cell biology of viruses that assemble along the biosynthetic this review we discuss five groups of viruses that bud into, or assemble from, different compartments along the biosynthetic pathway. these are herpes-, rota-, corona-, bunya- and pox-viruses. our main emphasis will be on the virally-encoded membrane glycoproteins that are responsible for determining the site of virus assembly. in a number of cases these proteins have been well characterized and appear to serve as resident markers of the budding compartments. the assembly and dissemination of ...19921333835
passive immunizations of suckling mice and infants with bovine colostrum containing antibodies to human rotavirus.after immunizing 8-month pregnant holstein cows with the human rotavirus mo strain, cow colostrum containing neutralizing antibody to four different serotypes of human rotavirus, designated rota colostrum, was obtained. oral inoculation of human rotavirus mo strain into 5-day-old balb/c mice causes gastroenteritis characterized by diarrhea. using this small animal model, passive protection of suckling mice against human rotavirus infection was achieved with the use of rota colostrum. rota colost ...19921334126
a variant serotype g3 rotavirus isolated from an unusually severe outbreak of diarrhoea in piglets.about 80% of faecal samples from severe outbreak of porcine diarrhoea (scours) were positive for rotavirus. rotavirus positive samples were analyzed for their antigenic properties and amino acid sequences of the glycoprotein genes. these viruses could not be assigned to any serotypes using serotyping monoclonal antibodies (mabs) developed for porcine rotaviruses [nagesha and holmes: journal of medical virology 35:206-211, 1991b]. when two such viruses were isolated in cell culture and analyzed b ...19921334131
safety and immunogenicity of oral tetravalent human-rhesus reassortant rotavirus vaccine in neonates.we conducted a prospective randomized double blind study to determine: (1) the safety and immunogenicity of live oral tetravalent human-rhesus rotavirus reassortant vaccine in neonates; and (2) whether a second dose at the age of 6 to 8 weeks enhances the immunogenicity. two hundred forty healthy neonates were enrolled and received vaccine (183) or placebo (57) on the second day of life. at the age of 6 to 8 weeks 133 received placebo and 88 received a second dose of vaccine. medical events were ...19921334255
rotavirus electropherotypes in malaysian children.a 12-month study was carried out on the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus in urban and suburban malaysian children. analysis of faecal samples from 973 hospitalized diarrhoeic children by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis detected 268 rotaviruses (28%). all isolates were group a rotaviruses, which produced 22 electropherotypes: 16 (91.5%) with long rna migration patterns and 6 (8.5%) with short patterns. one of the long-pattern electropherotypes was the predominant strain (71.1% of the total ...19921334446
liposome-mediated transfection of intact viral particles reveals that plasma membrane penetration determines permissivity of tissue culture cells to rotavirus.rotaviruses are an important cause of gastroenteritis in human infants. in vivo, rotavirus displays striking cell tropism with viral replication generally restricted to the villus tip enterocytes of the small intestine. we studied a panel of cell lines that vary significantly in their permissivity to rotavirus infection. l cells and hep2 cells were relatively resistant to rotavirus infection compared with permissive ma104 cells and ht29 cells. rna transcription among the cell lines was proportio ...19921334974
[the annual and seasonal variation in the bacteria and rotaviruses implicated in the etiology of diarrheal diseases in children]. 19921335312
nucleotide sequence of the cdna for porcine rotavirus vp7 gene (strain k).the nucleotide sequence of the cdna encoding one of the neutralizing proteins vp7 of the new porcine strain k is determined. the deduced vp7 amino acid sequence of the k strain showed a high homology (93%) and a lower homology (75%) to those of the gottfried and osu strains, respectively. this finding suggests that strain k is more closely related to the gottfried strain serotype 4.19921335631
a study of the basis of virulence variation of bovine rotaviruses.rotaviruses are enteric pathogens of cattle but sub-clinical infections are common. virulence variation has been identified with bovine rotaviruses and some rotaviruses replicated without clinical signs in non-immune calves. the rotavirus genome is composed of eleven segments of double-stranded rna and the fourth largest segment codes for a non-glycosylated surface protein, vp4, which has been linked with virulence. in the present study the biological basis of rotavirus virulence variation was s ...19921336238
[gastroenteritis caused by adenoviruses 40/41: epidemiological and clinical aspects].the 40/41 adenovirus plays an important role as the productive agent of gastroenteritis at a pediatric age according to recent studies. with the aim of evaluating the clinical-epidemiological importance of this agent in our medium a prospective study of the 40/41 adenovirus was carried out in 1,697 stools of children of under 14 years of age over a period of 2 years. an enzyme immunoassay technique with specific monoclonal antibodies was used for detection. the 40/41 adenovirus was the third cau ...19921336979
[detection and serotyping of hrvs collected from children with acute gastroenteritis in winter of 1986 to 1991].fecal samples from sporadic acute gastroenteritis patients who visited at a pediatrician during five consecutive winter seasons in kurume city located at north part of kyushu district. fecal samples were subjected to detection of rotavirus and other viruses and study of yearly changes in serotype of rotavirus. the rate of group a rotavirus positives in third winter and other consecutive winters were 12.5%, 40 to 65%, respectively. 60% specimens were successfully serotyped: 58% was serotype 1.22% ...19921338087
[the status and outlook of the laboratory diagnosis of rotavirus infection].rotavirus infection is not only the most distributed disease of children but a widely spread cause of their death. nowadays considerable methodical potential which permits effectively detecting the whole virions, group a, antigens of human rotaviruses, virus-specific rna in the clinical material is accumulated. there is a tendency to an increase of sensitivity and expressivity of the methods based on the use of immunological principles for detection and calculation of the antigen-antibody comple ...19921338117
[the serotype of rotavirus]. 19921338241
