PMID(sorted ascending)
[the isolation of rotavirus immunolactone and a study of its specific activity in vitro]. 19911664559
[the serial passage of bovine rotavirus in a heterologous cell culture]. 19911664560
association of diarrhea in cattle with torovirus infections on epidemiologic survey was performed to determine the incidence of torovirus infections in 2 disease entities of cattle: diarrhea of replacement calves up to 2 months old, and winter dysentery of adult cattle. samples were obtained from 187 diarrheal and 115 healthy calves from 15 farms, as well as 149 diarrheal and 67 healthy cows from 27 farms with or without winter dysentery. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of torovirus, rotavirus, and coronavirus antigen in feces, and of to ...19911664668
research priorities for diarrhoeal disease vaccines: memorandum from a who meeting.diarrhoeas caused by rotaviruses, shigella, vibrio cholerae, and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) represent a major health burden in developing countries, and have stimulated much effort towards vaccine development in order to protect against these four disease agents. this memorandum describes the state of the art and points the way to future research and test trials in this area.19911664785
[follow-up of epidemic viral infections in nurseries of rhone during 2 consecutive years]. 19911665223
characterization of an avian rotavirus strain by neutralization and molecular hybridization assays.pigeon rotavirus strain po-13, which was recently shown to be neutralized by a hyperimmune serum to the prototype serotype 7 virus ch-2, showed a one-way neutralization cross with turkey rotavirus ty-1. when its genome was compared by rna-rna hybridization under stringent conditions with those of avian and mammalian rotaviruses, po-13 displayed a low to medium level of homology only with turkey rotavirus strains ty-1 and ty-3 but not with chicken rotavirus strain ch-1. furthermore, no homology w ...19911665575
[the inactivation of simian rotavirus sa11 with hydrogen peroxide]. 19911665622
clinical features of enteric adenovirus infection in infants.during the period december 1984 to october 1988, adenoviruses (ads) were isolated on 119 occasions (1.6%) from stool samples of patients with gastroenteritis. by dna restriction analysis, 85 enteric adenoviruses (eads) were identified. sixty-seven patients with these infections were studied, of whom 18 had ad40, 30 had ad41 and 19 had untyped ad infections. the incidence of ad infection was high in children between 6 and 11 months of age. the illness was characterized by watery diarrhea (whitish ...19911665948
rapid techniques for diagnostic and epidemiological studies of rotavirus infection.two rapid procedures modifying the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) standard technique for the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus infections are described. these assays permit the detection of both group a and non-group-a rotaviruses, and can be employed in most microbiology laboratories. the cost per sample is minimal compared with that of enzyme immune assays (elisa) or the agglutination tests available commercially.19911666113
comparison of staphylococcal co-agglutination with other assays for rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection in humans, calves and was used for rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection. staphylococcus aureus cowan i sensitized with rabbit antiserum to rotavirus demonstrated the presence of this virus in stools of children, calves and piglets with clinical signs of diarrhea. a total of 415 fecal samples were examined by the co-agglutination test and the results were compared with those of elisa, electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel and latex agglutination. the co-agglutination test, when compared to these thr ...19911666115
studies of bacterial, rotaviral and cryptosporidium etiology of acute diarrheal diseases in hospitalized children.657 hospitalized children with acute diarrheal disease were studied for bacterial and rotaviral etiology. cryptosporidium presence was followed in 123 children. intestinal pathogens were detected in 195 (29.6%) cases: 132 (20.3%) enterobacteria, 47 (7.1%) rotaviruses, 4 (3.2%) cryptosporidium sp. and 12 (1.8%) combined infections. among enterobacteria, e. coli was the most frequent (10% cases) with enteropathogenic (epec), enterotoxigenic (etec), enterohemorrhagic (ehec) and enteroinvasive (eiec ...19911666314
[the results of a study of the contamination of bodies of water by rotaviruses against a background of gastroenteritis morbidity].the results of a sanitary virological survey of the prevalence of rotaviruses in water objects in relation to gastroenteritis incidence are presented. some regularities of the epidemic process of rotavirus infection were discovered: a high portion of infants involved, occurrence of cases of the disease predominantly in the cold periods of the year, a significant portion (23.8%) of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the total incidence of acute intestinal infections, etc. besides, comparison of the dat ...19911666477
direct serotyping of porcine rotaviruses using vp7-specific monoclonal antibodies by an enzyme immunoassay.employing a serotyping eia test using mabs both cell culture adapted and faecal porcine rotaviruses were classified into serotypes g3, g3/5, g4, and g5. the mabs have confirmed and extended the serotyping results obtained using polyclonal antisera. these mabs are therefore potential reagents for serotyping of porcine rotaviruses. using subgroup specific mabs serotypes g3, g3/5, and g5 were found to contain subgroup i antigens while g4 rotaviruses contained either subgroup ii or subgroup i antige ...19911666648
[clinical-etiological correlations in 94 cases of acute infantile diarrhea].the authors consider the clinical and etiological correlations in 94 children (0-36 months) with acute diarrhoea, hospitalised in 1989. they compare epidemiological data (sex, age, seasonality), clinical data (fever, vomiting, distinctive features of diarrhoea, abdominal pain) and laboratory data with the main etiological agents isolated.19911666844
