genome of sindbis virus.(32)p-labeled ribonucleic acid (rna) from purified sindbis virus was examined for the presence of hidden breaks. viral rna was treated with acid at ph 2.9 or with formaldehyde and was analyzed on sucrose gradients or by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the sedimentation pattern and mobility on polyacrylamide gels of the 42s rna was unaffected by heating and quick cooling and was not altered by denaturing agents such as dimethyl sulfoxide and urea. no evidence that sindbis rna is a polyaggrega ...19725061986
selective inhibition of the synthesis of sindbis virion proteins by an inhibitor of chymotrypsin.treatment of chick embryo fibroblasts infected with sindbis virus with tpck, the choloromethyl ketone derivative of tosyl-phenylalanine and an inhibitor of chymotrypsin, resulted in reduced synthesis of viral structural proteins and the accumulation of a high-molecular-weight polypeptide, thought to be a precursor. the analogous inhibitor of trypsin, tlck, the chloromethyl ketone derivative of tosyllysine, had no such effect.19725061988
inhibition of early vaccinia virus ribonucleic acid synthesis in interferon-treated chicken embryo fibroblasts.pretreatment of chicken embryo cells with homologous but not heterologous interferon inhibits the synthesis of vaccinia virus early messenger ribonucleic acid (mrna). this inhibition is seen in the presence of cycloheximide, i.e., in the absence of protein synthesis, suggesting that the virion-bound transcriptase may be the target of the antiviral activity associated with interferon treatment. the inhibition of viral mrna synthesis is dependent on the amount of chicken interferon used. the nonvi ...19725062679
defective virus particles from sindbis virus. 19725063430
interaction of interferon with cells: the relationship between interferon uptake and activity. 19725064263
assay for secondary structure in ribonucleic acid.a chromatographic procedure is described which can discriminate among single-stranded ribonucleic acid (rna) molecules in solution on the basis of the extent of their secondary structure. the assay is effected through chromatography at different temperatures with columns of cellulose cf-11. when sindbis virus rna is chromatographed in this system, the ratio of the amounts of rna eluting in the single-stranded peak to those eluting in the double-stranded peak increases at higher temperatures, pre ...19725064438
radioimmune precipitation of group a arboviruses. 19725066343
peristence of sindbis virus in bhk-21 cell cultures. 19725066350
quantitative experiments on the vector capability of culex (culex) theileri theobald with west nile and sindbis viruses. 19725080426
[virological characteristics of infection in the l cell-sindbis virus system in the presence of antiviral serum]. 19725086412
[a change in various biological properties of sindbis virus as a result of prolonged passage at low temperatures]. 19725086854
[structural proteins of sindbis virus and translation of the viral genome]. 19715092493
interferon assays and quantitative virus determinations in a fatal infection in man with western equine encephalomyelitis virus. 19715093674
release of viral hemagglutinin and nucleocapsid components after disruption of sindbis virus with ether. 19715102213
modification of sindbis virus glycoprotein by host-specified glycosyl transferases.the amino acid sequence of the membrane glycoprotein of sindbis virus is specified by the viral genome, but it has not been determined whether the carbohydrate portion of this molecule is specified by the cell or by the virus. we have examined two of the enzyme activities which catalyze transfer of monosaccharides to glycoprotein (sialyl and fucosyl transferases). comparison of particulate enzyme preparations from infected and uninfected cells showed no difference in either the specific activity ...19715102426
amelioration of friend virus leukemia by sequential administration of viral and nonviral interferon inducers. 19715105377
[results of a serologic study of the cycles of circulation of several arboviruses in the republic of senegal (west africa)]. 19715105875
lipid and protein organization in sindbis virus. 19715110315
an investigation into the mechanism of cytotoxicity of levorphanol. 19715113238
3. rna of uninfected and sindbis virus-infected aedes albopictus cells. 19715142328
serologic evidence of arbovirus infection in lebanon. 19715146631
serologic evidence of arbovirus infection in lebanon. 19715149804