[antiviral properties of various pharmacologic groups of drugs].currently used cardiovascular drugs such as nicotinamide, strophanthin, corglycon, curantyl, cavinton, papaverin hydrochloride, nicotinic acid, xantinole nicotinate, isoptin, parmidin and halidor were studied by the program of antiviral drug screening. the majority of them (9 out of 11) were shown to have antiviral activity which was rather individual by its specificity and level. laboratory strains of 9 viruses inducing the most common infections in man and animals, i.e. herpes simplex, poxvacc ...19921338682
an evaluation of the staphylococcal co-agglutination test for the detection of group a rotavirus in human faeces.the group a rotavirus staphylococcal co-agglutination test was evaluated and its sensitivity and specificity compared with an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and a commercial latex agglutination test (rotalex). in addition, the storage stability of the staphylococcal reagents was ascertained. examination of 136 clarified suspensions of diarrhoeal faeces by the staphylococcal co-agglutination test revealed a high proportion of false positives (26%) and uninterpretable results ( ...19921338997
agents associated with neonatal diarrhoea in ethiopian dairy calves.faeces samples collected from diarrhoeic dairy calves in the first 8 weeks of life were examined for the presence of 5 enteropathogens. the majority of the 108 diarrhoea cases occurred in the first 5 weeks of life and a commercial elisa kit detected bovine enteric coronavirus (bec) in 38.9%, serogroup a rotavirus (rv) in 16.7% and k99 (f5) fimbrial adhesin-positive escherichia coli (k99 etec) in 11.1 per cent. concurrent infections of these enteropathogens were detected in 14.8% of samples (30.8 ...19921339036
[electrophoretic analysis of rna from rotavirus strains isolated from children in the years 1986-1990].double stranded rna of rotaviruses is composed of 11 segments which in standard and field strains may differ in electrophoretic mobility in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. this study was aimed at determination of electrophoretic differentiation of rotavirus strains found in samples of feces of children treated because of diarrhoea in two hospitals in warsaw and in kraków region in the years 1986-1990. out of 85 positive samples from warsaw and 90 from krakow region, for investigation 44 and ...19921339070
[possibilities for using biotests for the assessment of the hazard potential of ground water with hazardous sediments]. 19921339172
[the occurrence of rotaviruses and adenoviruses in children up to 11 years old without diarrheal symptomatology in goiânia, goiás].three hundred and eighty-five children without a diagnosis of diarrhoeal illness had faecal specimens collected in order to detect rotavirus infection. the survey was conducted in goiânia city--central brazil and the children aged 0-11 years old were recruited (268 in day care centers and 117 from a local outpatient clinic--hospital lucio rebelo). detection of rotavirus was done by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page-sds), and 89 specimens were also analyzed by commercial enzyme immunoassay ...19921339188
lack of in vitro interference between sa-11 rotavirus and attenuated poliovirus type determine if rotavirus interferes with the multiplication of poliovirus, and hence the efficiency of the polio vaccine, the effect of timing and concentration of simian rotavirus (ssa-11) on polio-1 infection in ma-104 cells was studied in vitro by evaluating the cytopathic effect, the reduction of the infectivity titers and the visualization of viral particles by electron microscopy. we found that poliovirus 1 was able to replicate when the challenge dose was administered within the first 8 ...19921339225
[salmonella m'bandaka isolated in a nursery].a epidemic of enteric pathogens bacteria occurred in december 1989 and caused two deaths in a nursery. there were many investigations between december 1989 and september 1990 trying to clarify this epidemic context. a new serovar of salmonella had for the first time been isolated from babies' feces in algeria. salmonella m'bandaka has been identified in more than 50% of analysis. during an hygienic investigation in this nursery the above salmonella m'bandaka was isolated in a open physiologic so ...19921339248
genomic rearrangements in human rotavirus strain wa; analysis of rearranged rna segment 7.two rotavirus variants containing genomic rearrangements were isolated from human rotavirus strain wa. in one variant (h5) the rearrangement involves the rna segment 5, while in the other variant (h57) two genes, 5 and 7 are rearranged. the rearranged genes are composed exclusively of sequences from the genes they substitute. sequence analysis of the rearranged segment 7 indicated that it is a partial duplication of the wild type gene, in a head-to-tail orientation.19921339264
[rotavirus and adenovirus in 0- to 5-year-old children hospitalized with or without gastroenteritis in goiâna, go, brazil].in order to detect rotavirus and adenovirus 557 feces samples from hospitalized children (0-5 years of age) were analysed from june 1987 to july 1990 in goiânia city. two hundred and ninety one samples were from children with diarrhoea and 266 were from children without diarrhoea. amongst this later group, 64 samples were from children from the nursery. two hundred and sixty one out of 557 samples were analysed by immunoelectron microscopy (iem), polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) and ...19921342107
[molecular epidemiology of human rotavirus in cumaná, venezuela].during the period january to december 1987, rotaviruses were obtained from infants hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in cumaná, venezuela, and were compared by analysis of the migration of their double-stranded ribonucleic acid (rna) genome segments in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. rotavirus rna was detected in 87 (17.03%) of 511 faecal samples, and at least 12 different electropherotypes were recognized throughout the period of study. of the rotavirus positive samples, 86 (98.85%) h ...19921343749
[rotavirus diarrhea in a health center and a hospital of managua, nicaragua].diarrhoea has been considered by who as a major problem of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years. rotavirus has been reported as one of the main causal agents, although its frequency as causal agent of diarrhoea in nicaragua is not known. a study was carried out on 206 samples from an equal number of children under 5 years, who presented at a health center and a pediatric hospital in managua during 9 months in 1987. in order to detect the presence of rotavirus in faeces, the elisa te ...19921344693
[update in vaccinal prevention]. 19921344874
