ribosome topography in baby hamster kidney cells infected with sindbis and vesicular stomatitis viruses.the topography of polysomal ribosomes in mock-infected and in sindbis virus- and vesicular stomatitis virus-infected bhk cells was investigated using a double, radioactive labelling technique. ribosomal proteins in intact polysomes were surface labelled by reductive methylation using [14c]formaldehyde. following removal of ribosomal rna, proteins were denatured in 6 m guanidine and labelled with [3h]borohydride. labelled ribosomal proteins were separated by electrophoresis in two-dimensional gel ...19836317037
heterogeneity of sindbis virus glycoprotein e1 and its modification by host cell transformation.the electrophoretic properties of glycoprotein e1 of sindbis virus grown in rous sarcoma virus-transformed cells were compared with those of sindbis virus grown in untransformed cells. isoelectric focusing in a gel containing 9.5 m-urea and 2% nonidet p40 indicated that the glycoprotein e1 of sindbis virus from the untransformed cells was electrochemically heterogeneous and consisted of four components, whose isoelectric points (pis) ranged from 6.2 to 6.7; the e1 of sindbis virus from the trans ...19846319579
immune responses to acute alphavirus infection of the central nervous system: sindbis virus encephalitis in mice. 19836320262
alterations in monovalent cation transport in sindbis virus-infected chick cells.influx experiments using the potassium tracer 86rb+ indicated that the activity of the na+k+ atpase, or sodium pump, was reduced 40-50% as a consequence of sindbis virus infection of avian fibroblasts. the inhibition of this ouabain-sensitive, active transport system temporally correlated with a decrease in the intracellular k+ concentration and the termination of cellular protein synthesis. by contrast, the rate of influx facilitated by the furosemide-sensitive (na+k+cl-) cotransport system was ...19846320528
poliovirus infection of cyclophosphamide-treated mice results in persistence and late paralysis: i. clinical, pathologic, and immunologic attenuated human poliovirus infection of cyclophosphamide (cy)-treated mice was developed as a model of persistent cns enterovirus infections and as an investigation of the interaction of virus with motor neurons during persistence. ten percent of mice inoculated intracerebrally with undiluted virus developed clinical disease by day 90, but of those treated with cy, 80% developed disease. at higher virus dilutions plus cy there was a marked increase in the incubation period. the latest onset ...19846322051
[karelian fever--a new nosological form of arbovirus etiology (togaviridae, alphavirus, sindbis complex)]. 19836322389
complete nucleotide sequence of the genomic rna of sindbis virus.the entire nucleotide sequence of the genomic rna of the type virus of the alphavirus genus, sindbis virus, has been determined. the genome is 11,703 nucleotides in length, exclusive of the 5' cap and the 3'-terminal poly(a) tract. after the 5'-terminal cap there are 59 nucleotides of 5' nontranslated nucleic acid followed by a reading frame of 7539 nucleotides that encodes the nonstructural polypeptides and which is open except for a single opal termination codon. following 48 untranslated base ...19846322438
[induction of alphavirus ts-mutations by n-methyl-n-nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine added to the replicating virus].the possibility of producing ts mutants of sindbis and eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus by treatment of replicating virus with n-methyl-n-nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine was studied. n-methyl-n-nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine added in a concentration of 20 micrograms/ml to chick fibroblast cultures infected with sindbis virus for 4 hours was shown to induce ts mutations in the virus. under similar conditions no ts mutants of eee virus could be obtained. the content of ts mutants in the mutagenized ...19846324493
release of fatty acids from virus glycoproteins by hydroxylamine.the fatty acids bound to the glycoproteins of sindbis and vesicular stomatitis viruses can be released by treating the protein with 1 m hydroxylamine at ph 8.0, but the rates of release vary greatly among the three proteins. the most labile fatty acyl bonds were in the sindbis virus pe2/e2 proteins and the most stable were in the e1 protein. some of the fatty acids in sindbis virus glycoproteins were reduced to the alcohol after treatment with sodium borohydride, indicating that protein-bound fa ...19846324873
[inhibiting effect of colcemid on the development of cytopathic changes due to the sindbis virus].the model of chinese hamster (cricetulus griseus) cell line infected with sindbus virus was used to show that the presence in the maintenance medium of 0.01-0.1 micrograms/ml of colcemide inhibited the development of cytopathic changes, accumulation of viral antigens, and virus-specific complement-dependent cytolysis without affecting infectious virus production. the addition to the medium of 0.5% immune serum to sindbis virus resulted not only in a similar inhibition but in a decrease of infect ...19846328766
[effect of an alphavirus infection in pregnant mice on the susceptibility of their progeny to homologous infection in the postnatal period].infection of random-bred mice with sindbis virus at various intervals of pregnancy results in increased resistance of their offsprings to infection with this virus in the first days after birth. antibodies present in the colostrum and milk of immunized females play an important role in decreasing the susceptibility of sucklings to alphavirus infection.19846328767
