PMID(sorted descending)
in vivo study of immunity to rotaviruses : selected methods in mice.rotaviruses (rvs) are important human pathogens. the murine model of rv infection has been very useful in clarifying the mechanisms that mediate clearance of primary rv infection, and the mechanisms that mediate immunity to reinfection. the use of immunodeficient strains of mice, immunodepletion studies with specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs), and passive transfer of purified cells are three basic, complementary experimental approaches that have been used for this purpose, and are the subject ...200021318859
immunologic methods and correlates of protection.studies of natural rotavirus (rv) infection in children have shown that protection against subsequent rv disease occurs (1). assessment of humoral immune responses has included study of the importance of circulating vs intestinal antibodies (abs), serotype-specific vs group-specific abs, and rv-specific immunoglobulins iga, igm, and igg (1). following natural rv infection, rv-specific igm, followed by iga and igg, appear in serum and duodenal fluid or stool of young children (2). protection agai ...200021318858
pathogenesis and animal models.because of the limitations in studying human rotavirus (hrv) pathogenesis and mucosal immunity in the natural host (infants and children), various animal models have been utilized to investigate rotavirus (rv) disease pathogenesis and immunity. mice and rabbits serve as useful models to evaluate and dissect immune responses to rv (see chapter 9 ). however, because older mice (>14 d) and rabbits are not susceptible to diarrhea after inoculation with either homologous (murine or lapine, respective ...200021318857
mixed infections with rotaviruses : protocols for reassortment, complementation, and other assays.mixed infection of tissue culture cells is the primary means of studying genetic and nongenetic interactions between viral mutants. the purpose of the mixed infection is to place two different viral genomes into the same cell, where interactions between the genomes and their encoded gene products can take place. in some cases, interactions are observed in the context of the mixed infected cell, but generally the yield of progeny virus from the mixed infected cells is assayed to reveal the result ...200021318856
rotavirus entry into tissue culture cells.rotavirus (rv) is a triple-protein-layered icosahedral virus, for which studies have established that the two outer-layer proteins, viral protein 4 (vp4) and viral protein 7 (vp7), are required for viral infectivity (1,2). vp7, a glycoprotein, is the major component of the outer-layer, but its role in viral entry is unclear. vp4 forms dimers extending out from the vp7-coated viral surface (3,4) and have been shown to be a determinant of host range and virulence, and is directly involved in cell ...200021318855
virus replication.the effort to understand the molecular biology of rotaviruses (rvs) has led to the development of procedures that can be used to study the replication and transcription of the rv genome, the assembly and structure of the rotavirion, and the structure and function of rv proteins. because it is not possible to provide a detailed description of all the techniques developed, this chapter stresses only those that have broad application, or which represent important new technical advances. in particul ...200021318854
electron cryomicroscopy and computer image processing techniques : use in structure-function studies of rotavirus.rotavirus (rv), a double-stranded (ds)rna virus in the family reoviridae, is a complex, relatively large (diameter, including spikes = 1000 å), nonenveloped icosahedral virus. once rv was recognized as a major human pathogen, it was extensively studied using modern molecular genetic and biological techniques, as discussed elsewhere in this book. these studies provided basic information about gene-coding assignments, protein processing, genome expression and replication, viral morphogenesis, and ...200021318853
rotaviruses: basic facts.rotaviruses (rvs) are the chief etiologic agent of viral gastroenteritis in infants and young children, and in the young of a large variety of animal species. since the discovery of rvs in man 25 yr ago, much has been learned about their genome and protein composition; their three-dimensional structure; their replication, pathogenesis and clinical pattern; the host's immune response; and the epidemiology. measures of individual treatment have recently been complemented by the licensure in the un ...200021318852
intussusception following rotavirus vaccine administration: post-marketing surveillance in the national immunization program in australia, post-marketing surveillance for intussusception following vaccination commenced with funding of rotateq(®) and rotarix(®) vaccines under the national immunization program (nip) in july 2007.201121316503
[rotavirus infections].rotaviruses are genetically highly variable, non-enveloped viruses with a double-stranded, segmented ribonucleic acid genome. they are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. in children aged less than 5 years, they are the most frequent agent of severe acute diarrheal illnesses. in less developed countries, rotavirus diseases are one of the most frequent causes of death in infants and little children. typically, symptomatic rotavirus diseases in infants (<5 years) and the elderly (>70 years ...201121313775
[infectious intestinal morbidity in russia].retrospective epidemiological analysis of the incidence of viral hepatitis a, sonne and flexner (bacillary) dysenteries, and rotavirus infection in different regions of russia for the period of 2003-2008 revealed common and distinct features in the epidemic process of these conditions. all of them proved more widespread among children than in adults. their distribution over the country's territory is highly nonuniform. the incidence among population at large and children under 14 is proportional ...201021312382
highly sensitive detection of the group a rotavirus using apolipoprotein h-coated elisa plates compared to quantitative real-time pcr.the principle of a capture elisa is binding of specific capture antibodies (polyclonal or monoclonal) to the surface of a suitable 96 well plate. these immobilized antibodies are capable of specifically binding a virus present in a clinical sample. subsequently, the captured virus is detected using a specific detection antibody. the drawback of this method is that a capture elisa can only function for a single virus captured by the primary antibody. human apolipoprotein h (apoh) or ß2-glycoprote ...201121310042
