[evaluation of a rapid enzyme immunoassay for rotavirus]. 19921318748
recombinant baculovirus-expressed rotavirus protein (vp4) in an elispot assay of antibody secretion.studies on the protein specificity of the intestinal antibody response to rotavirus infection have been hampered by lack of antigenically conserved isolated proteins to serve as antigens in immunochemical assays. in this report, the use of an antigenically conserved baculovirus-expressed rotavirus protein (vp4) as a capture antigen in the elispot assay is described. anti-vp4 antibody-secreting hybridoma cells are used as a test population to show that expressed vp4 as the capture antigen detects ...19921319171
antibacterial and antiviral activity of camel milk protective proteins.lysozyme (lz), lactoferrin (lf), lactoperoxidase (lp), immunoglobulin g and secretory immunoglobulin a were extracted from camel milk. the activity of these protective proteins was assayed against lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, salmonella typhimurium and rotavirus. comparative activities of egg white lz, bovine lz and bovine lf are also presented. the antibacterial activity spectrum of camel milk lz was similar to that of egg white lz, and differed f ...19921319434
detection and differentiation of bovine group a rotavirus serotypes using polymerase chain reaction-generated probes to the vp7 and northern blot hybridization assays were developed to detect and differentiate group a bovine rotavirus serotypes using radiolabeled serotype 6 (nebraska calf diarrhea virus [ncdv] and united kingdom [uk] strains) or serotype 10 (crocker [cr] strain) vp7 gene probes. partial length vp7-specific cdna encompassing areas of major sequence diversity were generated by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using either cloned vp7 genes (ncdv and uk strains) or reverse transcribed mrna (cr strain) ...19921319748
clinical and epidemiological features of acute gastroenteritis caused by human rotavirus subgroups.rotavirus was detected in 44 (15.28%) of 288 hospitalised children suffering from gastroenteritis in delhi over a period of one year. of these 44 children, subgroup i and ii rotaviruses were detected in 13 (29.55%) and 25 (56.82%) children respectively. samples from 5 (11.36%) children did not react with either subgroup i or ii monoclonal antibodies, indicating the presence of a third subgroup. both subgroups i and ii were detected in one (2.27%) case. the median ages of the children infected by ...19921320065
group b rotavirus antibody in japanese children. 19921320066
identification of group a rotavirus gene 4 types by polymerase chain reaction.five genetically distinct human rotavirus (hrv) gene 4 groups have been described on the basis of comparative nucleotide sequencing and the predicted amino acid sequences, and at least four of them represent distinct vp4 antigenic types. to identify each gene 4 type and investigate its distribution in hrv isolates from patients with diarrhea, we developed a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) typing method using sequence information available for four genetically distinct gene 4 types. rotavirus dou ...19921320625
humoral immune responses to vp4 and its cleavage products vp5* and vp8* in infants vaccinated with rhesus rotavirus.the humoral immune response to rhesus rotavirus (rrv) vp4 and its cleavage products vp5* and vp8* was determined in paired serum samples from 44 infants vaccinated with rrv or human rotavirus-rrv reassortants and 5 placebo recipients. our aim was to try to measure the response to those regions of vp4 most closely related to protection. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was used to measure the immunoglobulin g immune response to baculovirus-expressed full-length rrv vp4, full-length vp ...19921320626
a serotype 10 human rotavirus.rotaviruses with genome rearrangements isolated from a chronically infected immunodeficient child (f. hundley, m. mcintyre, b. clark, g. beards, d. wood, i. chrystie, and u. desselberger, j. virol 61:3365-3372, 1987) are the first recognized human isolates of serotype 10. this was shown by both a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization assays using serotype specific monoclonal antibodies. the serotype was confirmed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding vp7, which re ...19921320627
serotype variation of group a rotaviruses over nine winter epidemics in southeastern new the use of enzyme immunoassay and rna electrophoresis, rotavirus serotyping was performed with stool specimens from 605 children. serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 accounted for 63, 9, 9, and 19% of the cases, respectively, with considerable yearly variation. an average of three serotypes cocirculated each year.19921320630
identification of candidate sequences that determine virulence in coxsackievirus b4.we have previously shown that a major determinant of virulence for coxsackievirus b4 mapped to the 5' end of the viral genome. comparison of the corresponding cdna sequences of a virulent and a non-virulent virus has allowed the identification of candidate determinants of virulence in the 5' untranslated region and the capsid proteins vp1, vp2 and vp4. thirteen nucleotide substitutions were observed in a region spanning 3298 nucleotides. four mutations were detected in the non-coding region. of ...19921320798
comparison of electron microscopy and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the diagnosis of avian reovirus and rotavirus infections.electron microscopy (em) and genome electropherotyping by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) for the detection of avian rotaviruses and reoviruses in intestinal specimens and cell cultures were compared. fifty-eight field samples of intestine with intestinal contents, referred to as direct specimens, from turkey and chicken flocks located in different regions of california and submitted during 1989 for virus isolation were randomly selected as test samples. also, 38 field intestinal speci ...19921320858
development of a biotin-streptavidin-enhanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which uses monoclonal antibodies for detection of group c rotaviruses.a biotin-streptavidin-enhanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) which uses monoclonal antibodies (mabs) for the detection of group c rotaviruses was developed. an assay in which plates were coated with three pooled mabs and biotinylated polyclonal immunoglobulin g (igg) (polyclonal antibody [pab]) was used as the detector (mab capture-pab detector) was found to be the most sensitive and specific of the assays when it was compared with assays in which plates were coated with polyclonal a ...19921321166
