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haemagglutination inhibition antibodies against sindbis virus in human and bovine sera in eastern sicily. 19806107029
japanese encephalitis virus surveillance in the taipei area, taiwan in 1978.attempts were made to isolate japanese encephalitis virus from mosquitoes collected with three light traps operated twice a week at three sentinel pigpens in the taipei area from may to oct. 1978. a total of 6,549 mosquitoes trapped alive were processed in 283 pools. suspensions were inoculated into aedes albopictus cell cultures and into suckling mice. a total of 19 je virus isolates were made; 12 from pools of cx. tritaeniorhynchus, 6 from cx. annulus and one from cx. quinquefaciatus. sindbis ...19806107994
separation by affinity chromatography of human very low and low density lipoproteins inhibiting sindbis virus haemagglutination.the haemagglutination-inhibiting activity of human serum towards sindbis virus is linked to very low and low density lipoprotein classes, in particular to their lipid component. to investigate the specific role played in this inhibition by carbohydrates contained in the molecule, inhibitor separation was carried out by concanavalin a-sepharose affinity chromatography. a different behaviour among the inhibiting molecules in relation to the carbohydrate content was observed. the importance of mann ...19806108058
interferon induction by viruses. iv. sindbis virus: early passage defective-interfering particles induce interferon.we have shown that a single defective-interfering (di) particle of early (5th) passage sindbis virus induces maximal amounts of interferon in an 'aged' primary chick embryo cell. the capacity of such di particles to induce interferon is inactivated by small amounts of u.v. radiation (i/e dose = 232 ergs/mm2). the i/e dose for inactivation of the interferon-inducing capacity of infectious virus particles is 399 ergs/mm2 and for infectivity is 101 ergs/mm2. pre-treatment with interferon blocks for ...19806155435
interferon induction by viruses. sindbis virus: defective-interfering particles temperature-sensitive for interferon induction.a defective-interfering (di) particle of sindbis virus was generated from a ts mutant of rna-complementation group a by serially undiluted passages at 30 degrees c. this mutant induced interferon at a permissive temperature (30 degrees c), but not at a non-permissive temperature (40.5 degrees c); it also expressed homotypic interference throughout the range 30 to 40.5 degrees c. this demonstrates for the first time in a di particle a ts function, namely, the ability to induce interferon. in addi ...19806156997
chicken fetal antigens: role as cell surface receptors for sindbis virus hemagglutinin. 19806158165
[virus persistence factors]. 19806158172
sensitivity of group c arboviruses (bunyaviridae) to human amnion interferon.the sensitivity of several group c arboviruses (bunyaviridae) to human amnion interferon was compared to that of vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) and sindbis virus. in cpe inhibition assays. apeu virus was the most sensitive of the group c arboviruses tested; it was significantly more inhibited than vsv, but was in the same range as sindbis virus. in plaque reduction assays, the increasing order of sensitivity was apeu, marituba, vsv and sindbis viruses. single-cycle yields of vsv and apeu virus ...19806162822
transfer of interferon-induced viral resistance from human leukocytes to other cell types.nonsensitized human leukocytes cocultured with various xenogeneic epithelioid and fibroblastic cells produced human leukocyte interferon and shortly thereafter transferred antiviral activity to the xenogeneic cells. antiviral activity in the cocultured xenogeneic cells was not due to cell-mediated cytotoxicity as measured by specific 51cr release and staining with vital dyes. the transfer of antiviral activity from leukocytes to xenogeneic cells was blocked by rabbit antiserum to human leukocyte ...19806163708
relation of fatty acid attachment to the translation and maturation of vesicular stomatitis and sindbis virus membrane glycoproteins. 19806245077
differential stimulation of capped mrna translation in vitro by cap binding protein. 19806246452
vesicular stomatitis virus and sindbis virus glycoprotein transport to the cell surface is inhibited by ionophores. 19806247822
synthesis and assembly of viral membrane proteins. 19806249165
growth and release of several alphaviruses in chick and bhk cells.the growth and release of several alphaviruses, including several strains of sindbis virus (the wild-type strain, the large plaque and small plaque variants of the hr strain, and the hr mutant ts103), semliki forest virus(sfv) and middelburg virus, and of the unrelated rhabdovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), have been compared in chick cells and in bhk-21 cells as a function of the culture conditions for the host cell and the ionic strength of the medium. the small plaque strain of sindbi ...19806255069
selective inhibition of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein synthesis by a benz-amidinohydrazone derivative.1h-benz[f]indene-1.3(2h)dione-bis-amidinohydrazone (benzhydrazone) inhibited incorporation of 14c-glucosamine, 14c-fucose and 14c-mannose into glycoproteins of hep-2 cells infected with various strains of herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) and impaired rna and protein synthesis to a low extent. these biochemical effects are very similar to those induced by glycosylation inhibitors such as tunicamycin, d-glucosamine and 2-deoxy-d-glucose. in contrast to these inhibitors, benzhydrazone reduced hsv gly ...19806255895
