PMID(sorted ascending)
enhancement of antigen incorporation and infectivity of cell cultures by human rotavirus.infection of cell cultures with human rotavirus preparations was attempted and the effects of trypsin and low-speed centrifugation on antigen incorporation, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay, were determined. in addition, the effect of viral aggregation on antigen incorporation was investigated by filtering viral preparations. four strains of human rotavirus were employed, and the results were compared to those obtained with two tissue culture-adapted animal rotaviruses. ...1979222805
diarrhea and rotavirus infection associated with differing regimens for postnatal care of newborn babies.surveillance of 2,041 babies born during 4 winter months in one obstetric hospital in melbourne, australia, showed that 215 developed acute diarrhea during the first 2 weeks of life. babies requiring special care from birth had a high incidence of sporadic diarrhea (36%). the incidence of diarrhea among healthy full-term babies was low if they were "rooming-in" with their mothers (2 to 3%) but high if they were housed in communal nurseries (29%). the most important factor influencing incidence o ...1979222807
[virusenteritis in childhood (author's transl)].about 20% of infantile enteritis are caused by bacterial infections. the most cases of non bacterial infantile enteritis are supposed to be viral infections. arguments for the existence of enterotropic viruses arised the first time in 1943. since the middle of the fifties, various kinds of enteroviruses are known to be causative agents of infantile gastroenteritis. the same is true occasionally for some types of adenovirus. in 1973 the norwalk-agent was discovered provocing enteritis mainly in a ...1979222939
[viral and bacterial etiology of infantile gastroenteritis cases: clinical characterization]. 1979223230
rotaviruses in diarrheic feces of a dog. 1979223269
[corona- and rotavirus enteritis in newborn calves in bulgaria].in the course of investigations into enteritis enzootics in newly-born calves, 55 fecal samples have been studied through direct electron microscopy by the negative contrast method. rota viruses were found in eight of them, corona viruses in 38.2 per cent of the cases, and both rota- and corona viruses in 49.1 per cent of the cases. two types of rota-viral particles were observed: with and without supercapsids. also two types of corona-viral particles were established. the first type was relativ ...1978223276
rotavirus infection of foals. 1979223542
newly recognized infectious diseases. 1979223810
canine viral enteritis. recent developments.two apparently novel viral gastroenteritides of dogs were recognized in 1978: one caused by a parvo-like virus (cpv) and one by a corona-like virus (ccv). a rotavirus has also been tentatively associated with neonatal pup enteritis. canine viral enteritis is characterized by a sudden onset of vomiting and diarrhea, rapid spread and high morbidity. treatment is only supportive but must be initiated promptly. infected animals should be isolated immediately; the extremely contagious nature of these ...1979224304
comparative epidemiology of two rotavirus serotypes and other viral agents associated with pediatric gastroenteritis.human rotavirus (hrv) type 1 or 2, adenovirus, or non-cultivatable 27 nm virus-like particles were demonstrated by electron microscopy and/or rotavirus elisa in fecal samples from 45.5% of 604 gastroenteritis inpatients, 25.0% of 200 gastroenteritis outpatients and 6.0% of 812 control subjects, all sampled at children's hospital national medical center. washington, dc. rotaviruses were the most common pathogens detected as 39% and 22% of gastroenteritis inpatients and outpatients, respectively, ...1979224698
concurrent porcine rotaviral and transmissible gastroenteritis viral infections in a three-day-old conventional pig.a 3-day-old suckling pig with diarrhea was necropsied, and immunofluorescent microscopic examination of the small intestinal mucosa, together with immune electron microscopic examination of the large intestinal contents, provided a presumptive diagnosis of a concurrent infection with transmissible gastroenteritis (tge) virus and porcine rotavirus. immunofluorescent microscopic, immune electron microscopic, and serologic data obtained from gnotobiotic pigs experimentally inoculated with the large ...1979224736
a year's experience of the rotavirus syndrome and its association with respiratory a hospital study rotavirus was identified in 51% of 152 children with diarrhoea. these patients showed a clinical pattern that was distinct from patients in whom the diarrhoea was associated with bacteria, other viruses, or no pathogens. a respiratory illness was described in 66% of rotavirus patients and usually preceded the gastrointestinal symptoms. vomiting lasted between one and 3 days and was curtailed by substituting the normal diet with clear fluids. watery diarrhoes continued for 4 o ...1979224824
recurrent attack of rotavirus gastroenteritis after adenovirus-induced diarrhoea.a 14-month-old baby boy suffered a second attack of rotavirus gastroenteritis within one month of the initial one. the second attack followed a diarrhoeal episode associated with adenovirus. gastrointestinal symptoms in the second attack were more severe than those of the first. the adenovirus-associated enteritis was mild compared with the illness in both episodes of rotavirus infection.1979224825