role of coproantibody in clinical protection of children during reinfection with rotavirus.rotavirus is the major cause of severe, dehydrating infantile gastroenteritis. infection is limited to the gut, but the relative roles of serum and secretory copro-immunoglobulin a (iga) in protection are unclear. specific copro-iga is predictive of duodenal antirotaviral iga and correlates with virus-neutralizing coproantibody. copro-iga conversion is a more sensitive marker of rotavirus reinfection than seroconversion. we measured rotavirus reinfections by copro-iga conversion prospectively in ...19921321167
rotavirus 993/83, isolated from calf faeces, closely resembles an avian rotavirus.polypeptides from purified virions of the calf rotavirus (rv) isolate 993/83 and those from the pigeon rv isolate po-13 comigrated on sds-polyacrylamide gels. two polypeptides of 45k and 47k were detected at the position of vp6. both proteins behaved like authentic vp6 protein with edta and heat treatment. rv 993/83 and po-13 showed identical one-dimensional peptide maps for vp2, and the 45k and 47k proteins. more than 70% of sera from german cattle older than 1 year showed neutralizing serum an ...19921321221
investigation of an outbreak of rotavirus infection in geriatric patients by serotyping and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page).an outbreak of rotavirus diarrhoea amongst patients on two wards in a geriatric unit was investigated using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) and serotyping. there had been no contact between the patients on different wards but some interchange of staff had occurred so it was important to exclude the possibility that the rotavirus had been spread by staff. two strains of rotavirus were shown to be present, one on each ward. differences in the electropherotypes and serotypes were demonstr ...19921321223
[the principal enteropathogens in infantile diarrhea in spain]. 19921321314
intracellular amplification and expression of a synthetic analog of rotavirus genomic rna bearing a foreign marker gene: mapping cis-acting nucleotides in the 3'-noncoding region.cdnas were constructed to encode plus- or minus-sense analogs of gene 9 rna of porcine rotavirus strain osu in which the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) reporter gene was flanked by the 5'-terminal 44 nucleotides (nt) and 3'-terminal 35 nt of the authentic rotavirus gene. transfection of plus-sense gene-9-cat rna into rotavirus-infected cells resulted in its amplification and in the efficient expression of cat; this was greatly enhanced by the presence of a 5' cap structure. am ...19921321421
studies on the age resistance of swine to group a rotavirus determine whether swine become naturally age resistant to group a rotavirus infection, colostrum-deprived, rotavirus-naive newborn pigs that were raised in isolation (n = 34) were studied. neonatal pigs and pigs 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks of age were inoculated orally with group a porcine rotavirus or mock inoculum and euthanatized at 24, 31, or 48 hours post-infection. nine sections of small intestine, cecum, and colon were harvested and immunohistochemically examined for evidence of ro ...19921321528
field trial of rhesus rotavirus or human-rhesus rotavirus reassortant vaccine of vp7 serotype 3 or 1 specificity in infants. the elmwood, panorama, and westfall pediatric groups.orally administered live rhesus monkey rotavirus vaccine (rrv, vp7 serotype 3) and human-rhesus reassortant rotavirus vaccine (dxrrv, vp7 serotype 1) were evaluated in a placebo-controlled field trial of 223 infants 2-4 months old. both vaccines were mildly reactogenic but were generally well tolerated in the 10 days after vaccination. rrv and dxrrv were immunogenic, inducing serum antibody responses in 78% and 71% of the vaccines, respectively. efficacy of rrv vaccine was 66% (p = .01) and of d ...19921321858
characterization of the genes encoding two of the major capsid proteins of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus indicates a close genetic relationship to bluetongue virus.the sequences of the genes of two of the major capsid proteins of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus serotype 1 (ehdv-1, orbivirus genus, reoviridae) have been determined by analyses of cdna clones representing the l2 and s7 rna segments. the ehdv-1 s7 rna segment, which encodes the vp7 core protein, is 1162 nucleotides in length and has the capacity to encode 349 amino acids (m(r) 38,243). the ehdv-1 l2 rna segment, which encodes the outer capsid vp2 protein (m(r) 113,249) is 2968 nucleotides ...19921321879
laboratory-based surveillance for rotavirus united states, january 1989-may 1991.geographic and temporal trends of rotavirus detections in the united states for the period january 1989-may 1991 were determined by analyzing data reported monthly by 47 virology laboratories participating in the north american rotavirus surveillance system. reports included complete information on the number of specimens tested, the number of test results positive for rotavirus, and the method used to detect rotavirus. consistent trends in regional and geographic area were identified, with dist ...19921321948
[the significance of bredavirus as a diarrhea agent in calf herds in lower saxony].the objective of this investigation was to determine the distribution of bredavirus in cattle herds in lower saxony and to evaluate its significance as potential cause of diarrhea in calves. fecal samples and paired blood samples of 119 diarrheic and 46 healthy calves up to two months of age were collected from herds where diarrhea of calves was a problem. fecal samples were examined for breda-, rota- and coronavirus by solid phase immune electron microscopy and by elisa, for k99-positive e. col ...19921322268
relocation of antigens to the cell surface membrane can enhance immune stimulation and protection.the major outer capsid glycoprotein of rotaviruses, vp7, is normally synthesized and directed to the er, where it is required for virus assembly. by substituting a foreign signal sequence for the vp7 signal peptide, a secreted form of vp7 with an authentic amino terminus was produced. secreted vp7 was further modified by the addition of a transmembrane anchor and cytoplasmic domain to its c-terminus. when the novel chimeric protein was expressed in transfected cells it became anchored in the cel ...19921322362
rotavirus vp6 modified for expression on the plasma membrane forms arrays and exhibits enhanced immunogenicity.the major inner capsid protein of rotavirus is vp6, a 42-kda polypeptide that forms the icosahedral surface of the rotavirus single-shelled particle. a chimeric form of vp6 (vp6sc) was constructed containing an upstream leader sequence derived from the influenza virus hemagglutinin and a downstream membrane-spanning (anchor) domain from a mouse immunoglobulin gene. when vp6sc was expressed in cells using a recombinant vaccinia virus, the protein was transported, glycosylated, and anchored in the ...19921322583