identification of enteropathogens in infantile diarrhea in a study performed in the city of posadas, misiones, república argentina].the following work informs of the results of isolation, frequency and distribution of enteropathogens in children under five years old, without previous antibiotic treatment, less than seven days with diarrhoea, ambulatory or in hospital "dr. ramón madariaga" de posadas, misiones, república argentina, from june 1986 to may 1989. from a total of 972 children with diarrhoea, 78% required to be hospitalized. the greatest number of cases were found during spring and summer in children from 1 to 11 m ...19921345313
[newly discovered rotavirus serotypes in 4 years of collecting samples from children with diarrheal syndromes].in the four year period from 1985 to 1988 from 527 treated patients with diarrhoea syndrome age 0-7 years hospitalized on clinic for infectious disease in sarajevo, 170 patients (32.2%) had rota virus isolated as the cause isolated. subgrouping and serotyping of rota virus are undertaken in 115 cases. subgrouping was done well in 94.7% and serotyping in 58.2% cases. serotype 1 of subgroup ii isolated in 58.2% of to cases during four years of work, and other serotypes were isolated sporadically. ...19921345546
occurrence of colonization factor antigens i & ii in enterotoxigenic escherichia coli associated diarrhoea in iran & correlation with severity of disease.the occurrence of colonization factor antigens i and ii (cfa/i and ii) and type 1 somatic pili was investigated in 197 enterotoxigenic esch. coli (etec) isolated from 197 patients of diarrhoea (aged under 3 yr) during february 1985 to march 1986 in tehran, iran. among etec strains, 154 strains were heat-stable enterotoxin (st) producers, 27 strains were heat-labile enterotoxin (lt) producers, and 16 strains produced both toxins. sixty five (33%) strains showed mannose-resistant haemagglutination ...19921354654
production of monoclonal antibodies to rotavirus suitable for detection of rotavirus in stool samples by one-step eia.two stable hybridoma cell clones producing high amounts of monoclonal antibodies (mab) to rotavirus have been selected. the mabs were shown to recognize different epitopes of the major inner capsid rotavirus protein vp 6. the two types of mab in question cross-reacted with human and animal group a rotaviruses. due to their high affinity and good binding capacity to microtiter plates a simultaneous eia was developed for detection of rotavirus in stool samples. the sensitivity and specificity of m ...19921360749
astroviruses and caliciviruses: emerging enteric pathogens.acute, infectious gastroenteritis is an extremely common disease that contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality worldwide. in the united states, it is the second most frequent illness encountered in families. while this illness generally runs a self-limited course, it may be temporarily incapacitating and impact substantially on numbers of days lost from work or school. at present, 30-40% of infectious gastroenteritis cases in the united states are attributable to viral agents, while ...19921365533
detection and serotyping of rotaviruses in stool specimens by using reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction rotavirus serotyping (vp7, g type) in stool specimens was carried out by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification (rt-pcr) and compared to serotyping by enzyme immunoassay with monoclonal antibodies (eia-mab). the methods used for double-stranded (ds) rna extraction, rt-pcr amplification, and the primers used were modified from previous reports [gouvea et al.: journal of clinical microbiology 29:519-523, 1990; gentsch et al.: journal of clinical microbiology, 1992 ...19921365837
[the prevalence of enteropathogens in urban day nurseries].survey on the intestinal pathogens prevalence in a population of preschool children attending to the urban day-nurseries.19921366227
[rotaviruses--causes of minor epidemics of diarrheal diseases in the neonatal department of the pediatric clinic in sarajevo].a rotavirus epidemic took place at the above mentioned department (8. v 1987 until 19. vi 1987). during that period, 36 newborn infants were treated for rotaviral symptoms and they all had their stools checked for rotaviruses or their antigen. rotaviruses were found by 17 patients (47.2%). as a lab method we used immunoelectrophoresis. 20 patient of the overall number of 36 were boys and 16 were girls. stool samples showed rotaviruses in 9 boys (45%) and 8 girls (50%). the age of patients was 3 ...19911366316
specific interactions between rotavirus outer capsid proteins vp4 and vp7 determine expression of a cross-reactive, neutralizing vp4-specific epitope.we previously reported that the expression of rotavirus phenotypes by reassortants was affected by recipient genetic background and proposed specific interactions between the outer capsid proteins vp4 and vp7 as the basis for the phenotypic effects (d. chen, j. w. burns, m. k. estes, and r. f. ramig, proc. natl. acad. sci. usa 86:3743-3747, 1989). a neutralizing, cross-reactive vp4-specific monoclonal antibody (mab), 2g4, was used to probe the protein-protein interactions. the vp4 specificity of ...19921370090
identification of vp7 epitopes associated with protection against human rotavirus illness or shedding in volunteers.sera from 17 of 18 adult volunteers challenged with a virulent serotype 1 rotavirus strain (d) were examined for prechallenge antibody levels against several well-defined rotavirus vp7 and vp4 neutralization epitopes by a competitive epitope-blocking immunoassay (eba) in order to determine whether correlates of resistance to diarrheal illness could be identified. the presence of prechallenge serum antibody at a titer of greater than or equal to 1:20 that blocked the binding of a serotype 1 vp7-s ...19921370092
monoclonal antipeptide antibodies recognize epitopes upon vp4 and vp7 of simian rotavirus sa11 in infected ma104 study morphogenetic events of rotavirus sa11-infected ma104 cells with strictly defined reagents we produced monoclonal antibodies against synthetic peptides from both outer capsid proteins vp4 (aa residues 228-241: qntrnivpvsivsr) and vp7 (aa residues 319-326: saafyyrv) of simian rotavirus sa11. two of the selected monoclonal antibodies proved to be reactive with determinants of sa11-infected ma104 rhesus monkey kidney cells, with purified sa11 as well as with the particular peptides used fo ...19921370605
isolation and characterization of two distinct human rotavirus strains with g6 specificity.two new human rotavirus (hrv) strains, pa151 and pa169, with subgroup i specificity and a long rna pattern, yet with a serotype g (vp7) specificity different from those of any of the six well-established hrv serotypes (g1 to g4, g8, and g9), were isolated 3 months apart from two children with acute gastroenteritis in sicily, southern italy, in the winter season of 1987 and 1988. the hrv isolates were adapted to growth in cell cultures and were then characterized by neutralization and rna-rna (no ...19921370851