analysis of arbovirus ribonucleic acid forms by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.viral ribonucleic acid (rna) from semliki forest virus- and sindbis virus-infected cells was analyzed by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels. in contrast to earlier results obtained by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, all of the known viral rna forms (i.e., the 42s, 26s, replicative form, and replicative intermediate) were very clearly separated. the high resolution of the electrophoretic method permitted the identification of two new single-stranded rna species. in addition, the repl ...19715165207
interaction between sindbis virus rna and ribosomes from chick fibroblasts. 19715165617
potato spindle tuber viroid. v. failure of immunological tests to disclose double-stranded rna or rna-dna hybrids. 19715166353
[cultivation of various arboviruses in new transplantable lines of mouse fibroblasts]. 19715168877
identification of the membrane protein and "core" protein of sindbis virus. 19685238983
temperature of compensation: significance for virus in- activation.the purpose of this report is to call attention to the probable biological utility of a physical constant, the temperature of compensation (t(c)) or isokinetic temperature. t(c) has hitherto not been used in biological research. it is defined as the temperature at which a series of arrhenius plots, related by variation of a single parameter, pass through a common point. such systems demonstrate the so-called compensation effect and show linear variation of change in enthalpy with change in entro ...19695253661
interferon induction: dna-rna hybrid or double stranded rna? 19715280104
location of the glycoprotein in the membrane of sindbis virus. 19715283617
absence of an all-or-none type of complement requirement in early neutralizing antibody against western equine encephalitis virus. 19715313614
sindbis virus infection in australia. 19695373218
[the effect of cycloheximide upon sheep abortion virus, sindbis virus and other viruses in screening experiments]. 19695386502
[inhibition of viral multiplication with chemically modified ribonucleic acids. ii. inhibition of the multiplication of an arbovirus (sindbis virus) on chick embryo fibroblasts]. 19695392894
[the effect of beta-propiolactone and heat on the antigenic properties of a series of arboviruses]. 19695407009
[inhibition of viral multiplication by chemically modified ribonucleic acids. 3. influence of the nature and the extent of the chemical modifications]. 19695408727
carbohydrate content of the membrane protein of sindbis virus. 19705418165
glycopeptides of the membrane glycoprotein of sindbis virus. 19705418166
separation of sindbis virus plaque-type variants by calcium phosphate chromatography. 19705452662
virus-specific proteins synthesized in cells infected with rna+ temperature-sensitive mutants of sindbis virus.all sindbis virus temperature-sensitive mutants defective in "late" functions were systematically surveyed by acrylamide-gel electrophoresis for similarities and differences in the intracellular pattern of virus-specific proteins synthesized at the permissive and nonpermissive temperatures. only cells infected with mutants of complementation group c showed an altered pattern. at the nonpermissive temperature, these mutants failed to induce the synthesis of a polypeptide corresponding to the nucl ...19705461887
immunological activity associated with the nucleocapsid and envelope components of an arbovirus.complement-fixing antigens were detected in the nucleocapsid and envelope of sindbis virus. neutralizing antibodies are directed against antigens in the viral envelope.19705461889
allantoic fluid as a source of arbovirus hemagglutinin.noninfectious hemagglutinins were prepared from the allantoic fluids of embryonated chicken eggs infected with sindbis virus or with murray valley encephalitis virus.19705466134
molecular weight of sindbis virus ribonucleic acid as measured by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.the molecular weight (mw) of sindbis virion ribonucleic acid (rna) determined by gel electrophoresis was in a range of 3.89 x 10(6) to 4.45 x 10(6) daltons. upon denaturation with urea, it separated into fragments having an mw of 1.76 x 10(6) daltons. viral-specific sindbis 26s rna contained a major species having an mw of 1.76 x 10(6) daltons.19705471476
peptide composition of sindbis virus variants. 19705490642
