PMID(sorted descending)
united states rotavirus strain surveillance from 2005 to 2008: genotype prevalence before and after vaccine introduction.a live, attenuated rotavirus vaccine, rotateq®, was approved in 2006 for immunization of infants in the united states. to monitor the distribution of rotavirus genotypes before and after vaccine introduction, the centers for disease control and prevention conducted strain surveillance with the national rotavirus strain surveillance system.201121183839
sustained decline in rotavirus detections in the united states following the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in 2006.following implementation of the rotavirus vaccination program in 2006, rotavirus activity in the united states declined dramatically in 2007-2008 but increased slightly in 2008-2009, despite greater vaccine uptake. to further evaluate impact of the vaccine program, we assessed trends in rotavirus testing and detection during 2009-2010.201121183838
reduction in rotavirus-associated acute gastroenteritis following introduction of rotavirus vaccine into australia's national childhood vaccine schedule.: rotavirus vaccines were introduced into the funded australian national immunization program (nip) in july 2007. due to purchasing arrangements, individual states and territories chose either a 2-dose rv1 (rotarix, gsk) regimen or 3-dose rv5 (rotateq, merck/csl) regimen. this allowed comparison of both vaccines in similar populations with high infant vaccination coverage.201121183837
rotavirus vaccines in belgium: policy and impact.: the current belgian experience with rotavirus vaccination provides a unique perspective to look at the effect of vaccination. shortly after introduction, a nation-wide recommendation was issued and despite the fact that both rotavirus vaccines are offered through partial reimbursement, vaccine uptake has already reached a high level (at least 90%).201121183836
reduction of diarrhea-associated hospitalizations among children aged < 5 years in panama following the introduction of rotavirus march 2006, rotavirus vaccine (rotarix, rv1) was introduced into the panamanian national immunization program. we assessed the effect of vaccine on diarrhea-associated hospitalizations among young panamanian children.201121183835
impact of rotavirus vaccination on diarrhea-related hospitalizations among children < 5 years of age in mexico.single-strain rotavirus vaccine was added to the national immunization program in mexico in may 2007. we assessed the impact of vaccination on the number of diarrhea-related hospitalizations in mexican children in 2008 and 2009.201121183834
real-world impact of rotavirus vaccination. 201121183833
clinical presentation and molecular characterization of group b rotaviruses in diarrhoea patients in bangladesh.a total of 1106 stool samples collected from diarrhoea patients admitted to dhaka hospital of the international centre for diarrhoeal disease research, bangladesh, during january-december 2008 were analysed for the presence of rotavirus-specific rna by page. the group b-specific rna migration pattern was detected in 26 patients (2.4%) and group a-specific pattern in 259 patients (23.4%). clinical data from group a and group b rotavirus-infected patients indicated that episodes did not differ muc ...201021183601
plasmablast-derived polyclonal antibody response after influenza vaccination.conventional measurement of antibody responses to vaccines largely relies on serum antibodies, which are primarily produced by bone marrow plasma cells and may not represent the entire vaccine-induced b cell repertoire, including important functional components such as those targeted to mucosal sites. after immunization or infection, activated b cells differentiate into plasmablasts in local lymphoid organs, then traffic through circulation to the target sites where they further develop into pla ...201021182843
full genomic analysis of a g8p[1] rotavirus strain isolated from an asymptomatic infant in kenya provides evidence for an artiodactyl-to-human interspecies transmission a rotavirus (gar) g8p[1] strains, found sometimes in cattle, have been reported rarely from humans. therefore, analysis of the full genomes of human g8p[1] strains are of significance in the context of studies on interspecies transmission of rotaviruses. however, to date, only partial-length nucleotide sequences are available for the 11 genes of a single human g8p[1] strain, while the partial sequences of two other strains have been reported. the present study reports the first complete ge ...201121181935
vp7 gene of human rotavirus a genotype g5: phylogenetic analysis reveals the existence of three different lineages a rotavirus (rv-a) genotype g5, which is common in pigs, was also detected in children with severe diarrhea in brazil, argentina, paraguay, cameroon, china, thailand, and vietnam. to evaluate the evolutionary relationship among rv-a g5 strains, the vp7 and vp4 genes of 28 brazilian rv-a g5 human strains, sampled between 1986 and 2005, were sequenced and compared with other rv-a g5 strains currently circulating worldwide in animals and humans. the phylogenetic analysis of rv-a g5 vp7 gene s ...201121181934
genetic characterization of bulgarian rotavirus isolates and detection of rotavirus variants: challenges for the rotavirus vaccine program?annually 20-70% of all hospital admissions and 20% of fatal diarrhea cases among children less than 5 years of age occur due to severe rotavirus diarrhea. universal immunization is the major strategy aimed at controlling rotavirus infection. the main objective of the present study was to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of the most common rotavirus strains co-circulating in bulgaria. the sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed strain diversity and circulation of different rotavirus v ...201121181933
detection of human parechovirus in stool samples collected from children with acute gastroenteritis in japan during 2007-2008.of 477 stool specimens, which had been screened for rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus, sapovirus and astrovirus, collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in pediatric clinics encompassing five localities (sapporo, tokyo, maizuru, osaka, and saga) in japan from july 2007 to june 2008, 247 negative samples (51.7%) were subjected to screening for human parechovirus. human parechovirus (hpev) was detected by rt-pcr using a primer pair to amplify 5'utr region of its genome and wa ...201121181931
