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[morphological study of a mixed alphavirus infection].in combined paired cultivation of 8 venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus, multiploid virions formed in 17.8% of cases. five clones with this effect were used in mixed infections with clones of semliki forest and sindbis viruses. in these infections changes in virions of the virus progeny were observed in 20% and 16.6%, respectively. mixed cultivation of pairs of sindbis and semliki forest viruses resulted in formation of multiploid virions in 42.8%. besides, in two mixed populations formed ...19816278779
investigation about the surface structure of some viruses by the freeze-etching and freeze-drying methods.an electronmicroscopic study of a suspension of venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (vee) virus by freeze-drying and freeze-etching methods showed that glycoprotein peplomers are located on the surface of the lipoprotein shell. these peplomers are trimeric in shape and form a regular icosahedral surface lattice corresponding to t = 4. the modes of glycoproteins clustering for the two clones of vee are different. venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (vee) virus belongs to the alpha-viruses of the ...19816261294
transformation-dependent alterations in the oligosaccharides of prague c rous sarcoma virus glycoproteins.the influence of cell transformation on the glycosylation of viral envelope glycoproteins was examined by high-resolution gel filtration and specific glycosidase digestions of 3h-sugar-labeled glycopeptides from nondefective and transformation-defective prague c strains of rous sarcoma virus replicated in fibroblasts from the same chicken embryo. the major difference in glycosylation attributable to the viral transformation of the host cells was an increase in this relative amount of larger acid ...19816260974
fluorescence photobleaching recovery measurements reveal differences in envelopment of sindbis and vesicular stomatitis viruses.fluorescence photobleaching recovery (fpr) measurements of virus glycoproteins on the surfaces of cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) and sindbis virus showed that the vsv glycoprotein (g) remained mobile throughout the infectious cycle, whereas sindbis virus glycoproteins (e1, e2) were partially mobile early after infection and immobile at later times when greater amounts of these proteins were on the cell surface. a highly mobile fraction of sindbis virus glycoproteins was det ...19816258803
comparative studies of the 3'-terminal sequences of several alpha virus rnas. 19816259811
chronic alphavirus infection of l cells.chronic infection of l cells with sindbis virus, induced in the absence of antiviral antibody, was studied by virological methods in combination with light and electron microscopy. both sindbis virus and endogenous oncovirus antigens were revealed in the cells by immunofluorescence. sindbis virus and interferon were detected in the culture fluid. immunoelectron microscopy revealed aggregation of sindbis virus particles by immune serum.19816166186
[study of combined foci of mosquito-transmitted arbovirus infections].a total of 5227 serum specimens from humans, horses and swine collected in the seasons of 1968--1976 in 15 administrative areas of the primorskiy kray were examined with antigens of a number of mosquito-borne arboviruses: japanese encephalitis (je), west nile (wn), getah, and sindbis. both independent and combined circulation of these viruses in the region was established. sindbis virus was found to be circulating separately most frequently, west nile virus the least frequently. according to the ...19816121423
induction of rat interferon in vivo and in vitro--physicochemical and biological characterization. 19816173585
virus yield-reduction assay for interferon by titration of infectious virus. 19816173611
virus yield-reduction assay for interferon by titration of sindbis virus hemagglutinin. 19816173612
cytopathic effect inhibition assay for interferon: microculture plate assay. 19816173616
new simple dye-uptake assay for interferon.using the spectrophotometer that the authors developed, the amounts of human leukocyte and mouse l cell interferons on fl cells and l929 cells were measured and values were compared with those measured by the cytopathogenic effect (cpe) reduction method (cpe method). the spectrophotometric method, which was simpler than the original dye-uptake method, was found to be more sensitive than the latter. when sindbis virus was used instead of vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), there were no significant ...19816175308
the interferon inducer moiety of viruses: a single molecule of dsrna. 19816184835
inhibitors of imp dehydrogenase prevent sindbis virus replication and reduce gtp levels in aedes albopictus cells. 19816111860
radial haemolysis in gel used in serological studies on venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus.radial haemolysis in gel was successfully used for the detection of antibody in convalescents after laboratory infection with venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (vee) virus at remote intervals after infection (up to 23 years). the antibodies reacted only with vee antigen but not with sindbis and chikungunya alphavirus antigens. radial haemolysis in gel was sensitive as the haemagglutination inhibition test but the antibody could be titrated by the diameter of the haemolysis zone omitting the se ...19816112864