calcium chelation induces a conformational change in recombinant herpes simplex virus-1-expressed rotavirus vp7.rotavirus, strain sa11, glycoprotein vp7 that was expressed by a recombinant herpes simplex virus-1 or contained in purified rotavirus particles lost reactivity with the neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mab) 159, but not with nonneutralizing mabs, upon chelation of calcium by egta. exposing vp7, but not the neutralizing mabs, to a transient excess of egta over calcium eliminated vp7 neutralizing epitopes. therefore, a calcium chelation-induced conformational change in vp7, not in the neutralizi ...19921322608
a bovine rotavirus serotype 1: serologic characterization of the virus and nucleotide sequence determination of the structural glycoprotein vp7 gene.bovine rotavirus t449 was isolated from feces of a calf with diarrhea. serological characterization by serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies showed that the t449 virus belonged to serotype 1. this is the first report of a bovine rotavirus that does not belong to serotype 6, 8, or 10. the serotype 1 designation was confirmed by using an immunoperoxidase focus neutralization assay. the gene encoding the major neutralization antigen (vp7) was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. the ...19921322609
human and bovine serotype g8 rotaviruses may be derived by reassortment.the origin of, and relationship between human and bovine serotype g8 rotaviruses were investigated by genomic hybridisation. radiolabelled mrnas of human g8 rotaviruses 69m (isolated in indonesia) and hal1271 (isolated in finland), and bovine rotaviruses kk3 (g10) and ncdv (g6), were used as probes. the products of liquid hybridisation between the probes and the genomic rna of human and bovine rotaviruses, including bovine g8 rotavirus 678 (isolated in scotland) and two other finnish human g8 ro ...19921322648
coding assignments of the genome of adult diarrhea diarrhea rotavirus (adrv) has caused epidemics of diarrhea in china since 1982 and remains the only group b rotavirus associated with widespread disease in humans. we recently characterized the proteins of adrv and have now proceeded to identify the gene segments encoding each protein. viral rna transcripts were synthesized in vitro with the endogenous viral rna polymerase and separated by electrophoresis in agarose. the individual transcripts were translated in a cell-free system using nu ...19921322659
psoralen preparation of antigenically intact noninfectious rotavirus particles.the use of the synthetic psoralen 4'-aminomethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen hydrochloride (amt) is described for the inactivation of infectious rotavirus, a member of the viral family reoviradae with a double-stranded rna genome. this method not only provides complete inactivation of the virus but leaves antigenically intact particles. the lack of viral replication following inactivation was determined with an immunohistochemical focus assay. the antigenic authenticity of the particles was determi ...19921322935
a vp4 sequence highly conserved in human rotavirus strain au-1 and feline rotavirus strain frv-1.the primary amino acid sequence of the vp4 proteins of human rotavirus strain au-1 and feline rotavirus strain frv-1 was deduced from nucleotide sequence analysis of full-length genome segment 4 cdnas produced by a combined reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. the vp4 genes were 2359 nucleotides in length and contained one long open reading frame capable of encoding a protein of 775 amino acids. strain au-1 and frv-1 vp4s were 98.8% similar at both the nucleotide sequence and amino a ...19921322955
detection of group c rotavirus antigens and antibodies in animals and humans by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) were developed to detect group (gp) c rotavirus antigens and antibodies. both assays were confirmed to be specific for gp c rotavirus by using serogroup a, b, and c rotaviruses; hyperimmune antisera to these serogroups of rotaviruses; and paired serum specimens from animals infected with gp c rotaviruses. the elisa for antigen detection reacted not only with porcine gp c rotaviruses but also with human and bovine gp c rotaviruses. following experimenta ...19921323577
viral agents associated with infantile gastroenteritis in nigeria: relative prevalence of adenovirus serotypes 40 and 41, astrovirus, and rotavirus serotypes 1 to 4.sixty-six stool specimens from infants with diarrhoea in nigeria were examined for the presence of viral pathogens. rotaviruses were found in 25.8% of specimens and astroviruses in 1.5%. serotypes were determined for 47.1% of the rotavirus positive specimens, all of which were serotype 1. rna analysis revealed no unusual electrophoretic profiles. no enteric adenoviruses were detected. in contrast, in a parallel study conducted in the uk, rotaviruses (including serotypes 1, 2 and 4) accounted for ...19921323591
atypical rotavirus genomic patterns identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.two atypical "short" rotavirus genomic profiles were detected in stool specimens following the testing of 84 children with diarrhoea. both rotaviruses were identified as group a, and confirmation was performed by blocking assay using antiserum against simian rotavirus sa-11. this report underscores the importance of screening on the molecular level to detect atypical or unusual rotaviruses that would normally proceed unrecognised by testing with any of the commercial antigen detection kits.19921323592
laboratory diagnosis of rotavirus infection in diarrhoeal patients by immunoenzymatic and latex-agglutination hundred stool samples from children with acute diarrhoea were examined by six commercial latex and immunoenzymatic assays for the diagnosis of rotavirus infection in four different laboratories. samples were also analyzed by solid-phase immune electron microscopy using a rabbit anti-group a rotavirus antiserum. with electron microscopy as a basis for comparison, sensitivity and specificity for the latex and elisa assays varied from 91.1 to 92.9% and from 94.2 to 99.4%, respectively. statisti ...19921323741
enhancement of the circulating antibody secreting cell response in human diarrhea by a human lactobacillus strain.human lactobacillus sp strain gg (lactobacillus gg) administered during acute rotavirus diarrhea has been shown to promote clinical recovery. to elucidate the immune mechanisms behind such a favorable outcome, the elispot (solid phase enzyme-linked immunospot) assay of ig- and specific antibody-secreting cells among circulating lymphocytes was used, giving indirect evidence of the immunologic events in the gut. after rehydration, 39 children with acute rotavirus diarrhea, mean age 16 (sd 6) mo, ...19921324462
[possibilities for preventing the epidemic spread of rotavirus infections on neonatal wards].rota viruses are the most frequent cause of acute gastroenteritis of infants and toddlers. small epidemies occur enlarged in institutions for newborns and toddlers. the infection occurs normally via faeces. an aerogenes infection is in discussion. in case of a suspected rota-virus-infection in an infant- or toddler care unit the patients have to be isolated immediately or quarantined. further essential precautions preventing the spreading are mentioned. with this regime we could only see individ ...19921324547