pentamer arrangements in fragments of human rotavirus inner capsids observed by low dose electron microscopy.fragments of disrupted capsids were frequently seen in purified preparations of human rotavirus inner capsids by negative staining method in electron microscopy. the ultrastructures of these fragments were analyzed in comparison with the t = 13l model. well-resolved pentamers were rarely seen in the fragments on observation at the standard electron doses, but were frequently seen at low electron doses, which meant a better preservation of the steric structure of capsid fragments in the latter ca ...19911666901
serotypes of rotavirus that infect infants symptomatically and asymptomatically. 19911667064
immune response to rotavirus vaccines among breast-fed and nonbreast-fed children. 19911667065
recent advances in development of a rotavirus vaccine for prevention of severe diarrheal illness of infants and young children. 19911667066
rotavirus specific breast milk antibody in two populations and possible correlates of protection.since rotavirus infection is common in caracas, venezuela and seasonal in rochester, new york usa, researchers analyzed at least 65 and 58 breast milk samples form women in caracas and rochester respectively to identify rotavirus specific antibodies. the mothers had earlier participated in rhesus rotavirus serotype 3 (rrv) vaccine trials. the plaque reduction neutralization assay revealed that 84.6% of breast milk samples from venezuela had detectable antibody to rrv compared to only 50% in th ...19911667067
passive immune protection from diarrhea caused by rotavirus or e. coli: an animal model to demonstrate and quantitate efficacy. 19911667071
rotavirus positive (rv+) and non-rotavirus (rv-) necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) in 32 infants. 19911667683
[incidence of rotavirus in intensive-production poultry farms].rotavirus are the major etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis in various species of mammals and birds. this study was aimed to explore the frequency of rotavirus in flocks of commercial laying hens and industrial broiler chicken. feces and caecal content were sampled from 589 birds belonging to 17 farms located in the neighbourhood of lujan national university. rna patterns were explored by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. viral particles were found with moderate frequency throughout the ...19911667696
[detection of non-a rotavirus in tucumán].a case of infectious gastroenteritis (gei) caused by a non-a rotavirus (rv) in the province of tucumán is reported. fecal sample analysis for group a rv by enzyme immunoassay (elisa) gave a negative result. polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) of the viral rna showed a genomic pattern coincident with that described by pedley for rv belonging to group c. to our knowledge, this is the first communication on the detection of non-a rv as an etiological agent of human gei in argentina.19911667700
[rotavirus infections and their prevention with vaccines in children].human rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe diarrhoea in children under two years in developing countries: the need of an effective rotavirus vaccine, safe, easy to administer and compatible with existing immunization schedules is now well-established. molecular structure of rotaviruses (fragmented genome) and their antigenic variability (four human serotypes without cross-reactivity) explain some difficulties in vaccinal strategy. furthermore, specific efficacy is not clearly evaluabl ...19911668070
[epidemiological studies among amerindians of rondônia. iv. serological survey for rotavirus among suruí and karitiána].the authors present the results of a sero-epidemiological survey for rotavirus antibodies conducted among the suruí and karitiána, two amerindian groups of rondônia, brazilian amazonia. the results indicate high percentages of seropositivity for both groups (67.8% among the suruí and 77.4% among the karitiána using elisa and 45.5% for the suruí and 56.7% for the karitiána using indirect immunofluorescence). chi square tests indicated no statistically significant association between group and ser ...19911668182
[stimulation of serum antibody formation in pigs by oral, subcutaneous or combined administration of live porcine rotaviruses or intramuscular inoculation of inactivated porcine rotaviruses in an oil adjuvant].only live vaccines prepared from attenuated strains have been used for the specific prophylaxis of rotavirus infections in pigs. these vaccines are administered to sows per os or parenterally to increase the content of antibodies in the blood serum, colostrum and milk, and in this way to provide for the better passive protection of suckling piglets through the maternal antibodies, or to induce the active immunity by pig vaccination. the data on the efficiency of live vaccines administered in bot ...19911668214
inhibition of rotavirus and enterovirus infections by tea extracts.epigallocatechin gallate from green tea and theaflavin digallate from black tea inhibited infections of cultured rhesus monkey kidney ma 104 cells with rotaviruses and enteroviruses. their antiviral effects were maximally induced when directly added to virus, and their pre- and post-treatment of the cells produced much weak antiviral activity. antiviral activity of the extracts therefore seems to be attributable to interference with virus adsorption.19911668240
the problems of acute diarrhoeal diseases in children in india. 19911668280
improvement of the plaque technique for human rotaviruses: effect of fetal bovine serum, acetyltrypsin and agar.dilution of viruses, which were previously treated with 10 micrograms acetyltrypsin/ml, in mem supplemented with 2.5% fetal bovine serum caused little damage of cell monolayers resulting in the formation of discrete plaques. when agar and acetyltrypsin were added to the overlay medium at the concentrations of 0.8% and 5 micrograms/ml, respectively, clear plaques were induced. linear relationships were obtained between virus concentration and the number of plaques, thus the procedure described in ...19911668675
pcr-mediated analysis of human rotaviruses. 19911668692
[development of a rotavirus vaccine. field trials in venezuela].the significance of rotavirus as an agent in acute diarrhea in children is well established, and much effort has been made towards the development of a vaccine for its prevention. in venezuela, between the years 1985 and 1991, 3 different strategies for a rotavirus vaccine testing in children have been evaluated. the first consisted on the utilization of simian rotavirus (rrv-ser 3). this vaccine was found to be innocuous, immunogenic and induced homotypic protection. however, because there are ...19911668865