host modification of sindbis virus sialic acid content influences alternative complement pathway activation and virus clearance.previous studies have shown that sindbis virus, an enveloped alphavirus of the togavirus group, activates the alternative complement pathway in the absence of detectable antiviral immunoglobulin. the present studies examined the role of the host-determined sialic acid content of sindbis virus on activation of the alternative complement pathway. purified sindbis virus grown in baby hamster kidney (bhk-sv) and in mosquito (mosq-sv) cells yielded virus with 10.2 and less than 2.0 nmol sialic acid/m ...19816117595
ockelbo disease: epidemic arthritis-exanthema syndrome in sweden caused by sindbis-virus like agent. 19826121242
cross-reactive, cell-associated antigen on l929 cells infected with temperature-sensitive mutants of sindbis virus.temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of sindbis virus (sin) were used to aid in the identification of alphavirus cross-reactive proteins on the surface of infected cells by antibody-dependent, complement-mediated cytolysis. antisera prepared in rabbits against purified sin or semliki forest viruses were highly cytotoxic for cells infected with wild-type sin and for cells infected at the permissive temperature with maturation-defective, ts mutants of sin belonging to several distinct complementatio ...19826177636
regulation of 2-5 a synthetase activity and antiviral state in interferon treated chick cells. 19826178403
comparison of (2'-5') oligo-adenylate synthetase and interferon blood-levels in mice early after viral infection.the level of the ifn-induced enzyme (2'-5') oligo a synthetase in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) was determined in mice at different times following virus infection. there was a significant increase (4-7-fold) of the enzyme level within less than 12 h after i.p. injection of either vsv (10(7) pfu) or sindbis virus (2.10(4) pfu). the elevated level was maintained for about a week and then the activity returned to normal. there was, however, a marked difference in the pattern of ser ...19826181178
arthritides caused by mosquito-borne viruses.five different mosquito-borne viruses (chikungunya, o'nyong-nyong, mayaro, ross river, and sindbis) have been associated with arthritis in humans. these agents occur most commonly in the tropics and subtropics. the symptoms they produce are similar and typically consist of fever, arthralgia, and rash. in general, the symptoms are of short duration (less than one week) and recovery is complete, although some patients have recurrent episodes of joint swelling and tenderness for months after infect ...19826123291
[ockelby disease--a skin and joint disease probably caused by a mosquito-borne alpha arbovirus]. 19826128446
experimental infection of pancreatic organ cultures from suckling white mice with tick-borne encephalitis and sindbis viruses. 19826128912
current problems of the epidemiology and prophylaxis in mosquito-induced haemorrhagic fevers in sea transport. 19826137253
comparison of specific and cross-reactive antigens of alphaviruses on virions and infected cells.rabbit hyperimmune antisera against sindbis (sin) or semliki forest (sf) virus were absorbed with purified sin virus or sin virus-infected cells, or with sf virus or sf virus-infected cells. residual antibody titers were determined by hemagglutination inhibition (hai) and antibody-dependent, complement-mediated cytolysis (adcmc) assays. it appeared that absorption with virus-infected cells removed adcmc-detectable cross-reactive antibody much more efficiently than did absorption with either viru ...19826172382
production of mononuclear cell chemotactic factors during sindbis virus infection of mice.draining lymph node cells of mice infected subcutaneously with sindbis virus (sv) produced two mononuclear chemotactic factors in vitro. one factor did not require the addition of sv in vitro and was only detectable during the first week after infection. a second factor, resembling lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor, required the addition of sv in vitro, was first detectable at 3 days, reached a peak at 15 to 18 days, and was gone by 29 days after infection. the production of this factor was ...19826279519
non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies can prevent lethal alphavirus encephalitis. 19826280072
sindbis virus-induced ocular immunopathology.the intraocular injection of the sindbis virus in adult balb/c mice produces a uveoretinitis with little or no central nervous system involvement. ocular disease starts on the third day after infection and presents as a mild to moderate iridocyclitis and retinitis, usually accompanied by typical severe dysplastic changes of the retina. the inflammatory infiltrate consists almost exclusively of lymphocytes and histiocytes. immunosuppression of the mouse with cyclophosphamide on the day after infe ...19826281208
properties of monoclonal antibodies directed against the glycoproteins of sindbis virus.four monoclonal antibodies that react with sindbis virus glycoproteins have been examined for (i) their effects on virus infectivity, (ii) their ability to recognize conformational changes in glycoprotein structure, and (iii) their cross-reaction with several different alphaviruses. two of the monoclonal antibodies reacted with the native forms of the e1 glycoprotein but did not neutralize virus infectivity. one of the anti-e1 antibodies formed an infectious virus-antibody complex. the other two ...19826281377