[microbial ecology of the digestive tract in patients with acute intestinal infections]. 19921324548
viral gastrointestinal infections.numerous disease-causing viruses of the gastrointestinal tract have been described. the diseases that they induce range from subclinical to fatal gastrointestinal or systemic organ infection. recent advances in molecular biology and virus culture techniques, as well as improvements in animal models of these infections, have increased our understanding of pathologic processes associated with these viruses. although our overall understanding of these viruses has improved to the extent that many mo ...19921324891
improvement of rotavirus isolation in the cell culture by immune peroxidase staining.peroxidase-labeled monoclonal antibody against rotavirus group-specific antigen (inner capsid) was used for the detection of rotavirus by immunoperoxidase staining (ips) in trypsin-free ma104 cells within 18 h post-inoculation with clinical specimens. one hundred and twenty-one fecal samples from children with acute gastroenteritis were evaluated by ips, conventional virus isolation in cell culture and a commercially available group a-antigen elisa (rotazyme ii, abbott laboratories). fifty-eight ...19921325469
cell surface ligands for rotavirus: mouse intestinal glycolipids and synthetic carbohydrate analogs.rotaviral binding to receptors on epithelial cells in the small intestine is thought to be a key event in the infection process and may be carbohydrate-mediated. strain sa11 of rotavirus bound in vitro both to glycolipids isolated from mouse small intestine and to authentic glycolipids using thin layer chromatography overlay and microtiter well adsorption assays. neutral mouse intestinal glycolipids which bound rotavirus were ga1 (gal beta 1----3galnac beta 1---4glc beta 1----4glc beta 1----1-ce ...19921325706
serotyping and antigenic comparison of some animal rotaviruses isolated in china.eight strains of rotaviruses isolated from diarrheal animals (4 from calves and 4 from piglets) in china were compared by serotyping with reference animal rotavirus strains (bovine ncdv, porcine osu and simian sa-11 and human rotavirus wa strain). two-way cross neutralization test showed no antigenic difference between all 4 local strains of bovine rotavirus (brv007, brv014, hn-7 and brv6555) and reference ncdv, so they belonged to rotavirus serotype 6 (bovine rotavirus serotype 1 or ncdv-seroty ...19921325720
response of colostrum-deprived cynomolgus monkeys to intragastric challenge exposure with simian rotavirus strain sa11.the infectivity and pathogenic potential of a cell culture-adapted simian rotavirus was evaluated in colostrum-deprived newborn and infant cynomolgus macaques (macaca fascicularis). intragastric challenge exposure with the simian rotavirus strain sa11 on postpartum day 2 induced diarrhea in 5 of 5 colostrum-deprived newborn monkeys. compared with sham-inoculated controls, 3 of the 5 inoculated monkeys also manifested reduced body weight gain during the initial 5 days after challenge exposure. ro ...19921326241
exclusive asymptomatic neonatal infections by human rotavirus strains having subgroup i specificity and "long" rna electropherotype.a large number of stool specimens, of healthy newborn infants, collected from various hospitals and clinics in bangalore city, india, have been examined for the presence of asymptomatic rotaviral excretion. out of 370 samples analysed during a three year period from 1988 to 1991, 133 specimens (36%) were positive for rotavirus rna. all these asymptomatic neonatal strains, without exception, showed "long" rna pattern, but subgroup i specificity. serotype analysis by elisa or by hybridization with ...19921326262
subgroup i serotype 3 human rotavirus strains with long rna pattern as a result of naturally occurring reassortment between members of the bovine and au-1 genogroups.two human rotavirus strains, pcp 5 and mz 58, which possessed an unusual combination of subgroup (i), serotype (3) and rna pattern (long) were examined by rna-rna hybridization to determine their genogroup. while these two strains did not belong to either the wa or the ds-1 genogroup, pcp 5 and mz 58 possessed seven gene segments that formed hybrids with bovine rotavirus strain ncdv and four gene segments that formed hybrids with human rotavirus strain au-1. these results suggest that pcp 5 and ...19921326266
analysis of the genetic diversity of genes 5 and 6 among group c rotaviruses using cdna probes.two partial cdna clones of genes 5 (encoding the major inner capsid protein vp 6) and 6 (encoding a nonstructural protein) of the porcine group (gp) c rotavirus (cowden strain) were radiolabeled with 32p and used individually as probes in northern and dot blot hybridization assays. the specificity of each probe was tested against genomic dsrna from: (1) porcine gp a, b, and c rotaviruses; (2) gp c rotaviruses from different species; and (3) porcine gp c rotavirus field strains with varying elect ...19921326268
epidemiological and clinical characteristics of acute diarrhoea in children due to human rotavirus. 19921326637
monoclonal anti-idiotype induces antibodies against bovine q17 rotavirus.this study describes, for the first time, the production and use of an "internal-image" anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody (mab) to elicit a rotavirus-specific antibody response. an immunoglobulin g2a mab, designated rq31 (mab1), specific for the outer capsid protein vp4 of bovine q17 rotavirus and capable of neutralizing viral infection in vitro was used to generate an anti-idiotypic mab (mab2). this mab2, designated rqa2, was selected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using f(ab')2 ...19921326641
expression of the major capsid protein vp6 of group c rotavirus and synthesis of chimeric single-shelled particles by using recombinant baculoviruses.vp6 of group c (cowden strain) rotavirus was expressed in the baculovirus system. the recombinant protein, expressed to a high level in insect cells, was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. the purified protein was proven to be trimeric. the effect of ph on the trimer's stability was investigated. coexpression of vp6 from group a (bovine strain rf) and vp6 from group c in the baculovirus system did not result in the formation of chimeric trimers. coexpression of vp2 from group a rotavirus ( ...19921326644
protective efficacy against serotype 1 rotavirus diarrhea by live oral rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccines with human rotavirus vp7 serotype 1 or 2 specificity.rhesus-human rotavirus (rv) reassortant vaccine strains d x rrv or ds 1 x rrv with vp7 serotype 1 or 2 specificity were evaluated for safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a double blind placebo-controlled three cell trial involving 359 infants ages 2 to 5 months. the titer of the d x rrv vaccine was 10(4) and that of the ds 1 x rrv vaccine was 10(5) plaque-forming units/1-ml dose. the vaccines were acceptably reactogenic, each inducing a transient febrile response in fewer than one- ...19921326741