monensin and fccp inhibit the intracellular transport of alphavirus membrane glycoproteins.temperature-sensitive mutants of semliki forest virus (sfv) and sindbis virus (sin) were used to study the intracellular transport of virus membrane glycoproteins in infected chicken embryo fibroblasts. when antisera against purified glycoproteins and (125)i- labeled protein a from staphylococcus aureus were used only small amounts of virus glycoproteins were detected at the surface of sfv ts-1 and sin ts-10 infected cells incubated at the restrictive temperature (39 degrees c). when the mutant- ...19806257729
the natural history of transmembrane cell-surface glycoproteins. 19806260106
distribution of virus structural proteins and protein-protein interactions in plasma membrane of baby hamster kidney cells infected with sindbis or vesicular stomatitis virus.the plasma membrane of baby hamster kidney (bhk-21) cells infected with either sindbis or vesicular stomatitis virus was isolated by a technique involving the ingestion of latex beads by the cells. plasma membrane isolated from sindbis virus-infected cells contained only one (e1) of the three (e1, e2, and c) structural proteins of this virus. when the latex beads were pretreated with either polylysine or deae-dextran, plasma membrane obtained from sindbis virus-infected cells contained all three ...19806261249
[alphavirus reproduction in cultures of transplantable human lymphoblastic cells in acute infection].the results of investigations of acute infection of continuous human b- and t-cells with typical members of the alphavirus group--semliki forest, sindbis, and venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis viruses, are presented. virus amplification was shown to pass through the typical phases: eclipse, logarithmic growth, plateau. infectious virus production per one cell was from 10 to 10,000 pfu in various cultures. cell infection results in interferon production. replication of the viruses under study i ...19806261461
isolation and characterization of hybrid cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies directed against the structural proteins of sindbis virus. 19806766594
fusion and haemolysis of erythrocytes caused by three togaviruses: semliki forest, sindbis and rubella.semliki forest, sindbis and rubella viruses can fuse erythrocytes from several different species. large fusion vesicles consisting of tens to hundreds of red blood cells were seen under optical conditions. for the haemagglutination and cell fusion to occur the adsorption of virus and further incubation had to be carried out at ph 5.8. haemagglutination took place over a wide temperature range (0 to 40 degrees c) whereas fusion required temperatures between 37 and 42 degrees c. haemolysis of red ...19806770037
passive hemolysis-in-gel with togaviridae arboviruses.radial hemolysis-in-agarose gel (hig) with members of the genera alphavirus and flavivirus is described. the test can be reproduced with goose and sheep erythrocytes sensitized at the optimal ph for each virus. human (o group), rooster, guinea pig, mouse and hamster erythrocytes were found to be unsuitable. the titer of immune ascitic fluids in hig coincides with the titer in hemagglutination inhibition. investigation of convalescent sera after laboratory infection suggests the possiblity of hig ...19806987193
ucsd gene splicing incident ends unresolved. 19807001622
synthesis and assembly of viral membrane proteins. 19807005905
[protective and damaging action of cytotoxic t-lymphocytes in experimental tick-borne encephalitis].the methods of adoptive transfer in vivo and cytotoxic action on virus-infected tissue culture in vitro were used to prove that cytotoxic splenocytes produced in experimental tick-borne encephalitis could have both protective and damaging effects. the protective effect was manifested during the first 24 hours after infection, and the damaging effect on the 6th day after infection. cytotoxicity splenocytes were identified as t lymphocytes on the basis of their sensitivity to anti-theta serum, res ...19806967662
[inhibitory effect of homologous antiviral antibodies on viral cell destruction].experiments were performed on the model chinese hamster cell culture -- sindbis virus in which there develops an acute infection accompanied by active virus reproduction, cell rounding and detachment from the glass for 24--48 h. addition in the cultural medium of a 0.5% immune serum to the sindbis virus after its adsorption by the monolayer culture fully prevents the development of cytopathic changes and favours obtaining chronically infected cultures that produce the infection virus. the decrea ...19807191737
role of complement in viral infections: participation of terminal complement components (c5 to c9) in recovery of mice from sindbis virus infection.the pathogenesis of sindbis virus infection was studied in congenic mice with normal levels of the fifth component of complement (c5) and in mice deficient in c5. mice deficient in c5 had a higher mortality rate than mice with normal levels of c5 as well as impaired clearance of virus from their brain and feet.19807228394