inhibition of sindbis virus maturation after treatment of infected cells with trypsin.brief treatment of sindbis virus-infected bhk-21 or vero cells with low concentrations of trypsin irreversibly blocked further production of progeny virions after removal of the enzyme. the inhibitory effects of the trypsin treatment could only be demonstrated in cells in which virus infection was established; optimal inhibition occurred at ca. 3 h postinfection. production of virus structural proteins pe2, e1, and c occurred at normal levels in inhibited cells. pe2 and e1 were also transported ...19826281478
haemorrhagic manifestations with sindbis infection. case report.sindbis infection in man occurs rarely in australia. most recorded cases are either asymptomatic or result in a fever sometimes accompanied by a macular or vesicular rash. this case is of particular interest because of the severe haemorrhagic vesicular rash and the repeated recurrence of symptoms over a 5 month period together with the persistence of igm antibodies to sindbis virus.19826281716
[comparative studies on susceptibility of viruses to ultraviolet rays]. 19826283768
cerulenin blocks fatty acid acylation of glycoproteins and inhibits vesicular stomatitis and sindbis virus particle formation.cerulenin, an antibiotic that inhibits de novo fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis, effectively inhibited the formation and release of virus particles from chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with sindbis or vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv). when added for 1 h at 3 h postinfection, the antibiotic blocked vsv particle production by 80 to 90% and inhibited incorporation of [3h]palmitic acid into the vsv glycoprotein by an equivalent amount. the effect of this antibiotic on virus protein and rn ...19826286658
lectin affinity chromatography of sindbis and rous sarcoma virus glycopeptides and oligosaccharides.glycopeptides and endogly cosidase-digested oligosaccharides from [3h]mannose-labeled rous sarcoma virus and sinbis virus have been fractionated by lentil lectin-sepharose and concanavalin a-agarose affinity chromatography and subsequently analyzed by biogel p-4 gel filtration. only a specific subset of the con a-bound asparaginly-oligosaccharides from he two viruses was also bound to lentil lectin, and this freaction apparently represented fucose-containing, diantennary acidic-type structures ( ...19826286708
ultraviolet-irradiated vesicular stomatitis virus and defective-interfering particles are similar non-specific inhibitors of virus infection.the way in which ultraviolet-irradiated vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) inhibits the early events in vsv infection has been further characterized. comparison of several different u.v.-irradiated thermolabile, temperature-sensitive mutants before and after heat inactivation established a requirement for inhibitory activity of functional g, n and l proteins, but not m protein. defective-interfering (di) particles, whether irradiated or not, inhibited vsv primary transcription as efficiently as uv ...19826286855
membrane-mediated alterations of intracellular na+ and k+ in lytic-virus-infected and retrovirus-transformed cells.infection of chick-embryo fibroblasts and other cells by certain animal viruses results in alterations in the intracellular concentrations of na+ and k+. dramatic alterations in monovalent-cation concentrations of lytic-virus-infected cells may favor the synthesis of viral proteins over cellular proteins. more subtle alterations in retrovirus-transformed cells may result in the expression of many morphological and biochemical changes associated with the transformed phenotype.19826291667
fatty acid acylation of eucaryotic cell membrane proteins. 19826295485
effect of alphavirus infection on mouse embryos.seven strains and mutants of the alphaviruses, semliki forest virus and sindbis virus, differed in their lethality for mouse embryos and their mothers. the a7 strain and the neurovirulence mutant m103 of semliki forest virus were selected for detailed comparison. a7 produced 100% lethality of mouse embryos but was avirulent for their mothers. m103 did not kill embryos or their mothers but did induce postnatal immunity. this immunity could be induced in utero or by suckling to an immune mother. i ...19826295945
variation in arbovirus infection rates in species of birds sampled in a serological survey during an encephalitis epidemic in the murray valley of south-eastern australia, february 1974.there was extensive and exuberant breeding of waterbirds before and during an epidemic of arboviral encephalitis in the murray valley of south eastern australia in 1974. as estimated by haemagglutination inhibition tests on 432 bird sera collected between 4th and 13th february, 1974, infection with murray valley encephalitis virus, kunjin virus and possibly other flaviviruses was concentrated in species of the order ciconiiformes (55% positive) and pelecaniformes (41%), compared with only 5% in ...19826299259
sequence analysis of cdna's derived from the rna of sindbis virions and of defective interfering particles.sindbis virus generates defective interfering (di) particles during serial high-multiplicity passage in cultured cells. these di particles inhibit the replication of infectious virus and can be an important factor in the establishment and maintenance of persistent infection in bhk cells. in an effort to understand how these di particles are generated and how they interfere with the replication of standard virus, we performed a partial sequence analysis of the rna obtained from two independently ...19826896345