a rich source of replicative ribonucleic acid of sindbis virus--a potent interferon inducer. 19705496087
association of viral ribonucleic acid with cellular membranes in chick embryo cells infected with sindbis virus.membranes from cells infected with sindbis virus had associated with them viral ribonucleic acid (rna) polymerase and about 60 to 70% of the viral rna labeled when short pulses were used. this rna contained most of the replicative intermediate and replicative form of viral rna found in the infected cells. the use of "mg(2+) sarkosyl crystals" permitted the isolation of membrane-bound nucleic acids and allowed the demonstration that sindbis virus rna was synthesized on a membrane-viral rna comple ...19705497889
effect of di-ethyl-amino-ethyl (deae)-dextran on the plaque reduction and plaque inhibition tests with arboviruses. 19705514568
influence of an arbovirus infection (sindbis virus) on the protein and ribonucleic acid synthesis of cultivated chick embryo cells. 19705529071
basis for variable response of arboviruses to guanidine treatment.the effect of guanidine on the replication of the group a arboviruses, sindbis virus, and semliki forest virus (sfv) was studied. guanidine rapidly, but reversibly, inhibited sfv ribonucleic acid (rna) synthesis. the synthesis of all species of viral rna was inhibited, but that of ribonuclease-resistant forms was least affected. this inhibition occurred when the drug was added at any point during the log phase of virus growth. the growth of sfv was also markedly inhibited, but sindbis virus grow ...19705530010
phospholipid synthesis in sindbis virus-infected cells.we investigated the metabolic requirements for the decrease in phospholipid synthesis previously observed by pfefferkorn and hunter in primary cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts infected with sindbis virus. the incorporation of (32)po(4) into all classes of phospholipids was found to decline at the same rate and to the same extent; thus, incorporation of (14)c-choline into acid-precipitable form provided a convenient measure of phospholipid synthesis that was used in subsequent experiments. ex ...19705530011
on the infectivity of the sindbis virus nucleocapsid. 19705535402
interaction of interferon with cells: the synthesis of an interferon-induced protein. 19705535403
interaction of interferon with cells: the relationship of cell-associated interferon and antiviral activity. 19705535454
denaturation of sindbis virus rna with dimethyl sulphoxide. 19715542484
enhancement of sindbis virus infectivity by reduced salt concentration. 19715544458
use of sarcoma 180 to prepare hemagglutinating and complement-fixing antigens for viruses in adult mice. 19715554486
[on the formation of plaques by sindbis virus under different experimental conditions]. 19675616866
prevalence of sindbis virus antibodies in an egyptian rural community. 19675624757
[on the absorption of sindbis virus on monolayers of chick embryo cells]. 19675629537
temperature-sensitive mutants of sindbis virus: biochemical correlates of complementation.temperature-sensitive mutants of sindbis virus fail to grow at a temperature that permits growth of the wild type, but when certain pairs of these mutants, mixed together, infect cells at that temperature, viral growth (i.e., complementation) occurs. the yield from this complementation, however, is of the same order of magnitude as the infectivity in the inoculum. since in animal virus infections the protein components of the virion probably enter the cell with the viral nucleic acid, it was nec ...19675630228
effect of heat on virions of wild-type sindbis virus and a thermostable mutant. 19685640824
investigations on the formation and interconversion of sindbis virus hemagglutinins. 19685642006
absence of nucleotide sequence complementarity between sindbis virus and newcastle disease virus genomes. 19685651138
the intracellular site and sequence of sindbis virus replication. 19685675578
[serologic data on the role of birds in the circulation of sindbis virus in the delta of the volga]. 19685702148
maturation defects in temperature-sensitive mutants of sindbis virus.temperature-sensitive mutants of sindbis virus, which synthesize viral ribonucleic acid (rna) but not mature virus at the nonpermissible temperature, were selected for the study of viral maturation. of these, three mutants which complement each other genetically were used. two major proteins, the nucleocapsid and membrane proteins, located, respectively, in the viral nucleoid and membrane, were found in intact virions. in cells infected with wild-type sindbis virus, four distinct types of viral ...19685723529