the role of mast cells in virus-induced inflammation in the murine central nervous system.the mononuclear inflammatory response to sindbis virus infection of the central nervous system is analogous to the cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. it is dependent on sensitized t cells for initiation, but many of the cells present are nonsensitized bone marrow-derived cells. tissue mast cells have been shown to be important for the development of the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in the skin where capillary endothelial cells are joined by tight junctions. to determine ...19846329524
synergism of antiviral activity in cell cultures treated with low concentrations of interferon and interferon-treated lymphocytes.human t cells treated with low levels of interferon (ifn) (1-10 units/ml), and washed to remove the ifn, transferred the same level of antiviral activity to recipient wish cells as an equivalent ifn treatment alone could induce in wish cells. further, when t cells pretreated with ifn (1-10 units/ml) were cocultivated with wish cells in the presence of ifn (1-10 units/ml), a 2.5- to 5-fold greater level of protection developed than could be expected from the additive effect of each. antibody to l ...19846333028
biosynthesis of sindbis virus membrane glycoproteins in vitro. 19836361461
immunocytochemical identification and quantitation of the mononuclear cells in the cerebrospinal fluid, meninges, and brain during acute viral meningoencephalitis.the mononuclear cells of the central nervous system (cns) inflammatory response were characterized in cerebrospinal fluid (csf), meningeal exudate, and brain parenchyma of mice 3-14 d after infection with sindbis virus. the inflammatory infiltrate in csf peaked and resolved before that of the parenchyma or meningeal exudate. immunoperoxidase staining with monoclonal antibodies identified csf inflammatory cells to be almost exclusively t cells, while inflammatory cells in the brain parenchymal pe ...19846363596
a simplified microwell pseudoreplica for the detection of viruses by electron microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy.simplified procedures for immunoelectron microscopy (iem) and electron microscopy (em) are described. the procedures employ the principle of agar filtration and pseudoreplication. the modification consisted of the use of microwells for storage of gels with or without antiserum (for iem or em, respectively) and an array of containers in which pseudoreplication and negative staining were performed. the containers were prepared from 5 ml syringes from which the needle holding parts were cut. this d ...19846394602
selective cleavage by endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase h at individual glycosylation sites of sindbis virion envelope glycoproteins. 19836401736
strains of cho-k1 cells resistant to pseudomonas exotoxin a and cross-resistant to diphtheria toxin and viruses.we have investigated two phenotypically distinct types of mutants of cho-k1 cells that are resistant to pseudomonas exotoxin a due to a defect in the delivery of active toxin to the target site in the cell, elongation factor 2. both types contain normal levels of toxin-sensitive elongation factor-2. hybridization studies have shown that these cells fall into two distinct complementation groups. one group, designated dpvr, is resistant to pseudomonas toxin, diphtheria toxin, and four enveloped rn ...19836411625
biochemical studies of the maturation of the small sindbis virus glycoprotein e3.a small glycoprotein (e3) was purified from the culture fluid of sindbis virus-infected primary chick embryo fibroblasts. tryptic peptide mapping and pulse-chase studies verified that this protein was produced as a by-product of the cleavage of the precursor protein pe2 to produce the envelope glycoprotein e2. a 2600-fold purification was achieved via a procedure which used differential ethanol precipitation, gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, and affinity chromatography on a lentil le ...19846443592
[isolation of the sindbis virus from hyalomma anatolicum cl kock 1844 ticks in tadzhikistan]. 19816454830
[combined antiviral effect of synthetic polyribonucleotide interferonogens and specific antiviral antibodies in arbovirus infections].a model of tick-borne encephalitis in balb/c mice was used to investigate the protective anti-viral effect of an interferon inducer, poly(g).poly(c), and specific gamma-globulin administered to the animals together or separately in small doses 24 hours before or after virus inoculation. administration to the animals of poly(g).poly(c) alone or gamma-globulin alone was shown to produce a poor protective effect. simultaneous administration of both preparations resulted in a significant decrease of ...19846464427
a single mutation in chinese hamster ovary cells impairs both golgi and endosomal functions.a chinese hamster ovary cell mutant dtg 1-5-4, was selected for pleiotropic defects in receptor-mediated endocytosis by methods previously described (robbins, a. r., s. s. peng, and j. l. marshall, 1983, j. cell biol., 96:1064-1071). dtg 1-5-4 exhibited increased resistance to modeccin, pseudomonas toxin, diphtheria toxin, sindbis virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus, as well as decreased uptake via the mannose 6-phosphate receptor. fluorescein-dextran-labeled endosomes isolated from dtg 1-5-4 ...19846480694
effects of lysosomotropic weak bases on infection of bhk-21 cells by sindbis virus.the effects of the lysosomotropic weak bases chloroquine, ammonium chloride, and amantadine as well as dansylcadaverine (an inhibitor of receptor mediated endocytosis) on the replication of sindbis virus in tissue-cultured cells was examined. chloroquine had no effect on the expression of virus-induced homologous interference. none of these drugs significantly affected the ability of a complex of a cell and single virion to form an infectious center. chloroquine and ammonium chloride were found ...19846492263