synthesis and processing of sindbis virus nonstructural proteins in vitro. 19826920207
association of the cytopathic effect of sindbis virus with increased fatty acid saturation.the effect of sindbis virus on cell leakiness, as measured by chromium release, and on the fatty acids in chick embryo fibroblasts and vero cells was studied. the appearance of the cytopathic effect in both cell types coincided with virus replication, increased cell leakiness and relative increase in saturated eighteen carbon fatty acid (c18:0, stearic acid) compared to the eighteen carbon unsaturated fatty acids (c18ufa). it is postulated that the increase in cell leakiness and the appearance o ...19827069404
association of sindbis virion glycoproteins and their precursors. 19827077663
isolation and characterization of the hydrophobic cooh-terminal domains of the sindbis virion glycoproteins. 19827077665
the n-terminus of pe2 in sindbis virus-infected cells. 19827080444
the core protein of the alphavirus sindbis virus assembles into core-like nucleoproteins with the viral genome rna and with other single-stranded nucleic acids in vitro. 19827090184
biochemical studies on the entry of sindbis virus into bhk-21 cells and the effect of nh4cl. 19827090185
glycosylation of intracellular sindbis virus glycoproteins.oligosaccharides of purified intracellular sindbis virus glycoproteins have been examined by high-resolution bio-gel chromatography. the array of glycopeptides from cellular e1 and e2 appeared similar to the glycopeptides (s1, s2, s3, and s4) found in mature virus glycoproteins described previously [hakimi, j., & atkinson, p. h. (1980) biochemistry 19, 5619]. however, compared to its viral counterpart, intracellular e1 glycoprotein also contained larger sized mannosyl oligosaccharides. b and pe2 ...19827093235
[hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against arboviruses in cattle sera]. 19827112928
infection of cells with sindbis virus nucleocapsids entrapped into liposomes. 19827126213
monoclonal antibodies to sindbis virus glycoprotein e1 can neutralize, enhance infectivity, and independently inhibit haemagglutination or haemolysis.two monoclonal antibodies raised against sindbis virus were shown to be specific for the envelope glycoprotein e1 by radioimmunoprecipitation (rip). they had a number of contrasting biological properties. one of them was capable of neutralizing virus infectivity and inhibiting haemagglutination, while the other had no significant neutralizing or haemagglutination-inhibiting capability, but did inhibit virus-mediated haemolysis. both monoclonal antibodies could enhance virus infectivity of fc rec ...19827142968
studies on the biosynthesis and structure of sindbis virus high mannose oligosaccharides. 19827146008
sindbis virus variants from a persistently infected mosquito cell culture contain an altered e2 glycoprotein. 19827147711
the interaction of monoclonal antibodies directed against envelope glycoprotein e1 of sindbis virus with virus-infected cells.two monoclonal antibodies specific for the sindbis virus envelope glycoprotein e1 were evaluated for their ability to maintain long-term infection when present in the medium of virus-infected cells. one of them, previously shown to have neutralizing activity and to inhibit haemagglutination, caused suppression of both virus expression at the cell surface and prolonged intracellular virus presence. the other monoclonal antibody which lacked neutralizing activity but inhibited virus-specific haemo ...19827149696
an indirect radioimmunoassay for interferon.an indirect radioimmunoassay for testing the antiviral activity of interferon (ifn) is described. vero cells are seeded in microtitre plates, treated with appropriate dilutions of interferon and challenged with sindbis virus. viral yield is measured using specific antibody and radiolabelled protein a. the assay is able to detect ifn levels of 5 international units (i.u.)/ml, has a high degree of reproducibility, and could be easily adapted to various cell and virus combinations. this microsystem ...19827153304
isolation of sindbis virus from bat organs. 19827172241
terminal sequences of sindbis virus-specific nucleic acids: identity in molecules synthesized in vertebrate and insect cells and characteristic properties of the replicative form rna. 19827179740
transient enhanced synthesis of a cellular protein following infection of aedes albopictus cells with sindbis virus. 19827039090
posttranslational modifications of sindbis virus glycoproteins: electrophoretic analysis of pulse-chase-labeled infected cells.cytoplasmic extracts prepared from sindbis virus-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts pulse-chase-labeled with [35s]methionine 6 h postinfection were analyzed on a highly resolving sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel either directly or after various treatments. the results we obtained suggest that (i) the proteolytic cleavage which converts pe2 to e2 glycoprotein takes place intracellularly, before or at least during the formation of complex-type oligosaccharide side chains; and (ii) e1 glycoprotein under ...19827045394
biosynthesis and assembly of membrane proteins. 19826764630