human bocavirus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis in japan and thailand.a total of 329 fecal specimens, which had been known to be negative for rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus, and which were collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in japan and thailand during 2005-2008 were screened for human bocavirus (hbov). hbov was detected by pcr with a primer pair that amplified the np1 region of its genome and was genotyped by sequencing of the vp1/vp2 region. of the 329 samples tested, 6 (1.8%) were positive for hbov. of th ...201121181924
diversity of interferon antagonist activities mediated by nsp1 proteins of different rotavirus strains.studies involving limited numbers of rotavirus (rv) strains have shown that the viral gene 5 product, nsp1, can antagonize beta interferon (ifn-β) expression by inducing the degradation of ifn-regulatory factors (irfs) (irf3, irf5, and irf7) or a component of the e3 ubiquitin ligase complex responsible for activating nf-κb (β-transducin repeat-containing protein [β-trcp]). to gain a broader perspective of nsp1 activities, we examined various rv strains for the ability to inhibit ifn-β expression ...201021177809
[first detection of human astrovirus in gastroenteritis outbreak in hungary].human astroviruses are one of the known pathogens of gastroenteritis in infants, children and rarely in elderly. it causes 4.2-7.3% of the sporadic gastroenteritis cases with diarrhea and vomiting in children. the etiological role of astrovirus has not been confirmed yet in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in hungary.201121177230
diarrhea-associated hospitalizations among us children over 2 rotavirus seasons after vaccine introduction.after implementation of rotavirus vaccination in 2006, large decreases in rates of severe diarrhea among us children occurred in 2007-2008. we ascertained whether these decreases were sustained in 2008-2009.201021172995
epidemiology of rotavirus infection among young children with acute diarrhoea in burkina anticipation of vaccine introduction, we assessed epidemiology of rotavirus disease among children visiting medical centre due to acute diarrhoea in ouagadougou, burkina faso.201021171984
analyses of clinical, pathological and virological features of human rotavirus strain, yo induced gastroenteritis in infant balb/c mice.experimental studies of human rotavirus infections in mice are limited and there is lack of information on the quantitative assessment of rotaviral replication and its relationship with histological changes. in the present study, consequences of human rotavirus strain, yo induced gastroenteritis in infant balb/c mice were analyzed for the occurrence of clinical symptoms, histopathology and virological events. the infected animals developed diarrhea and dehydration and showed accumulation of vacu ...201021163362
[outbreaks of noroviral gastroenteritis and their molecular characteristics in china, 2006 - 2007.]objective: to acknowledge the epidemiology of gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by norobiruses and their genotypes. methods: epidemiologic data and specimens were collected from 19 gastroenteritis outbreaks. 201 specimens were detected for norovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, adenovirus and sapovirus by rt-pcr methods and pcr products were sequenced. sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis were performed by clustal x 1.83 and mega 4.0 programs. results: noroviruses were one of the most predomin ...201021163035
porcine kobuvirus from pig stool in survey for porcine kobuvirus infection, a total of 119 pig fecal samples in korea were collected from three pig farms with good breeding facilities in three provinces. forty-three (36.1%) of the fecal samples tested were positive for porcine kobuvirus. in addition, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (pedv) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) infections were not identified in any of the fecal samples, but porcine group a rotavirus (gar) infection was identified in 11.8% (14/119) of the ...201021161358
the london position statement of the world congress of gastroenterology on biological therapy for ibd with the european crohn's and colitis organisation: pregnancy and pediatrics.women with inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) have similar rates of fertility to the general population, but have an increased rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with the general population, which may be worsened by disease activity. infertility is increased in those undergoing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in pregnancy is considered to be low risk and compatible with use during conception in men and women and during pregnancy in at least the first two t ...201021157441
atomic model of an infectious rotavirus particle.non-enveloped viruses of different types have evolved distinct mechanisms for penetrating a cellular membrane during infection. rotavirus penetration appears to occur by a process resembling enveloped-virus fusion: membrane distortion linked to conformational changes in a viral protein. evidence for such a mechanism comes from crystallographic analyses of fragments of vp4, the rotavirus-penetration protein, and infectivity analyses of structure-based vp4 mutants. we describe here the structure o ...201021157433
outbreak of acute gastroenteritis caused by adenovirus type 41 in a kindergarten.summaryin response to an alert due to epidemic gastroenteritis in children in a kindergarten, an outbreak investigation was carried out in a portuguese municipality. the objectives were to establish an aetiological diagnosis, assess vaccine efficacy if possible, and to take corrective measures if necessary. the warden at the kindergarten was interviewed, and we visited the premises. the overall attack rate was 11·4% and most cases were mild. stool samples from three symptomatic children were col ...201021156097
estimating the rotavirus hospitalization disease burden and trends, using capture-recapture methods.rotavirus surveillance is needed to provide estimates of disease burden and to evaluate the effect of vaccination programs. our objective was to use capture-recapture methods to estimate rotavirus hospitalization rates and to examine trends over time.201021155173