the correct sequence of the porcine group c/cowden rotavirus major inner capsid protein shows close homology with human isolates from brazil and the u.k.amino acid sequence alignments between the human group c/bristol and the published porcine group c/cowden vp6 proteins have revealed a region of extreme sequence divergence. we have been unable to confirm the nucleotide sequence of the cowden vp6 gene corresponding to this region of divergence. direct sequencing of a pcr-amplified cdna pool has revealed a frame shift, and three nucleotide changes, within the published sequence of the porcine (cowden) vp6 gene. the corrected sequence of the porci ...19921326817
nucleotide sequence of gene 5 encoding the inner capsid protein (vp6) of bovine group c rotavirus: comparison with corresponding genes of group c, a, and b further study the molecular characteristics of group (gp) c rotaviruses, we produced, cloned, and sequenced cdna to gene 5 of the shintoku strain of bovine gp c rotavirus. the resulting clone was specific for gene 5 and was genetically related to the human and porcine gp c rotaviruses, as demonstrated by northern blot hybridization analysis. the shintoku gene 5 is 1352 nucleotides in length and has one open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 395 amino acids with a predicted molecular mas ...19921326819
characterization of an oligomerization domain and rna-binding properties on rotavirus nonstructural protein ns34.intermolecular interactions between polypeptide chains often play essential roles in such biological phenomena as replication, transcription, translation, transport, ligand binding, and assembly. we have initiated studies of the functions of the rotavirus sa114f gene 7 product by sequence analysis and expression in insect cells. this nonstructural protein, ns34, is a slightly acidic protein, and its secondary structure is predicted to be 78% alpha-helix, with several heptad repeats of hydrophobi ...19921326821
rotavirus infection in tanzania: a virological, epidemiological and clinical study among young children.rotavirus infection in the dar es salaam area of tanzania was studied in 99 hospitalized children with acute diarrhoea and 99 hospitalized non-diarrhoea referents matched for sex and age. of the diarrhoea cases 43.4% had rotavirus in the stools as opposed to 15.2% of the referents. the high carrier rate among the referents represents a serious risk of nosocomial transmission. more referents than cases had serum igg antibodies to rotavirus, 52.5% and 35.4%, respectively (p < 0.02), while there wa ...19921327004
increased protein absorption after acute gastroenteritis in children.we investigated the intestinal absorption of the macromolecule human alpha-lactalbumin during and after an episode of acute gastroenteritis in children. twenty children were studied in the acute phase and 17 excreted rotavirus. eleven children were studied again 5-8 weeks later (convalescent phase). human alpha-lactalbumin serum concentrations in the acute phase were similar but in the convalescent phase they were significantly (p less than 0.001) higher than those in the reference children. the ...19921327323
[epidemiological investigation on pathogens of acute infectious diarrhea in ning xia].an epidemiological investigation on pathogens of diarrhoeal diseases in ning xia was reported. eight genus of agents were found in all stool specimens of persons with detectable rate of 41.16%. moreover, the most prevalent pathogens were shigella (19.59%), followed by rotaviruses (10.07%), salmonella (4.76%), and entero-pathogenic escherichia coli (4.20%). four of them accounted for 93.85% of detectable agents. in addition, in shigella b group made up 80.44%, and 2a was the predominant agent. si ...19921327534
subgroup and serotype epidemiology of human rotaviruses recovered at ga-rankuwa, southern africa.this study analysed human rotaviruses isolated in ga-rankuwa, south africa, using monoclonal antibodies directed at the subgroup-specific and serotype-specific antigens of the virus. the subgroup could be determined for 73pc of the specimens. subgroup ii viruses occurred more commonly than subgroup i viruses (77pc vs 22pc). a serotype specificity could be assigned in 65pc of cases with three serotypes observed to be circulating in this population. serotype one strains were identified most common ...19921327535
identification of human and bovine rotavirus serotypes by polymerase chain reaction.the use of the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for identifying serotypes of human and bovine rotaviruses was examined. in the identification of 115 human rotavirus samples in stools, results with pcr showed excellent agreement with results of serotyping by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies. furthermore, the pcr showed a much higher sensitivity (93%) than the elisa test (82.6%). the pcr method could also be applied for identifying the serot ...19921327857
rotavirus and bacterial enteropathogens causing acute diarrhea.the etiology of rotavirus in acute diarrhoeal illness in children 0-5 years of age, admitted to the pediatric wards of kasturba medical college hospital, manipal was studied, over a period of one year. rotavirus in the faecal samples detected by the slide latex agglutination test accounted for 14.9% of the diarrheas with maximum incidence in the 7-12 months of age group (57.5%). bacterial enteropathogens continued to play a significant role in diarrheal diseases. salmonella enteritis was found m ...19921328046
characterization of full-length and polymerase chain reaction-derived partial-length gottfried and osu gene 4 probes for serotypic differentiation of porcine determine the vp4 (p type) specificity of porcine rotaviruses, full- and partial-length gene 4 probes were produced from cloned gottfried and osu porcine rotavirus genomic segment 4 cdnas. the gene 4 segments from the prototype gottfried (vp7 serotype 4) and osu (vp7 serotype 5) porcine rotavirus strains were selected for study because of their distinct p types and the occurrence of rotaviruses with similar serotypes among swine. partial-length gene 4 cdnas were produced and amplified by the ...19921328281
interactions between bluetongue virus core and capsid proteins translated in determine whether the two major core proteins (vp3 and vp7) of bluetongue virus can interact in vitro to form morphological structures, linearized vp3 and vp7 cdna clones were transcribed using sp6 polymerase and the resultant transcripts were co-translated using rabbit reticulocyte lysates. the structures derived were isolated by sedimentation through a sucrose gradient and found to resemble vp3-vp7 core-like particles (clps) expressed in vivo. reacting clps synthesized in vivo with outer ca ...19921328473