evidence that ribavirin is transported in aedes albopictus cells by the nucleoside transport system.aedes albopictus cells (cae-3-6) deficient in the transport of nucleosides showed a markedly impaired ability to transport the antiviral compound, ribavirin. furthermore, in order to inhibit either cell growth or viral replication, the transport negative cae-3-6 cells required significantly higher concentrations of ribavirin than were needed for a similar degree of inhibition in the parental c7 cells. although ribavirin did lower the level of gtp in cae-3-6 cells the effect was slower and less s ...19846532319
studies on simian hemorrhagic fever virus nucleocapsids.purified simian hemorrhagic fever (shf) virions are shown to have a sedimentation coefficient of 214s when compared with previously determined figures for sindbis virus cosedimented in neutral sucrose gradients. the nucleic acid content in shf virions was about 8 per cent of the total virionic mass. nucleocapsids obtained by treating shf virions with nonionic detergent and analyzed by ultracentrifugation in neutral sucrose gradients gave rnase sensitive- but dnase resistent particles with a repr ...19846541899
evidence for a change in capsid morphology during sindbis virus envelopment.sindbis virus nucleocapsids were isolated from intact virus particles and from the cytoplasms of infected cells. these two isolates of purified nucleocapsids differed from one another in ribonuclease sensitivity and in sedimentation velocity. these findings suggest that a conformational change takes place in the sindbis virus nucleocapsid during envelopment.19846543412
identification of a transfer of viral core protein to cellular ribosomes during the early stages of alphavirus infection.sindbis virus containing [35s]methionine-labeled structural proteins was allowed to be taken up by primary chick embryo fibroblasts, and the fate of the core protein was studied. the experiments show that core protein of incoming viral particles is transferred to the large subunit of cellular ribosomes during the initial steps of virus infection. a similar transfer occurs in vitro if cores isolated from sin virus particles are incubated in the postmitochondrial cytoplasmic fraction of cell lysat ...19846545074
sequence coding for the alphavirus nonstructural proteins is interrupted by an opal termination codon.we have obtained the nucleotide sequence of the genomic rnas of two alphaviruses, sindbis virus and middelburg virus, over an extensive region encoding the nonstructural (replicase) proteins. in both viruses in an equivalent position an opal (uga) termination codon punctuates a long otherwise open reading frame. the nonstructural proteins are translated as polyprotein precursors that are processed by posttranslational cleavage into four polypeptide chains; the sequence data presented here indica ...19836577423
blockage of antiviral induction of interferon by homologous cell biochemical activity: effect of chicken embryo fibroblast mitotic cell cycle phases on sindbis virus growth.the antiviral activity of interferon, measured as the reduction of viral yield, was studied as a function of the cell cycle phases. the present study shows that cells which are about to enter dna replication phase s and cells that are in mitosis phase m are not refractive to viral infection when treated with interferon. the growth of sindbis virus, used as the challenger, dropped considerably at the g1-s junction, at mitosis phase m, and as cells entered into a deeper quiescent state.19836620465
evolution of virus and defective-interfering rnas in bhk cells persistently infected with sindbis virus.we analyzed a bhk cell line persistently infected with sindbis virus for 16 months and a virus (sin-16) cloned from these cells. sin-16 virus was resistant to the defective interfering particles present in the original infection. we found that (i) cells infected with sin-16 were impaired in the processing of a viral precursor glycoprotein, (ii) high-multiplicity passaging of sin-16 gave rise to a variant that was able to generate and be inhibited by defective-interfering particles to which the o ...19836632084
properties of defective interfering particles of sindbis virus generated in vertebrate and mosquito cells.defective interfering (di) particles of sindbis virus were generated during serial, undiluted passage of a cloned virus stock in both chick embryo fibroblast (cef) cells and aedes albopictus mosquito cells. di particle-containing stocks were identified by their ability to interfere with standard virus replication and to synthesize small di rna species in the cell type in which they were generated. di rna species generated during serial passage in cef cells were able to replicate in both vertebra ...19846693857
identification of immunologically cross-reactive proteins of sindbis virus: evidence for unique conformation of e1 glycoprotein from infected cells.hyperimmune antisera to purified sindbis (sin) or semliki forest (sf) virus were used to identify alphavirus-specific and cross-reactive proteins in virions and infected cells. the hyperimmune sera participated in homologous and cross-cytolysis of alphavirus-infected cells, and the use of monospecific antisera to sin structural proteins suggested that e1 and e2 could serve as target proteins in cytolysis. proteins from purified virions or infected cells were extracted with nonidet p-40, denature ...19846694261
regulation of asparagine-linked oligosaccharide processing. oligosaccharide processing in aedes albopictus mosquito cells.we have examined the synthesis and processing of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides from aedes albopictus c6/36 mosquito cells. these cells synthesized a glucose-containing lipid-linked oligosaccharide with properties identical to that of glc3man9glcnac2-pp-dolichol. results of brief pulse label experiments with [3h]mannose were consistent with the transfer of glc3man9glcnac2 to protein followed by the rapid removal of glucose residues. pulse-chase experiments established that further processing ...19846698972