rotavirus disrupts calcium homeostasis by nsp4 viroporin activity.many viruses alter intracellular calcium homeostasis. the rotavirus nonstructural protein 4 (nsp4), an endoplasmic reticulum (er) transmembrane glycoprotein, increases intracellular levels of cytoplasmic ca(2+) ([ca(2+)]cyto) through a phospholipase c-independent pathway, which is required for virus replication and morphogenesis. however, the nsp4 domain and mechanism that increases [ca(2+)]cyto are unknown. we identified an nsp4 domain (amino acids [aa] 47 to 90) that inserts into membranes and ...201021151776
effectiveness of the monovalent g1p[8] human rotavirus vaccine against hospitalization for severe g2p[4] rotavirus gastroenteritis in belém, brazil.brazil initiated universal immunization of infants with the g1p[8] human rotavirus (rv) vaccine in march 2006. this study evaluated vaccine effectiveness (ve) against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) hospitalizations.201121150692
norovirus: a possible cause of pneumatosis intestinalis.pneumatosis intestinalis (pi) in children is associated with immunosuppression, mucosal disruption from trauma, obstructive pulmonary disease, congenital heart disease, and gastrointestinal infections. our study is the first report of norovirus infection-associated pi.201121150655
a policy framework for accelerating adoption of new vaccines.rapid uptake of new vaccines can improve health and wealth and contribute to meeting millennium development goals. in the past, however, the introduction and use of new vaccines has been characterized by delayed uptake in the countries where the need is greatest. based on experience with accelerating the adoption of hib, pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines, we propose here a framework for new vaccine adoption that may be useful for future efforts. the framework organizes the major steps in the p ...201021150269
short hairpin rna-mediated silencing of bovine rotavirus nsp4 gene prevents diarrhoea in suckling mice.while rna interference (rnai) has been widely used to study rotavirus gene function in vitro, the potential therapeutic role for rnai in vivo has not been explored. to this end, we constructed two recombinant lentiviral vectors containing short hairpin rna (shrna) against non-structural protein-4 (nsp4) of bovine rotavirus (brv), rnai-351 and rnai-492. rnai-351 and rnai-492 strongly suppressed the transient expression of a flag-tagged nsp4 fusion protein in 293t cells. in brv-susceptible ma104 c ...201021148273
residues of the rotavirus rna-dependent rna polymerase template entry tunnel that mediate rna recognition and genome replicate its segmented, double-stranded rna (dsrna) genome, the rotavirus rna-dependent rna polymerase, vp1, must recognize viral plus-strand rnas (+rnas) and guide them into the catalytic center. vp1 binds to the conserved 3' end of rotavirus +rnas via both sequence-dependent and sequence-independent contacts. sequence-dependent contacts permit recognition of viral +rnas and specify an autoinhibited positioning of the template within the catalytic site. however, the contributions to dsrna s ...201021147920
maternal antibodies to rotavirus: could they interfere with live rotavirus vaccines in developing countries?past experience with live oral vaccines including licensed rotavirus vaccines demonstrates a trend towards reduced vaccine efficacy in developing countries compared with developed countries. the reasons behind this disparity are not well understood. transplacental transfer of maternal antibodies and breast milk ingestion may attenuate vaccine responses in infants in developing countries where rotavirus infections are endemic, and maternal antibody levels are high. we examined the prevalence and ...201021147127
detection and genetic characterization of rotavirus infections in non-hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in japan, 2007-2009.the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus infections in non-hospitalized children in five different regions (sapporo, saga, tokyo, osaka, and maizuru) of japan during 2007-2009 was investigated. overall, rotavirus was detected in 156 out of 1008 (15.5%) specimens. the rotavirus infection in 2007-2008 (19.3%) was higher than those in 2008-2009 (12.1%). g1p[8] was the most prevalent (62.8%), followed by g3p[8] (21.8%), g9p[8] (14.7%), and g2p[4] (0.7%). interestingly, the number of g3p[8] strains in ...201021145986
strengthening the technical capacity at country-level to make informed policy decisions on new vaccine introduction: lessons learned by paho's provac initiative.rotavirus, pneumococcal conjugate and hpv vaccines have the potential to make substantial gains in health, specifically in reducing child mortality and improving women's health. decisions regarding new vaccine introduction should be grounded in a broad evidence base that reflects national conditions. in this paper, we describe the pan american health organization provac initiative's experience in strengthening national decision making regarding new vaccine introduction through five sets of activ ...201021144916
membrane vesicles released by intestinal epithelial cells infected with rotavirus inhibit t-cell function.rotavirus (rv) predominantly replicates in intestinal epithelial cells (iec), and "danger signals" released by these cells may modulate viral immunity. we have recently shown that human model iec (caco-2 cells) infected with rhesus-rv release a non-inflammatory group of immunomodulators that includes heat shock proteins (hsps) and tgf-β1. here we show that both proteins are released in part in association with membrane vesicles (mv) obtained from filtrated caco-2 supernatants concentrated by ult ...201021142445
rapid and sensitive detection of bovine coronavirus and group a bovine rotavirus from fecal samples by using one-step duplex rt-pcr assay.bovine coronavirus (bcov) and group a bovine rotavirus (brv) are two of major causes for neonatal calf diarrhea. in the present study, a one-step duplex rt-pcr was established to detect and differentiate bcov and group a brv from fecal samples. the sensitivity of this method for bcov and group a brv was 10 pfu/100 µl and 1 pfu/100 µl, respectively. twenty-eight diarrhea fecal samples were detected with this method, the result showed that 2 samples were identified as co-infected with bcov and gro ...201021139352