cross-protection correlates with delayed antibody formation to challenge virus after immunization with sindbis virus.mice immunized with sindbis virus, strains hr (heat-resistant) or ar339, by a dual injection given intracerebrally (i.c.) and intraperitoneally (i.p.) at day zero, were cross-protected from challenge at day 10 with semliki forest virus (sfv). neutralizing and haemagglutination-inhibition antibodies to sindbis are detected in high titre by day 6 after immunization but no cross-reacting antibodies to sfv were found up to day 42. immunized mice that were challenged with sfv showed an 8 to 10 day de ...19807229617
studies on the intracellular distribution of sindbis messenger rna in infected chick-embryo fibroblasts. 1. presence of extrapolyribosomal 26-s rna in the membrane fraction.four hours after infection with sindbis virus, chick embryo fibroblasts were studied by electron microscopy and cell fractionation. electron microscopy of infected and non-infected cells revealed that infection produced a disaggregation of polyribosomes into monomers. apart from this observation most cells appeared well preserved, and no degranulation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum was visible. analysis of postnuclear supernatants by sucrose density gradients showed that no change in the rel ...19807358048
studies on the intracellular distribution of sindbis messenger rna in infected chick embryo fibroblasts. 2. non-parallel distribution of 26-s rna and ribosomes within microsomal subfractions.the submicrosomal distribution of membrane-associated viral 26-s rna in chick embryo fibroblasts infected with sindbis virus was studied. infected chick embryo fibroblasts were homogenized in the presence of low amounts of edta and fractionated by differential centrifugation. analysis of postmitochondrial supernatants by isopycnic flotation on continuous sucrose gradients showed that membrane-associated 26-s rna and ribosomes were not distributed in parallel, with an enrichment in 26-s rna in th ...19807358049
actinomycin d cytotoxicity for mouse peritoneal macrophages and effect on lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus replication.treatment of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus(ldv)-infected mouse peritoneal macrophage cultures with actinomycin d (1 microgram/ml) resulted in a progressive reduction in the formation of ldv-specific rna and mature virus as the time of incubation with actinomycin d increased beyond 2-3 h. this effect, however, seemed to reflect an unusual sensitivity of macrophages to toxic effects of actinomycin d. macrophage cytotoxicity and lysis became apparent 3-4 h after addition of actinomycin d; t ...19807358507
the role of complement in viral infections. iii. activation of the classical and alternative complement pathways by sindbis virus. 19807365263
the role of complement in viral infections. ii. the clearance of sindbis virus from the bloodstream and central nervous system of mice depleted of complement.the following studies were performed to investigate the mechanism(s) by which the complement system limits sindbis virus infection in the central nervous system of mice. after the intracerebral inoculation of sindbis virus, no differences in mortality or viral growth in the central nervous system were observed between normal mice and mice depleted of complement by treatment with cobra venom factor. in addition, animals that had been inoculated subcutaneously with sindbis virus and depleted of co ...19807365277
characterization of a small, nonstructural viral polypeptide present late during infection of bhk cells by semliki forest virus.bhk cells, late in infection with semliki forest virus, were found to contain a small virus-specific polypeptide not found in the mature virion. this polypeptide had an apparent molecular weight of 6,000 and is referred to here as the 6k protein. no [2-3h]mannose was incorporated into 6k, and hence it does not appear to be a glycoprotein. this protein appears to be a primary translation product of the subgenomic 26s mrna, which encodes the viral structural proteins. the genes encoding the viral ...19807365868
establishment and maintenance of persistent infection by sindbis virus in bhk cells.we have established a persistent infection of bhk cells with a preparation of sindbis virus heavily enriched in defective interfering (di) particles. the small fraction of cells that survived the initial infection grew out to form a stable population of cells [bhk(sin-1) cells], most of which synthesized viral rna and viral antigens. the presence of di particles in this virus stock was required to establish this persistent state. bhk(sin-1) cells released a small-plaque, temperature-sensitive vi ...19807365871
inhibition of sindbis virus replication in aedes albopictus cells by virazole (ribavirin) and its reversal by actinomycin: a correction. 19807368572
differential sensitivity of infectious and defective-interfering particles of sindbis virus to ultraviolet irradiation. 19807368573
partial amino acid sequences of sindbis and semliki forest virus-specific core proteins. 19807368574
reversible transport defects of virus membrane glycoproteins in sindbis virus mutant infected cells.surface immunofluorescence with anti-envelope serum was used to study the transport of virus membrane glycoproteins in cells infected with temperature-sensitive mutants of sindbis virus. mutants belonging to complementation group d (ts-10 and ts-23), which have a defect in the envelope protein e1, showed a temperature dependent defect in the transport of the virus glycoproteins to the cell surface. in contrast, cells infected with mutant ts-20, the only representative of complementation group e, ...19807379138