comparison of the major structural core proteins of tick-borne and culicoides-borne orbiviruses.comparison of sequence data for broadhaven (brd) virus, a tick-borne orbivirus, and bluetongue virus (btv), the type species of the genus, indicated that rna segments 2 and 7 of brd virus encode the two structural core proteins, vp2 and vp7, respectively. segment 2 is 2792 nucleotides in length with a coding capacity for a protein (vp2) of 908 amino acids and a net charge of +8.5 at neutral ph. segment 7 is 1174 nucleotides in length with a coding capacity for a protein (vp7) of 356 amino acids ...19921328474
identification of four vp4 serological types (p serotypes) of bovine rotavirus using viral reassortants.a series of five reassortant viruses each containing the vp4 gene of a distinct bovine rotavirus and the vp7 gene of human rotavirus strain st3 was prepared, and antisera to these were produced in rabbits. in neutralization tests, these antisera allowed the differentiation of the five original strains (from three different vp7 or g serotypes) into three or possibly four vp4 or p serotypes. all of a further seven bovine rotavirus strains adapted to cell culture were successfully typed by these an ...19921328488
further characterisation of human rotaviruses isolated from asymptomatically infected neonates in south africa.stool specimens were collected from healthy neonates at ga-rankuwa hospital in the winters of 1984 and 1986 and tested for the presence of rotavirus infection. asymptomatic excretion was found to occur in 25% of the newborn babies analysed. gel electrophoresis of the rotavirus rna genome revealed that a genomically stable strain of rotavirus was endemic in the ward at the time intervals examined. hybridisation analysis of the vp4 and vp7 rotavirus genes, which encode the outer capsid neutralizat ...19921328508
field trial of an infant formula containing anti-rotavirus and anti-escherichia coli milk antibodies from hyperimmunized cows.two groups of 124 and 108 children, respectively, living in urban santiago, chile in low socioeconomic conditions were prospectively followed for 6 months for their incidence of diarrhea. each cohort was divided into two subgroups receiving either a commercial milk formula or the same formula containing 1% (wt/wt) bovine milk immunoglobulin concentrate from cows hyperimmunized with human rotaviruses and the major enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec) serogroups. neither group differed with re ...19921328579
isolation and characterization of a novel reassortant between avian ty-1 and simian rrv rotaviruses.a reassortant, tyrh, was isolated after coinfection of ma104 cells with avian ty-1 and simian rrv rotaviruses. hybridization and serological studies showed that the reassortant's 4th gene, which encodes vp4, was derived from the simian rrv rotavirus parent, whereas the remaining 10 genes were derived from the avian ty-1 rotavirus parent.19921328691
[epidemiologic study of rotavirus by polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic pattern of viral rna]. 19921328716
[molecular epidemiology of rotaviruses--a perspective from the study of the genetic diversity of rotaviruses]. 19921328717
sa-11 rotavirus binding to human serum investigation of sa-11 rotavirus binding to human serum lipoproteins was carried out. various subclasses of lipoproteins, purified by ultracentrifugal flotation, and apoproteins were tested for their activity in inhibiting viral infectivity and hemagglutination. all tested lipoprotein subclasses (very low, low and high density, lipoproteins; vldl, ldl, hdl, hdl1) were shown to interact with sa-11 rotavirus: vldl and ldl were the most active in preventing rotavirus replication, whereas hdl and ...19921328829
thermal degradation of rna-rna hybrids during hybridization in solution.degradation of single-stranded rna molecules at high temperatures was examined in relation to the kinetics of rna-rna hybridization in solution. eleven species (ranging from 670 bases to 3300 bases) of single-stranded rnas transcribed from rotavirus genomic rnas degraded significantly after 16 h of incubation at 65 degrees c. the hybridization of these 11 rna molecules to the corresponding genomic rnas, however, was completed within 30 min of incubation. partially homologous hybrids that were on ...19921328878
active protection against rotavirus infection of mice following intraperitoneal immunity to rotavirus has been demonstrated following oral inoculation with live virus but little is known about the effects of parenteral immunization. in this study, adult mice were immunized by intraperitoneal (ip) inoculation with live rotaviruses and later orally challenged with murine rotavirus (edim) to measure active immunity against infection. three doses of edim (8 micrograms/dose) given intraperitoneally (ip) provided full protection against edim infection, whether administered ...19921329313
interaction of nucleic acids with core-like and subcore-like particles of bluetongue virus.bluetongue virus (btv) core-like particles (clps) were synthesized by coexpression of vp3 and vp7 using a dual recombinant baculovirus. purified clps were shown to bind single-stranded rna in three different assay systems: gel retardation, nitrocellulose binding, and sucrose gradient sedimentation. clps showed equal affinity for btv-specific and non-btv rna and also bound dna. rnaase protection experiments demonstrated that bound rna was accessible to immobilized ribonuclease, suggesting that th ...19921329318
amino acid sequence analysis of bovine rotavirus b223 reveals a unique outer capsid protein vp4 and confirms a third bovine vp4 type.the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the gene 4 of bovine rotavirus strain b223 is described. the open reading frame is predicted to encode a vp4 of 772 amino acids, shorter than described for any other rotavirus strain sequenced to date. b223 vp4 shows 70 to 73% similarity to other rotavirus vp4 proteins, demonstrating the presence of a unique vp4 type, and confirming a third vp4 allele in the bovine rotavirus population. multiple sequence alignment with several other rotavirus str ...19921329320
terminal sequence conservation among the genomic segments of a group b rotavirus (idir strain).terminal nucleic acid sequences were determined for all 11 segments of the idir strain of group b rotavirus. consensus sequences were defined at both ends of the (+) rna strands as 5' ggn(a/u)na(a/u)(a/u)(a/u)---and---(a/u)na(a/g)n(a/c)(c/a)cc3 '. the 5' and 3' terminal sequences of the (+) strand idir rna were not complementary to one another. the idir terminal sequences and those of group a rotaviruses (gar) were similar in that each of the (+) strands began with "gg" and ended with "cc." othe ...19921329334
comparative sequence analyses of the cognate structural protein vp6 genes of five us bluetongue viruses.the s3 segment (the small segment 3), encoding the structural protein, vp6, from the five united states (us) prototype bluetongue virus (btv) serotypes were amplified by the clamp-r method and cloned as full-length entities. the complete nucleotide sequence of each cognate gene segment was determined. each cognate s3 segment of btv-10, 11, 13 and 17 was 1049 nucleotides long and contained an open reading frame (orf) capable of encoding a 325-amino acid protein. however, the s3 segment of btv-2, ...19921329371