determinants of the specificity of rotavirus interactions with the alpha2beta1 integrin.the human α2β1 integrin binds collagen and acts as a cellular receptor for rotaviruses and human echovirus 1. these ligands require the inserted (i) domain within the α2 subunit of α2β1 for binding. previous studies have identified the binding sites for collagen and echovirus 1 in the α2 i domain. we used cho cells expressing mutated α2β1 to identify amino acids involved in binding to human and animal rotaviruses. residues where mutation affected rotavirus binding were located in several exposed ...201021138834
molecular characterization of rare g12p[6] rotavirus isolates closely related to g12 strains from the united states, cau 195 and cau 214.two human g12 rotaviruses, cau 195 and cau 214, were isolated from south korea using cell culture and characterized on the basis of sequence divergence in the vp7, vp4, and nsp4 genes. phylogenetic analysis of the vp7 gene sequences indicated that these strains clustered into lineage iii and were most closely related to g12 rotaviruses isolated in the united states. the vp4 and nsp4 gene sequences showed that two strains belonged to the p[6]-ia lineage and genotype [b]. this finding provides inf ...201021132336
simultaneous recovery of bacteria and viruses from contaminated water and spinach by a filtration method.water and leafy vegetables eaten fresh are increasingly reported as being involved in food-borne illness cases. the pathogenic agents responsible for these infections are mainly bacteria and viruses and are present in very small quantities on the contaminated food matrices. laboratory techniques used to isolate or detect the contaminating agent differ enormously according to the type of microorganisms, generating time and economical losses. the purpose of this study was to optimize a single meth ...201021131086
rotavirus vaccine efficacy in african and asian countries. 201021130281
rotavirus vaccine efficacy in african and asian countries. 201021130280
genome sequence based molecular epidemiology of unusual us rotavirus a g9 strains isolated from omaha, usa between 1997 and 2000.after discovery in the early 1980s, rotavirus a serotype g9 was detected infrequently for almost a decade. since the mid-1990s, however, serotype g9 has emerged to become a globally common strain linked to the introduction of a single, new genetic variant of g9 vp7 gene. studies have demonstrated that genetically divergent g9 strains co-circulated at low frequency with the emerging variants. examples include unique u.s. g9 strains om46/hu/usa/1998 and om67/hu/usa/1998, isolated in omaha during t ...201021130184
recurrent rotavirus diarrhoea outbreaks in a stud farm, in italy.a total of 47 stool samples were collected at the same stud farm from young foals with rotavirus diarrhoea and from their stud mares. illness involved foals during three consecutive winter seasons. infection in the farm appeared firstly in january-february 2008. after vanishing in the warm seasons, cases reappeared in march 2009 and 2010. determination of the rotavirus g- and p-types was carried out using nested rt-pcr in samples collected in 2009 and 2010. a total of 19 of 47 samples resulted p ...201021129862
the effect of rotavirus immunization on rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalization rates in military dependents.we conducted a retrospective review of all u.s. military dependents less than 5 years old hospitalized with rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis from july 2003 to june 2009. the two post-vaccine seasons showed a significant reduction of 62.4% (95% ci, 58.6-65.8, p<0.001) in rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalization rate compared to the three pre-vaccine seasons. infants less than 12 months old showed the greatest reduction in incidence at 75.3%. a substantial decrease was also seen in unvaccinat ...201021129394
epidemiology and clinical features of gastroenteritis in hospitalised children: prospective survey during a 2-year period in a parisian hospital, france.rotavirus is recognised as the most important agent of severe acute gastroenteritis (age) in young children. in a 2-year prospective survey, we investigated the epidemiology and clinical features of the viral and bacterial pathogens in children hospitalised for age. the study was performed in a parisian teaching hospital from november 2001 to may 2004. clinical data were prospectively collected to assess the gastroenteritis severity (20-point vesikari severity score, the need for intravenous reh ...201021128089
reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of transmissible gastroenteritis virus.transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) is the causative agent of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis, and sensitive detection methods are required for preventing the disease. in this article, reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) was developed to detect tgev. three pairs of primers targeting the nucleocapsid (n) gene of tgev were synthesized and used in the rt-lamp. the optimization, sensitivity, and specificity of the rt-lamp were evaluated. our results sh ...201021127872
reassortant group a rotavirus from straw-colored fruit bat (eidolon helvum).bats are known reservoirs of viral zoonoses. we report genetic characterization of a bat rotavirus (bat/ke4852/07) detected in the feces of a straw-colored fruit bat (eidolon helvum). six bat rotavirus genes (viral protein [vp] 2, vp6, vp7, nonstructural protein [nsp] 2, nsp3, and nsp5) shared ancestry with other mammalian rotaviruses but were distantly related. the vp4 gene was nearly identical to that of human p[6] rotavirus strains, and the nsp4 gene was closely related to those of previously ...201021122212
rotaviruses.rotaviruses can be detected easily, and methods have been developed to visualise their characteristic morphology, to detect rotavirus proteins through immunological methods or the virus genome, either directly by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or after reverse transcription of the viral rna and amplification by pcr. the abundance of virus particles found in clinical samples during an acute infection makes the detection of rotavirus proteins, mainly vp6, the method of choice for virus detecti ...201121116809
pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in developing countries: safety and health care resource the international, placebo-controlled, rotavirus efficacy and safety trial, the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine reduced the rate of rotavirus-attributable hospitalizations and emergency department visits by 95%. this study investigated the effect in jamaica.201021115586
characterization of viroplasm formation during the early stages of rotavirus infection.during rotavirus replication cycle, electron-dense cytoplasmic inclusions named viroplasms are formed, and two non-structural proteins, nsp2 and nsp5, have been shown to localize in these membrane-free structures. in these inclusions, replication of dsrna and packaging of pre-virion particles occur. despite the importance of viroplasms in the replication cycle of rotavirus, the information regarding their formation, and the possible sites of their nucleation during the early stages of infection ...201021114853
rotavirus infection in adult small intestine allografts: a clinicopathological study of a cohort of 23 patients.rotavirus enteritis (rve) is increasingly recognized as a cause of small bowel allograft dysfunction but its significance in adult patients is unknown. we have studied 23 adult small bowel transplant patients aged 19.8-59 years (mean = 38.2 years), who were presented with diarrhea and tested positive for rotavirus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. serial follow-up biopsies, as well as clinical data, are documented and analyzed. these patients were followed up for an average of 168 da ...201021114645
the diagnosis of norovirus infections in hospitalized children and adolescents with acute gastroenteritis: a study from pilsen, czech republic.norovirus-associated sporadic gastroenteritis is an important cause of illness in western europe. however, at present, little information on the role of norovirus in sporadic gastroenteritis in central europe is available. our study aimed at providing an assessment of their significance in hospitalized children and adolescents with acute gastroenteritis using elisa test at the time of their introduction.200921110484
[efficacy of novalac ad in the treatment of infantile rotavirus enteritis].to observe clinical efficacy of novalac ad in infantile rotavirus enteritis.201021110440
frequency, clinical characteristics, and genotype distribution of rotavirus gastroenteritis in greece (2007-2008).rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis among young children worldwide. a prospective multi-center study was conducted (2007-2008) in five pediatric hospitals to determine the prevalence, the clinical characteristics, and genotype distribution of rotavirus infection in greece. faecal samples were examined for the presence of group a rotavirus antigen by immunochromatography. rotavirus strains were subjected to g and p genotyping by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction ...201121108355
enteric campylobacteria and rna viruses associated with healthy and diarrheic humans in the chinook health region of southwestern alberta, canada.the presence of campylobacter species and enteric rna viruses in stools from diarrheic (n = 442) and healthy (n = 58) humans living in southwestern alberta was examined (may to october 2005). a large number of diarrheic individuals who were culture negative for c. jejuni (n = 54) or c. coli (n = 19) were pcr positive for these taxa. overall detection rates for c. jejuni and c. coli in diarrheic stools were 29% and 5%, respectively. in contrast, 3% and 0% of stools from healthy humans were positi ...201021106791
immunogenicity and virus-like particle formation of rotavirus capsid proteins produced in transgenic plants.the human pathogen, group a rotavirus, is the most prevalent cause of acute infantile and pediatric gastroenteritis worldwide, especially in developing countries. there is an urgent demand for safer, more effective and cheaper vaccines against rotavirus infection. plant-derived antigens may provide an exclusive way to produce economical subunit vaccines. virus-like particles, constituting viral capsid proteins without viral nucleic acids, are considered a far safer candidate compared with live a ...201021104033
update on rotavirus trends and the importance of surveillance. 201021099653
new molecular approaches in the diagnosis of acute diarrhea? advantages for clinicians and researchers.purpose of review: to provide an update of the advantages of new-generation molecular diagnostics as regards acute diarrhea, and to evaluate how they can help clinicians and researchers diagnose this condition. recent findings: thanks to real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques, many enteropathogens can now be identified simultaneously within hours. most techniques are based on amplification of specific nucleotide sequences. with high-resolution melting analyses, microarrays, and metagenom ...201021099430
genetically diverse group c rotaviruses cause sporadic infection in korean calves.this study examined the prevalence and genetic diversity of the bovine group c rotaviruses (gcrvs) in a total of 127 diarrhea fecal samples of calves from 52 korean native beef calf herds using rt-pcr and nested pcr. overall, seven of the 127 fecal samples (5.5%) from seven of the 52 herds (13.5%) tested positive for bovine gcrvs only by nested pcr. sequence and phylogenetic analyses of a partial vp6 gene showed that korean bovine gcrvs had marked genetic diversity; two korean strains belonged t ...201021099189
molecular epidemiological study of rotavirus and norovirus infections among children with acute gastroenteritis in nha trang, vietnam, december 2005-june 2006.a molecular epidemiological study of rotavirus (rv) and norovirus (nov) infections was carried out in nha trang city in vietnam between december 2005 and june 2006. rv and nov were detected in 87 (47.5%) and 12 (6.6%) of the 183 fecal specimens from children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis, respectively. the majority of patients with rv and nov were children younger than 2 years of age. the most frequent rv genotypes detected were g3 (n=37, 42.5%) and g1 (n=28, 32.2%) for g type, p[8] (n ...201021099090
transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev)-based vectors with engineered murine tropism express the rotavirus vp7 protein and immunize mice against rotavirus.a coronavirus vector based on the genome of the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) expressing the rotavirus vp7 protein was constructed to immunize and protect against rotavirus infections in a murine model. the tropism of this tgev-derived vector was modified by replacing the spike s protein with the homologous protein from mouse hepatitis virus (mhv). the rotavirus gene encoding the vp7 protein was cloned into the coronavirus cdna. balb/c and stat1-deficient mice were inoculate ...201021094967
analysis of porcine circovirus type 1 detected in rotarix vaccine.a metagenomic analysis of live human vaccines has recently demonstrated the presence of porcine circovirus type 1 (pcv1) dna in the paediatric vaccine rotarix used in the prevention of acute gastroenteritis. using real-time pcr for pcv1, titres of pcv1 dna in several batches of rotarix were found to be in the order of 6-7 log(10) copies per dose. pre-treatment of the reconstituted vaccine with the nuclease benzonase, followed by extraction of nucleic acid and quantification of pcv1 dna by real-t ...201021093497
immunisation coverage annual report, 2008.this, the 2nd annual immunisation coverage report, documents trends during 2008 for a range of standard measures derived from australian childhood immunisation register data, including overall coverage at standard age milestones and for individual vaccines included on the national immunisation program (nip). coverage by indigenous status and mapping by smaller geographic areas as well as trends in timeliness are also summarised according to standard templates. with respect to overall coverage, i ...201021090180
[reverse genetics system for rotavirus and its potential for analyzing the pathogenesis]. 200921089520
[rotavirus prevalence in infants and children in the public healthcare system of the state of pernambuco].rotaviruses are considered important etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis and a common cause of the hospitalization of children aged zero to four years-old. in brazil, the incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children is 12 to 42% and the distribution of infection is related to seasonality, which apparently occurs in different periods and intensity according to each region. the study investigated group a rotavirus in fecal samples of suspected children attended by the public health s ...201021085867
predominance of porcine p[23] genotype rotaviruses in piglets with diarrhea in northern thailand.of 131 stool samples collected from piglets with diarrhea in northern thailand between july 2006 and august 2008, 14 (10.7%) were positive for group a rotavirus. sequence analysis showed that 13 strains (92.9%) belonged to the rare p[23] genotype combination with g9 or g3 genotypes.201021084504
widespread microbiological groundwater contamination in the south-eastern salento (puglia-italy).in the salento peninsula (puglia region, south-east italy), underground waters are a fundamental resource for the population because they constitute the principal reservoir for drinking water and irrigation. they are, however, affected by overexploitation. the risk factors in the salento arise mainly from anthropic activities, especially tourism and agriculture (leaking wells, sewage and inadequate waste disposal procedures). the southern salento is recognized to be at high risk of pathologies c ...201021079865
[recurrence of transient splenial lesions in a child with "benign convulsions with gastroenteritis"].we report a 2-year-old girl who demonstrated "benign convulsions with gastroenteritis (cwg)" with transient splenial lesions twice during the winter. the first episode was associated with noro-virus and the second with rota-virus. during each episode, seizures occurred in clusters without clinical signs of dehydration, hypoglycemia, electrolyte derangement or cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities, and her consciousness was clear during the interictal period. those findings were consistent with cwg. ...201021077356
a hospital based study on inter- and intragenotypic diversity of human rotavirus a vp4 and vp7 gene segments, germany.efforts to reduce the impact of group a rotaviruses on human morbidity and mortality rely on oral immunisation with live attenuated or recombinant vaccines. a major challenge in immunisation is the vast inter- and intragenotypic diversity accomplished by circulating rotaviruses.201021074491
distribution of human rotavirus g and p genotypes in a hospital setting from northern india.rotavirus gastroenteritis is a major cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea in children worldwide. rotavirus g and p genotyping is essential for epidemiological surveillance and for better formulation of candidate rotavirus vaccines. out of 862 diarrheal stool samples collected from hospitalized children aged < 2 years during february 2005 - march 2007, 318 (36.9%) were positive for rotavirus by elisa. g and p genotyping was performed on 100 randomly selected positive samples using a seminested mu ...201021073035
norovirus p particle, a novel platform for vaccine development and antibody production.the norovirus p particle is an octahedral nanoparticle formed by 24 copies of the protrusion (p) domain of the norovirus capsid protein. this p particle is easily produced in escherichia coli, extremely stable, and highly immunogenic. there are three surface loops per p domain, making a total of 72 loops per particle, and these are potential sites for foreign antigen presentation for immune enhancement. to prove this concept, a small peptide (his tag, 7 amino acids [aa]) and a large antigen (rot ...201021068235
[investigation of rotavirus, adenovirus and astrovirus frequencies in children with acute gastroenteritis and evaluation of epidemiological features].viral agents are the most common causes of childhood gastroenteritis over the world. rotaviruses, the main causative agents of viral gastroenteritis in infant and young children, are followed by other viruses, namely adenoviruses, astroviruses, noroviruses and caliciviruses. the aims of this study were to determine the frequencies of rotavirus, adenovirus and astrovirus infections in children with acute gastroenteritis in our region, and to evaluate these frequencies according to age, gender and ...201021063969
rotavirus gastroenteritis and strain diversity in saudi arabia. current status and future prospects. 201021063667