mitogenic activity of sindbis virus and its isolated glycoproteins.purified preparations of sindbis virus, a member of the togavirus family, are mitogenic for lymphocytes from a number of different mouse strains. cell separation techniques, as well as studies using lymphocytes from the congenitally athymic balb/c nu/nu mouse, showed that sindbis virus is a t-cell-independent b-cell mitogen. additionally, the envelope glycoproteins of sindbis virus, isolated by triton x-100 extraction and butanol precipitation, stimulated lymphocytes to incorporate five times as ...19826984018
selective cleavage by endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase h at individual glycosylation sites of sindbis virion envelope glycoproteins. 19836401736
strains of cho-k1 cells resistant to pseudomonas exotoxin a and cross-resistant to diphtheria toxin and viruses.we have investigated two phenotypically distinct types of mutants of cho-k1 cells that are resistant to pseudomonas exotoxin a due to a defect in the delivery of active toxin to the target site in the cell, elongation factor 2. both types contain normal levels of toxin-sensitive elongation factor-2. hybridization studies have shown that these cells fall into two distinct complementation groups. one group, designated dpvr, is resistant to pseudomonas toxin, diphtheria toxin, and four enveloped rn ...19836411625
immune responses to acute alphavirus infection of the central nervous system: sindbis virus encephalitis in mice. 19836320262
biosynthesis of sindbis virus membrane glycoproteins in vitro. 19836361461
host-dependent variation of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides at individual glycosylation sites of sindbis virus glycoproteins.we examined the asn-linked oligosaccharides at individual glycosylation sites of the two envelope glycoproteins of sindbis virus, e1 and e2. the analysis was done by separating tryptic glycopeptides by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography and analyzing the oligosaccharides from isolated glycopeptides by gel filtration chromatography. both e1 and e2 have two glycosylation sites each in virus grown in chick embryo fibroblasts, baby hamster kidney cells, and chinese hamster ovary ce ...19836822574
requirement for host transcription in the replication of sindbis virus.host cell involvement in sindbis virus (sb) replication was examined in cells which had been treated with either actinomycin d (amd) or alpha-amanitin (alpha-a). treatment with these inhibitors of host transcription before infection reduced the ability of cells to support sb growth by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, while having little or no effect on the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus. sb replication was sensitive to alpha-a in wild-type chinese hamster ovary (cho) cells but was resistan ...19836823013
structural proteins of western equine encephalitis virus: amino acid compositions and n-terminal sequences.the structural proteins of western equine encephalitis virus, a member of the alphavirus group, have been characterized by the determination of their amino acid compositions and by n-terminal sequence analysis. more than 60 residues of the n-terminal sequences of each of the envelope glycoproteins have been determined. a comparison of these sequences with the previously determined sequences of two related alphaviruses. sindbis virus and semliki forest virus, strongly supports the view that all t ...19836834471
polycaryocyte formation mediated by sindbis virus glycoproteins.the process of cell fusion mediated by sindbis virus membrane proteins synthesized after infection was examined. at the times after infection at which virus proteins were detectable on the cell surface, sindbis virus-infected bhk-21 cells were found to express a fusion function after brief treatment at acid ph. in studies employing wild-type virus and temperature-sensitive mutants and testing drug or protease inhibition of virus production, we made the following observations on sindbis virus-med ...19836834476
conformational changes in sindbis virus envelope proteins accompanying exposure to low ph.the attachment of high multiplicities of sindbis virus to tissue-cultured cells followed by brief treatment at low ph has been shown to produce cell fusion (fusion from without). in this report, experiments to determine the effects of low ph on the physical and biological properties of sindbis virus are described. exposure of purified sindbis virions to mildly acidic conditions resulted in a rapid and irreversible alteration in particle density and sedimentation characteristics, followed by a sl ...19836834477
conformational changes in sindbis virus e1 glycoprotein induced by monoclonal antibody binding.a monoclonal antibody (30.2) raised against sindbis virus is able to precipitate both e1 and pe2 from [35s]methionine-labelled infected cells solubilized with non-ionic detergent. addition of sds to the lysate abolishes the precipitation of pe2 without affecting that of e1, thus demonstrating that the antibody is specific for e1. other sindbis e1-specific monoclonal antibodies (30.11 and 30.12) precipitate only e1, even from lysates containing only non-ionic detergent, and their presence in such ...19836842188
the core protein of alphaviruses. 2. purification of peptides and complete amino-acid sequence of sindbis virus core protein.the primary structure of the core protein of sindbis virus has been established by protein chemical characterization of peptides derived by enzymatic digestion with trypsin, pepsin and thermolysin and by chemical cleavage with cyanogen bromide. the peptide chain consists of 264 amino acids and has the composition asp8, asn8, thr17, ser12, glu12, gln14, pro28, gly24, ala22, val16, met10, ile8, leu14, tyr4, phe9, his6, lys25, arg23 and trp4 and an mr of 29 382. comparison of this structure with th ...19836852051