[epidemiology of rotavirus infections in the federal district, brazil].rotavirus testing was performed on fecal samples of 607 infants and young children aging from 0 to 6 years with acute diarrhoea between may 1986 and april 1990. samples were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). rotaviruses were detected in 123 samples (20.27%); from those, 107 (87.00%) were classified as subgroup ii (long profile). rotaviruses were not detected in the control group of healthy children, but it were present in 7.80% of the children hospitalized for other causes b ...19911668975
rotavirus surveillance. 19911669810
short electropherotype rotaviruses isolated longitudinally from a cohort of mexican infants.stool specimens obtained longitudinally during the first year of life of a cohort of 75 rural infants were tested for the presence of rotavirus with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. thirty four infants showed the presence of rotaviruses during the first year of life. only 41% of these episodes were associated with diarrhea. extraction of rotavirus rna was still possible in 12 of 34 stool samples, ten of them obtained during episodes of associated-diarrhea. electropherotyping of these rotavi ...19911670255
swedish agency for research cooperation with developing countries. prospects for public health benefits in developing countries from new vaccines against enteric infections.the symposium participants concluded that vaccines with even moderate efficacy can be highly useful to prevent large numbers of severe illness episodes and deaths and that the decision of whether to initiate a vaccine program should be based on measures or estimates of public health effectiveness rather than only on protective efficacy. studies of protective efficacy are of course critical to establish the vaccine's biologic activity, but additional aspects of public health effectiveness are als ...19911671681
nosocomial rotavirus infections in adult renal transplant recipients.we conducted a 24-month survey of hospital-acquired rotavirus infections in 20 renal transplant recipients who received their graft during 1988. four cases of nosocomial rotavirus infection were diagnosed (20% of patients), 3-34 days after graft. two patients presented with severe diarrhoea and two with fever alone. the cases occurred mainly during the winter months and remained sporadic. none of our patients was found to have chronic excretion of rotaviruses. contacts from paediatric cases can ...19911679075
the role of barrier precautions in infection control.barrier precautions are a fundamental component of any infection control strategy and a critical aspect of all isolation systems. because many infections are transmitted from patient-to-patient via the hands of personnel, gloves and gowns are widely recommended to provide an extra measure of protection against cross-infection. it is not clear whether gloves are superior to handwashing (if performed obsessionally) in this respect, and there is little evidence that gowns confer additional benefit. ...19911679825
effect of uv-irradiation on rotavirus.the effect of uv-irradiation on sall rotavirus infectivity was followed. the time course of infectivity inactivation in general showed an one-hit pattern. two basic effects of uv-irradiation on virus particles were investigated: the phenomenon of rna-protein linkages and the formation of uracil dimers. to determine the number of uridine dimers, 3h-uridine labelled purified rotavirus was exposed to uv-irradiation, subsequently the rna was extracted and analysed by ascending paper chromatography. ...19911683109
adaptation of human rotavirus to cell culture and characterization of the isolated strain.human rotavirus strain 649 was isolated from a child with clinical picture of acute intestinal infection in the west european part of the u.s.s.r. this strain was adapted to ma-104 (rhesus monkey kidney) cells. by electrophoresis and haemagglutination it differed from the human rotavirus strain wa and from the simian strain sa-11. the productive reproduction of human rotavirus strain 649 may allow its use for the preparation of antigens for diagnostic, immunoprophylaxis, and treatment.19911683120
analysis of rotaviral gastroenteritis in tbilisi.electrophoretypes of 107 rotaviral isolates collected in tbilisi for 18 months revealed seven patterns from which 4 were "long" and 3 "short". the "long" electrophoretypes represented 74.8% of total number of the isolates analysed. one of the "long" electrophoretypes dominated for the whole investigation period. differences in the seasonal distribution of the isolates with various electrophoretypes were demonstrated and appearance of rotaviral isolates was registered with a "short" electrophoret ...19911683128
[antibody response in mice, rabbits and pigs in response to vaccination with an inactivated oil vaccine containing rotavirus and escherichia coli strains with k88, k99 and 987p fimbrial antigens].in trials with mice, rabbits and weanling piglets, four experimental charges of a combined inactivated oil vaccine against diarrhoeas in mammals were tested: the vaccine was to be implanted to sows and it contained porcine rotavirus (prv); two charges also contained bovine rotavirus and bacterins of enterotoxicogenic strains of e. coli with protective antigens k88, k99 and 987p. at low starting antibody titres the twofold i.m. implantation of 0.2 ml vaccine stimulated in mice the production of a ...19911686823
detection of two atypical rotaviruses in the province of misiones, argentina.out of 317 human gastroenteritis cases studied between august 1988-august 1989, two atypical antigenically distinct rotaviruses (pararotaviruses) were detected in faecal samples among 19 rotaviruses shedding children from misiones province, north-eastern argentina. a 1 3/4 year old girl a 3 years old boy, both with vomiting and normal temperature, shed these atypical rotaviruses. their morphology by electron microscopy was identical to other rotaviruses; they contained 11 double-stranded rna seg ...19911688074
lack of cosegregation of the subgroup ii antigens on genes 2 and 6 in porcine rotaviruses.the rotavirus subgroup i and ii specificities associated with gene 2 and 6 products (vp2 and vp6, respectively) were shown not to cosegregate in a number of porcine rotavirus strains. the porcine osu rotavirus strain and osu-vp7-like strains were all found to possess a subgroup ii-specific region on vp2 and a subgroup i-specific region on vp6. of interest is the observation that the subgroup ii-specific epitope on vp2 appears to be present only in human and porcine rotavirus strains, suggesting ...19901688386