study of the kinetics of antibodies titres against viral pathogens and detection of rotavirus and parainfluenza 3 infections in captive crias of guanacos (lama guanicoe).a longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the presence of antibodies (ab) to rotavirus (rv), parainfluenza-3 virus (pi-3), bovine herpesvirus-1 (bohv-1), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (bvdv-1) and bluetongue virus (btv) in eleven guanaco's crias (chulengos) relocated from rio negro to buenos aires province (argentina) and reared in captivity for a year in an experimental field. serum samples were collected periodically to detect the evidence of viral infections. faecal samples were collec ...201021062425
[perspectives of development of immunoprophylaxis in russia].analytic materials on prevention of controlled infections in russia and perspectives for extension of immunoprophylaxis field are presented. it was determined that immunization against pertussis should be expanded. necessity to include vaccines against hepatitis a, hib, pneumococcal infection, varicella as well as rotavirus and human papillomavirus infection in national immunization schedule is substantiated. it was noted that introduction of new vaccines will require both increase of funding fo ...201021061585
vaccines provided by family physicians.this study was conducted to document current immunization practices by family physicians.201021060120
[clinical relevance of human bocavirus with acute respiratory tract infection and diarrhea in children: a prospective case-control study].to explore the causative role of human bocavirus (hbov) played in acute respiratory infection and diarrhea in children, a case-control study was prospectively conducted to investigate hbov detection in symptomatic children with acute respiratory tract infection, diarrhea and asymptomatic children.201021055300
[epidemiological surveillance of norovirus and rotavirus diarrhea among outpatient children in five metropolitan cities].to survey the clinical epidemiological features of norovirus and rotavirus diarrhea among children living in 5 cities.201021055297
wide range of cns manifestations of rotavirus infection. 201021051161
decline in rotavirus hospitalizations and health care visits for childhood diarrhea following rotavirus vaccination in el salvador.a recent postlicensure study from el salvador showed that the monovalent rotavirus vaccine conferred 76% protection against rotavirus hospitalizations. we further examined the impact of rotavirus vaccination on the national burden of childhood diarrhea to help assess the total public health benefits of vaccination.201121048524
laboratory-based rotavirus surveillance during the introduction of a vaccination program, brazil, 2005-2009.: brazil introduced universal antirotavirus vaccination in march 2006. this article reports the results of rotavirus a (rv-a) surveillance from january 2005 to december 2009.201121048523
whole-genome characterization of human group c rotaviruses: identification of two lineages in the vp3 c rotavirus (gcrv) is distributed worldwide as an enteric pathogen in humans and animals. however, to date, whole-genome sequences are available only for a human strain (bristol) and a porcine strain (cowden). to investigate the genetic diversity of human gcrvs, nearly full-length sequences of all 11 rna segments were determined for human gcrvs detected recently in india (v508), bangladesh (bs347), china (wu82 and ynr001) and japan (oh567 and bk0830) and analysed phylogenetically with sequ ...201021048036
high level of gastrointestinal nosocomial infections in the german surveillance system, 2002-2008.surveillance of nosocomial infections (nis) is well established in many countries but often does not include gastrointestinal infections. we sought to determine the proportion of nis among all hospitalized cases for the 4 most prevalent types of gastrointestinal infections in germany.201021047180
characterising aquifer treatment for pathogens in managed aquifer this study the value of subsurface treatment of urban stormwater during aquifer storage transfer recovery (astr) is characterised using quantitative microbial risk assessment (qmra) methodology. the astr project utilizes a multi-barrier treatment train to treat urban stormwater but to date the role of the aquifer has not been quantified. in this study it was estimated that the aquifer barrier provided 1.4, 2.6, >6.0 log(10) removals for rotavirus, cryptosporidium and campylobacter respectivel ...201021045325
spotlight on pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rotateq) in the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in europe, rotavirus gastroenteritis is associated with a significant health, economic, and social burden, as it is responsible for large numbers of hospitalizations and other healthcare encounters among infants and children, as well as numerous days of work lost by parents and caregivers. rotateq is a three-dose, orally administered, live, pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine used for the active immunization of infants for prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis. the protectiv ...201021043548
[detection of bovine rotavirus g10p[11] in a diary farm in daqing, china].group a rotavirus are the most frequently detected viral agent associated with the acute diarrhea in calves. in order to investigate the situation of rotavirus strains circulating in diary farms, a total of 117 fecal specimens were collected from diarrhea calves under 4 weeks-age on yinluo diary farm in daqing region in china from 2008 to 2009. ten specimens were detected to be positive by a rotavirus group a diagnostic kit, which confirmed that the rotavirus was important viral agent associated ...201021043143
epidemiology and burden of rotavirus infection among children in hangzhou, china.rotavirus is the most common cause of acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years worldwide. however, few data have been collected on children with rotavirus diarrhea basing on outpatient department surveillance.201021041114
benign infantile seizures associated with gastroenteritis and benign infantile seizures alone in the same patients: related syndromes or coincidental entities?we report two patients, the first one had benign infantile seizures (bis) associated with gastroenteritis (bisg), followed by bis without gastroenteritis, in the second patient bis was followed by bisg related to anti-rotavirus vaccine. after 12 and 6 months of follow-up, both patients had normal psychomotor development. bisg may be a situation-related seizure, a coincidental entity associated with bis. however the case evolutions suggested that both bis and bisg are related syndromes.201021041066