sindbis virus rna replication. ii. strand composition and metabolic fate of the multi-stranded rna species.double-stranded rna from sb virus-infected cells was denatured and analysed on agarose-methylmercuric hydroxide gels. equimolar amounts of three single-stranded species with mol. wt. of 4 x 10(6), 2.5 x 10(6) and 1.8 x 10(6) were found. pulse and chase experiments in infected cells established a precursor-product relationship between the multi-stranded and single-stranded virus rna species. the present results support the model in which the 49s and 26s species of virus rna are synthesized in inf ...19807381436
defective mutant of sindbis virus with a smaller-molecular-weight form of the e1 glycoprotein.we have isolated from a single plaque a mutant of sindbis virus characterized by an e1 glycoprotein with higher electrophoretic mobility. this higher mobility is not attributable to a different extent of glycosylation of the protein nor to an altered proteolytic maturation pathway of the polypeptide precursor, but is the result of a deletion occurring during the replication of the viral rna. the 26s rna (the messenger for the sindbis structural proteins) extracted from cells infected with the mu ...19807381993
dna: chapter of accidents at san diego. 19807403872
alphaviruses in peninsular malaysia: ii. serological evidence of human infection.a serum survey of several characteristic groups of humans in urban, rural, and forested areas of peninsular malaysia for evidence of infection with three alphaviruses (sindbis, getah, and chikungunya) was made on 4384 specimens collected between 1965 and 1969. analysis of the serological results indicated that 1) persons residing in predominantly rural and forested areas have higher frequencies of specific alphavirus antibody of all three viruses than persons residing in urban areas, 2) human in ...19807403943
separation of alphavirus nucleocapsids from envelope fragments.methods for the preparation of alphavirus nucleocapsids and envelope fragments for biochemical, electron microscopical and serological investigations are described. difficulties which have been encountered previously in attempts to isolate viral nucleocapsids for morphological studies, namely disruption of the fragile particles, have been overcome by treatment with formaldehyde.19807405358
a case of sindbis virus infection in zimbabwe. 19807407896
analysis of semliki-forest-virus structural proteins to illustrate polyprotein processing of alpha viruses.the four structural proteins of semliki forest virus were purified in an amount of 30-50 nmol by preparative sodium dodecylsulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. each protein was subjected to n-terminal structural analysis by degradation in a liquid-phase sequencer. about 20 residues were determined for each of the two membrane glycoproteins e1 and e2. the amino acid sequence of e1 but not that of e2 showed extensive homology to the corresponding proteins of the closely related sindbis viru ...19807408852
genomic divergence among sindbis virus strains. 19807414959
[action of remantadine on virus-specific polypeptide synthesis in a sindbis virus-infected cell culture].effect of remantadine (alpha-methyl-i-adamantane methylamine) on reproduction and synthesis of the virus-specific polypeptides was studied in culture of chicken embryo fibroblasts, infected with virus syndbis. the preparation inhibited the virus reproduction as well as the formation of virus-specific proteins after addition into the cultural medium together with virus, immediately after absorption and within 1 and 2 hrs after absorption. the data obtained suggest a possibility of an immediate ef ...19807423886
relationship between enzymatic modifications of serum low density lipoproteins and their haemagglutination inhibiting activity towards sindbis virus.the chemical structure of human serum low density lipoproteins (ldl) involved in the inhibition of the haemagglutination by sindbis virus was studied. separation of lipoproteins into their protein and lipid components demonstrated that the inhibiting activity is almost completely due to the lipid moiety. the treatment of ldl and extracted lipoprotein lipids by phospholipase a2, c and d produced different effects and in particular a marked increase in the hi titre by the action of phospholipase a ...19807425849
virion nucleic acid of ebola virus.the virion nucleic acid of ebola virus consists of a single-stranded rna with a molecular weight of approximately 4.0 x 10(6). the virion rna did not bind to oligodeoxythymidylic acid-cellulose under conditions known to bind rnas rich in polyadenylic acid and was not infectious under conditions which yielded infectious rna from sindbis virus, suggesting that ebola virus virion nucleic acid is a negative-stranded rna.19807431486