neutralizing epitopes on herpes simplex virus-1-expressed rotavirus vp7 are dependent on coexpression of other rotavirus proteins.we constructed a recombinant thymidine kinase-negative herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) that expressed the rotavirus major outer capsid glycoprotein, vp7. in the recombinant hsv-1, a promoter from the 5' noncoding region of the hsv-1 glycoprotein b locus regulated the expression of vp7 as a hsv-1 gamma 1 gene product. hsv-1-expressed vp7 resembled rotavirus-expressed vp7 in its sds-page mobility, high mannose-type glycosylation, disulfide bonding, perinuclear to cytoplasmic localization, intr ...19921371025
cloning of noncultivatable human rotavirus by single primer amplification.a novel, sequence-independent strategy has been developed for the amplification of full-length cdna copies of the genes of double-stranded rna (dsrna) viruses. using human (bristol) group c rotavirus as an example, a single amino-linked modified oligonucleotide (primer 1) was ligated to either end of each dsrna genome segment by using t4 rna ligase. following reverse transcription, annealing, and repair of cdna strands, amplification of the viral dsrna genome was accomplished by polymerase chain ...19921371174
evidence for two serotype g3 subtypes among equine rotaviruses.ten cultivable equine rotavirus isolates, two of north american, six of british, and two of irish origin, were compared with standard rotavirus strains and with each other by cross neutralization, neutralization with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mabs), hybridization to a simian rotavirus (sa-11) vp7 gene probe, and reaction with rotavirus subgrouping and serotyping mabs in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. six isolates, two of which had previously been serotyped as g3 by other workers, we ...19921371520
development of monoclonal antibody elisa for simultaneous detection of bovine coronavirus, rotavirus serogroup a, and escherichia coli k99 antigen in feces of calves.a rapid elisa was developed for simultaneous detection of bovine coronavirus (bcv), rotavirus (rv) serogroup a, and escherichia coli k99 antigen in feces of calves. a mixture of 3 monoclonal antibodies specific for bcv, rv, or k99 was used successfully to capture the antigens; the same antibodies labeled with peroxidase were used to detect bcv, rv, or k99. the triple elisa was compared with standard reference diagnostic methods by examining feces from experimentally and naturally infected and he ...19921371656
comparisons of rotavirus vp7-typing monoclonal antibodies by competition binding assay.three sets of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) used to type the outer capsid protein vp7 of four group a rotavirus serotypes (1 through 4) were compared in competition immunoassays. reciprocal competition was observed for each of the vp7 type 2-, 3-, and 4-specific mabs. the vp7 type 1 mabs exhibited variable competition patterns with other vp7 type 1 mabs. mab rv4:3, which has been used to recognize antigenic variants within vp7 type 1 strains, showed reciprocal competition with the fo ...19921372622
immunohistochemical detection of porcine rotavirus using immunogold silver staining (igss).immunogold silver staining (igss) was applied for the detection of porcine group a rotavirus in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of small intestine. prior to the application of igss, the reactivity of protein a-gold as a marker was tested with group-specific antiserum in immunogold electron microscopy. immune aggregates were intensely and specifically labeled with the gold complex. application of igss to tissue sections resulted in specific dark staining of villous enterocytes in ...19921372832
mechanism of interferon action: identification of a rna binding domain within the n-terminal region of the human rna-dependent p1/eif-2 alpha protein kinase.a molecular cdna clone of the human rna-dependent p1/eif-2 alpha protein kinase was expressed in escherichia coli. mutant p1 proteins were examined for rna binding activity by northwestern blot analysis using the reovirus s1 mrna, an activator of the kinase; the adenovirus vai rna, an inhibitor of kinase activation; or human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) tar rna as probe. analysis of trpe-p1 deletion mutant fusion proteins revealed that the 11-kda n-terminal region of the p1 protein bound reoviru ...19921373554
rotavirus-specific breast milk antibody in two populations and possible correlates of interference with rhesus rotavirus vaccine seroconversion.milk was collected from 56 new york and 70 venezuelan mothers participating in rhesus rotavirus (rrv) pediatric vaccine trials. plaque reduction neutralization antibody (prna) to rrv (vp7:3, vp4:rrv) and human p rotavirus (vp7:3, vp4:p) and epitope-blocking antibody to one rrv vp4 and vp7 epitope were determined. controlling for postpartum age, more venezuelan milk samples had detectable rrv and p prna, rrv vp4 epitope-blocking antibody (p less than or equal to .001), and higher rrv and p prna g ...19921373753
characterization of serum antibody responses to natural rotavirus infections in children by vp7-specific epitope-blocking assays.knowledge of the immune response to rotavirus is crucial for vaccine development. we compared an epitope-blocking assay (eba) that uses vp7-specific monoclonal antibodies with neutralization assays (nas) with polyclonal antisera for detecting serum antibody responses after natural rotavirus infection in children. twenty-six serum pairs from children living in an orphanage with and without symptoms during two rotavirus outbreaks were evaluated for vp7 type 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-specific antibody resp ...19921374761
a study on delayed hypersensitivity to rotavirus in infancy and childhood.the t-cell responsiveness to rotavirus antigen and phytohaemagglutinin (pha) together with t-cell total and subsets quantitation was carried out in 50 non-diarrhoeal and six rotavirus diarrhoeal subjects. all individuals in the non-diarrhoeal group responded well to pha and had normal values for t-cell subsets. the number of positive responders to the rotavirus antigen increased gradually from 0% in the newborns to 92% in older children. the increasing risk of exposure to rotavirus infection is ...19921376592