neuroimmunomodulation of in vivo anti-rotavirus humoral immune response.neuropeptides and neurohormones (neurotransmitters) have been shown to modulate immune responses in vitro and in vivo. since reproduction and lactation are regulated by neurohormones, we investigated whether neurohormones could enhance anti-rotavirus immunity in milk. rotavirus-free mice were immunized orally with killed bovine rotavirus (brv) and bred 6 weeks post-immunization. post-whelping, each group of dams (ten mice/group) was given a single injection of prolactin (prl), estrogen, prl and ...19901688878
isolation and molecular characterization of a serotype 9 human rotavirus strain.a human rotavirus strain, designated au32, that belongs to serotype 9 was isolated and was compared by rna-rna hybridization with recently established two serotype 9 strains (wi61 and f45) as well as other prototype human strains. these three strains exhibited a very high degree of homology with one another and shared a high degree of homology with strains belonging to the wa genogroup but not with strains belonging to either the ds-1 or au-1 genogroup. these results suggest that genetic constel ...19901691433
development of a rotavirus plaque assay using sephadex g-75.a rapid, reproducible and easily performed plaque assay is described for use with a variety of rotavirus strains. plaque formation was induced in ma-104 cells by the use of sephadex g-75, instead of the traditional agar, and crystalline trypsin in the overlay. formation of large, discrete, easily read plaques was noted in both human and non-human rotavirus strains.19901693368
monoclonal antibodies to the vp6 of porcine subgroup i rotaviruses reactive with subgroup i and non-subgroup i non-subgroup ii strains.a panel of 10 monoclonal antibodies produced after immunization with two porcine subgroup i rotavirus strains (osu and a46), and directed against the major inner capsid protein (vp6), fell into six patterns of reactivity when tested against a collection of human and animal group a rotavirus strains. monoclonal antibodies of pattern i recognized all rotavirus strains. antibodies of patterns 2 and 3 recognized all subgroup ii strains and some, but not all, subgroup i strains. pattern 4 antibodies ...19901693668
evidence for natural reassortants of human rotaviruses belonging to different genogroups.of 335 rotavirus isolates associated with diarrheal disease in bangladesh that were culture adapted and subsequently characterized for electropherotype, subgroup, and serotype, 9 had properties that suggested they may be natural reassortants between human rotaviruses belonging to different "genogroups." two of these were examined in greater detail by rna-rna hybridization with prototype strains representative of each of the three proposed human rotavirus genogroups. one subgroup ii isolate, 248, ...19901693701
selective virus inhibitors.our recent efforts have been directed at the development of selective inhibitors of different classes of viruses, including adeno, pox, and herpesviruses [herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2), varicella-zoster (vzv), cytomegalovirus (cmv), epstein-barr virus (ebv)], (+/-)rna viruses (reo- and rotavirus), (-)rna viruses (influenza, parainfluenza, measles, respiratory syncytial, vesicular stomatitis and rabies virus) and retroviruses [i.e. human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), the ...19901693749
[rotavirus infections]. 19901694370
[the study of experimental and natural rotavirus infection in mice using a heterologous enzyme immunoassay test-system].enzyme immunoassay test systems constructed on the basis of heterologous calf and monkey rotaviruses were shown to be applicable for diagnosis and study of the pathogenesis of experimental and natural rotavirus infection of mice.19901694609
viral gastro-enteritis in children in a 2-month survey of 186 children with gastro-enteritis attending an out-patient clinic in malawi, 42% were infected with rotavirus (hrv), 9% cryptosporidium, 4.2% adenovirus, 1.2% astrovirus and 0.6% norwalk agent and small round featureless viruses. we believe this to be the first report of hrv in malawi and the first of astrovirus in africa. almost all the hrv infections were in children under 12 months old, 40% were in children under 6 months and 64% of children were being breastfed at pre ...19901694637
circulating and breast-milk anti-rotaviral antibodies and neonatal rotavirus infections: a maternal-neonatal view of the high prevalence of rotavirus (rv) diarrhoea in indian (asian) infants in south africa, a hospital-based study of 124 mothers and their neonates was carried out to establish the prevalence of maternal and neonatal circulating anti-rv antibodies, rv antibodies in breast-milk, and neonatal rv infections in this population. thirty-four per cent of the mothers and 38% of the neonates had complement-fixing (cf) serum antibodies. there was a significant correlation between maternal and c ...19901694640
global seasonality of rotavirus from 34 studies of the etiology of childhood diarrhoea were compiled in order to investigate the seasonal patterns of rotavirus gastroenteritis and consider their implications for transmission of the virus. rotavirus was detected in 11-71% of children with diarrhoea, and the median rate of detection (33%) was independent of the level of economic development or geographical region of the study area, as well as of the method of detection used. while rotavirus infections have been called a win ...19901694734
subgroup classification of porcine group-a rotaviruses, using monoclonal antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.fifty-six samples of feces and intestinal contents from nonvaccinated diarrheal pigs with rotavirus infections were tested, using a subgroup (sgp)-specific elisa, to determine rotavirus sgp classification. forty-one percent (23/56) were sgp 1, 25% (14/56) were sgp 2, and 34% (19/56) were not classifiable. for classifiable samples, the geographic distribution for sgp 1 and sgp 2, respectively was: 60%/40% from ohio (n = 15), 63%/37% from other midwestern states (iowa, minnesota, nebraska, south d ...19901695069