norovirus as cause of benign convulsion associated with gastro-enteritis.rotavirus and norovirus gastro-enteritis (ge) are common in children. complications, except severe dehydration, are rare. rotavirus was known to cause seizures and even ge encephalopathy, but these complications are less described in norovirus infection. the objective of this study is to compare the demographic features, clinical manifestations including the incidence of afebrile seizure, and the outcomes in children with rotavirus and norovirus infections.201121309881
immunogenicity of a scalable inactivated rotavirus vaccine in mice.inactivated rotavirus vaccine is a safe and effective potential vaccine for the prevention of rotavirus infection among children, but no approved licensed vaccine is available now. in this study, a scalable inactivated rotavirus vaccine, prepared in vero cells cultured by microcarrier fermentation, inactivated by formalin and absorbed by al(oh) 3 adjuvant, was vaccinated into the six weeks-old female balb/c mice by intramuscular injection. after twice immunization at interval of three weeks, bot ...201121307650
the early interferon response to rotavirus is regulated by pkr and depends on mavs/ips-1, rig-i, mda-5, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (mefs), the bovine rotavirus (uk strain) but not the simian rhesus rotavirus (rrv) robustly triggers beta interferon (ifn-ß) secretion, resulting in an ifn-dependent restriction of replication. we now find that both rotavirus strains trigger antiviral transcriptional responses early during infection and that both transcriptional responses and ifn-ß secretion are completely abrogated in mavs/ips-1(-/-) mefs. replication of uk virus could be rescued in mavs/ips-1(-/- ...201121307186
[clinical observation on treatment of infantile rotavirus enteritis by umbilical application of lunxieting paste].to observe the clinical effect of umbilical application with lunxieting paste (lxt) for the treatment of infantile rotavirus enteritis (ire).201021302490
oral immunization of mice with lactococcus lactis expressing the rotavirus vp8* protein.the efficacy of recombinant lactococcus lactis as a delivery vehicle for a rotavirus antigen was evaluated in a mouse model. the rotavirus vp8* protein was expressed intracellularly and extracellularly in l. lactis wild type and in an alr mutant deficient in alanine racemase activity, necessary for the synthesis of the cell-wall component d: -alanine. when the mucosal immune response was evaluated by measuring vp8*-specific iga antibody in faeces, wild-type l. lactis triggered a low iga synthesi ...201121302132
gavi takes steps to address funding woes. 201121300591
meeting of the global advisory committee on vaccine safety, december 2010. 201121299033
modeling protein structure at near atomic resolutions with gorgon.electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-em) has played an increasingly important role in elucidating the structure and function of macromolecular assemblies in near native solution conditions. typically, however, only non-atomic resolution reconstructions have been obtained for these large complexes, necessitating computational tools for integrating and extracting structural details. with recent advances in cryo-em, maps at near-atomic resolutions have been achieved for several macromolecular assemblies ...201121296162
evaluation of the rida(®)quick immunochromatographic norovirus detection assay using specimens from australian gastroenteritis incidents.a range of laboratory methods is now available for the detection of norovirus, a major cause of gastroenteritis. recently, a commercial immunochromatographic assay for norovirus detection, the rida(®)quick assay, has become available, but there is still only limited information on its efficacy. this study examined the sensitivity and specificity of the rida(®)quick assay, using faecal material received for testing in a major diagnostic/reference laboratory in australia. the sensitivity of the as ...201121295607
paediatric hospital admissions for rotavirus gastroenteritis and infectious gastroenteritis of all causes in england: an analysis of correlation with deprivation.infectious intestinal diseases cause substantial morbidity and economic loss in the uk. rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge), a form of gastroenteritis, is the primary cause of severe diarrhoea in children. the primary objective of this study was to examine whether hospitalisation for gastroenteritis, and particularly rvge, is linked to social deprivation.201121294699
burden of rotavirus infections in liguria, northern italy: hospitalisations and potential savings by vaccination.we evaluated the rates of gastroenteritis admissions to the emergency department and of rotavirus-related hospitalisations in children =5 years of age in 2006 at an italian paediatric hospital. we calculated the number of rotavirus cases avoidable through the universal vaccination of children. epidemiological data were extracted from the data elaboration centre. to calculate the hospitalisation rate due to rotavirus, the virus was sought in the faeces of children hospitalised for acute gastroent ...201121293899
economic impact of dengue illness in the americas.the growing burden of dengue in endemic countries and outbreaks in previously unaffected countries stress the need to assess the economic impact of this disease. this paper synthesizes existing studies to calculate the economic burden of dengue illness in the americas from a societal perspective. major data sources include national case reporting data from 2000 to 2007, prospective cost of illness studies, and analyses quantifying underreporting in national routine surveillance systems. dengue i ...201121292885
host inflammatory response to infectionsince humans are believed to be a major reservoir for h. pylori, the continued survival of the bacterial species depends largely on human-to-human transmission. h. pylori is not as easily transmitted as other pathogens such as rotavirus; therefore, persistent infection would increase the chance that the infection can be disseminated. on the basis of the discussion above, it appears that h. pylori has selected a niche that favors survival based on many factors, including the inability of gastric ...200121290742