a new electron microscope positive staining method for viruses in suspension.a new procedure for the positive staining of viruses in suspension, the tokuyasu staining procedure (tsp), was evaluated using a non-enveloped virus, rotavirus; an enveloped virus, rubella virus and two glutaraldehyde-treated enveloped viruses, human t cell lymphotropic virus type i (htlv-i) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) as models. the tsp involves an initial staining of the virus with uranyl acetate (ua) followed by thin embedding in a mixture of ua and polyvinyl alcohol (pva) ...19921378851
antigenic and genetic analyses of human rotaviruses in chiang mai, thailand: evidence for a close relationship between human and animal rotaviruses.serotyping of group a rotaviruses obtained from stools of 158 diarrheic patients in chiang mai, thailand, by elisa with monoclonal antibodies revealed a yearly change in the prevalence of individual serotypes. three unusual human rotavirus strains were isolated. strain mc35 had subgroup i-serotype 10 antigen and a long rna electrophoretic type, a property hitherto found only in bovine rotaviruses. rna-rna hybridization tests showed that the strain is more closely related genetically to bovine th ...19921378870
localization of group-specific epitopes on the major capsid protein of group a rotavirus.chemical cleavage of the vp6 protein of bovine rotavirus showed that vp6-specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs) reacted with the amino acid sequence between glycine 48 and asparagine 107. furthermore, three synthetic peptides (amino acids 48 to 64, 60 to 75 and 91 to 108) containing part of this sequence and 22 consecutive overlapping heptapeptides corresponding to the region between amino acids 48 and 75 were analysed for their immunoreactivity using group-specific mabs. the mabs recognized pept ...19921378880
bovine rotavirus segment 5 protein expressed in the baculovirus system interacts with zinc and rna.the cdna sequence of genomic segment 5 of bovine rotavirus (rf strain) has been inserted into baculovirus transfer vectors, downstream of the polyhedrin promotor. recombinant baculoviruses containing gene 5 were selected and the protein was expressed to high yields in spodoptera frugiperda cells. the recombinant protein was inoculated into rabbits and mice to produce specific hyperimmune antisera. the polyclonal antiserum reacted with a protein in rotavirus-infected ma104 cells and with a protei ...19921379624
detection of rotaviruses in the day care environment by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain a rotavirus is an important cause of morbidity among infants and toddlers in day care centers. transmission by the fecal-oral route is well established, but fomites and environmental surfaces may also play an important role in transmission. a highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay was used to detect rotavirus rna in day care environments. areas sampled included floors, diaper change areas, toy balls, and other surfaces. in two centers undergoing outbreaks of rotavirus, 7 (3 ...19921380049
group c rotavirus requires sialic acid for erythrocyte and cell receptor binding.current immunological and biochemical information regarding the hemagglutinin and virus-cell interactions of rotavirus is obtained exclusively from studies with group a rotaviruses. in this study, i report that the immunologically and genetically distinct group c rotavirus also possesses a hemagglutinin. the viral hemagglutinin was identified on a cultivable porcine group c rotavirus strain (strain amc-1) by using agglutinated human and guinea pig erythrocytes. neuraminidase treatment of fresh h ...19921380096
development of cdna probes for typing group a bovine rotaviruses on the basis of vp4 and northern (rna) blot hybridization assays were developed for the p typing of group a bovine rotaviruses (brv) by using cdna probes prepared from gene segment 4. the probes were prepared by polymerase chain reaction amplification of hyperdivergent regions (nucleotides 211 to 686) of brv strain uk, ind, ncdv, and cr vp4 cdna by using specific oligonucleotide primers. the probes were p type specific (vp4) and exhibited little or no cross-reactivity with double-stranded rna from heterologous ...19921383267
production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to porcine group c rotaviruses cross-reactive with group a rotaviruses.five monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to porcine group (gp) c rotaviruses (cowden and ah strains) reactive with both gp a and c rotaviruses in cell culture immunofluorescence (ccif) tests were produced and characterized. these mabs reacted with three strains of gp a and two strains of gp c rotaviruses in a ccif test and were classified into two groups based on their ccif titers. the mabs also reacted to various degrees with cell-culture-propagated porcine gp c rotavirus (cowden) and bovine gp a rota ...19921384230
comparative aetiology of childhood diarrhoea in kakamega and kiambu districts, kenya.two hundred diarrhoea specimens collected during january to february 1988, from rural children aged 0 to 60 months in kakamega district were examined for bacteria, parasites and rotavirus. the results were compared with a sample of 184 diarrhoea specimens matched for month of collection, taken from data collected in the same manner from children in kiambu district. the mean ages of children in the 2 samples did not differ significantly. there were significant differences in the prevalence of spe ...19921396210
[viral gastroenteritis in israel]. 19921398324
outbreaks of summer rotavirus linked to laboratory practices. the national rotavirus surveillance temperate regions rotavirus diarrhea is a disease of the cooler months of the year, but little is known about its patterns in the summer. we report on the first year of national surveillance of rotavirus, during which we actively investigated patterns of summer activity. we obtained data on rotavirus testing from 85 laboratories in 48 states, conducted a survey of their testing practices and retested for confirmation positive specimens from laboratories reporting high rates of positivity duri ...19921408487
persistent diarrhea in vietnamese children: a preliminary report.the clinical and laboratory features of persistent diarrhea were investigated in 83 children under three years of age who were treated in the gastroenterology division of the institute for the protection of children's health, hanoi from august 1988 to august 1989. the number of cases of diarrhea was highest in the children aged 4-5 months. the mean age of the children studied was 6.6 +/- 3.4 months. the ratio of males to females was 2.6 and mean age of first episode of diarrhea was 4.3 +/- 3.4 m ...19921421928
