloney murine leukemia virus 60 to 70s rna: evidence for a haploid genome.the sequence complexity of the 60-70s rna complex from moloney murine leukemia virus (m-mulv) was determined by measuring the annealing rate of radioactively labeled virus-specific dna with m-mulv 60-70s rna in conditions of vast rna excess. the m-mulv rna annealing rate, characterized by the quantity c(r)t((1/2)), was compared with the c(r)t((1/2)) values for annealing of poliovirus 35s rna (2.6 x 10(6) molecular weight) with poliovirus-specific dna and sindbis virus 42s rna (4.3 x 10(6) molecu ...19744368895
attempts to demonstrate the interferon defense mechanism in cultured mosquito cells. 19744369796
inhibitors against rabies virus present in normal rabbit sera. 19744370108
serological survey for antibodies to arboviruses in the human population of portugal. 19744371206
a viral inhibitory substance in culture filtrates of proteus mirabilis. 1. inhibition of sindbis virus plaque formation without a parallel antiviral action in fluid medium. 19744371496
production of sindbis, influenza, and vesicular stomatitis viruses in chicken embryo and rat embryo cell suspensions. 19744371703
hemagglutination-inhibition: rapid assay for neuraminic acid-containing viruses.influenza virus particles bind rapidly to vesicular stomatitis, sindbis, or rauscher murine leukemia virus particles, forming mixed aggregates demonstrable by electron microscopy. the normal hemagglutinating property of influenza virus is inhibited by these viruses, providing a rapid quantitative assay. prior treatment with neuraminidase blocks the ability of other viruses to inhibit influenza virus hemagglutination.19744372400
isolation and preliminary characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants of sindbis virus strain ar339. 19744374504
effect of the viral proteins on the fluidity of the membrane lipids in sindbis virus. 19744375723
persistence of encephalitogenic arbovirus in brain cell cultures. 19744377048
pathogenesis of temperature-sensitive mutants of sindbis virus in the embryonated egg. i. characterization and kinetics of viral multiplication.exploratory experiments were performed with temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of sindbis virus for studies on viral pathogenesis in the embryonated egg, a host which is immunologically underdeveloped. parent and mutants were found to be virulent at the permissive temperature (33 c), but only the mutants were attenuated at the nonpermissive temperature (38.5 c). the degree of attenuation varied with the mutant and the route of inoculation. chicks which survived infection by ts mutants at a nonpe ...19744808853
pathogenesis of temperature-sensitive mutants of sindbis virus in the embryonated egg. ii. control of the infectious process.viral infection in the embryonated egg was controlled through appropriate temperature shifts. through such control of the infection, certain groups of key tissues were implicated in the pathogenic processes that lead to death of the embryo, whereas other tissues were eliminated as relatively unimportant. temperature shift-down experiments suggested that some mutants could resume the infectious process after relatively long periods (ribonucleic acid-negative mutants, sts-4 and sts-17) at the nonp ...19744808854
proteins specified by sindbis virus in hela cells.hela cells infected with sindbis virus were found to contain five species of nonvirion proteins besides the structural proteins of the virus. some of the nonvirion proteins were found to serve as precursors to the viral structural proteins in a pulse-chase experiment.19744810781
structural components of oriboca virus.analysis of purified oriboca virions by neutral, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis indicated the presence of three structural polypeptides designated v-1, v-2, and v-3 on the basis of their relative electrophoretic mobilities in 8% gels. polypeptides v-2 and v-3 are glycopeptides associated with the virion envelope as demonstrated by the preferential incorporation of labeled glucosamine into the polypeptides and by release of the polypeptides from the intact virion by the ...19744821489
cleavage of a viral envelope precursor during the morphogenesis of sindbis virus.in cells infected with a temperature-sensitive mutant of sindbis virus, the cleavage of the precursor to one of the viral envelope proteins does not occur at the nonpermissive temperature. this precursor is found associated with the plasma membrane fraction obtained from the infected cell. since this is the site at which the virus matures, this finding suggests that during sindbis virus replication the precursor to the smaller proteins associates with the cell membrane and is then cleaved during ...19744821491
sindbis virus replicative intermediates: purification and characterization. 19744833537
comparative electrophoretic studies on the structural proteins of selected group a arboviruses. 19744841596
distribution of the receptor sites for sindbis virus on the surface of chicken and bhk cells.sindbis virus was adsorbed to chicken cells or to bhk cells, and the distribution of virus over the surface of the cell was examined by electron microscopy of surface replicas. the distribution of virus particles on the cell was used to indicate the position of virus receptors at the cell surface. when purified sindbis virus was adsorbed at 37 c to cells prefixed with glutaraldehyde, the virus particles were evenly distributed over the surface of most cells. there was a large variability from ce ...19744851414
effects of different rnas and components of the cell-free system on in vitro synthesis of sindbis viral proteins.cell-free extracts from krebs ascites cells and rabbit reticulocytes synthesized a variety of viral-specific proteins when programmed with several different kinds of sindbis viral rnas. the rnas included purified virion rna (42s) and two species (26s and "33s") of purified intracellular viral messenger rnas from viral-infected bhk cells. proteins formed in vitro were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, rate-zonal centrifugation in urea-sucrose gradients, two-di ...19744851742
glycoproteins of sindbis virus: priliminary characterization of the oligosaccharides.the carbohydrate content of sindbis virus was determined by gas chromatographic analysis. the two viral glycoproteins were found to be approximately 8% carbohydrate by weight. mannose is the sugar present in the largest amount. smaller amounts of glucosamine, galactose, sialic acid, and fucose were also detected. each of the two viral glycoproteins appears to contain two structurally unrelated oligosaccharides. two of the three sindbis-specific glycoproteins found in infected chick cells were sh ...19744852175