case-control evaluation of the effectiveness of the g1p[8] human rotavirus vaccine during an outbreak of rotavirus g2p[4] infection in central australia.the human rotavirus vaccine was evaluated during an outbreak of rotavirus g2p[4] infection in central australia. no overall protective effect against hospitalization was demonstrated, raising concerns over the durability of vaccine protection against heterotypic strains.201121288843
reaching mdg 4 in india: a role for rotavirus vaccine? 201121288840
projected impact and cost-effectiveness of a rotavirus vaccination program in india, assess the value of rotavirus vaccination in india, we determined the potential impact and cost-effectiveness of a national rotavirus vaccination program.201121288839
immune responses to rotavirus infection and vaccination and associated correlates of protection. 201121288818
[more severe bacterial infections could be prevented with vaccine. rotavirus, influenza and varicella cause thousands of hospital admissions]. 201021287748
detection of human bocavirus 3 in china.since its first identification in 2005, four species of human bocavirus (hbov1-4) have been documented. hbov1 and hbov2 have been shown to be associated with respiratory tract illnesses, as well as with acute gastroenteritis (age), worldwide. however, reports on the prevalence, clinical significance, and molecular characteristics of the two most newly identified hbov species, hbov3 and hbov4, are very limited. to detect and characterize hbov3 and hbov4 infections in children with age in china, s ...201121286929
development of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea this study, a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) was developed for detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (pedv). six primers were designed to amplify the nucleocapsid (n) gene of pedv. the optimization, sensitivity, and specificity of the rt-lamp were investigated. the results showed that the optimal reaction condition for rt-lamp amplifying pedv n gene was achieved at 63°c for 50 min. the rt-lamp assay was more sensitive than gel-based rt-pcr and en ...201121286798
diarrhea.the four major mechanisms of diarrhea are osmotic forces, secretory forces, exudation from a disrupted intestinal mucosa, and disturbed intestinal motility. in many illnesses, more than one mechanism produces diarrhea. the rotaviruses and the norwalk viruses have recently been recognized as common causes of viral gastroenteritis. also, the major cause of antibiotic-associated colitis is now known to be an overgrowth of clostridium difficile. campylobacter has also been identified as a common cau ...198321283398
incidence of rotavirus diarrhea in children under 6 years referred to the pediatric emergency and clinic of ghaem hospital, mashhad, iran.rotavirus is the most important pathogen responsible for acute diarrhea in infants and young children. the incidence of rotavirus infection was studied in 156 children less than six years of age who were suffering from acute gastroenteritis, between february 22, 2006 and february 21, 2007 in mashhad. rotavirus antigen was detected by latex agglutination test (rotascreen) in 28.8% of the stool samples examined. the frequency of rotavirus infection was significantly higher among patients under 24 ...201021279942
complete genomic characterization of cell culture adapted human g12p[6] rotaviruses isolated from south korea.two unusual human rotavirus g12 strains, cau195 and cau214, were isolated from female pediatric diarrhea patients under 12 months of age in 2006 using a cell culture system and their full genome sequences were analyzed. the 11 gene segments of both korean g12 strains were classified as g12-p[6]-r1-c1-m1-i1-a1-n1-t1-e1-h1 genotypes. notably, the korean strains were of the same genotypes as previously reported strains isolated from bangladesh in 2003 (dhaka12-03), from the united states in 2005-20 ...201121279677
environmental survey to assess viral contamination of air and surfaces in hospital settings.the presence of pathogenic viruses in healthcare settings represents a serious risk for both staff and patients. direct viral detection in the environment poses significant technical problems and the indirect indicators currently in use suffer from serious limitations. the aim of this study was to monitor surfaces and air in hospital settings to reveal the presence of hepatitis c virus, human adenovirus, norovirus, human rotavirus and torque teno virus by nucleic acid assays, in parallel with me ...201121277649
monitoring and evaluation of infectious rotaviruses in various wastewater effluents and receiving waters revealed correlation and seasonal pattern of occurrences.sewage systems are important nodes to monitor enteric pathogens transmitted via water. the aim of this study was to assess the presence of rotaviruses in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (wwtps) and receiving streams in beijing, china, to evaluate the reductions of rotaviruses in wwtps and to provide viral fate and transport data for further epidemiological studies.201121276144
full genomic analyses of two human g2p[4] rotavirus strains detected in 2005: identification of a caprine-like vp3 gene.although g2p[4] rotaviruses are common causes of infantile diarrhoea, to date only the full genomes of the prototype (strain ds-1) and another old strain, tb-chen, have been analysed. we report here the full genomic analyses of two bangladeshi g2p[4] strains, mmc6 and mmc88, detected in 2005. both the strains exhibited a ds-1-like genotype constellation. excluding the vp4 and vp7 genes, and except for vp3 of mmc88, the mmc strains were genetically more closely related to the contemporary g2p[4] ...201121270285
recognition of the gm3 ganglioside glycan by rhesus rotavirus particles. 201121268193
a first report on the characterization of rotavirus strains in sierra an effort to reduce the high mortalities associated with rotavirus infections, a number of african countries are considering introducing human rotavirus vaccines. the demonstrated safety and efficacy of the live-attenuate human rotavirus vaccines in several clinical trials worldwide has accelerated such initiatives. although the percentage-mortality rates for sierra leone are top of the list for rotavirus-associated deaths in africa, no study has reported the prevalent strains circulating wit ...201121264877
sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the coding region of six common rotavirus strains: evidence for intragenogroup reassortment among co-circulating g1p[8] and g2p[4] strains from the united states.the segmented genome of rotaviruses provides an opportunity for rotavirus strains to generate a large genetic diversity through reassortment; however, this mechanism is considered to play little role in the generation of mosaic gene constellations between wa-like and ds-1-like strains in genes other than the neutralization antigens. a pilot study was undertaken to analyze these two epidemiologically important strains at the genomic level in order to (i) identify intergenogroup reassortment and ( ...201121264876
prevalence of norovirus gii-4 antibodies in finnish children.noroviruses (novs) are the second most common cause of viral gastroenteritis after rotavirus in children. nov genotype gii-4 has emerged as the major type not only in outbreaks of nov gastroenteritis but also endemic gastroenteritis among infants and young children worldwide. using baculovirus-insect cell system virus-like particles (vlps) of nov genotype gii-4 and an uncommon genotype gii-12 were produced. these vlps were used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) for detection of nov-s ...201121264875
management of diarrhea in infants and children.diarrhea affecting infants and children is an important primary-care problem. most winter infections are caused by rotavirus, but newer viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens have been discovered. fluid and electrolyte therapy is the mainstay of therapy. antiemetic, antibiotic and antidiarrheal medications can usually be avoided. commercial clear fluid products have been reformulated to allow effective rehydration and maintenance of hydration, thus avoiding hospitalization or use of intravenou ...198721263937
impact of rotavirus vaccination on hospital-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis in show that after the implementation of routine rotavirus vaccination for infants in the united states, community-acquired (ca) rotavirus cases declined substantially in the 2007-2008 season. the impact of community-based rotavirus vaccination on the substantial burden of hospital-acquired (ha) rotavirus has not been documented.201121262887
retrospective detection by negative contrast electron microscopy of faecal viral particles in free-living wild red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) with suspected enteropathy in great britain.transmission electron microscopy identified adenovirus particles in 10 of 70 (14.3 per cent) samples of large intestinal content collected at postmortem examination from free-living wild red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) across great britain between 2000 and 2009. examination was limited to cases in which an enteropathy was suspected on the basis of predetermined macroscopic criteria such as semi-solid or diarrhoeic faeces, suspected enteritis or the presence of intussusception. in most cases, me ...201021262731
probiotic, zinc and lactose free formula in children with rotavirus diarrhea: are they effective?background: this study aim to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc, probiotic bacteria, lactose-free formula and their different combinations in the treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in young children. methods: eight different treatment groups were formed: group 1: 60 patients receiving saccharomyces boulardii; group 2: 60 patients receiving zinc; group 3: 60 patients receiving lactose-free formula; group 4: 60 patients receiving s. boulardii plus zinc; group 5: 60 patients receiving s. boulardii pl ...201121261786
increasing rates of gastroenteritis hospital discharges in us adults and the contribution of norovirus, 1996-2007.diarrhea remains an important cause of morbidity, but until the mid 1990s, hospital admissions for diarrhea in the us adult population were declining. we aimed to describe recent trends in gastroenteritis hospitalizations and to determine the contribution of norovirus.201121258098
integrative expression system for delivery of antibody fragments by lactobacilli.a series of expression cassettes which mediate secretion or surface display of antibody fragments was stably integrated in the chromosome of lactobacillus paracasei. l. paracasei producing surface-anchored variable domain of llama heavy chain (vhh) (arp1) directed against rotavirus showed efficient binding to rotavirus and protection in the mouse model of rotavirus infection.201121257814
development of a combined immunomagnetic separation and quantitative reverse transcription-pcr assay for sensitive detection of infectious rotavirus in water samples.a quantitative and rapid detection method for rotavirus in water samples was developed using immunomagnetic separation combined with quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (ims-rt-qpcr). magnetic beads coated with antibodies against representative group a rotavirus were used to capture and purify intact rotavirus particles in both artificial and real environmental water sample matrix. compared to extracting rna using commercial kits and rt-qpcr assay, the developed ims-rt-q ...201121256895
immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of the human rotavirus vaccine rix4414 (rotarix™) oral suspension (liquid formulation) when co-administered with expanded program on immunization (epi) vaccines in vietnam and the philippines in 2006-2007.evaluation of immunogenicity and safety of a 2-dose liquid formulation of human rotavirus vaccine, rix4414 following who's expanded program on immunization (epi) schedule (0, 1, and 2 months; month 0 indicates day of enrollment) in vietnam and the philippines. infants aged 6-10 (mean=8.7 ± 1.07 weeks vietnam) and 5-10 weeks (mean=6.6 ± 1.03 weeks philippines) received two doses of rix4414 vaccine (v) and one dose of placebo (pl) or three placebo doses concomitantly with commercially available di ...201121256876
full genomic analysis of indian g1p[8] rotavirus strains.rotavirus g1p[8] strains are the most predominant cause of rotavirus diarrhea, worldwide and are an important component of currently licensed rotateq and rotarix vaccines. despite a significant contribution of these strains in causing diarrhea in indian children, none of them has been characterized completely, to date. this issue was addressed in the present study by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of complete genomes of 3 indian rotavirus strains (06361, 0613158 and 061060) of g1p[8] speci ...201121256248