[combined effect of remantadine (alpha-methyl-1-adamantane methylamine) and ribovirin (1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide) on the reproduction of sindbis virus in cell culture].the influence of remantadine, ribovirine, and combination thereof on sindbis virus reproduction in cell cultures was studied. comparison of remantadine and ribovirine showed the former to be a stronger inhibitor of sindbis virus reproduction. the results of the combined effect of both drugs in chick embryo fibroblast cultures showed undoubtful advantages of this treatment over the use of each of the drugs alone. in studies of the effect of ribovirine on synthesis of virus-specific proteins and r ...19807434742
host cell receptors for two strains of sindbis virus.experiments were performed to determine whether neuronal cells have different numbers of receptors for a neurovirulent and an avirulent strain of the same virus and whether neurotropic strains of different viruses share the same cellular receptors. attempts were also made to characterize the receptors for the two strains of sindbis virus on viable cells by studying their enzyme sensitivity. the number of cellular receptors available for sindbis virus attachment to several cell lines was determin ...19807436739
restricted initiation of protein synthesis on the potentially polycistronic sindbis virus 42 s rna.sindbis 42 s genome rna was isolated from virions and translated in vitro before and after purification by oligo(dt)-cellulose chromatography and sucrose density gradient centrifugation under denaturing conditions. in intact 42 s rna, only the 5'-proximal initiation site for the synthesis of nonstructural proteins was used. the internally located start site for viral structural protein formation was active in broken genome rna molecules where, as a consequence of fragmentation, it was closer to ...19807440550
formation of the semliki forest virus membrane glycoprotein complexes in the infected cell.in semliki forest virus (sfv)-infected cells, all structural proteins are translated from a 26s mrna using a single initiation site. the capsid protein which is made first is released into the cytoplasm whereas the two membrane proteins, p62 (the precursor for e2 and e3) and e1, are inserted into the rough endoplasmic reticulum membrane. based on gradient centrifugation and cross-linking studies, it can be seen that the p62 and e1 polypeptides form a complex immediately after synthesis and migra ...19807441208
unsaturated free fatty acids inactivate animal enveloped viruses.unsaturated free fatty acids such as oleic, arachidonic or linoleic at concentrations of 5-25 microgram/ml inactivate enveloped viruses such as herpes, influenza, sendai, sindbis within minutes of contact. at these concentrations the fatty acids are inocuous to animal host cells in vitro. naked viruses, such as polio, sv40 or emc are not affected by these acids. saturated stearic acid does not inactivate any viruses at concentrations tested. though the mode of action of unsaturated fatty acids i ...19807447706
solid-phase immune electron microscopy (spiem) for rapid viral diagnosis.immune electron microscopy (iem) is one of the fastest and most sensitive methods for the detection and diagnosis of viruses. this technique is based on formation of immune complexes of the virus with its corresponding antibody. in iem optimal precipitation depends on a correct ratio, and there is a prozone effect. these problems can be overcome by using the solid-phase immune electron microscopic (spiem) technique. in this technique the antibody is attached to a particle which is used for 'fish ...19807452001
sindbis virus. i. gene order of translation in vivo. 19807456333
growth-dependent alterations in oligomannosyl glycopeptides expressed in sindbis virus glycoproteins.sindbis virus was used to examine host cell growth-dependent expression of oligomannosyl glycopeptides within single species of viral glycoproteins. four mannosyl oligosaccharides ranging from 5 to 8 mannose residues were separated on bio-gel p4 column chromatography. virus derived from rapidly growing chicken embryo fibroblasts displayed greater quantities of larger sized oligomannosyl glycopeptides in intact virus and in purified sindbis virus glycoproteins e1 and e2 compared with virus from n ...19807459334
evidence that sindbis virus infects bhk-21 cells via a lysosomal route.chloroquine and nh4cl, potent inhibitors of lysosomal function, decreased the production of infectious sindbis virus particles in bhk-21 cells by 10- and 12-fold, respectively. there were no apparent toxic effects on cells exposed to these lysosomotropic agents. these chemicals did not alter the rate of cellular protein synthesis, with the exception of a reversible twofold inhibition by chloroquine. no additive effects of chloroquine and nh4cl were observed when the cells were saturated with the ...19807459676
intracellular distribution of sindbis virus membrane proteins in bhk-21 cells infected with wild-type virus and maturation-defective mutants.the association of sindbis virus proteins with cellular membranes during virus maturation was examined by utilizing a technique for fractionating the membranes of bhk-21 cells into three subcellular classes, which were enriched for rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and plasma membrane. pulse-chase experiments with wild-type (strain svhr) virus-infected cells showed that virus envelope proteins were incorporated initially into membranes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum ...19807463555