effect of altered osmotic pressure on the growth of sindbis virus. 19685723530
viral events necessary for the induction of interferon in chick embryo cells.temperature-sensitive mutants of sindbis virus were employed to investigate the nature of the viral event(s) which induces chick-embryo cells to produce interferon. chick embryo cells induced by the parental heat-resistant strain of sindbis virus produced essentially equal amounts of interferon at 29 and 42 c. an rna(-) and three rna(+) strains [temperature-sensitive mutants unable (rna(-)) and able (rna(+)) to make ribonucleic acid] produced interferon at 29 c but not at 42 c. it is concluded t ...19685723701
[influence of temperature on the development of sindbis virus and on the production of interferon in cell cultures]. 19685724890
antiviral activity of polyacrylic and polymethacrylic acids. ii. mode of action in vivo.a marked virus-inhibiting potency is obtained in the serum after intraperitoneal injection of polyacrylic acid (paa) and polymethacrylic acid (pmaa) in mice. much higher antiviral levels were reached than for other related polymers including dextran sulfate, heparin, polyvinyl sulfate, pyran copolymer, polystyrene sulfonate, and macrodex. the broad antiviral action of paa and pmaa was attributed both to a direct interference with the virus-cell interaction and the viral ribonucleic acid metaboli ...19685725320
functional defects of temperature-sensitive mutants of sindbis virus. 19685761396
characterization of a cytoplasmic fraction from sindbis virus-infected cultures. 19695764278
maintenance of the u mutant of sindbis virus by 40 degree passage. 19695765282
presence of sindbis virus in anal discharge of infected aedes aegypti. 19695768775
kinetics of incorporation of structural proteins into sindbis virions.the morphogenesis of sindbis virus was studied by determining the kinetics with which newly synthesized nucleocapsid and envelope proteins appeared in virions released into the extracellular medium. assembly of the nucleocapsid was more rapid than modification of the cellular membrane by the addition of the viral envelope protein. however, both viral structural proteins were efficiently incorporated into virions; a 0.5-hr pulse-labeling period resulted in the release of maximally labeled virus d ...19695771964
sindbis virus infection of chick and hamster cells: synthesis of virus-specific proteins. 19695777557
sindbis virus-induced viral ribonucleic acid polymerase.a cytoplasmic structure containing the viral ribonucleic acid (rna) polymerase has been isolated by sucrose density centrifugation from cells infected with sindbis virus. uninfected cells did not contain any such structure. preliminary experiments indicated that the structure may be associated with membranes. this structure incorporated (3)h-guanosine triphosphate in vitro in the absence of added template. the rna synthesized in vitro by the enzyme consisted of single-stranded 40s rna, the ribon ...19695798245
effect of interferon on sindbis virus growth in chick embryo cell cultures. 19695798517
inhibition of interjacent ribonucleic acid (26s) synthesis in cells infected by sindbis virus.the interrelationship of viral ribonucleic acid (rna) and protein synthesis in cells infected by sindbis virus was investigated. when cultures were treated with puromycin early in the course of infection, the synthesis of interjacent rna (26s) was preferentially inhibited. a similar result was obtained by shifting cells infected by one temperature-sensitive mutant defective in rna synthesis from the permissive (29 c) to the nonpermissive (41.5 c) temperature. under both conditions, the viral rna ...19695817400
two variants of sindbis virus which differ in interferon induction and serum clearance. i. the phenomenon. 19695822615
two variants of sindbis virus which differ in interferon induction and serum clearance. ii. virological characterizations. 19695822616
[some properties of sindbis virus variants, of large and small plaques, inoculated into baby mice]. 19655856476
[influence of puromycin on production of the sindbis virus in in vitro cell cultures]. 19655861165
increase of size of sindbis virus plaques due to the effect of steroid hormones. 19655883941