multiplex reverse transcription pcr luminex assay for detection and quantitation of viral agents of gastroenteritis.several viruses can cause diarrheal disease, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. existing diagnostic methods include elisa and nucleic acid amplification, usually performed individually.201121256076
analysis of human p[4]g2 rotavirus strains isolated in brazil reveals codon usage bias and strong compositional constraints.the rotavirus genus belongs to the family reoviridae and its genome consist of 11 segments of double-stranded rna. group a rotaviruses (rv-a) are the main etiological agent of acute viral gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. understanding the extent and causes of biases in codon usage is essential to the understanding of viral evolution. however, the factors shaping synonymous codon usage bias and nucleotide composition in human rv-a are currently unknown. in order to gain in ...201121255687
rotavirus vp2 core shell regions critical for viral polymerase activation.the innermost vp2 core shell of the triple-layered, icosahedral rotavirus particle surrounds the viral genome and rna processing enzymes, including the rna-dependent rna polymerase (vp1). in addition to anchoring vp1 within the core, vp2 is also an essential cofactor that triggers the polymerase to initiate double-stranded rna (dsrna) synthesis using packaged plus-strand rna templates. the vp2 requirement effectively couples packaging with genome replication and ensures that vp1 makes dsrna only ...201121248043
faecal bifidobacteria in indian neonates & the effect of asymptomatic rotavirus infection during the first month of life.bifidobacteria colonize the gut after the first week of life and remain an important component of the gut microbiota in infancy. this study was carried out to characterize the diversity and number of bifidobacteria colonizing the gut in indian neonates and to investigate whether asymptomatic infection with rotavirus in the first month of life affected gut colonization by bifidobacteria.201021245621
one-year monthly survey of rotavirus, astrovirus and norovirus in three sewage treatment plants in beijing, china and associated health risk evaluate the presence and distribution of the three main viruses (rotavirus, astrovirus, and norovirus) responsible for human acute gastroenteritis in sewerage system an one-year study was carried out in beijing, china. a total of 96 samples of influent and effluents from three sewage treatment plants (stps) were collected from november 2006 to october 2007. silica was used to concentrate viral particles from water samples and a reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction (rt-neste ...201121245573
decline in rotavirus hospitalisations following introduction of australia's national rotavirus immunisation determine the impact of rotavirus immunisation on rotavirus hospitalisations in young children. methods: annual hospitalisations for rotavirus gastroenteritis to the children's hospital at westmead, a tertiary care paediatric hospital in sydney, were recorded from 2001 for 6 years prior to and 2.5 years following the introduction of rotavirus vaccines to the national immunisation program. data on hospital-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis were collected prospectively.201121244557
projected health benefits and costs of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination in uganda.we determined impact and cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs among children<5 years of age in uganda from the public health system perspective. disease-specific models compared the disease burden and cost with and without a vaccination program. if introduced, pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccine programs will save 10,796 and 5265 lives, respectively, prevent 94,071 streptococcus pneumoniae and 94,729 rotavirus cases in children<5 years, and save 3886 and 996 milli ...201121241733
recognition of the gm3 ganglioside glycan by rhesus rotavirus particles. 201121240883
instability of human rotavirus g genotypes circulating in a rural area of bangladesh.a total of 280 fecal specimens from patients with acute gastroenteritis attending one rural hospital (dharmapasha health complex, sunamgonj) in bangladesh from august 2004 to may 2006 were tested for rotavirus by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). the diversity of rotavirus was investigated using electropherotyping and reverse transcription-pcr amplification of the vp7 and vp4 genes. the electrophoretic patterns of dsrna of rotavirus showed 9 different migrations (6 long and 3 short) by ...201121240155
efficacy and tolerability of modified atkins diet in japanese children with medication-resistant epilepsy.ten japanese patients aged 1.5-17years with medication-resistant epilepsy were placed on the modified atkins diet (mad) for 3weeks during admission to our hospital. dietary carbohydrate was restricted to 10g per day. we studied the efficacy of the diet regarding the seizure frequency and tolerability of the diet at the end of the 3weeks on the diet. those who decided to continue the mad at the time of discharge were followed up in the out-patient clinic to observe the effect of the diet on the s ...201121239126
immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of the human rotavirus vaccine rix4414 oral suspension (liquid formulation) in finnish infants.the lyophilized formulation of a human rotavirus vaccine, rotarix™ (rix4414) is highly immunogenic. in order to comply with the world health organization's (who) recommendation, a liquid formulation of the vaccine that does not require reconstitution was developed. the immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of the liquid formulation were compared with lyophilized formulation in two finnish studies. in study a infants aged 6-12 weeks received two doses of the lyophilized or liquid formulation ...201121238572
molecular characterization of rotavirus diarrhea among children in south korea: detection of an unusual g11 strain.among 312 rotavirus-positive samples collected from eight hospitals across south korea during 2008 and 2009, the most prevalent circulating g genotype was g1 (35.9%), followed by g3 (24.7%), g2 (17.0%), g4 (7.7%), and g9 (2.6%). notably, one unusual g11 lineage iii strain-the first hypoendemic infection case in the world-was found. of the p genotypes, p[8] (43.9%) was the most common, followed by p[6] (29.5%), p[4] (9.3%) and p[9] (0.6%). determining g- and p-type combinations showed that g1p[8] ...201121234769