effect of concentration and source of sulfate on nursery pig performance and health.the effect of sulfate in drinking water at concentrations of 600, 1,200, and 1,800 mg/l on nursery pig performance and health was evaluated over 28 days on 415 weaned pigs. sodium sulfate and magnesium sulfate were evaluated in combination at concentrations of 600, 1,200, and 1,800 mg/l, and independently at concentrations of 600 and 1,800 mg/l in the drinking water. seven treatment groups and 1 control group were evaluated for mean gain, feed consumption, water consumption, feed conversion, pre ...19921429159
cell-mediated immune response in rotavirus-infected calves: leucocyte migration inhibition assay.the cell-mediated immune (cmi) response was determined in rotavirus-infected calves by leucocyte migration inhibition assay with blood, spleen, mesenteric lymph node and intestinal lymphocytes. the inhibition of migration was more prominent in intestinal and mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes than in spleen and blood. in rotavirus-infected calves, the assay indicated the presence of cmi response which was more prominent at the local site of infection.19921430345
respiratory syncytial virus detection by dot blot hybridization with a nonradioactive synthetic oligo deoxynucleotide probe.a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide corresponding to a region of the nucleocapside gene (n) of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), was used as a dna probe to develop a nonradioactive hybridization assay for the detection of rsv. the probe was labeled by incorporation of biotin-7-datp to the 3' end by a reaction catalyzed by terminal deoxynucleotydil transferase. the dot blot hybridization assay was found to be specific for rsv when tested against rsv isolates (subgroups a and b) obtained from cell c ...19921431818
benign acute myositis associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis.acute myositis developed concomitantly with gastroenteritis in a 2-year-old girl. she had temporary pain and swelling of the calf muscles and transient marked elevation of serum creatine kinase values. rotavirus antigen was detected in stool by latex agglutination, and there was seroconversion of complement-fixation antibody to rotavirus.19921432427
impact of zinc supplementation on intestinal permeability in bangladeshi children with acute diarrhoea and persistent diarrhoea syndrome.zinc has been shown to enhance intestinal mucosal repair in patients suffering from acrodermatitis enteropathica; but the impact on mucosal integrity during acute (ad) or persistent (pd) diarrhoea is unknown. one hundred eleven children with ad and 190 with pd aged between 3 and 24 months received, randomly and blind to the investigators, either an elemental zinc supplement of 5 mg/kg body wt/day or placebo in multivitamin syrup for 2 weeks while intestinal permeability and, biochemical and anth ...19921432467
rotavirus encephalopathy: evidence of central nervous system involvement during rotavirus infection. 19921448323
[the principles of the diagnosis of acute intestinal infections caused by opportunistic bacteria in children].to specify criteria for the diagnosis of acute intestinal infections induced by opportunistic bacteria, the clinico-laboratory findings were compared in 3 groups of children: with acute intestinal infections induced by opportunistic bacteria (194 children); with shigellosis, salmonellosis and escherichiosis (260 children); with rotavirus gastroenteritis (133 children). it has been demonstrated that in the diagnosis of acute intestinal infections induced by opportunistic bacteria, one should be v ...19921475132
the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus infection in ga-rankuwa, southern africa.rotaviruses were detected in 32.8 pc (96/292) of stool specimens collected from infants and young children with gastroenteritis attending the rehydration unit at ga-rankuwa hospital between january and december 1989. a seasonal distribution was observed with an increase in numbers shedding the virus during the colder months of the year. based on variations in the migration pattern of the rna genome segments when passed through polyacrylamide gels, seven different rna electrophoretypes were ident ...19921477877
water and solute absorption from a new hypotonic oral rehydration solution: evaluation in human and animal perfusion models.controversy continues regarding the optimal composition of glucose electrolyte oral rehydration solutions for the treatment of acute diarrhoea. four perfusion models (normal human jejunum, normal rat small intestine, cholera toxin treated secreting rat small intestine and rotavirus infected rat small intestine) have been developed and used to compare the efficacy of a hypotonic oral rehydration solution with standard united kingdom british national formulary and developing world oral rehydration ...19921487167
control study of oral rehydration solution (ors)/ors + dioctahedral smectite in hospitalized thai infants with acute secretory diarrhea.dioctahedral smectite, a non systemic antidiarrheal agent, is mucoprotective and absorbs enterotoxins and rotavirus as demonstrated in animal models. smectite has been successfully used in various countries in children and adults with acute diarrhea. this study was to assess the efficiency of smectite associated with rehydration in infants with acute secretory diarrhea. sixty-two hospitalized thai infants, aged 1-24 months, with acute secretory diarrhea were randomly divided into 2 groups receiv ...19921488694
vaccines against enteric infections. 19921488802
intestinal permeability in pigs during rotavirus infection.macromolecular permeability of the small intestine was tested in four 3-week-old gnotobiotic pigs inoculated with porcine rotavirus strain rv277 (group a). pigs were administered 125i-labeled polyvinylpyrrolidone (molecular weight [mol wt], 40,000) orally 1 day before and 2 and 24 hours after virus inoculation, and blood samples were obtained every 6 hours. eight hours after rotavirus inoculation, pigs had watery diarrhea. increased permeation of 125i-labeled polyvinylpyrrolidone was not observe ...19921497189
nosocomial rotavirus diarrhea in two medical wards of a pediatric hospital in hundred eighty nine children suffering from different medical problems were admitted in two wards of a pediatric hospital in calcutta during the period between november 18, 1985 and february 10, 1986. amongst them, 36 children developed nosocomial diarrhea and rotavirus was detected from 80.5% of the cases. the nosocomial rotavirus diarrhea cases had lesser frequency of stools and only mild dehydration but the course of illness was longer in comparison to that of the hospitalized rotavirus d ...19921500127