the influence of cortisone on experimental viral infection. vi. inhibition by hydrocortisone of interferon synthesis in the chick embryo.the initial observations that cortisone may act as an inhibitor of viral interference (11, 4) are now explicable as an inhibitory effect on interferon synthesis. the suggestion that the action of interferon is also inhibited by cortisone or its analogues (6) has not been confirmed in a plaque reduction type of interferon assay system in which autointerference by the challenge inoculum is a lesser problem. in this respect, the present results are in accord with those obtained by demaeyer and dema ...19665905243
isolation and characterization of conditional-lethal mutants of sindbis virus. 19665919228
complementation between temperature-sensitive mutants of sindbis virus. 19665919229
effect of interferon on rna synthesis in sindbis virus infected cells. 19665933993
an assessment of culex pipiens quinquefasciatus say as a vector of virus diseases in the witwatersrand region of the transvaal. ii. sindbis virus. 19665953933
antibody to sindbis virus in a west nile virus endemic area and the use of different tests for the detection of antibody to these two viruses. 19665965993
[on the thermostability of the sindbis virus]. 19665994311
intracellular conversion of the rna of sindbis virus to a double-stranded form. 19676053141
lack of correlation between production of interferon and protection of temperature in mice infected with sindbis virus. 19676053416
intracellular conversion of the rna of sindbis virus to a double-stranded form. 19676059682
[studies on the possible protective role of an interferon during hyperthermia induced in mice infected by sindbis virus]. 19676062795
rubella virus-induced interference in chick embryo cells.primary chick embryo cells inoculated with rubella virus were found to develop interference with the multiplication of sindbis virus. substantial quantities of interferon (ifn) were detectable in the cell cultures indicating that the resistance induced was due to ifn production.19846084951
[various biological characteristics of sindbis virus].the hemagglutinating activity of sindbis virus on untreated or tripsinized blood red cells of some animal species was assessed. in some cases tripsinization increases the red cell sensitivity to viral hemagglutinin. interferon (ifn) production induced by sindbis virus on human wish, mouse l-929 and chicken fep cells was similar in all three cases. the effects of the temperature on virus replication were studied. optimal growth was seem to take place at 37 degrees c. these data suggest that the v ...19836085056
interferon-induced transfer of viral resistance by human b and t lymphocytes.enriched human b lymphocytes cocultivated with mouse l cells produced human leukocyte interferon (ifn-alpha) and shortly thereafter transferred antiviral activity to the recipient cells (99% inhibition of expected virus yield). in contrast, cocultivation of enriched t-cell populations with mouse l cells resulted in no ifn production or transfer of antiviral activity. in addition, both t and b lymphocytes pretreated with exogenous ifn or stimulated in vitro by mitogens could transfer antiviral ac ...19846088090
[effect of virazole on the antiviral activity of poly(g) x poly(c) and other polyribonucleotide interferonogens].the effect of virazole on the antiviral activity of poly (g) x poly (c), poly (g, a) x x poly (c) and poly(g, i) x poly (c) was studied in cell cultures and on mice. it was shown that virazole in concentrations not sufficient for significant inhibition of the development of vesicular stomatitis virus or sindbis virus in chick embryo cell cultures markedly increased the antiviral effect and allowed decreasing the minimum effective doses of the synthetic polyribonucleotide complexes with respect t ...19846089650
arbovirus infections in humans in new south wales. seroepidemiology of the alphavirus group of togaviruses.a seroepidemiological study of the prevalence of antibodies to alphaviruses (ross river [rrv], sindbis [sin] and getah [get] viruses) was carried out on 16 842 specimens of sera collected during 1981 and 1982 from individuals of all ages living in all health regions of new south wales. prevalence rates were found to be low in the major coastal cities of sydney, newcastle and wollongong, and in the whole of the tablelands. in coastal populations, the rates were highest in the far and mid north co ...19846094993
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