common and distinct regions of defective-interfering rnas of sindbis virus.defective-interfering (di) particles are helper-dependent deletion mutants which interfere specifically with the replication of the homologous standard virus. serial passaging of alphaviruses in cultured cells leads to the accumulation of di particles whose genomic rnas are heterogeneous in size and sequence composition. in an effort to examine the sequence organization of an individual di rna species generated from sindbis virus, we isolated and sequenced a representative cdna clone derived fro ...19846699940
establishment and analysis of a system which allows assembly and disassembly of alphavirus core-like particles under physiological conditions in vitro.core-like (cl) particles which closely resemble alphavirus cores in size, shape, and relative amount of nucleic acid and protein have been assembled in vitro from sindbis (sin) virus core (c) protein and single-stranded nucleic acids in buffer containing 1 m urea [g. wengler, u. boege, g. wengler, h. bischoff, and k. wahn (1982) virology 118, 401-410]. we have now analyzed the interaction of sin virus c protein and nucleic acids in vitro under conditions designed to resemble those present in the ...19846702103
host-dependent mutants of sindbis virus whose growth is restricted in cultured aedes albopictus cells produce normal yields of virus in intact mosquitoes.two host-dependent (hd), temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of sindbis virus (sv), clones 35 and 58, which are restricted in their ability to grow at 34 degrees in cultured aedes albopictus cells [k.j. kowal and v. stollar (1981). virology 114, 140-148] were not restricted in their ability to grow at 28-34 degrees after intrathoracic inoculation of ae. albopictus, ae. dorsalis, ae. epactius, anopheles freeborni, and culex tarsalis mosquitoes. compared to standard sv (svstd), the growth of sv clo ...19846710871
role of signal recognition particle in the membrane assembly of sindbis viral glycoproteins.we have investigated the role of signal recognition particle (srp) in the biosynthesis of sindbis glycoproteins by translating the viral 26s mrna in a wheat-germ cell-free system. srp was shown to have no effect on the synthesis or proteolytic processing of the cytoplasmic c protein. in contrast, the membrane integration and the proteolytic processing of the viral glycoproteins pe2 and e1 were demonstrated to be srp-dependent. in the absence of microsomal membranes, srp caused an arrest of the s ...19846723645
properties of sindbis virus variants from infected culex tarsalis mosquitoes.plaque-purified sindbis virus was passed three times in culex tarsalis mosquitoes and progeny viruses were isolated by plaque purification on a cloned line of aedes albopictus cells. nine of ten clones examined differed from wild-type (wt) virus with respect to their plaque morphology characteristics in chick embryo fibroblast (cef) and/or a. albopictus cells. seven clones were temperature-sensitive and failed to replicate or synthesize viral rna in cef cells at 41 degrees c. at 35 degrees c in ...19846726183
variation in homotypic and heterotypic interference by defective interfering viruses derived from different strains of semliki forest virus and from sindbis virus.there was strong interference between various virulent and avirulent strains of semliki forest virus (sfv) and their respective defective interfering (di) viruses but in other combinations interference was variable: it could be equally strong, weak or could not be demonstrated. on passage, this spectrum of interfering activity changed, some combinations showing greater interference than before and others less. heterotypic interference between di sfv, di sindbis virus and standard viruses was cle ...19846726189
antibody against viruses in maternal and cord sera: non-specific inhibitors are found to higher titre on the maternal side of the circulation.pregnancies were identified in which maternal igg antibodies against rubella virus were not detectable by single radial haemolysis. twenty paired maternal/cord sera were then tested for haemagglutination-inhibiting (hi) activity against rubella virus without kaolin pretreatment of the sera. in the absence of specific antibody, the hi activity observed could thus be ascribed to the effect of non-specific inhibitors. the hi activity in maternal sera was significantly (p less than 0.001) higher tha ...19846736640
a mutant of sindbis virus with a host-dependent defect in maturation associated with hyperglycosylation of e2.following serial passage of sindbis virus (sv) on aedes albopictus mosquito cells a mutant (svap15/21) was isolated which in chick cells produced small plaques and was temperature sensitive (ts). at 34.5 degrees this mutant replicated normally in mosquito cells, but only poorly in chick or bhk cells. in the vertebrate cells svap15/21 was rna+ at both 34.5 and 40 degrees and on the basis of complementation tests carried out at 40 degrees, was assigned to complementation group e. the block in the ...19846740942
on the role of oligosaccharide trimming in the maturation of sindbis and influenza virus.the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor bromoconduritol inhibits the formation of the n-linked, complex-type oligosaccharides of the glycoproteins from influenza viruses (fowl plague virus, influenza virus pr-8) and from sindbis virus. viral glycoproteins produced in bromoconduritol-treated chicken-embryo and baby-hamster kidney cells are fully glycosylated, but accumulate n-linked, high-mannose oligosaccharides of the composition glc1manx (glcnac)2 (x = 7, 8, and 9). other alpha-glucosidase inhibitors ...19846743024