immunogenicity of a human rotavirus vaccine (rix4414) after storage at 37 °c for seven days.the lyophilized formulation of the human rotavirus vaccine, rix4414 (rotarixtm), is recommended to be stored at 2°c-8°c for optimal immunogenicity. in some settings with inadequate infrastructure for vaccine storage, unforeseen circumstances may cause cold chain breakage, resulting in the vaccine to be left at ambient temperatures. this study evaluated the heat stability of lyophilized rix4414 vaccine in terms of immunogenicity when stored at tropical room temperature (37 °c) for 7 days before r ...201121228629
detection and molecular characterization of human group c rotavirus in brazil.objective: the aim of the present study was to characterize 24 isolates of group c rotavirus (rv-c) by analysis of dna sequences of the vp4, vp6, vp7 and nsp4 genes of several brazilian states. methods: all rv-c strains were confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and were characterized by sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the genes encoding nsp4, vp6, vp4, and vp7 proteins. results: analysis of the nsp4 gene from brazilian strains revealed that the isolates are more closely related ...201121228541
rotavirus replication requires a functional proteasome for effective assembly of viroplasms.the ubiquitin-proteasome system has been shown to play an important role in the replication cycle of different viruses. in this study, we describe a strong impairment of rotavirus replication upon inhibition of proteasomal activity. the effect was evidenced at the level of accumulation of viral proteins, viral rna, and yield of infective particles. kinetic studies revealed that the early steps of the replicative cycle following attachment, entry, and uncoating were clearly more sensitive to prot ...201121228236
whole genome characterization of new bovine rotavirus g21p[29] and g24p[33] strains provides evidence for interspecies transmission.we have reported a novel bovine rotavirus, the azuk-1 (g21p[29]) strain, isolated from an asymptomatic calf. we isolated another bovine rotavirus, the dai-10 strain, bearing new g24p[33] genotypes, assigned by the rotavirus classification working group (rcwg), from an asymptomatic cow in hyogo prefecture, japan in 2007. to gain an insight into the origins and evolution of these strains, we determined the complete orf sequences of all 11 genes of the two strains. the nsp3 genes of both strains we ...201121228131
a feline rotavirus g3p[9] carries traces of multiple reassortment events and resembles rare human g3p[9] rotaviruses.the full-length genome sequence of a feline g3p[9] rotavirus (rv) strain, ba222, identified from the intestinal content of an adult cat, was determined. strain ba222 possessed a g3-p[9]-i2-r2-c2-m2-a3-n1-t3-e2-h3 genomic constellation, differing substantially from other feline rvs. phylogenetic analyses of each genome segment revealed common origins with selected animal and zoonotic human rvs, notably with rare multi-reassortant human g3p[9] rvs (ita/pai58/96 and ita/pah136/96). altogether, the ...201121228122
[epidemiological aspects of gastrointestinal infections].the aim of this study was to investigate seasonal patterns and age-associated trends of the main bacterial, viral, and parasitic enteric pathogens in southwest germany.201121225552
rotavirus a genotype g1p[8]: a novel method to distinguish wild-type strains from the rotarix vaccine strain.rotaviruses are important enteric pathogens for humans and animals. group a rotaviruses (rv-a) are the most common agents of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children and vaccination is the most effective method to reduce rv-a-associated diseases. g1p[8], the most prevalent rv-a genotype worldwide, is included in the rv-a vaccine rotarix®. the discrimination between wild-type g1p[8] and vaccine g1p[8] strains is an important topic in the study of rv-a epidemiology to manage outbreaks ...201021225209
molecular characterization of g and p-types bovine rotavirus strains from goiás, brazil: high frequency of mixed p-type this study, 331 samples from calves less than one month old from a dairy herd in the district of piracanjuba, state of goiás, brazil were tested for rotavirus. thirty-three samples (9.9%) tested positive for rotavirus. out of those, 31 were submitted to g and p characterization by reverse transcription followed by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction. two samples were characterized as g6p[1], three as g10p[11] and five as g6p[11]. the majority of the samples (51.6%) displayed multiple p geno ...201021225202
evaluation of potential medical and economic benefits of universal rotavirus vaccination in evaluate the potential benefits of introducing universal rotavirus (rv) vaccination in greece.201121223372
rotavirus gastroenteritis among children aged under 5 years in al karak, jordan.the introduction of a rotavirus vaccine makes it important to determine the need for vaccination n a population. this study in jordan in 2007-08 determined the incidence and clinical features of rotavirus gastroenteritis among children aged under 5 years admitted to hospital with diarrhoea. of 148 children, 59 (39.9%) were elisa-positive for rotavirus in stool samples, predominantly in the age group < 2 years. there was a marginally higher rate of fever in the rotavirus cases than the non-rotavi ...201021222424
the use of bovine serum albumin to improve the rt-qpcr detection of foodborne viruses rinsed from vegetable demonstrate that produce rinsates used for rt-qpcr detection of foodborne viruses may cause significant pcr inhibition and propose a means to reduce its impact on sensitivity.201121219370
rotavirus enteric infection in children of northwest iran.this is a cross-sectional and analytical-descriptive study of 511 children less than 36 months of age who were admitted to tabriz children's hospital with acute gastroenteritis during a period of 2 years (from october 2007 to october 2009). rotavirus was found in stool specimens of 284 (55.6%) of 511 children with diarrhea. two-thirds of them were admitted during autumn and winter for a mean hospital stay of 3.1 ± 1.8 days.201121217537