replication of sindbis virus. v. polyribosomes and mrna in infected cells.cells infected with wild-type sindbis virus contain at least two forms of mrna, 26s and 49s rna. sindbis 26s rna (molecular weight 1.6 x 10(6)) constitutes 90% by weight of the mrna in infected cells, and is thought to specify the structural proteins of the virus. sindbis 49s rna, the viral genome (molecular weight 4.3 x 10(6)), constitutes approximately 10% of the mrna in infected cells and is thought to supply the remaining viral functions. in cells infected with ts2, a temperature-sensitive m ...19744854117
viral proteins formed in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte system programmed with rna from a temperature-sensitive mutant of sindbis virus.viral messenger rna was isolated from bhk cells infected with a temperature-sensitive mutant of sindbis virus and was further purified using an oligo(dt) column. addition of this mrna cell-free extracts from rabbit reticulocytes led to formation of discrete authentic viral capsid protein when the reaction was performed at 29 c. however, this same protein-synthesizing system failed to make discrete viral capsid when incubated with the viral rna at 39 c. instead, larger-molecular-weight polypeptid ...19744855391
temperature-sensitive virus from aedes albopictus cells chronically infected with sindbis virus.cultures of aedes albopictus cells persistently infected with wild-type sindbis virus (sv-w) give rise to small plaque-forming mutants which are also temperature sensitive. these mutants, designated sv-c, are neutralized by antiserum produced against sv-w. mutant ts clones were isolated from sv-c by plaque purification. after serial undiluted passage in bhk or mosquito cells, each of the clones gave rise to ts(+) revertants which, however, remained mutant with respect to plaque morphology. ninet ...19744855741
phosphorylated proteins of sindbis virus.the capsid and two membrane proteins of sindbis virus, grown in chicken cells, contain 0.03 to 0.1 mol of phosphate per mol of protein.19744855763
replication of sindbis virus. iv. electron microscope study of the insertion of viral glycoproteins into the surface of infected chick cells.the appearance of sindbis virus-envelope glycoproteins in the surfaces of chicken embryo fibroblasts was studied by an indirect labeling technique. this technique involved treating infected cells sequentially with rabbit immunoglobulin g (igg) specific for sindbis virus followed by hemocyanin-conjugated goat (anti-rabbit igg) igg; surface replicas of these cells were then prepared and examined in the electron microscope. as early as 2 h after infection (and at least 1 h before mature virions wer ...19744858787
characterization of a particulate replicative structure in sindbis virus infected cells. 19744859246
studies of herpes simplex virus and interferon in human gingival cell cultures.cultures of human gingival fibroblast cells from patients with a positive or negative history of recurrent herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection were compared with respect to susceptibility to hsv infection and interferon activity. there was a possible inverse relationship between interferon sensitivity of gingival fibroblast cells and a clinical history of recurrent disease. no correlation was found between prior infection and other parameters of interferon activity or susceptibility of the cell ...1975163902
assembly of viruses. 1975164048
comparative study of the protein kinase associated with animal viruses. 1975166492
paramagnetic spin label interactions with the envelope of a group a arbovirus. lipid organization.electron paramagnetic resonance observations were made on nitroxide spin- labeled molecules which were bound to the tc-83 vaccine strain of venezuelan equine-encephalomyelitis virus. paramagnetic resonance parameters derived from the observations and their dependence on sample temperature were similar but not identical to those which have been reported for these labels dissolved in lipid bilayer membranes of mammalian and bacterial origin. the data has a mechanical rigidity substantially greater ...1975166687
role for cell-mediated immunity in the resistance of mice to subcutaneous herpes simplex virus infection.the role of cell-mediated immunity in the resistance of young adult mice to subcutaneous herpes simplex virus (hsv) type i infection was studied in mice receiving immunosuppressive doses of antilymphocyte sera (als) or antithymocyte sera (ats). the effectiveness of these treatments to reduce cell-mediated responses was measured by their ability to prolong the life of allografts transplanted to als- or ats-treated mice. it was found that subcutaneous infection of these mice with hsv resulted in s ...1975166926
failure of attenuated temperature-sensitive influenza a (h3n2) virus to induce heterologous interference in humans to parainfluenza type 1 virus.the present investigation was undertaken to determine if a candidate live vaccine virus, influenza a/hong kong/68-ts-1 [e] (h3n2), induced heterologous interference against an interferon-sensitive, wild-type, parainfluenza type 1 challenge virus. the parainfluenza virus was administered 7 days after hong kong/68-ts-1 [e] virus infection. the clinical response, daily quantitative virus shedding, interferon production, and serum and nasal wash antibody responses were determined in an experimental ...1975166929
buoyant density sedimentation of macromolecules in sodium iothalamate density gradients. 1975167175
streptovirudins, new antibiotics with antibacterial and antiviral activity. i. culture taxonomy, fermentation and production of streptovirudin complex.a new antibiotic complex has been isolated from cultures of streptomyces strain no. ja 10124. on the basis of taxonomic studies, the producing microorganism is described as streptomyces griseoflavus (krainsky, 1914) waksman et henrici, 1948, subsp. thuringiensis subsp. nov., type strain ja 10124. the antibiotic complex, designated as streptovirudin, was isolated from extracts of both mycelium and culture filtrate. it is a white amorphous material which consists of ten closely related components ...1975168173
fluoroimidazoles as antiviral agents and inhibitors of polynucleotide biosynthesis. 1975169446
sindbis virus inhibits phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in bhk-21 cells.sindbis virus inhibits the incorporation of [methyl-3h]choline into the phospholipids of bhk-21 cells and also inhibits the activity of the enzyme that catalyzes the final reaction involved in phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis (cytidine diphosphate-choline:1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotranferase; ec 2.7.8.2).1975170413
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