quantification and molecular characterization of enteric viruses detected in effluents from two hospital wastewater treatment wastewater has been described as an important source of spreading pathogenic microorganisms in the environment. however, there are few studies reporting the presence and concentrations of gastroenteric viruses and hepatitis a viruses in these environmental matrices. the aim of this study was to assess the contamination by viruses responsible for acute gastroenteritis and hepatitis derived from hospital wastewater treatment plants (wwtps). rotavirus a (rv-a), human adenoviruses (hadv), n ...201021040941
on-site reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction detection of rotaviruses concentrated from environmental water samples using methacrylate monolithic supports.rotaviruses are the leading cause of gastroenteritis in children and they exist widely in water environments. ingestion of 10-100 viral particles is enough to initiate disease, what calls for extremely sensitive detection methods. in this study we have confirmed the validity of a recently published method for rotavirus concentration and detection based on the combination of methacrylate monoliths and real-time reverse transcription-quantitative pcr (rt-qpcr). the method was used to concentrate r ...201021040925
rotavirus antigenemia in indian children with rotavirus gastroenteritis and asymptomatic infections.rotavirus gastroenteritis results in significant morbidity and mortality in indian children. although there are numerous studies on rotavirus diarrhea, there are few reports on antigenemia and extraintestinal presentations in these populations.201021039217
[considerations in an outbreak of viral acute gastroenteritis, cisnădie 2009].frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in the whole world, viral gastroenteritis represent about 80% of infectious gastroenteritis. in non-industrialised countries it mostly affects small children,while in those industrialised it represents a significant cause of morbidity in all age groups. during 30.04--17.06.2009 we registered 315 cases of gastroenteritis in cisnădie. all age groups were concerned, but 78.9% of cases were children less than 14 years old. we registered cases belonging to th ...201021038704
case-control study of diarrheal disease etiology in a remote rural area in western thailand.the objective was to assess the association of enteric pathogens in diarrheal disease in a remote rural area in thailand. stool specimens were collected from 236 children aged 3 months to 5 years with acute diarrhea (cases) and from 236 asymptomatic controls. standard microbiologic methods, and enzyme immunoassay for viral pathogens, giardia, and cryptosporidium, were used to identify enteric pathogens with susceptibility testing by disk diffusion. campylobacter, plesiomonas, salmonella, and ent ...201021036846
full genomic analysis of a simian sa11-like g3p[2] rotavirus strain isolated from an asymptomatic infant: identification of novel vp1, vp6 and nsp4 genotypes.we report here the full genomic analysis of a simian sa11-like g3p[2] group a rotavirus (gar) strain, b10, isolated from an asymptomatic infant in kenya in 1987. by nucleotide sequence identities and phylogenetic analyses, the vp7-vp4-vp2-vp3-nsp1-nsp2-nsp3-nsp5 genes of strain b10 exhibited maximum genetic relatedness to those of the different isolates of simian strain sa11, and were assigned to the g3-p[2]-c5-m5-a5-n5-t5-h5 genotypes, respectively. on the other hand, the vp1, vp6 and nsp4 gene ...201021035567
global routine vaccination coverage, 2009.the widespread use of vaccines has greatly improved global public health, preventing millions of childhood hospitalizations and deaths each year. vaccination of children also is projected to avert adult deaths through the prevention of hepatitis b (hepb) virus--related chronic liver disease and liver cancer and human papilloma virus--related cervical cancer. when the world health organization (who) began the expanded programme on immunization in 1974, <5% of the world's children had been fully v ...201021030941
comparison of the rapid methods for screening of group a rotavirus in stool this study, the sensitivity and specificity of three immunochromatography (ic) test kits for rapid detection of group a rotavirus were compared and evaluated with stool samples collected from children, who suffered from acute gastroenteritis during february to june, 2009 in japan. a total of 86 stool samples were tested and compared with a reference rt-pcr method. the sensitivity among ip-rota v, dipstick eiken rota and rota-adeno test kits were 97.2, 95.8 and 88.7%, while the specificity wer ...201021030457
enteric viruses in ready-to-eat packaged leafy greens. 201021029560
characterization of genotype g8 strains from malawi, kenya, and south of the global distribution of rotavirus genotypes have revealed the continuous circulation of g8 strains in africa, often responsible for more cases of rotavirus disease than the more common g1-g4 rotavirus strains. during the study, genotype g8 strains from malawi, kenya, and south africa were detected and the vp7 and vp4 genes of selected specimens were sequenced. results indicated that g8 strains appeared to reassort frequently and were associated with p[6], p[4], and p[8] specificity ...201020981795
molecular epidemiology of human astrovirus infections in saudi arabia pediatric patients.earlier work tayeb et al. [tayeb et al. (2008): j med virol 80: 1919-1929] set out to study the epidemiology of diarrhea viruses in pediatric populations. the study addressed initially rotavirus, enteric adenovirus, and astrovirus but was later expanded to include norovirus (nov). viruses were sought in fecal specimens and characterized for genotype using molecular methods (pcr, rt-pcr, and rflp) for the first time in ksa. the survey focused on three locations; jeddah, makkah, and riyadh. during ...201020981791
effectiveness of lanzhou lamb rotavirus vaccine against hospitalized gastroenteritis: further analysis and update. 201020980802
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