genetically engineered viral antigens from insect cell culture. 19921329599
a case-control study of selected pathogens including verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli in calf diarrhea on an ontario veal farm.a case-control study of diarrheal disease in veal calves was conducted over a three month period on a single large veal farm in southern ontario. one hundred diarrheic calves (cases) were identified by visual examination of their feces. each case was matched to two nondiarrhetic controls from the same room on the same day, and a fecal sample was obtained from each animal. fecal consistency of cases and controls was observed daily for one week following sample collection. control calves which dev ...19921330276
uniformity of serotype and electropherotype in local human rotavirus isolates during each of three successive cold seasons.each of three consecutive cold seasons (november-march) in the town of tiberias, israel, was dominated by one particular rotavirus serotype causing acute diarrhoea in the community: the 1987/88 season by serotype-2; 1988/89 by serotype-1 and 1989/90 by serotype-4. each season was also characterized by a particular pattern of rotaviral rna when visualized using electrophoresis in gels. rna profiles of identical rota serotypes and serotypic prevalence for any given cold season were unique for the ...19921330950
a liquid-hybridization method for typing the vp4 and vp7 genes of bovine rotaviruses.a simple liquid-hybridization assay was developed which allows assessment of the degree of hybridization between the two serotype-determining genes of the bovine rotavirus strain uk and the homologous genes of the isolate under test. 32p-labelled transcription probes were produced from cloned complementary dna (cdna) copies of uk gene segments 4 and 8 and hybridized to double stranded rna (dsrna) extracted from rotavirus-positive field samples. subsequent treatment with ribonuclease a (rnase a), ...19921331146
human milk mucin inhibits rotavirus replication and prevents experimental gastroenteritis.acute gastrointestinal infections due to rotaviruses and other enteric pathogens are major causes of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children throughout the world. breast-feeding can reduce the rate of serious gastroenteritis in infants; however, the degrees of protection offered against rotavirus infection vary in different populations. the mechanisms associated with milk-mediated protection against viral gastroenteritis have not been fully elucidated. we have isolated a macromolec ...19921331178
evidence that protection against rotavirus diarrhea after natural infection is not dependent on serotype-specific neutralizing antibody.this case-control study sought to determine whether protection against clinically significant rotavirus diarrhea in children aged 4-35 months correlated with titers of serum neutralizing antibody and, if so, whether this protection was serotype-specific. titers of acute-phase sera from 156 cases of treated rotavirus diarrhea in rural bangladesh were contrasted with titers from 312 contemporaneously selected, age-matched controls. analyses of the culture-adapted rotaviruses from the cases reveale ...19921331249
[serotypes and electropherotypes of group a human rotaviruses in patients with acute gastroenteritis in saitama area, 1988-1991].serotypes and rna electropherotypes of group a human rotaviruses were identified in stool samples from patients with acute gastroenteritis in kasukabe kosei hospital, saitama, japan, during three rotavirus seasons from 1988 to 1991. of the 665 stool samples from patients with acute gastroenteritis, 169 (25.4%) stool samples were positive for group a human rotaviruses. of these 169 samples, 98 (58.0%) were serotype 1, 7 (4.1%) serotype 2, 14 (8.3%) serotype 3, 3 (1.8%) serotype 4 and 47 (27.8%) w ...19921331261
the pathogenicity of two porcine rotaviruses differing in their in vitro growth characteristics and genes 4.the pathogenicity of two rotavirus variants, 4f and 4s, obtained following adaptation to cell culture of rotavirus from a diarrhoeic pig in china, was compared by serial passage in 24 gnotobiotic piglets. the rotavirus variants have markedly different growth characteristics in vitro, and their genome profiles differ only in the relative migration of genes 4. both cell culture-grown variants replicated to an equal extent in gnotobiotic piglets and neither caused disease, although weight gain was ...19921331301
inhibition of rotavirus in vitro transcription by optimal concentrations of monoclonal antibodies specific for rotavirus vp6.three monoclonal antibodies (mabs) obtained from inoculation of mice with either a serotype 1 human rotavirus or rotavirus sa11 (serotype 3) inhibited the in vitro transcription of rotavirus sa11. two of the mabs exhibited a biphasic inhibitory response. removal of antibody from mab preparations by adsorption with sepharose-protein g reduced the inhibitory activity completely for all three mab preparations. analysis by radioimmunoprecipitation and western blotting indicated that all three mabs r ...19921331302
sequence of genome segment 9 of bluetongue virus (serotype 1, south africa) and expression analysis demonstrating that different forms of vp6 are derived from initiation of protein synthesis at two distinct sites.bluetongue virus (btv) vp6 is often resolved into two closely migrating bands by sds-page (vp6 and vp6a). rna segment 9 of btv-serotype 1 south africa (encoding vp6) has been cloned as cdna, and the complete sequence has been determined. expression of this clone both in vitro and in tissue culture produced the same polypeptide doublet as seen previously in extracts from btv-infected cells. modification of the cdna, including the removal of the first initiation codon, demonstrated that the two fo ...19921331303
typing of human group a rotavirus with alkaline phosphatase-labeled oligonucleotide probes.rotavirus (rv) in stools of children less than 1 year of age with diarrhea in bangkok in 1989 were serotyped by monoclonal enzyme immunoassay (meia). rna extracted from these specimens was tested for hybridization with alkaline phosphatase (ap) and 32p-labeled oligonucleotides constructed from the nucleotide sequences of vp7 of human g types 1 (hug1ac), 2 (hug2ac), 3 (hug3ac), and 4 (hug4ac). of 148 specimens that contained rv, 72% (106/148) hybridized with rv g type specific ap-labeled oligonuc ...19921331307
myristate-protein interactions in poliovirus: interactions of vp4 threonine 28 contribute to the structural conformation of assembly intermediates and the stability of assembled virions.the vp4 capsid protein of poliovirus is n-terminally modified with myristic acid. within the poliovirus structure, a hydrogen bond is observed between the myristate carbonyl and the hydroxyl side chain of threonine 28 of vp4. this interaction is between two fivefold symmetry-related copies of vp4 and is one of several myristoyl-mediated interactions that appears to structurally link the promoters within the pentamer subunit of the virus particle. site-specific substitutions of the threonine resi ...19921331497