venereal transmission of sindbis virus between individuals of aedes australis (diptera: culicidae). 19846748004
biosynthesis and assembly of membrane proteins. 19826764630
isolation and characterization of hybrid cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies directed against the structural proteins of sindbis virus. 19806766594
fusion and haemolysis of erythrocytes caused by three togaviruses: semliki forest, sindbis and rubella.semliki forest, sindbis and rubella viruses can fuse erythrocytes from several different species. large fusion vesicles consisting of tens to hundreds of red blood cells were seen under optical conditions. for the haemagglutination and cell fusion to occur the adsorption of virus and further incubation had to be carried out at ph 5.8. haemagglutination took place over a wide temperature range (0 to 40 degrees c) whereas fusion required temperatures between 37 and 42 degrees c. haemolysis of red ...19806770037
host-dependent variation of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides at individual glycosylation sites of sindbis virus glycoproteins.we examined the asn-linked oligosaccharides at individual glycosylation sites of the two envelope glycoproteins of sindbis virus, e1 and e2. the analysis was done by separating tryptic glycopeptides by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography and analyzing the oligosaccharides from isolated glycopeptides by gel filtration chromatography. both e1 and e2 have two glycosylation sites each in virus grown in chick embryo fibroblasts, baby hamster kidney cells, and chinese hamster ovary ce ...19836822574
requirement for host transcription in the replication of sindbis cell involvement in sindbis virus (sb) replication was examined in cells which had been treated with either actinomycin d (amd) or alpha-amanitin (alpha-a). treatment with these inhibitors of host transcription before infection reduced the ability of cells to support sb growth by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, while having little or no effect on the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus. sb replication was sensitive to alpha-a in wild-type chinese hamster ovary (cho) cells but was resistan ...19836823013
structural proteins of western equine encephalitis virus: amino acid compositions and n-terminal sequences.the structural proteins of western equine encephalitis virus, a member of the alphavirus group, have been characterized by the determination of their amino acid compositions and by n-terminal sequence analysis. more than 60 residues of the n-terminal sequences of each of the envelope glycoproteins have been determined. a comparison of these sequences with the previously determined sequences of two related alphaviruses. sindbis virus and semliki forest virus, strongly supports the view that all t ...19836834471
polycaryocyte formation mediated by sindbis virus glycoproteins.the process of cell fusion mediated by sindbis virus membrane proteins synthesized after infection was examined. at the times after infection at which virus proteins were detectable on the cell surface, sindbis virus-infected bhk-21 cells were found to express a fusion function after brief treatment at acid ph. in studies employing wild-type virus and temperature-sensitive mutants and testing drug or protease inhibition of virus production, we made the following observations on sindbis virus-med ...19836834476
conformational changes in sindbis virus envelope proteins accompanying exposure to low ph.the attachment of high multiplicities of sindbis virus to tissue-cultured cells followed by brief treatment at low ph has been shown to produce cell fusion (fusion from without). in this report, experiments to determine the effects of low ph on the physical and biological properties of sindbis virus are described. exposure of purified sindbis virions to mildly acidic conditions resulted in a rapid and irreversible alteration in particle density and sedimentation characteristics, followed by a sl ...19836834477
conformational changes in sindbis virus e1 glycoprotein induced by monoclonal antibody binding.a monoclonal antibody (30.2) raised against sindbis virus is able to precipitate both e1 and pe2 from [35s]methionine-labelled infected cells solubilized with non-ionic detergent. addition of sds to the lysate abolishes the precipitation of pe2 without affecting that of e1, thus demonstrating that the antibody is specific for e1. other sindbis e1-specific monoclonal antibodies (30.11 and 30.12) precipitate only e1, even from lysates containing only non-ionic detergent, and their presence in such ...19836842188
the core protein of alphaviruses. 2. purification of peptides and complete amino-acid sequence of sindbis virus core protein.the primary structure of the core protein of sindbis virus has been established by protein chemical characterization of peptides derived by enzymatic digestion with trypsin, pepsin and thermolysin and by chemical cleavage with cyanogen bromide. the peptide chain consists of 264 amino acids and has the composition asp8, asn8, thr17, ser12, glu12, gln14, pro28, gly24, ala22, val16, met10, ile8, leu14, tyr4, phe9, his6, lys25, arg23 and trp4 and an mr of 29 382. comparison of this structure with th ...19836852051
mutants of sindbis virus. iv. heterotypic complementation and phenotypic mixing between temperature-sensitive mutants and wild-type sindbis and western equine encephalitis viruses.heterotypic complementation between temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of sindbis (sin) and western equine encephalitis (wee) viruses occurs under appropriate conditions. one heterotypic pair, sin ts153 x wee ts39 showed efficient complementation, and four other combinations gave detectable complementation, indicating that these two viruses, which are closely related serologically and biochemically, are sufficiently closely related to complement each other functionally. cells mixedly infected wi ...19836864194