novel group a rotavirus g8 p[1] as primary cause of an ovine diarrheic syndrome outbreak in weaned lambs.rotavirus is a worldwide major cause of diarrhea outbreaks in neonatal ruminants. an outbreak of ovine diarrheic syndrome (ods) in 50-75 days-old lambs (weaned lambs) is described. fecal immunochromatography and intestinal immunohistochemistry for rotavirus group a were performed. in addition, semi-nested multiplex rt-pcr for g and p rotavirus genotyping in combination with sequencing were performed, to support the diagnosis and identify the viral strain. a novel ovine rotavirus group a g8 p[1] ...201021216110
[vaccination schedule of the spanish association of paediatrics: recommendations 2011].the advisory committee on vaccines of the spanish paediatric association updates annually the immunization schedule, taking into account epidemiological data as well as evidence of the effectiveness and efficiency of vaccines. this vaccination schedule includes grades of recommendation. the committee has graded as universal vaccines those that all children should receive, as recommended, those with a profile of universal vaccines of childhood and as are desirable those that all children may rece ...201121215719
burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the middle eastern and north african pediatric population.rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide. objectives were to estimate the burden of rvge among children less than five years old in the middle east (bahrain, iran, iraq, israel, jordan, kuwait, oman, qatar, saudi arabia, syria, uae, yemen), north africa (algeria, egypt, libya, morocco, tunisia) and turkey.201121214934
viral gastroenteritis in adults.viral gastroenteritis presents a major public health concern worldwide. it is mostly a disease of young children. however, acquired immunity may wane and symptomatic infection can also occur in adults. furthermore, asymptomatic adults may promote the spread of infections by shedding virus in their stools. this review covers the four most common causes of adult viral gastroenteritis, calicivirirdae (predominantly noroviruses), astroviruses, enteric adenoviruses and rotaviruses focussing on their ...201121210762
rotavirus infection: an unrecognised disease in nepal.rotavirus is the most common cause of acute infectious gastroenteritis in young children and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, mostly in developing countries. the global rotavirus disease burden has prompted study on their basic research, molecular epidemiology and vaccine development. little is known about rotavirus infection among health professionals in nepal. this article summarises basic and clinical features, treatment and prevention, epidemiological pattern ...201021209522
prime immunization with rotavirus vlp 2/6 followed by boosting with an adenovirus expressing vp6 induces protective immunization against rotavirus in mice.rotavirus (rv) is the main cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. an effective vaccination regime against rv can substantially reduce morbidity and mortality. previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of virus-like particles formed by rv vp2 and vp6 (vlp2/6), as well as that of recombinant adenovirus expressing rv vp6 (rad), in eliciting protective immunities against rv. however, the efficacy of such prime-boost strategy, which incorporates vlp and rad in inducing protective immuniti ...201121205330
immunology of gut mucosal vaccines.understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. in industrialized country populations, l ...201121198669
antiviral activity of alpinia katsumadai extracts against vitro anti-rotavirus activity of alpinia katsumadai (ak) extracts were evaluated against bovine g8p[7] and porcine g5p[7] rotaviruses in two different assay strategies, a mixed treatment assay and a post treatment assay. in the mixed treatment assay, six ak extracts [ak-1 (etoh extract), ak-3 (h(2)o layer), ak-5 (40% methanol fraction), and ak-9-11 (h(2)o extract, polysaccharide fraction, supernatant fraction)] exhibited inhibitory activities against g5p[7] rotavirus with the ec(50) values ra ...201021196021
epidemiology and clinical peculiarities of norovirus and rotavirus infection in hospitalized young children with acute diarrhea in taiwan, 2009.acute diarrhea is one of the most common morbidities in pediatrics worldwide. we conducted a study to investigate the incidence of norovirus in young children hospitalized with acute diarrhea in taiwan and its clinical peculiarity compared with rotavirus gastroenteritis.201021195978
development and evaluation of novel one-step taqman realtime rt-pcr assays for the detection and direct genotyping of genogroup i and ii noroviruses.current detection and genotyping methods of genogroup (g) i and ii noroviruses (novs) consist of a 2-step approach including detection of viral rna by taqman realtime rt-pcr (rt-qpcr) followed by conventional rt-pcr and sequencing of partial regions of orf1 or orf2.201021195660
assortment and packaging of the segmented rotavirus genome.the rotavirus (rv) genome comprises 11 segments of double-stranded rna (dsrna) and is contained within a non-enveloped, icosahedral particle. during assembly, a highly coordinated selective packaging mechanism ensures that progeny rv virions contain one of each genome segment. cis-acting signals thought to mediate assortment and packaging are associated with putative panhandle structures formed by base-pairing of the ends of rv plus-strand rnas (+rnas). viral polymerases within assembling core p ...201021195621
human rotavirus genotypes detection among hospitalized children, a study in tehran, iran.human rotavirus genotypes g1-g4, g9, p[4] and p[8] are major worldwide causes of acute gastroenteritis in children. rotavirus genotype g1p[8] is predominant in many countries. in this study, the genotypic diversity of group a rotaviruses were detected in children <5 years of age who were treated for dehydration and diarrhea in tehran, iran from october 2004 to september 2008.201121194260
impact of rotavirus vaccination on childhood deaths from diarrhea in brazil.rotavirus vaccination was introduced in brazil in march 2006, targeting an annual birth cohort of approximately 3.5 million. we analyzed trends in all-cause gastroenteritis-related deaths in children <5 years of age during the pre- and post-vaccination periods.201021193339