removal of inhibitory substances from human fecal specimens for detection of group a rotaviruses by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reactions.a method was developed for the purification of rotavirus rna from fecal extracts in order to permit the sensitive identification of group a rotavirus in fecal specimens by the polymerase chain reaction. sequential reactions with reverse transcriptase and taq polymerase with directed primers from rotavirus gene 6 yielded characteristic 259-base-pair fragments that were then visualized by silver stain on a polyacrylamide gel. as few as 500 genomic copies of purified rotavirus rna could be detected ...19901696283
neutralization epitopes on rotavirus sa11 4fm outer capsid proteins.the vp7 and vp4 genes of seven antigenic mutants of simian rotavirus sa11 4fm (serotype 3) selected after 39 passages in the presence of sa11 4fm hyperimmune antiserum, were sequenced. nucleotide sequence analysis indicated the following. (i) twice as many amino acid substitutions occurred in the vp7 protein than in vp4, which has a molecular weight twice that of vp7. (ii) most amino acid changes that occurred clustered in six variable regions of vp7 and in two variable regions of vp4; these var ...19901696640
nucleotide sequence of the vp7 gene of a bovine rotavirus (strain 61a) with different serotype specificity from serotype 6. 19901697069
antigenic relationships among human rotaviruses as determined by outer capsid protein vp4.cdna clones representing the vp4 gene of symptomatic human rotavirus strain ku (vp7 serotype 1) or ds-1 (vp7 serotype 2) or asymptomatic human rotavirus strain 1076 (vp7 serotype 2) were constructed and inserted into a baculovirus expression vector under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. the resulting recombinants expressed the appropriate authentic vp4 rotavirus outer capsid protein. guinea pigs immunized with these vp4 proteins developed antibodies that neutralized infectivity of the rot ...19901698292
monoclonal antibodies to quebec strain (q17) of bovine rotavirus.fourteen monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against "quebec" strain (q17) of bovine rotavirus were isolated and characterized. four were specific for viral protein vp7 and ten were specific for viral protein vp6. five different isotypes were represented by this group of antibodies. all of the anti-vp6 and none of the anti-vp7 antibodies were sensitive to the effects of periodate on their antigen. the antibodies could be separated into three groups based on their relative resistance to the dissociation ...19901698323
acridine orange metachromasia in the cytoplasm of simian rotavirus (sa-11)-infected ma-104 cell cultures.1. acridine orange metachromasia was used to determine the distribution of simian rotavirus double-stranded rna in cultured ma-104 cells 0 to 72 h post-infection. correlations were made among time of detection and amount of viral antigens, virus yield and the ultrastructural aspects of infected cells. 2. rnaase-resistant cytoplasmic metachromasia appeared 48 h post-infection, 36 h after the initial detection of viral antigens or infectious virions and 24 h after the appearance of the cytopathic ...19901698493
rotavirus studies in indian (asian) south african infants with acute gastro-enteritis: i. microbiological and epidemiological aspects.this study, which is the first one documenting rotavirus (rv) diarrhoea in asian infants in south africa, describes the virological and epidemiological aspects of this disease in this population. fifty-five per cent of 1142 hospitalized cases investigated over a 31-month period showed a positive stool elisa for rv. most of these children stopped shedding rv by days 4-6 of hospital admission, though prolonged excretion was recorded in some acute cases for up to 13 days. mixed rv-bacterial infecti ...19901699480
rotavirus serology and excretion in hospitalized non-diarrhoeal patients.despite the well-recognized association between rotavirus (rv) and infantile diarrhoeal disease, a few studies have shown that the isolation rate of rv from the faeces of non-diarrhoeal patients can be high, suggesting that the finding of rv in the stools of individual gastro-enteritis (ge) patients need not necessarily denote an aetiological relationship. a prospective study of rotavirus serology and stool excretion was carried out in a group of non-diarrhoeal paediatric patients. a positive el ...19901699481
incidence, clinical features and epidemiology of rotavirus gastro-enteritis in hospitalized children.two hundred and eighteen patients with acute gastro-enteritis (ge) and 67 controls (patients admitted during the period of study for illness other than (ge) were included in this study. their stool samples were subjected to the following tests to detect the presence of rotavirus: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), latex agglutination and electron microscopy. samples positive by any one or more of the above methods were considered positive for rotavirus and were subjected to polyacrylamid ...19901699482
a comparison of four methods for detecting rotavirus in faeces of bovine calves.the purpose of the study was to compare the efficacy of four techniques to detect rotavirus in faeces from bovine calves with diarrhoea. the techniques used were an agar gel precipitation test (agpt), discontinuous counter-immunoelectrophoresis (dcie), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with silver staining (page-ss). faecal samples, 20 each from cow and buffalo calves with diarrhoea from the government cattle farms and the farm of the agricultura ...19901699993
determination of subgroup, serotype and electropherotype of human rotaviruses obtained from diarrheic patients in the philippines.a total of 40 rotavirus specimens obtained from infants with acute gastroenteritis in metro manila, philippines, were analyzed for their subgroup and serotype specificities and rna electropherotype. a half (50%) of the specimens contained subgroup i human rotaviruses (hrvs), while 45% of them contained subgroup ii hrvs. all subgroup ii hrvs were determined to be serotype 1, except one specimen belonging to serotype 3, by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with serotype specific monoclonal anti ...19901700479