mutants of sindbis virus. iv. heterotypic complementation and phenotypic mixing between temperature-sensitive mutants and wild-type sindbis and western equine encephalitis viruses.heterotypic complementation between temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of sindbis (sin) and western equine encephalitis (wee) viruses occurs under appropriate conditions. one heterotypic pair, sin ts153 x wee ts39 showed efficient complementation, and four other combinations gave detectable complementation, indicating that these two viruses, which are closely related serologically and biochemically, are sufficiently closely related to complement each other functionally. cells mixedly infected wi ...19836864194
reduced synthesis of sindbis virus negative strand rna in cultures treated with host transcription inhibitors.host cell involvement in sindbis virus (sb) rna synthesis was examined in cells which had been treated before infection with actinomycin d or alpha-amanitin (alpha-a). overall synthesis of sb rna was reduced significantly in cho cells treated for 18 h before infection with alpha-a. however, sb rna was produced at near normal levels in choama-1 cells, a line which contains an alpha-a-resistant rna polymerase ii. in bhk or cho cells infected with sbamr, a mutant which replicates normally in cells ...19836864884
sequence analysis of two mutants of sindbis virus defective in the intracellular transport of their glycoproteins.we have sequenced the complementary dna corresponding to the genes encoding the viral glycoproteins of ts10 and ts23, mutants of sindbis virus defective in the intracellular transport of their glycoproteins, and of revertants of these mutants. these studies have been augmented by direct amino acid sequencing of the amino-terminal regions of the glycoproteins of several virus strains. by comparing the deduced amino acid sequence with that of sindbis hr virus, the parental strain of these mutants, ...19836876179
sequence coding for the alphavirus nonstructural proteins is interrupted by an opal termination codon.we have obtained the nucleotide sequence of the genomic rnas of two alphaviruses, sindbis virus and middelburg virus, over an extensive region encoding the nonstructural (replicase) proteins. in both viruses in an equivalent position an opal (uga) termination codon punctuates a long otherwise open reading frame. the nonstructural proteins are translated as polyprotein precursors that are processed by posttranslational cleavage into four polypeptide chains; the sequence data presented here indica ...19836577423
blockage of antiviral induction of interferon by homologous cell biochemical activity: effect of chicken embryo fibroblast mitotic cell cycle phases on sindbis virus growth.the antiviral activity of interferon, measured as the reduction of viral yield, was studied as a function of the cell cycle phases. the present study shows that cells which are about to enter dna replication phase s and cells that are in mitosis phase m are not refractive to viral infection when treated with interferon. the growth of sindbis virus, used as the challenger, dropped considerably at the g1-s junction, at mitosis phase m, and as cells entered into a deeper quiescent state.19836620465
evolution of virus and defective-interfering rnas in bhk cells persistently infected with sindbis virus.we analyzed a bhk cell line persistently infected with sindbis virus for 16 months and a virus (sin-16) cloned from these cells. sin-16 virus was resistant to the defective interfering particles present in the original infection. we found that (i) cells infected with sin-16 were impaired in the processing of a viral precursor glycoprotein, (ii) high-multiplicity passaging of sin-16 gave rise to a variant that was able to generate and be inhibited by defective-interfering particles to which the o ...19836632084
mutant chinese hamster ovary cells pleiotropically defective in receptor-mediated endocytosis.populations of chinese hamster ovary cells selected for resistance to diphtheria toxin were found to be highly enriched for mutants deficient in the uptake of lysosomal hydrolases via the mannose 6-phosphate receptor. one doubly defective mutant, dtf 1-5-1, exhibited increased resistance to sindbis virus, although it was able to bind and internalize virus normally. normal production of virus was obtained when, subsequent to virus binding, the mutant was exposed for 2 min to acidic ph. similarly, ...19836300143
requirement of cell nucleus for sindbis virus replication in cultured aedes albopictus cells.the ability of sindbis virus to grow in enucleated bhk-21 (vertebrate) and aedes albopictus (invertebrate) cells was tested to determine the dependence of this virus upon nuclear function in these two phylogenetically unrelated hosts. although both cell types could be demonstrated to produce viable cytoplasts (enucleated cells) which produced virus-specific antigen subsequent to infection. bhk cytoplasts produced a significant number of progeny virions, whereas mosquito cytoplasts did not. the p ...19836300436