immunoglobulins in the cerebrospinal fluid: changes during acute viral encephalitis in mice.the development and pathogenesis of immunoglobulin changes in the csf in acute encephalitis were studied in mice infected with sindbis virus. three phases of immunoglobulin changes were noted. 1) during the first 2 days when virus replication in the brain is maximal, few changes were seen in the csf. 2) at the time of maximal meningeal inflammation, 3 to 5 days after infection, there was a transudation of protein from serum into csf. 3) during the period of recovery, there was evidence of a loca ...19817451970
one extra oligosaccharide chain of the high-mannose class in the e2 protein of a sindbis virus isolate.the number and nature of oligosaccharide chains in the e2 envelope protein (and its precursor pe2) from two strains of sindbis virus, originally derived from the same hr strain, were investigated. the e2 glycoproteins (and the pe2 proteins) of the two strains had different electrophoretic mobilities on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel. we observed that the glycopeptides from the e2 protein of one of the two strains included an extra oligosaccharide chain of the mannose-rich type. the ...19817241662
bunyamwera virus replication in cultured aedes albopictus (mosquito) cells: establishment of a persistent viral infection.bunyamwera virus replication was examined in aedes albopictus (mosquito) cell cultures in which a persistent infection is established and in cytopathically infected bhk cells. during primary infection of a. albopictus cells, bunyamwera virus reached relatively high titers ( approximately 10(7) pfu/ml), and autointerference was not observed. three virus-specific rnas (l, m, and s) and two virion proteins (n and g1) were detected in infected cells. maximum rates of viral rna synthesis and viral pr ...19817241667
amino-terminal sequence analysis of alphavirus polypeptides.the single late 26s mrna of semliki forest virus (sfv) directs the synthesis of the four viral structural proteins, c, e3, e2, and e1, and the recently described nonstructural protein, 6k. we report here partial nh2-terminal amino acid sequences of the sfv polypeptides e3 and 6k and of p62, the precursor to e3 and e2. in addition, were have determined a partial nh2-terminal sequence of the sindbis virus homolog of 6k, the 4.2k protein. p62 and e3 of sfv have identical nh2-terminal amino acid seq ...19817241669
isolation and preliminary characterization of sindbis virus-resistant chinese hamster ovary cells. 19817245607
natural killer cells appear to play no role in the recovery of mice from sindbis virus infection.previous studies have suggested that non-specific defence mechanisms may be important in the development of age-dependent resistance to fatal sindbis-virus infection and in the recovery of adult mice from non-fatal infection. in these studies, natural killer (nk) cell induction was studied in 7-day-old susceptible mice and 28-35-day-old resistant mice. it was found that sindbis virus infection induced nk cells in both the young and older mice, suggesting that nk cells were not important in the a ...19817251052
primary structures of the core proteins of the alphaviruses semliki forest virus and sindbis virus. 19817269244
sindbis virus glycoproteins acquire unusual neutral oligosaccharides in both normal and lectin-resistant chinese hamster ovary cell lines. 19817269252
specific sindbis virus-coded function for minus-strand rna synthesis.the synthesis of minus-strand rna was studied in cell cultures infected with the heat-resistant strain of sindbis virus and with temperature-sensitive (ts) belonging to complementation groups a, b, f, and g, all of which exhibited an rna-negative (rna-) phenotype when infection was initiated and maintained at 39 degrees c, the nonpermissive temperature. when infected cultures were shifted from 28 degrees c (the permissive temperature) to 39 degrees c at 3 h postinfection, the synthesis of viral ...19817277580
temperature-sensitive host-dependent mutants of sindbis virus. 19817281510
establishment of persistent infection in mouse cells by sindbis virus and its temperature-sensitive mutants.the ability of wild-type (wt) sindbis virus and six temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants to establish persistent infection in mouse l cells and a line of mouse embryo (me) cells was determined. the wt established persistent infection in both me cells and l cells at 39 degrees c. at 30 degrees c the wt established persistent infection in l cells but not me cells, which did not recover from the initial infection. for the ts mutants, both cell lines survived the initial infection at 39 degrees c (the ...19817288408
a sindbis virus mutant temperature-sensitive in the regulation of minus-strand rna synthesis. 19817292988
design and preparation of affinity columns for the purification of eukaryotic messenger ribonucleic acid cap binding protein.2',3'-o-[1-(2-carboxyethyl) ethylidene]-7-methylguanosine 5'-diphosphate (5) and 7-(5-carboxypentyl) guanosine 5'-diphosphate (13) have been synthesized and immobilized on ah-sepharose 4b to the extent of 17.4 and 36.6 mumol of ligand/g of gel, respectively. the affinity resins thus derives were employed in columns for the purificaton of 24k cap binding protein (cbp) from rabbit reticulocytes. each resin was found to retain the protein of interest; elution of 24k cbp could then be effected by wa ...19817306524