identification of operationally overlapping and independent cross-reactive neutralization regions on human rotavirus vp4.cross-reactive neutralization epitopes on vp4 of human rotavirus (hrv) were analyzed by the use of vp4-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (n-mabs) and mab-resistant mutants. seven anti-vp4 n-mabs obtained in this study by using hrv serotypes 1 and 3 as immunizing antigens showed a variety of cross-reactivity patterns to 20 hrv strains with different serotype specificity in neutralization tests and a broader cross-reactivity to them was found for four n-mabs in an enzyme-linked immunosor ...19901701477
antigenic and biochemical characterization of bovine rotavirus v1005, a new member of rotavirus serotype 10.bovine rotavirus (brv) v1005 is serologically distinct from rotavirus serotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 9. brv v1005 showed cross-reactions with brv b223, the american prototype of serotype 10 rotavirus, and with brv e4049, a british serotype 10 isolate. brv v1005 was, however, not neutralized by four monoclonal antibodies directed against vp7 of brv b223. two-way cross-reactions were observed between brv v1005 and a reassortant rotavirus containing the vp4 from brv uk. in addition the major try ...19901701478
analysis of the newly identified neutralization epitopes on vp7 of human rotavirus serotype 1.neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed to the vp7 protein and neutralization-resistant mutants were used to analyse the antigenic structure of vp7 of human rotavirus serotype 1. cross-neutralization tests using the mabs and the resistant mutants indicated the existence of two functionally independent neutralization epitope regions (s1 and s2) on vp7. region s1 corresponds to a single epitope domain of vp7 which has been detected previously. two mabs prepared in this study recognized ...19911703558
sequence of the gene encoding the major neutralization antigen (vp7) of serotype 10 rotavirus.the sequence of the gene encoding the major neutralization antigen (vp7) of the type member (bovine virus strain b223) of the proposed serotype 10 of rotavirus has been determined. this was done using a rapid new strategy involving direct sequencing by primer extension of cdna generated from the relevant virus gene (gene 8) using a combined reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction. the sequence obtained is 1062 bp in length and contains a single long open reading frame capable of encoding ...19911703560
improved detection of rotavirus shedding by polymerase chain improve identification of children excreting rotavirus a method for the amplification of rotavirus rna by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was developed. the assay was compared with a solid-phase enzyme immunoassay in the detection of rotavirus shedding by infants in hospital during the winter peak of rotavirus infections. forty children were studied in an intermediate care unit after transfer from intensive care units. only two were admitted primarily because of diarrhoea; the other thirt ...19911703618
rotavirus studies in indian (asian) south african infants with acute gastro-enteritis: ii. clinical aspects and a prospective study of rotavirus (rv) diarrhoea in indian (asian) infants in south africa, it was found that in common with findings elsewhere in the world, vomiting and dehydration are prominent features of this disease. the dehydration was usually isotonic, though both hypo- and hypernatraemia did occur. hypokalaemia was found to be much less common in rv than in non-rv diarrhoea. unlike findings elsewhere, no definite 'rotavirus syndrome' associated with pyrexia and respiratory symptoms co ...19901703740
characterization of rotavirus guanylyltransferase activity associated with polypeptide vp3.rotaviruses transcribe mrna containing a 7mgpppgmp cap at the 5' end in vitro. guanylyltransferase activity associated with the viral particle was detected by sds-page due to the formation of a nucleotide-enzyme complex when the virus was incubated with [alpha-32p]gtp. using purified viral particles it was shown that only the core polypeptide vp3 exhibits the ability to form a complex with the nucleotide. the reaction is specific for gtp or dgtp when mg2+ is used as a cofactor. the reaction also ...19911704411
vp4 relationships between porcine and other rotavirus serotypes.vp4 relationship of australian porcine rotaviruses were identified using genetic reassortants and mabs. all porcine virus isolates except ben-144 appeared to share vp4 antigenicity with osu virus. vp4 and ben-144 virus (gottfried-like virus) showed some antigenic relationships with the human neonatal viruses st-3 and rv-3. in addition, vp4 of porcine crw-8 showed antigenic relationships with simian sa-11. rrv and also canine k9 viruses, while that of porcine tfr-41 showed at least one way vp4 an ...19911705788
operational overlapping of cross-reactive and serotype-specific neutralization epitopes on vp7 of human rotavirus serotype 3.vp7-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (n-mabs) to serotype 3 human rotavirus were produced to analyze serotype 3-specific and cross-reactive neutralization epitopes on vp7. on the basis of the reactivity patterns in neutralization tests with various human and animal strains, a total of 10 n-mabs could be classified into four groups; five antibodies specific to serotype 3 were divided into two groups, and five antibodies consisted of two groups which are cross-reactive with strain 69 m ...19911706592
relative frequency of rotavirus serotypes in yamagata, japan, over four consecutive rotavirus seasons. 19901706883
physicochemical characteristics and flora of diarrhoeal and recovery faeces in children with acute gastro-enteritis in kenya.physiochemical characteristics and flora of diarrhoeal and recovery faeces were investigated in 14 kenyan children with acute gastro-enteritis. causative micro-organisms were shigella, campylobacter, enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, rotavirus and unknown in 6, 2, 1, 2 and 3 patients, respectively. the mean values of the ph of the diarrhoeal specimens were significantly higher than those of the recovery specimens. large amounts of acetic acid and many other kinds of fatty acids were detected in ...19901708960
vp4-specific intestinal antibody response to rotavirus in a murine model of heterotypic infection.we have adapted a murine model of heterotypic rotavirus infection for the purpose of evaluating the intestinal antibody response to an infection that mimics human vaccination. neonatal mice were infected with the rhesus rotavirus (rrv). the enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used in order to avoid common artifacts in the quantitation of intestinal immune responses inherent in measurements of luminal or serum immunoglobulins and to obtain easily quantifiable data in a flexible and convenient form ...19911709695