natural immunity to sindbis virus is influenced by host tissue sialic acid content.recent studies have shown that the sialic acid content of sindbis virus influences both its ability to active the alternative pathway in vitro and its susceptibility to complement dependent clearance from the bloodstream in vivo. other studies have shown that the sialic acid content of sindbis virus is determined by the host in which it is propagated. because individuals vary in their cell surface sialic acid content, it is possible they also vary in their ability to defend themselves against si ...19836300853
improved conditions for the production and detection of interferon from guinea pig embryo cells.primary guinea pig embryo (gpe) fibroblasts were assessed as potential sources of guinea pig interferon (ifn). gpe cells proved to be excellent in vitro producers of guinea pig ifn, although the actual amounts produced were only detectable when sample irradiation under ultraviolet light (to inactivate inducing viruses) was substituted for overnight sample treatment at ph 2. thus, the rapid spontaneous inactivation of large proportion of the antiviral activity after overnight exposure to 4 degree ...19836302182
rnas from two independently isolated defective interfering particles of sindbis virus contain a cellular trna sequence at their 5' ends.defective interfering (di) particles are deletion mutants that interfere specifically with the replication of homologous standard virus. we have determined the 5'-terminal nucleotide sequences of two di rna populations by the following methods: (i) cloning of the cdna from one of the di rna populations and sequencing a representative clone, and (ii) using both di rna populations as templates for preparing primer-directed cdna transcripts and sequencing these transcripts. the 5' terminal sequence ...19836304704
the 5'-terminal sequences of the genomic rnas of several alphaviruses.the 5'-terminal sequences of the genomic rnas of several alphaviruses have been determined. the nucleotide sequences at the extreme 5' termini are not highly conserved among the alphaviruses, but a similar stem and loop structure, which begins at the 5' end and utilizes about the first 40 nucleotides, can be formed in each case. downstream from this structure, beginning about 150 nucleotides from the 5' end, a conserved sequence of 51 nucleotides is found which can form two stable hairpin struct ...19836308269
ross river virus 26 s rna: complete nucleotide sequence and deduced sequence of the encoded structural proteins.the complete sequence of the 26 s rna of ross river virus (t48 strain) has been obtained and from this the amino acid sequences of the encoded structural proteins have been deduced. these include a basic capsid protein and two envelope glycoproteins. the nucleotide sequence was obtained by chemical sequence analysis of both single-stranded and double-stranded cdna made to rna and the sequence data so obtained was rapidly aligned by making use of the protein homology found among the alphaviruses. ...19836310876
induction of stress proteins in sindbis virus- and vesicular stomatitis virus-infected cells.two proteins which are related to certain proteins induced by hyperthermia (heat shock proteins; hsp) are synthesized during lytic infection of chick embryo (ce) cells by sindbis virus or vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv). incubation of the infected cells at elevated temperature further increased the rate of synthesis of these proteins. the stress proteins induced by sindbis virus had different mobilities on sds-polyacrylamide gels compared to related stress proteins induced in mock-infected ce c ...19836312678
[characteristics of experimental alphavirus infection during pregnancy and in the early stages of ontogeny in mice].inoculation of random-bred mice with sindbis virus at various periods of pregnancy resulted in the development of marked changes and loss of 24.7% of fetuses when mice were infected at the stage of placentation. retardation in the development and death of progeny in females infected at later stages of pregnancy were observed. antibody production was shown to be enhanced in pregnant mice as compared with non-pregnant. possible mechanisms of increased susceptibility to alphaviruses during pregnanc ...19836314670
ribosome topography in baby hamster kidney cells infected with sindbis and vesicular stomatitis viruses.the topography of polysomal ribosomes in mock-infected and in sindbis virus- and vesicular stomatitis virus-infected bhk cells was investigated using a double, radioactive labelling technique. ribosomal proteins in intact polysomes were surface labelled by reductive methylation using [14c]formaldehyde. following removal of ribosomal rna, proteins were denatured in 6 m guanidine and labelled with [3h]borohydride. labelled ribosomal proteins were separated by electrophoresis in two-dimensional gel ...19836317037
unusual neutral oligosaccharides in mature sindbis virus glycoproteins are synthesized from truncated precursor oligosaccharides in chinese hamster ovary cells.we have previously demonstrated the presence of unusual small asparaginyl-oligosaccharides [(man)3glcnac2-asn] in the mature glycoproteins of sindbis virus released from both wild-type and lectin-resistant chinese hamster ovary cells, but the mechanism of synthesis of these structures was not determined. gel filtration and endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase analyses of pronase-digested glycopeptides from [3h]mannose-labelled sindbis virus released at different times after infection of a phytohaem ...19836298348
[karelian fever--a new nosological form of arbovirus etiology (togaviridae, alphavirus, sindbis complex)]. 19836322389