reduced synthesis of sindbis virus negative strand rna in cultures treated with host transcription cell involvement in sindbis virus (sb) rna synthesis was examined in cells which had been treated before infection with actinomycin d or alpha-amanitin (alpha-a). overall synthesis of sb rna was reduced significantly in cho cells treated for 18 h before infection with alpha-a. however, sb rna was produced at near normal levels in choama-1 cells, a line which contains an alpha-a-resistant rna polymerase ii. in bhk or cho cells infected with sbamr, a mutant which replicates normally in cells ...19836864884
sequence analysis of two mutants of sindbis virus defective in the intracellular transport of their glycoproteins.we have sequenced the complementary dna corresponding to the genes encoding the viral glycoproteins of ts10 and ts23, mutants of sindbis virus defective in the intracellular transport of their glycoproteins, and of revertants of these mutants. these studies have been augmented by direct amino acid sequencing of the amino-terminal regions of the glycoproteins of several virus strains. by comparing the deduced amino acid sequence with that of sindbis hr virus, the parental strain of these mutants, ...19836876179
sequence analysis of cdna's derived from the rna of sindbis virions and of defective interfering particles.sindbis virus generates defective interfering (di) particles during serial high-multiplicity passage in cultured cells. these di particles inhibit the replication of infectious virus and can be an important factor in the establishment and maintenance of persistent infection in bhk cells. in an effort to understand how these di particles are generated and how they interfere with the replication of standard virus, we performed a partial sequence analysis of the rna obtained from two independently ...19826896345
synthesis and processing of sindbis virus nonstructural proteins in vitro. 19826920207
nucleotide sequence of the 26s mrna of sindbis virus and deduced sequence of the encoded virus structural proteins.the nucleotide sequence of intracellular 26s mrna of sindbis virus has been determined by direct sequence analysis of the cdna made to this rna with reverse transcriptase. from this, the amino acid sequences of the encoded virus structural proteins, which include a basic capsid protein and two integral membrane glycoproteins, have been deduced. the features of these proteins as related to their functions are discussed. we suggest that three proteases are required to produce these proteins from t ...19816941270
[protective and damaging action of cytotoxic t-lymphocytes in experimental tick-borne encephalitis].the methods of adoptive transfer in vivo and cytotoxic action on virus-infected tissue culture in vitro were used to prove that cytotoxic splenocytes produced in experimental tick-borne encephalitis could have both protective and damaging effects. the protective effect was manifested during the first 24 hours after infection, and the damaging effect on the 6th day after infection. cytotoxicity splenocytes were identified as t lymphocytes on the basis of their sensitivity to anti-theta serum, res ...19806967662
[alphavirus reproduction in cultures of transplantable human lymphoblastoid cells during persistent infections].the results of virological investigations of alphavirus persistence in human b-cell lines raji and l-101 are presented. the formation of persisting infection was shown to depend both on the cell line and on the virus type. productive persistent infection of raji cells with venezuelan equine encephalitis virus was followed for 11 months. the presence of the virus was confirmed by electron microscopic and immunofluorescent examinations. infectious virus production varied from 0.001 to dozens pfu/c ...19816973890
mitogenic activity of sindbis virus and its isolated glycoproteins.purified preparations of sindbis virus, a member of the togavirus family, are mitogenic for lymphocytes from a number of different mouse strains. cell separation techniques, as well as studies using lymphocytes from the congenitally athymic balb/c nu/nu mouse, showed that sindbis virus is a t-cell-independent b-cell mitogen. additionally, the envelope glycoproteins of sindbis virus, isolated by triton x-100 extraction and butanol precipitation, stimulated lymphocytes to incorporate five times as ...19826984018
passive hemolysis-in-gel with togaviridae arboviruses.radial hemolysis-in-agarose gel (hig) with members of the genera alphavirus and flavivirus is described. the test can be reproduced with goose and sheep erythrocytes sensitized at the optimal ph for each virus. human (o group), rooster, guinea pig, mouse and hamster erythrocytes were found to be unsuitable. the titer of immune ascitic fluids in hig coincides with the titer in hemagglutination inhibition. investigation of convalescent sera after laboratory infection suggests the possiblity of hig ...19806987193
ucsd gene splicing incident ends unresolved. 19807001622
synthesis and assembly of viral membrane proteins. 19807005905
identification of a cell-surface protein involved in the binding site of sindbis virus on human lymphoblastic cell lines using a heterobifunctional cross-linker.a cell-surface protein of molecular weight 90000 was identified as the major protein located at or near the binding site of sindbis virus on the lymphoblastic cell lines jy and daudi. this sindbis-virus-binding protein was detected by cross-linking sindbis virus, modified with 4-[6-formyl-3-azidophenoxy]butyrimidate, to the cell surface. the applicability of this compound in the identification of specific cell-surface proteins was demonstrated using a monoclonal antibody reactive with beta 2-mic ...19817014219