transmission of infectious diseases in children.a rational approach to the control of pediatric infectious diseases requires an appreciation of their epidemiology and mechanisms of transmission. the setting in which the exposure occurs may have a major influence on the risk of infection. unfortunately, the epidemiology of many important pediatric pathogens is complex and incompletely understood. recent advances in diagnostic microbiology and molecular epidemiology may help to solve some of the remaining riddles.19921332011
[genome structure of rotavirus and reovirus]. 19921332118
[presence of viruses in drinking water in croatia].drinking water must be virus-free. however, it has been observed and demonstrated that various pathogenic viruses are capable of transmission through water and that such viral diseases may have far-reaching health and socio-economic implications. over a four-year period 135 drinking water samples were collected in a middle-sized town in croatia. the percentages of positive findings varied from 0 to 10%, the average being 3.7%. these results are compared with the ones given by similar studies in ...19921332147
[the characteristics of the electrophoretic types of rotaviruses isolated from sick children in kazakhstan]. 19921332261
[the epidemic importance of the virological study of sewage for rotaviruses].the results of correlation of rotavirus circulation indices among apparently normal and sick children and the rates of rotavirus antigen detection in sewage from an orphanage and an infectious ward of children's hospital are presented. it was established that there should be up to 1% of virus excretors for rotaviruses to be detectable in sewage of peripheral collectors of children's institutions. a significant increase in the rate of detection of rotaviruses in sewage may indicate an activation ...19921332265
biochemical and immunological characterization of a novel peptide carrier system using rotavirus vp6 particles.a system which allows for the efficient attachment of synthetic peptides to spherical virus-like particles assembled from the vp6 rotavirus nucleocapsid protein is described. this attachment was shown to be mediated by peptide-protein interactions and did not require additional chemicals for conjugation. the resulting large macromolecular structure was highly immunogenic for both the vp6 protein and the coupled peptides. the antibody response to peptides bound to vp6 particles was of higher titr ...19921332271
[the electrophoretic typing of rotaviruses in the clinico-epidemiological study of infection].the electrophoretic study of the rna of human rotavirus strains (1146 strains) circulating in 9 cities at the territory of the european part of the rsfsr was carried out. the electrophoretic (ep) types of rotavirus were established in each individual area. the study revealed that the most widespread rotaviruses responsible for the majority of gastroenteritis cases are those with the long ep type of rna, characterized by the joint migration of segments 2, 3 and 7 (the 3rd ep type of rna). rotavir ...19921332310
sequence, genomic organization of the ecori-a fragment of autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus, and identification of a viral-encoded protein resembling the outer capsid protein vp8 of rotavirus.we present the sequence and genomic organization of the ecori-a fragment of the autographa californica multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus, which represents 11% of the acmnpv genome. fifteen putative open reading frames and their respective amino acid sequences are described. one open reading frame is similar to the vp8 protein of rotavirus.19921333113
the rotavirus nonstructural protein, ns35, possesses rna-binding activity in vitro and in vivo.toward the goal of identifying and characterizing rotavirus rna-binding proteins, we have used a gel retardation assay and protein-rna cross-linking by ultraviolet (uv) light to examine cytoplasmic lysates prepared from sa11-infected cells for the presence of rna-binding proteins. analysis of band shifts produced in the gel retardation assay indicated that infected cells contained significant amounts of a viral protein which had affinity for both single-stranded and double-stranded rna but lacke ...19921333119
evidence of serologic diversity within group c rotaviruses.the cowden strain of porcine group c rotavirus and the shintoku strain of bovine group c rotavirus were classified as different serotypes by two-way cross-neutralization tests. two neutralization patterns against the cowden and shintoku strains were observed when hyperimmune or convalescent-phase antisera to three noncultivatable porcine group c rotaviruses and a human group c rotavirus were used in one-way cross-neutralization tests. antisera to two porcine group c rotaviruses and the human gro ...19921333486
rotavirus diarrhea in bangladeshi children: correlation of disease severity with improve the understanding of the relative importance of serotypes of rotavirus in dehydrating diarrhea, we examined the correlation of clinical characteristics and disease severity with serotype in 2,441 diarrheal episodes among children younger than 2 years of age in rural bangladesh. of 764 rotavirus-associated episodes, a single g type (serotype 1, 2, 3, or 4) was determined by oligonucleotide probe in 485 (63%), while 233 episodes were nontypeable. episodes with g types 2 and 3 were assoc ...19921333490
nosocomial transmission of rotavirus from patients admitted with diarrhea.we studied the transmission of rotavirus (rv) in 950 patients under 2 years of age hospitalized for diarrhea in santiago, chile. stool samples were collected every other day from all patients during their entire hospital stay. to trace nosocomial transmission, we mapped the ward at the time of detection of rv. comparative study by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of 315 rv isolates (180 detected upon admission of patients and 135 attributed to nosocomial transmission) allowed the identificatio ...19921333491
comparison of antibody and cell-mediated immune responses in horses following feeding of a novel dietary antigen, ovalbumin, and ponies which were fed ovalbumin (ova) daily for 2 weeks had significantly greater serum anti-ova igg (p = 0.001) and antigen specific lymphocyte responses (p = 0.031) after intramuscular injection with ova given with saponin than control ponies which had not been fed the antigen. this suggests that, despite the lack of evidence of b- or t-cell activation in peripheral blood during the period of ova feeding, the animals were primed for an active secondary immune response. adult ponies were ...19921333675
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