genotyping rotavirus rna from archived rotavirus-positive rapid test strips.genotyping circulating rotaviruses before and after introduction of rotavirus vaccine is useful for evaluating vaccine-associated changes in genotype distribution. we determined frequency of rotavirus genotypes among 61 rotavirus-positive children hospitalized in israel during the 2005-06 rotavirus season. accurate molecular epidemiologic data were recovered from affinity-concentrated rotavirus immobilized in rotavirus-positive bands from air-dried, diagnostic rotavirus rapid test strips (dipsti ...201121192853
rapid detection of porcine circovirus type 2 using a taqman-based real-time pcr.porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) and the associated disease postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) have caused heavy losses in global agriculture in recent decades. rapid detection of pcv2 is very important for the effective prophylaxis and treatment of pmws. to establish a sensitive, specific assay for the detection and quantitation of pcv2, we designed and synthesized specific primers and a probe in the open reading frame 2. the assay had a wide dynamic range with excellent linearit ...201021192832
roles of vp4 and nsp1 in determining the distinctive replication capacities of simian rotavirus rrv and bovine rotavirus uk in the mouse biliary tract.rotavirus replication and virulence are strongly influenced by virus strain and host species. the rotavirus proteins vp3, vp4, vp7, nsp1, and nsp4 have all been implicated in strain and species restriction of replication; however, the mechanisms have not been fully determined. simian (rrv) and bovine (uk) rotaviruses have distinctive replication capacities in mouse extraintestinal organs such as the biliary tract. using reassortants between uk and rrv, we previously demonstrated that the differe ...201021191030
rhesus rotavirus entry into a polarized epithelium is endocytosis dependent and involves sequential vp4 conformational changes.rotavirus (rv) cell entry is an incompletely understood process, involving vp4 and vp7, the viral proteins composing the outermost layer of the nonenveloped rv triple-layered icosahedral particle (tlp), encasing vp6. vp4 can exist in three conformational states: soluble, cleaved spike, and folded back. in order to better understand the events leading to rv entry, we established a detection system to image input virus by monitoring the rhesus rv (rrv) antigens vp4, vp6, and vp7 at very early time ...201021191022
transient splenial lesion of the corpus callosum in a case of benign convulsion associated with rotaviral gastroenteritis.transient magnetic resonance (mr) signal changes in the splenium of the corpus callosum (scc) arise from many different conditions, including encephalopathy or encephalitis caused by infection, seizures, metabolic derangements, and asphyxia. few case reports exist on reversible scc lesions associated with rotavirus infection. a benign convulsion with mild gastroenteritis (cwg) is frequently associated with rotaviral infections. this entity is characterized by normal laboratory findings, electroe ...201021189973
rig-i/mda5/mavs are required to signal a protective ifn response in rotavirus-infected intestinal epithelium.rotavirus is a dsrna virus that infects epithelial cells that line the surface of the small intestine. it causes severe diarrheal illness in children and ∼500,000 deaths per year worldwide. we studied the mechanisms by which intestinal epithelial cells (iecs) sense rotavirus infection and signal ifn-β production, and investigated the importance of ifn-β production by iecs for controlling rotavirus production by intestinal epithelium and virus excretion in the feces. in contrast with most rna vir ...201021187438
increased sensitivity for various rotavirus genotypes in stool specimens by amending three mismatched nucleotides in the forward primer of a real-time rt-pcr assay.the real-time taqman rt-pcr assay (pang et al., 2004) did not detect 14 clinical samples with rotavirus g2 genotype. three to five nucleotides (nt) were found to be mismatched between the published forward primer when compared to g2p[4], g2p[8], g3p[4], g9p[4], g8 and g12 sequences. an additional forward primer was designed and included in a modified assay to test the 14 clinical samples and 12 samples with known rotavirus g and p genotypes. the modified assay has improved significantly the sens ...201021185331
comment on: the cost effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination: comparative analyses for five european countries and transferability in europe. 201021184859
progress in the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in latin america and the caribbean: four years of accumulated experience.two effective and safe rotavirus vaccines became available in 2006 and have been recommended for use in all countries by the world health organization. this article provides an update on the use of rotavirus vaccine in latin american and caribbean (lac) countries.201121183843
uptake, impact, and effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in the united states: review of the first 3 years of postlicensure data.rotavirus vaccine was recommended for routine use in us infants in 2006. before the introduction of vaccine, rotavirus was the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age in the united states.201121183842
remarkable postvaccination spatiotemporal changes in united states rotavirus activity.analyses of us laboratory surveillance data during 1991 to 2004 established annual peak rotavirus activity occurred first in the southwest and last in the northeast. we compared spatiotemporal patterns during the 2 years preceding vaccine introduction in 2006 with the first 2 years following introduction. the postvaccine introduction years failed to demonstrate the typical southwest to northeast spread of rotavirus activity.201121183841
distribution of rotavirus genotypes after introduction of rotavirus vaccines, rotarix® and rotateq®, into the national immunization program of australia.rotavirus vaccines, rotateq and rotarix, were introduced into the australian national immunization program on july 1, 2007. the simultaneous introduction in different australian states and territories provides a unique opportunity to compare the affect of each vaccine on the types of circulating rotavirus strains. this report describes the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalization of children during the first 2-year period after vaccine introduction.201121183840
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