in vivo nh2-terminal acetylation of sindbis virus proteins.the in vivo incorporation of exogenous radioactive acetate into two proteins of sindbis virus, the capsid protein and pe2, is described. under appropriate labeling conditions, 40-50% of the label in the capsid protein is found in an n-acetyl group which constitutes the nh2-terminal modification of this blocked protein. the incorporated radiolabeled acetate was useful in the purification and analysis of peptides derived from the nh2-terminus of the capsid protein, and from these peptides the nh2- ...19817021543
entry of rabies virus into the peripheral nerves of mice.young adult mice were inoculated in the hind limb with rabies virus or sindbis virus. rabies 1820b virus antigen was detected in leg sections by immuno-fluorescence at 1 h post-inoculation at sites comparable in form and distribution to cholinesterase-positive sites, which represent motor end-plates (meps). sites which were rabies virus antigen-positive by immunofluorescence were also cholinesterase- positive on double-stained slides. rabies cvs virus detected by autoradiography was similarly di ...19817031182
transient enhanced synthesis of a cellular protein following infection of aedes albopictus cells with sindbis virus. 19827039090
posttranslational modifications of sindbis virus glycoproteins: electrophoretic analysis of pulse-chase-labeled infected cells.cytoplasmic extracts prepared from sindbis virus-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts pulse-chase-labeled with [35s]methionine 6 h postinfection were analyzed on a highly resolving sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel either directly or after various treatments. the results we obtained suggest that (i) the proteolytic cleavage which converts pe2 to e2 glycoprotein takes place intracellularly, before or at least during the formation of complex-type oligosaccharide side chains; and (ii) e1 glycoprotein under ...19827045394
[hemagglutination--inhibiting antibodies to sindbis virus in the population of the southeast region of turkey]. 19817052248
association of the cytopathic effect of sindbis virus with increased fatty acid saturation.the effect of sindbis virus on cell leakiness, as measured by chromium release, and on the fatty acids in chick embryo fibroblasts and vero cells was studied. the appearance of the cytopathic effect in both cell types coincided with virus replication, increased cell leakiness and relative increase in saturated eighteen carbon fatty acid (c18:0, stearic acid) compared to the eighteen carbon unsaturated fatty acids (c18ufa). it is postulated that the increase in cell leakiness and the appearance o ...19827069404
association of sindbis virion glycoproteins and their precursors. 19827077663
isolation and characterization of the hydrophobic cooh-terminal domains of the sindbis virion glycoproteins. 19827077665
the n-terminus of pe2 in sindbis virus-infected cells. 19827080444
the core protein of the alphavirus sindbis virus assembles into core-like nucleoproteins with the viral genome rna and with other single-stranded nucleic acids in vitro. 19827090184
biochemical studies on the entry of sindbis virus into bhk-21 cells and the effect of nh4cl. 19827090185
glycosylation of intracellular sindbis virus glycoproteins.oligosaccharides of purified intracellular sindbis virus glycoproteins have been examined by high-resolution bio-gel chromatography. the array of glycopeptides from cellular e1 and e2 appeared similar to the glycopeptides (s1, s2, s3, and s4) found in mature virus glycoproteins described previously [hakimi, j., & atkinson, p. h. (1980) biochemistry 19, 5619]. however, compared to its viral counterpart, intracellular e1 glycoprotein also contained larger sized mannosyl oligosaccharides. b and pe2 ...19827093235
[hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against arboviruses in cattle sera]. 19827112928
infection of cells with sindbis virus nucleocapsids entrapped into liposomes. 19827126213
monoclonal antibodies to sindbis virus glycoprotein e1 can neutralize, enhance infectivity, and independently inhibit haemagglutination or haemolysis.two monoclonal antibodies raised against sindbis virus were shown to be specific for the envelope glycoprotein e1 by radioimmunoprecipitation (rip). they had a number of contrasting biological properties. one of them was capable of neutralizing virus infectivity and inhibiting haemagglutination, while the other had no significant neutralizing or haemagglutination-inhibiting capability, but did inhibit virus-mediated haemolysis. both monoclonal antibodies could enhance virus infectivity of fc rec ...19827142968
studies on the biosynthesis and structure of sindbis virus high mannose oligosaccharides. 19827146008
sindbis virus variants from a persistently infected mosquito cell culture contain an altered e2 glycoprotein. 19827147711
the interaction of monoclonal antibodies directed against envelope glycoprotein e1 of sindbis virus with virus-infected cells.two monoclonal antibodies specific for the sindbis virus envelope glycoprotein e1 were evaluated for their ability to maintain long-term infection when present in the medium of virus-infected cells. one of them, previously shown to have neutralizing activity and to inhibit haemagglutination, caused suppression of both virus expression at the cell surface and prolonged intracellular virus presence. the other monoclonal antibody which lacked neutralizing activity but inhibited virus-specific haemo ...19827149696