[various biological characteristics of sindbis virus].the hemagglutinating activity of sindbis virus on untreated or tripsinized blood red cells of some animal species was assessed. in some cases tripsinization increases the red cell sensitivity to viral hemagglutinin. interferon (ifn) production induced by sindbis virus on human wish, mouse l-929 and chicken fep cells was similar in all three cases. the effects of the temperature on virus replication were studied. optimal growth was seem to take place at 37 degrees c. these data suggest that the v ...19836085056
identification by monoclonal antibodies of a new epitope in the glycoprotein complex of sindbis virus.monoclonal antibodies against a deletion mutant of sindbis virus were produced and characterized in order to determine the fine mapping and functional activities of single viral epitopes. all monoclonal antibodies so far tested showed a certain degree of reciprocal competition and were directed against an antigenic determinant which was present only on the undissociated complex of the e1 and e2 glycoproteins. a biological assay measuring viral haemagglutination showed no decrease in the titre of ...19836190835
microassay for sindbis virus and interferon activity.a simple and rapid microplaque assay for sindbis virus was developed which uses microtiter plates and overlay medium consisting of methylcellulose and specific antibody to sindbis virus. discrete plaque formation was consistently observed on baby hamster kidney (bhk-15) cells within 24 h. the assay was reproducible, quantitative, and had about the same sensitivity as the agar overlay technique on chicken embryo cells in 35-mm petri dishes. the microplaque assay could be accurately applied to mea ...19836194173
mechanism of interferon action iii--significance of pppa2'p5'a2'p5'a in the antiviral action of interferon.this paper is to evidence that the antiviral effect of pppa2'p5'a2'p5'a(2'-5'p3a3) could cover a wide spectrum of viruses, the rna viruses such as influenza h3n2/77, influenza h1n1/77, echo11, rhino, sendai, sindbis and vsv, and the dna viruses such as herpes (type i). in addition, the antiviral effect of 2'-5'p3a3 on echo11 virus, as compared with other viruses, is more efficient than that of ifn. it seems likely that 2'-5'p3a3 plays an important role in the antiviral action of ifn. after compa ...19836194560
protective monoclonal antibodies define maturational and ph-dependent antigenic changes in sindbis virus e1 glycoprotein.monoclonal (mc) antibodies specific for either the ei or e2 glycoproteins of sindbis virus (sin) were used to probe for differences in the surface topography of sin epitopes between infected cells and mature virions. employing an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) in which binding of individual peroxidase-labeled mc antibodies to immobilized (solid-phase) detergent-disrupted sin was inhibited specifically by one or more unlabeled antibodies, viral epitopes could be grouped into six spatia ...19836195815
mechanisms of neutralization of animal viruses. 19846202836
sindbis virus mutants selected for rapid growth in cell culture display attenuated virulence in animals.mutants of sindbis virus were selected for rapid growth in baby hamster kidney (bhk) cell cultures and screened for attenuation of virulence in suckling mice. comparisons among independently isolated virulent and attenuated strains, as well as a classical reversion analysis, showed that accelerated penetration of bhk cells was correlated with attenuation in vivo. both phenotypic changes resulted from a reorganization of virion structure as detected by monoclonal antibodies. these results suggest ...19846204381
evaluation of immunoadsorbent electron microscopic techniques for detection of sindbis virus.two immunosorbent electron microscopic techniques (isem), the protein a coated grid technique (pa-cgt) and the antibody coated grid technique (ab-cgt) were applied and evaluated for the detection of sindbis virus from infected tissue culture fluids. at optimal conditions, the efficiency of trapping the virions was only about 1.5 higher with the pa-cgt as compared to the ab-cgt, but the pa-cgt was less dependent on the antiserum dilution used in the test. both methods were suitable for quantitati ...19846205012
primary structural comparison of rna-dependent polymerases from plant, animal and bacterial viruses.possible alignments for portions of the genomic codons in eight different plant and animal viruses are presented: tobacco mosaic, brome mosaic, alfalfa mosaic, sindbis, foot-and-mouth disease, polio, encephalomyocarditis, and cowpea mosaic viruses. since in one of the viruses (polio) the aligned sequence has been identified as an rna-dependent polymerase, this would imply the identification of the polymerases in the other viruses. a conserved fourteen-residue segment consisting of an asp-asp seq ...19846207485
comparative studies of rabies and sindbis virus replication in human neuroblastoma (sym-i) cells that can produce interferon.k-104 cells, a cloned cell line derived from a human neuroblastoma (sym-i), were induced by rabies hep-flury virus to release large amounts of interferon, and the resulting antiviral activity significantly suppressed the rabies virus replication. the role of endogenous interferon was confirmed by treatment with anti-interferon antibody which increased the yield of progeny virus. the virus yield in the second undiluted passage through k-104 cells was much less than that in the first passage, beca ...19846208314
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