serotype-specific epitope(s) present on the vp8 subunit of rotavirus vp4 protein.cdna clones representing the vp8 and vp5 subunits of vp4 of symptomatic human rotavirus strain ku (vp7 serotype 1 and vp4 serotype 1a) or ds-1 (vp7 serotype 2 and vp4 serotype 1b) or asymptomatic human rotavirus strain 1076 (vp7 serotype 2 and vp4 serotype 2) were constructed and inserted into the pgemex-1 plasmid and expressed in escherichia coli. immunization of guinea pigs with the vp8 or vp5 protein of each strain induced antibodies that neutralized the rotavirus from which the vp4 subunits ...19911709699
reactivities of serotyping monoclonal antibodies with culture-adapted human rotaviruses.rotaviruses collected in bangladesh during 1985 to 1986 were culture adapted and used in a comparative serotyping study with three groups of monoclonal antibodies, all of which reacted with the major neutralization protein (vp7) of serotype 1, 2, 3, or 4. the goals were to determine which monoclonal antibodies most accurately predicted the serotype and why large variations in serotyping efficiencies have occurred with these monoclonal antibodies in previous studies. the 143 rotavirus isolates us ...19911709945
antibody response to serotype-specific and cross-reactive neutralization epitopes on vp4 and vp7 after rotavirus infection or using a competitive solid-phase immunoassay with serotype-specific and cross-reactive neutralizing monoclonal antibodies directed at vp4 and vp7, we tested the antibody responses to some neutralization epitopes on vp4 and vp7 in individuals infected or vaccinated with rotavirus. antibody responses to vp7 epitopes of the infecting serotype of virus were found at a high frequency in both infants and children. in contrast, antibody responses to vp4 and heterotypic vp7 were observed only when the ...19911709946
detection of animal and human group b rotaviruses in fecal specimens by polymerase chain reaction.a combined reverse transcriptase reaction-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) was developed to achieve the sensitive detection of group b rotaviruses (gbr). sequences derived from genomic segment 3 of the idir (intestinal disease of infant rats) strain of gbr permitted the detection of greater than or equal to 0.08 pg of purified idir genomic rna (4,000 genome copies). primers complementary to the terminal sequences of gene 11 of gbr strain adrv (adult diarrhea rotavirus) allowed for the detectio ...19911709948
characterization of bovine rotavirus vp6 and vp7 as glycoproteins using monoclonal antibodies.bovine rotavirus proteins were analysed by a panel of monoclonal antibodies. glycosylated epitopes were identified on both inner and outer capsid proteins (vp6 and vp7 respectively). vp7 possessed a periodate insensitive epitope which was, however, sensitive to endoglycosidase h, mixed glycosidases and to protease treatment. this epitope was not detected on viruses grown in the presence of 2-deoxy-d-glucose or tunicamycin. an epitope was detected on vp6 which was sensitive to periodate oxidation ...19911711988
analysis of the neutralization epitopes on human rotavirus vp7 recognized by monotype-specific monoclonal antibodies.three anti-vp7 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) which neutralized only two strains (k8 and s12) of five serotype 1 human rotaviruses (hrvs) were obtained, and neutralization epitopes recognized by these 'monotype-specific' mabs were analysed by epitope mapping and sequencing of the vp7 genes. neutralization-resistant mutants of k8 and s12 were selected by the monotype-specific mabs and serotype 1-specific mabs prepared previously. cross-neutralization tests between mabs and neutralization-resistant ...19911714939
cytotoxic effects of children's faeces: relation to diarrhoea due to clostridium difficile and other enteric pathogens.cytotoxicity of faecal extracts was demonstrated in 47 of 88 children (54%) referred for microbiological investigation of stools. cytotoxic clostridium difficile and vertotoxigenic escherichia coli (vtec) were the pathogens identified most commonly but cytotoxicity was also found in association with campylobacter jejuni, salmonella spp, shigella sonnei, giardia lamblia, rotavirus, adenovirus and poliovirus type 1 which had been acquired by oral immunization. in two patients, one of whom had cyst ...19911715139
homotypic and heterotypic serum and milk antibody to rotavirus in normal, infected and vaccinated horses.the homotypic and heterotypic antibody response to rotavirus was determined in three pony mares and their foals. the normal concentrations of anti-rotavirus antibodies in mares' milk and mares' and foals' serum over the first 10 weeks post-partum were measured using iga, igg and rotavirus serotype-specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. experimental infection of the foals with serotype 3 equine rotavirus produced a rapid, serotype-specific response which peaked 10 days after infection and a ...19911715620
a second neutralizing epitope of b19 parvovirus implicates the spike region in the immune response.we used 18 monoclonal antibodies against b19 parvovirus to identify neutralizing epitopes on the viral capsid. of the 18 antibodies, 9 had in vitro neutralizing activity in a bone marrow colony culture assay. the overlapping polypeptide fragments spanning the b19 structural proteins were produced in a pmal-c escherichia coli expression system and used to investigate the binding sites of the neutralizing antibodies. one of the nine neutralizing antibodies reacted with both vp1 and vp2 capsid prot ...19911719240
preparation and characterization of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody directed to vp4 of rotavirus strain k8 which has unique vp4 neutralization epitopes.for selecting the neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (n-mabs) directed to vp4 of rotavirus strain k8, which has unique vp4 neutralization epitopes, we prepared several reassortant viruses by mixed infection of two different strains k8 (serotype 1) and p (serotype 3) in vitro: three reassortant clones having vp4 of k8 and vp7 of p and four clones having vp4 of p and vp7 of k8. by using these reassortants in screening hybridomas, a n-mab (k8-2c12) directed to strain k8-specific vp4 was obtained. t ...19911722090