escherichia coli associated with acute measles and diarrhoea at kenyatta national hospital, kenya.three hundred and three children under 5 years old with acute measles and diarrhoea (cases) and 300 other age-matched children with diarrhoea (controls) were examined for enteroadherent e. coli (eaec) and other agents including rotavirus and cryptosporidium. eaec was determined by tissue culture of hep-2 cells. other agents were determined by conventional methods. eaec was identified from both cases and control accounting for 10.3% (31/303) and 15.2% (46/300) respectively. other bacterial agents ...19921505401
stool electrolytes in acute dehydrating gastroenteritis.stool electrolytes were studied in 100 cases of gastroenteritis. the duration of illness was 24-48 hours in 32% and 72-96 hours in 28% of the cases. on stool culture, 43% children had no growth, 23% had enteropathogenic e. coli and 10% had cholera and rotavirus each. the stool sodium loss was more in cholera and shigella cases, diarrhea of shorter duration and in children between 24-30 months of age. potassium loss in the stool was more in shiegella cases, diarrhea of short duration and in child ...19921506098
hyperechoic lesions in the basal ganglia: an incidental sonographic finding in neonates and infants.cerebral ultrasound (us) imaging was performed as a screening procedure in approximately 3,600 neonates and infants over a period of 18 months. hyperechoic lesions in the basal ganglia and thalamic region were detected incidentally in 15 of these patients. clinical diagnoses included cytomegalovirus infection, asphyxia, rotavirus infection, prematurity, amniotic infection, dysmorphic stigmata, hyperbilirubinemia, congenital heart disease, and diabetic fetopathia. lesions showed a single punctate ...19921508584
[intestinal microflora in young children with rotavirus infection].a total of 270 children with rotavirus diarrhea were examined. the quantitative and qualitative composition of their intestinal microflora was studied. most frequently microorganisms of the genus enterobacter and most seldom, serratia were isolated. a decrease in the amount of bifidobacteria, normal escherichia coli and an increase in the amount of lactose-negative escherichia were noted. in cases of pronounced dysbiosis in young children the clinical course of rotavirus infection is aggravated ...19921509842
detection of african horsesickness virus in infected spleens by a sandwich elisa using two monoclonal antibodies specific for vp7.a sandwich enzyme-linked immunsorbent assay (elisa) for rapid detection of african horsesickness virus (ahsv) in infected spleens or cell culture supernatant was developed. this method uses two monoclonal antibodies (mabs) which recognize two non-overlapping epitopes of the major core protein (vp7) to coat the solid phase, and one labeled with biotin as second antibody. this elisa was evaluated for its ability to detect ahsv in infected spleens resulting in a sensitivity of 97.4% and a specifici ...19921517353
a simplified agarose gel electrophoresis for rotavirus detection.the use of agarose gel electrophoresis for rotavirus detection is a suitable routine method if simplifying modifications are introduced. incorporation of ethidium bromide into the agarose gel permits its use for several times in the course of one week without further staining of the rna segments. the electrophoresis chamber with a uv-light-transparent bottom is put directly onto the transilluminator and the rna bands of the rotavirus can be visualized without manipulating the gel tray. during th ...19921520972
enteropathogens associated with acute and persistent diarrhea in bangladeshi children less than 5 years of age.a longitudinal study of diarrhea was carried out from may 1988 to april 1989 by household surveillance of 705 children less than 5 years old in rural bangladesh. stool samples were examined for enteric pathogens at the beginning of each diarrheal episode. for persistent episodes, stool examination was repeated on days 15-17 of the illness. for each case of persistent diarrhea, stool samples from age-matched acute diarrheal and healthy controls were examined. compared with healthy controls, cases ...19921527413
molecular analysis of rice dwarf phytoreovirus segment s1: interviral homology of the putative rna-dependent rna polymerase between plant- and animal-infecting reoviruses.we have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the largest segment s1 of rice dwarf phytoreovirus (rdv), a member of the family reoviridae. s1 is 4423 nucleotides long with a segment-specific inverted repeat located adjacent to the conserved termini (5'ggcaaa---ugau3'). a major open reading frame (bases 36 to 4367) on the s1 plus strand, which is preceded by a minicistron (bases 6 to 29), encodes the polypeptide (p1) consisting of 1444 amino acids with a m(r) of 164, 142. the sense-stran ...19921529532
epidemiology and microbiology of diarrhoea in young aboriginal children in the kimberley region of western australia.infectious diarrhoea is common in young australian aborigines and is one of the main causes for their unsatisfactory health standards with consequent widespread failure to thrive and undernutrition. most published reports relate to patients in hospital or to hospital admission statistics and give little indication of the extent or severity of diarrhoeal disease in children in aboriginal communities. the present investigation involved more than 100 aboriginal children up to 5 years of age living ...19921547842
diarrheal disease in cambodian children at a camp in thailand.the etiology of acute diarrhea (less than or equal to 3 days duration) and persistent diarrhea (greater than or equal to 14 days duration) was determined in cambodian children under age 5 years in a refugee camp on the thai-cambodian border between may and october 1989; potential risk factors associated with persistent diarrhea were examined in an age-matched case-control study. specimens collected from children and environmental sources were examined by standard microbiologic methods; escherich ...19921570820
characteristics and prognosis of hospital-treated obstructive bronchitis in children aged less than two a prospective study 101 children aged less than 2 years (median age 10 months), were examined the first time they were admitted to a paediatric ward for asthmatic symptoms. two-thirds were boys and 58 had parents or siblings with allergic symptoms. during winter-spring, respiratory syncytial (rs) virus was verified in 50% of children. other viral agents were adenovirus, parainfluenza 3, coxsackie b 2, echo 6 and rotavirus. at the acute stage, 54% of the children displayed changes on pulmonary ...19921600302
new children's vaccine initiative launched.the international community has launched the children's vaccine initiative, which has created the most ambitious grouping of public and private sector interests ever to tackle a global health issue. developed by who, unicef, undp, the world bank, and the rockefeller foundation, the initiative is the result of decisions taken at the world summit for children, held in new york in september 1990. during that meeting, world leaders requested greater resources for the development of new or better v ...19921600443