application of high-field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the structural determination of membrane-derived sindbis virus glycopeptides.sindbis virus membrane glycopeptides have ben purified in chemical quantities and their oligosaccharide structures analyzed by 1h nmr spectroscopy at 360 mhz. interpretable spectra could be obtained with approximately 100 micrograms of oligosaccharide. spectral analysis of the sialyl glycopeptides s1, s2, and s3 at high and low temperatures confirms their structures to be nana alpha (2,3)gal beta (1,4)-glcnac beta (1,2)man alpha (1,6)-[nana alpha (2,3)gal beta (1,4)-glcnac beta (1,2)man alpha (1 ...19817317384
specific and non-specific immunological changes in epidemic polyarthritis patients.t-lymphocytes from epidemic polyarthritis patients exhibited a virus specific proliferative response when exposed to ross river virus in vitro. the magnitude of this response was greater than that of lymphocytes from asymptomatic seropositive donors. the natural killer cell activity of peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes from these patients was depressed early in disease but returned to normal levels as the severity of the symptoms decreased. although no in vivo role can yet be assigned to n ...19817325890
cell and virus propagation on cylindrical cellulose based microcarriers.microgranular deae-cellulose anion exchanger with exchange capacities ranging between 0-2.7 meq/gr dry materials were tested for their suitability to be used as microcarriers for culturing several anchorage-dependent-cells. it was found that cells from established cell lines (bhk, mdck), grew as confluent monolayer on deae-cellulose microcarriers with exchange capacity ranging between 1.00-2.0 meq/gr dry materials. primary cells (chick embryo fibroblast) grow as a cell-microcarriers aggregate on ...19817341288
a sindbis virus variant with a cell-determined latent period. 19817210508
defective interfering particles of sindbis virus do not interfere with the homologous virus obtained from persistently infected bhk cells but do interfere with semliki forest virus.defective interfering particles derived from wild-type sindbis virus no longer interfere with the infectious virus cloned from bhk cells persistently infected with sindbis virus for 16 months. these particles do interfere with the replication of semliki forest virus.19817218438
sindbis virus maturation in cultured mosquito cells is sensitive to actinomycin d. 19817222476
[alphavirus reproduction in cultures of transplantable human lymphoblastoid cells during persistent infections].the results of virological investigations of alphavirus persistence in human b-cell lines raji and l-101 are presented. the formation of persisting infection was shown to depend both on the cell line and on the virus type. productive persistent infection of raji cells with venezuelan equine encephalitis virus was followed for 11 months. the presence of the virus was confirmed by electron microscopic and immunofluorescent examinations. infectious virus production varied from 0.001 to dozens pfu/c ...19816973890
nucleotide sequence of the 26s mrna of sindbis virus and deduced sequence of the encoded virus structural proteins.the nucleotide sequence of intracellular 26s mrna of sindbis virus has been determined by direct sequence analysis of the cdna made to this rna with reverse transcriptase. from this, the amino acid sequences of the encoded virus structural proteins, which include a basic capsid protein and two integral membrane glycoproteins, have been deduced. the features of these proteins as related to their functions are discussed. we suggest that three proteases are required to produce these proteins from t ...19816941270
identification of a cell-surface protein involved in the binding site of sindbis virus on human lymphoblastic cell lines using a heterobifunctional cross-linker.a cell-surface protein of molecular weight 90000 was identified as the major protein located at or near the binding site of sindbis virus on the lymphoblastic cell lines jy and daudi. this sindbis-virus-binding protein was detected by cross-linking sindbis virus, modified with 4-[6-formyl-3-azidophenoxy]butyrimidate, to the cell surface. the applicability of this compound in the identification of specific cell-surface proteins was demonstrated using a monoclonal antibody reactive with beta 2-mic ...19817014219
in vivo nh2-terminal acetylation of sindbis virus proteins.the in vivo incorporation of exogenous radioactive acetate into two proteins of sindbis virus, the capsid protein and pe2, is described. under appropriate labeling conditions, 40-50% of the label in the capsid protein is found in an n-acetyl group which constitutes the nh2-terminal modification of this blocked protein. the incorporated radiolabeled acetate was useful in the purification and analysis of peptides derived from the nh2-terminus of the capsid protein, and from these peptides the nh2- ...19817021543
entry of rabies virus into the peripheral nerves of mice.young adult mice were inoculated in the hind limb with rabies virus or sindbis virus. rabies 1820b virus antigen was detected in leg sections by immuno-fluorescence at 1 h post-inoculation at sites comparable in form and distribution to cholinesterase-positive sites, which represent motor end-plates (meps). sites which were rabies virus antigen-positive by immunofluorescence were also cholinesterase- positive on double-stained slides. rabies cvs virus detected by autoradiography was similarly di ...19817031182