an indirect radioimmunoassay for indirect radioimmunoassay for testing the antiviral activity of interferon (ifn) is described. vero cells are seeded in microtitre plates, treated with appropriate dilutions of interferon and challenged with sindbis virus. viral yield is measured using specific antibody and radiolabelled protein a. the assay is able to detect ifn levels of 5 international units (i.u.)/ml, has a high degree of reproducibility, and could be easily adapted to various cell and virus combinations. this microsystem ...19827153304
isolation of sindbis virus from bat organs. 19827172241
terminal sequences of sindbis virus-specific nucleic acids: identity in molecules synthesized in vertebrate and insect cells and characteristic properties of the replicative form rna. 19827179740
[inhibitory effect of homologous antiviral antibodies on viral cell destruction].experiments were performed on the model chinese hamster cell culture -- sindbis virus in which there develops an acute infection accompanied by active virus reproduction, cell rounding and detachment from the glass for 24--48 h. addition in the cultural medium of a 0.5% immune serum to the sindbis virus after its adsorption by the monolayer culture fully prevents the development of cytopathic changes and favours obtaining chronically infected cultures that produce the infection virus. the decrea ...19807191737
a sindbis virus variant with a cell-determined latent period. 19817210508
defective interfering particles of sindbis virus do not interfere with the homologous virus obtained from persistently infected bhk cells but do interfere with semliki forest virus.defective interfering particles derived from wild-type sindbis virus no longer interfere with the infectious virus cloned from bhk cells persistently infected with sindbis virus for 16 months. these particles do interfere with the replication of semliki forest virus.19817218438
sindbis virus maturation in cultured mosquito cells is sensitive to actinomycin d. 19817222476
role of complement in viral infections: participation of terminal complement components (c5 to c9) in recovery of mice from sindbis virus infection.the pathogenesis of sindbis virus infection was studied in congenic mice with normal levels of the fifth component of complement (c5) and in mice deficient in c5. mice deficient in c5 had a higher mortality rate than mice with normal levels of c5 as well as impaired clearance of virus from their brain and feet.19807228394
cross-protection correlates with delayed antibody formation to challenge virus after immunization with sindbis virus.mice immunized with sindbis virus, strains hr (heat-resistant) or ar339, by a dual injection given intracerebrally (i.c.) and intraperitoneally (i.p.) at day zero, were cross-protected from challenge at day 10 with semliki forest virus (sfv). neutralizing and haemagglutination-inhibition antibodies to sindbis are detected in high titre by day 6 after immunization but no cross-reacting antibodies to sfv were found up to day 42. immunized mice that were challenged with sfv showed an 8 to 10 day de ...19807229617
one extra oligosaccharide chain of the high-mannose class in the e2 protein of a sindbis virus isolate.the number and nature of oligosaccharide chains in the e2 envelope protein (and its precursor pe2) from two strains of sindbis virus, originally derived from the same hr strain, were investigated. the e2 glycoproteins (and the pe2 proteins) of the two strains had different electrophoretic mobilities on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel. we observed that the glycopeptides from the e2 protein of one of the two strains included an extra oligosaccharide chain of the mannose-rich type. the ...19817241662
bunyamwera virus replication in cultured aedes albopictus (mosquito) cells: establishment of a persistent viral infection.bunyamwera virus replication was examined in aedes albopictus (mosquito) cell cultures in which a persistent infection is established and in cytopathically infected bhk cells. during primary infection of a. albopictus cells, bunyamwera virus reached relatively high titers ( approximately 10(7) pfu/ml), and autointerference was not observed. three virus-specific rnas (l, m, and s) and two virion proteins (n and g1) were detected in infected cells. maximum rates of viral rna synthesis and viral pr ...19817241667
amino-terminal sequence analysis of alphavirus polypeptides.the single late 26s mrna of semliki forest virus (sfv) directs the synthesis of the four viral structural proteins, c, e3, e2, and e1, and the recently described nonstructural protein, 6k. we report here partial nh2-terminal amino acid sequences of the sfv polypeptides e3 and 6k and of p62, the precursor to e3 and e2. in addition, were have determined a partial nh2-terminal sequence of the sindbis virus homolog of 6k, the 4.2k protein. p62 and e3 of sfv have identical nh2-terminal amino acid seq ...19817241669
isolation and preliminary characterization of sindbis virus-resistant chinese hamster ovary cells. 19817245607
natural killer cells appear to play no role in the recovery of mice from sindbis virus infection.previous studies have suggested that non-specific defence mechanisms may be important in the development of age-dependent resistance to fatal sindbis-virus infection and in the recovery of adult mice from non-fatal infection. in these studies, natural killer (nk) cell induction was studied in 7-day-old susceptible mice and 28-35-day-old resistant mice. it was found that sindbis virus infection induced nk cells in both the young and older mice, suggesting that nk cells were not important in the a ...19817251052
primary structures of the core proteins of the alphaviruses semliki forest virus and sindbis virus. 19817269244
sindbis virus glycoproteins acquire unusual neutral oligosaccharides in both normal and lectin-resistant chinese hamster ovary cell lines. 19817269252
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