norfloxacin compared to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for the treatment of travelers' diarrhea among u.s. military personnel deployed to south america and west africa.a randomized treatment trial of travelers' diarrhea was carried out among u.s. military personnel participating in routine exercises in several port cities in south america and west africa. a 5-day, twice daily course of either norfloxacin (400 mg) or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (tmp/smx, 160/800 mg) was given to 142 volunteers. at the end of 5 days of treatment, diarrhea had resolved in 100% of 73 patients receiving norfloxacin and 97.1% (67/69) receiving tmp/smx. a probable bacterial pathoge ...19921603387
preponderance of igm from blood lymphocytes in response to infantile rotavirus gastroenteritis.immune responses triggered by acute rotavirus infection in infants are poorly defined. to obtain indirect evidence as to gut immune response to rotavirus, the solid phase enzyme linked immunoassay (elispot) of immunoglobulin and specific antibody secreting cells among circulating blood lymphocytes was used. seventeen well nourished patients from seven to 25 months of age were studied during the peak of rotavirus infection, and in convalescence. a transient but distinct immunoglobulin secreting c ...19921612479
[severe gastroenteritis after hib preventive vaccination?]. 19921614077
erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae septicemia-polyserositis and streptococcal encephalitis in a calf. 19921616989
mucosal immune defence mechanisms in enterocolitis complicating hirschsprung's disease.enterocolitis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hirschsprung's disease. the aetiology of enterocolitis is uncertain-ischaemic and bacterial causes and recently, rotavirus infections, have been suggested. bowel tissue from 12 patients with hirschsprung's disease who underwent swenson's operation (five of whom had clinical evidence of enterocolitis) and colon from six controls subjects were examined to investigate possible immunopathological mechanisms associated with the di ...19921624163
epidemiological analysis of serologically determined rotavirus and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli infections in ecuadorian children.the statistical association of rotavirus- and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli-specific serum antibody with demographic and hygienic factors was tested in ecuadorian children enrolled in a cross-sectional survey. in 7- to 10-month-old children, enterotoxigenic e. coli-specific antibody was associated (p less than 0.05) with poor drinking water quality, lack of a sewage system, and feeding of supplementary food. in 7- to 14-month-old children, rotavirus-specific antibody was associated only with ...19921624581
[is hypertonic dehydration increasing among children with gastroenteritis?]. 19921630262
radioactive and enzymatic cloned cdna probes for bovine enteric coronavirus detection by molecular hybridization.genomic rna of f15 strain bovine enteric coronavirus (becv) was cloned in e. coli. three clones (174, 160, pg78), selected in the cdna library, including a large portion of the nucleocapsid (n), matrix (m) and peplomeric (s) protein genes, were used as probes for a slot blot hybridization assay. two probe labelling techniques were compared, radiolabelling with 32p and enzymatic labelling through covalent linkage to peroxidase and chemiluminescence detection. the radioactive probe 174 detected as ...19921642553
detection of group b and c rotaviruses by polymerase chain reaction.we adapted the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to detect the noncultivatable group b and c rotaviruses and introduced a simple and convenient technique to purify viral rna from stool specimens. double-stranded rna present in stool extracts was purified by adsorption to hydroxyapatite and was used as the template for reverse transcription and polymerase amplification. primer pairs specific for group b (gene 8) and group c (gene 6) rotaviruses were selected to amplify group-characteristic sizes of ...19911645368
molecular epidemiology of rotaviruses associated with pediatric diarrhea in bangkok, thailand.rotavirus diarrhea in 453 pediatric patients (29.8% of 1,518) was studied in greater bangkok during 1985 to 1987. the disease persisted all year, increasing in incidence from august to january (30 to 50%). polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of rotavirus rna from these patients and from an additional 46 patients of a 1982 to 1983 epidemic revealed 26 electropherotypes, 4 with short (s) and 22 with long (l) rna profiles. of the analyzed specimens, 85.5% were l forms. only one or a few electrophero ...19911645372
astroviruses as a cause of gastroenteritis in children.infection with astroviruses has been associated with gastroenteritis in children, and serologic surveys indicate that this infection may be frequent. the importance of astroviruses as agents of gastroenteritis has not been shown in a controlled study, however.19911645459
genomic segment reassortment in rotaviruses and other reoviridae. 19911645493
rotavirus ym gene 4: analysis of its deduced amino acid sequence and prediction of the secondary structure of the vp4 protein.we have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the vp4 gene of porcine rotavirus ym. it is 2,362 nucleotides long, with a single open reading frame coding for a protein of 776 amino acids. a phylogenetic tree was derived from the deduced ym vp4 amino acid sequence and 18 other available vp4 sequences of rotavirus strains belonging to different serotypes and isolated from different animal species. in this tree, vp4 proteins were grouped by the hosts that the corresponding viruses infect r ...19911645789
photoaffinity labeling of rotavirus vp1 with 8-azido-atp: identification of the viral rna polymerase.rotavirus single-shelled particles have several enzymatic activities that are involved with the synthesis of capped mrnas both in vivo and in vitro. because single-shelled particles must be structurally intact to carry out transcription, it has proven to be difficult to identify the protein within such particles that possesses associated rna polymerase activity. one approach for characterizing the function of the individual proteins within single-shelled particles is to use nucleotide analogs to ...19911645806
[the epidemiology and prevention of rotavirus infection]. 19911646132
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