homotypic and heterotypic serological responses to rotavirus neutralization epitopes in immunologically naive and experienced animals.gnotobiotic or specific-pathogen-free animals with no previous exposure to rotavirus were vaccinated with strain uk, serotype g6. the highest serological response was to homologous virus; significant but lower responses occurred to viruses with either vp4 or vp7 related to that of vaccine virus; responses to other viruses were of low titer or infrequent. adult cows vaccinated with uk virus produced increased titers of antibody to all rotavirus serotypes. the increases in titer to homologous viru ...19911723075
protease inhibitors prevent the development of human rotavirus-induced diarrhea in suckling mice.oral inoculation of human rotavirus mo strain (serotype 3) into 5-day-old balb/c mice caused gastroenteritis characterized by diarrhea (90% on the average, on day 2). using this animal model, preventive effect of antiviral agents on the development of rotavirus-induced diarrhea was examined. the infectivity of human rotavirus was enhanced by treatment with protease in vitro. a cysteine protease inhibitor, e-64-c, was given orally at 12 hr and 24 hr after mo infection. oral administration of 0.3 ...19911723785
experience with serotyping rotavirus strains by reverse transcription and two-step polymerase chain reaction with generic and type-specific primers.six vp7 serotypes or g types (g1-g4, g8 and g9) occur in group a human rotaviruses. gouvea et al. recently reported a novel g-typing method based on reverse transcription (rt)-polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification of the vp7 gene with type-specific primers [gouvea, v. et al. (1990). journal of clinical microbiology 28, 276-82]. when we followed their protocol, 40 (89%) of 45 faecal rotavirus specimens were typed into g1-g4 and g9. the five specimens that were untypeable by the rt-pcr met ...19911724291
impact of influenza virus infection as a cause of pediatric hospitalization.from winter 1989 to spring 1990, a severe epidemic caused by influenza a (h3n2) and b viruses developed in japan. during the epidemic (december 1989 to february 1990), 244 children were admitted to the pediatric ward of nippon kokan hospital: 53 (21.7%) were hospitalized with influenza virus infection, 22 (9.0%) with rotavirus gastroenteritis, and 17 (7.0%) with respiratory syncytial virus infection. among those with influenza, 24 had type a and 29 had type b. most were young healthy children wi ...19921730904
seasonal variation in etiology of travelers' diarrhea. finnish-moroccan study group.the etiology of travelers' diarrhea was studied in 579 adult finnish tourists participating in two packaged tours to morocco in the winter (n = 233) and fall (n = 346) of 1989. a research team accompanied the travelers, and a laboratory for enteric pathogens was established in agadir. at least one pathogen was found in 62% of the 60 diarrhea cases in winter and in 58% of the 111 diarrhea cases in fall. multiple pathogens were found less often in winter (8%) than in fall (21%, p less than .05). c ...19921730905
[two cases of hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome].a 10-month-old male infant (case 1) and another male infant aged 1 year and 11 months (case 2) were admitted to our department because of fever, watery diarrhea and convulsion. on admission, they were unconscious and showed rigidity of the limbs. laboratory examination revealed a marked increase in got and gpt, a decrease in platelet and antithrombin iii and an increase in fdp. metabolic acidosis was found by blood gas analysis. brain ct showed an extensive area of low density in case 1, and low ...19921731831
gastric emptying of liquid in children suffering from acute rotaviral gastroenteritis.nausea and vomiting commonly occur in children suffering from rotaviral diarrhoea. gastric emptying was studied in 10 children (age six to 12 months) suffering from acute diarrhoea caused by rotavirus using a dye dilution double sampling technique. the test meal was 5% dextrose in water and this test was repeated 12 weeks after recovery. the median (range) of the percentages of the liquid meal remaining in the stomach at 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60 minutes after instillation of the meal were 82 (79-90 ...19921740272
morbidity and mortality of short bowel syndrome in infancy and childhood.this report concerns 59 infants and children with short bowel syndrome, most commonly caused by necrotizing enterocolitis in this study. resection of atretic or gangrenous bowel was performed in 53 patients, tapering enteroplasty and primary anastomosis was performed in 13 patients, and temporary enterostomies were performed in 40 patients. second-look laparotomy was useful in two of four cases of questionable bowel viability. the ileocecal valve was resected in 32 patients and remained intact i ...19911747358
the effects of maternal antibodies on neonatal rotavirus infection. 19911749699
development, characterization, and utilization of an intestinal xenograft model for infectious disease research.paired xenografts of near-term fetal rabbit jejunum were subcutaneously implanted in the backs of athymic nude (nu/nu) mice. at 3 to 4 weeks post-implantation, the grafts had histologic, ultrastructural, and biochemical (lactase, sucrase, alkaline phosphatase, leucine aminopeptidase) parameters comparable to age-matched control rabbits. four weeks post-transplantation the xenografts were intraluminally inoculated with various strains of lapine attaching and effacing e. coli or group a rotavirus. ...19911753715
persistence of protein loss in acute diarrhoea. a follow-up study by faecal alpha-1-antitrypsin measurement. 19911755305
murine intestinal antibody response to heterologous rotavirus infection.rotavirus is the most important worldwide cause of severe gastroenteritis. extensive efforts have been devoted to the design of a vaccine that will prevent disease, but development of a more effective vaccine strategy may require progress in the understanding of the mucosal immune response to replicating viral antigens. in this article, we report the characterization of the intestinal antibody response of a murine model to heterologous infection with the rhesus rotavirus vaccine strain. we have ...19911761691
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