[hemagglutination--inhibiting antibodies to sindbis virus in the population of the southeast region of turkey]. 19817052248
development of age-dependent resistance to sindbis virus encephalitis: correlation with inactivation of virus within the blood stream.the clearance of sindbis virus from the blood stream and its localization in the reticuloendothelial system (res) was studied in mice susceptible (2 weeks old) and resistant (6 weeks old) to fatal sindbis virus encephalitis. no significant differences in the relative capacity of 2-week-old and 6-week-old mice to remove 125i-labelled virus from the blood stream and to localize virus within the liver were observed. however, the decline of infectious virus was more rapid in the blood of adult mice. ...19816280609
[isolation of the sindbis virus from hyalomma anatolicum cl kock 1844 ticks in tadzhikistan]. 19816454830
effects of chloroquine and cytochalasin b on the infection of cells by sindbis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus.the effects of cytochalasin b and chloroquine on the process of endocytosis of sindbis virus particles and polystyrene spheres were determined by electron microscopy. the effects of these agents on the process of infection (attachment, penetration, and uncoating) of bhk-21 cells by sindbis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus were also determined. cytochalasin b completely blocked ingestion of sindbis virus particles or latex spheres by bhk cells but had no effect on the ability of sindbis virus ...19816262524
broadly active inhibitor of viruses spontaneously produced by many cell types in culture.a broadly active inhibitor of viruses (vaccinia, polio 1, and vesicular stomatitis) was found in the culture fluid from many types of normal human and mouse cells in culture. virus plaque-inhibiting activity appeared in culture fluids within a few hour after incubation of cultures with fresh medium. peak inhibitory activity occurred within 24 h. blockade of cellular ribonucleic acid or protein synthesis decreased appearance of the inhibitor, thereby substantiating that it is a cell-produced vira ...19816265356
cell-produced viral inhibitor: possible mechanism of action and chemical composition.a newly recognized cell-produced viral inhibitor appeared to be spontaneously released from most cells in tissue culture. it strongly inhibited the replication of a variety of viruses but did not exhibit species specificity as does interferon. these studies on the inhibitor's mechanism of action indicated that it inhibited attachment and penetration of virus by a readily reversible reaction requiring the presence of both virus and cells. studies of inactivation by specific enzymes or chemicals i ...19816265357
viral interference and persistence in sindbis virus infected aedes albopictus cells. 19816266625
two forms of purified m7g-cap binding protein with different effects on capped mrna translation in extracts of uninfected and poliovirus-infected hela cells.eukaryotic mrna cap binding proteins were purified from ribosomal salt wash in the presence of protease inhibitors by sucrose gradient sedimentation and m7gdp-sepharose affinity chromatography. rabbit reticulocyte and erythrocyte proteins with sedimentation constants of less than 6 s yielded a approximately 24,000-dalton cap binding protein. it stimulated capped mrna translation in extracts of uninfected hela cells but did not restore capped mrna function in extracts prepared from poliovirus-inf ...19816267020
activation of the alternative complement pathway by enveloped viruses containing limited amounts of sialic acid. 19816270885
the effects of adenosine and guanosine on the replication of sindbis and vesicular stomatitis viruses in aedes albopictus cells. 19816270900
studies of immune responses during recovery from sindbis virus encephalitis in selectively reconstituted, thymectomized, lethally irradiated mice.recovery from acute sindbis virus encephalitis was studied in selectively reconstituted, thymectomized, irradiated mice. intact mice cleared virus from the brain by day 10 and developed inflammation along with immunoglobulin m (igm) and igg antibodies 4 to 6 days after infection. unreconstituted mice died by day 11, with virus still present but decreasing, no detectable antibody, and no evidence of inflammation. mice reconstituted with bone marrow cells alone produced only igm antibody and no in ...19816271684
synthesis, cleavage and sequence analysis of dna complementary to the 26 s messenger rna of sindbis virus. 19816271974
[role of the host cell in virus persistence]. 19816272491
translation of vesicular stomatitis and sindbis virus mrnas in cell-free extracts of aedes albopictus cells.we have developed a cell-free system from aedes albopictus (mosquito) cells which is able to carry out endogenous protein synthesis and is stable to freezing and thawing. successful preparation of extracts was found to depend on the presence of purified placental rnase inhibitor during cell breakage. micrococcal nuclease-treated extracts translated exogenously added sindbis 26s or vesicular stomatitis virus mrna with a high degree of fidelity, demonstrating that initiation of protein synthesis h ...19816273418
synthesis and assembly of transmembrane viral and cellular glycoproteins. 19816276668
[biogenesis of viral glycoproteins and role of sugar chains in biological functions of virus (author's transl)]. 19816276923
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