oral rehydration and maintenance of children with rotavirus and bacterial diarrhoeas.the outcome of administering ort (oral rehydration therapy) to 62 infants admitted to a costa rican hospital with acute rotavirus or bacterial diarrheas and with 5-10% dehydration was described. 94% of the infants were successfully treated by administering only ort. there were no significant differences in the success rates for rotavirus diarrhea patients and for various bacterial diarrhea patients. success rates were 92% for rotavirus patients, 93% for escherichia coli patients, 96% for idio ...1979225048
prevalence of neutralizing antibody to the calf rotavirus in new york march 1973, a modified live virus vaccine was released for sale in the united states for the protection of neonatal calves from infection with calf rotavirus. at that time no published evidence existed that this agent was present in new york or the new england states. serum neutralizing antibodies for the calf rotavirus (reovirus-like agent of neonatal calf diarrhea) were detected in serum from 108 of 110 dairy cattle in new york state representing 78 different herds. to exclude the possibili ...1979225124
polypeptides of bovine rotavirus.polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bovine rotavirus or neonatal calf diarrhoea virus (ncdv) grown in cell culture resolved eight species of polypeptide. the inner shell particles contained five polypeptides and the outer shell three polypeptides. a major polypeptide of the outer shell was glycosylated. the infectivity of ncdv was enhanced by treatment with trypsin in vitro. all eight polypeptides were affected by trypsin treatment as judged by diminished intensity of polypeptide bands by radi ...1979225424
polypeptides of simian rotavirus (sa-11) determined by a continuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method.simian rotavirus (sa-11) isolated from infected african green monkey kidney cells was separated into two virus fractions in a cscl density gradient and their proteins analysed on a continuous phosphte buffered polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system. one peak (buoyant density 1.37 g/ml) contained double capsid virus particles which were radioimmunoassay (ria)- and haemagglutinin (ha)- positive and yielded eight polypeptides whose mol. wt. ranged from 48,000 to 128,000. the second peak (buoyant ...1979225429
a plaque assay for the simian rotavirus saii.a sensitive, quantitative and reproducible plaque assay for the measurement of the simian rotavirus saii is described. plaque formation required the presence of the facilitators pancreatin or trypsin and diethylaminoethyl-dextran in the agar overlay. saii produced plaques in three continuous primate cell lines: ma-104, cv-1 and llc-mk2. ma-104 cells were the most sensitive.1979225432
a simple immunofluorescent technique for the detection of human rotavirus.if trypsin is incorporated in the tissue culture medium it is possible to carry out a sensitive immunofluorescence assay for the presence of human rotavirus. the enhanced effect of trypsin is negated by serum. it has also been established that naturally occurring enzymes in faeces enable some virus to penetrate tissue culture cells. the role of these naturally occurring enzymes in the pathogenesis of rotavirus infection is discussed.1979225439
solid-phase radioimmunoassay of iga, igg, and igm antibodies to human rotavirus.a solid-phase radioimmunoassay (ria) has been developed for the detection of human rotavirus-specific iga, igg, and igm antibodies. nebraska calf diarrhea virus grown in llc-mk2 cell cultures in the presence of trypsin was directly adsorbed onto polystyrene balls, and antibodies that attached to the virus-coated balls were detected by subsequent binding of 125i-labeled antibodies specific to human alpha, gamma or mu chains of human iga, igg, or igm immunoglobulins. a total of 116 serum specimens ...1979225443
identification of an enteric adenovirus by immunoelectroosmophoresis (ieop) technique.infantile gastroenteritis can be caused by several of the established adenovirus types. there are also adenoviruses that defy in vitro cultivation but have been recognized by electron microscopy. one isolate of these viruses, which have been designated enteric adenoviruses, has been characterized. several of the established adenovirus types are shed in stools over long periods. the conditions for direct identification of enteric adenoviruses by immunoelectroosmophoresis (ieop) have therefore bee ...1979225444
comparison of the genomes of simian, bovine, and human rotaviruses by gel electrophoresis and detection of genomic variation among bovine co-electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels, the segmented double-standed rna genome of the simian rotavirus, sa 11, was compared with those of human and bovine rotaviruses. a comparison between sa 11 virus and the northern ireland cell culture adapted bovine virus showed that the electrophoretic mobilities of each of the 11 corresponding segments differed. in other comparisons, four to seven segment variations were more common. when the genomes of various bovine rotaviruses were compared, eigh ...1979225545
[rotavirus diarrhea in childhood].electron microscopy of 350 diarrhoeal faeces revealed rotavirus-particles in 145 cases. all patients with rotavirus-infections showed symptoms of acute gastroenteritis lasting 1 to 8 days. additionally to diarrhoea most cases presented fever and vomiting. none of the patients showed toxicosis.1979225599
[rapid immuno-enzymologic diagnosis of rotavirus in the stools of children]. 1979225852
[virological and serological study of rotavirus gastroenteritis].cases of acute gastroenteritis with negative bacteriological analyses were examined. preparations of feces collected from patients in the acute stage of the disease were found by immune electron microscopy to contain typical rotavirus particles forming specific aggregates in the presence of convalescent sera. examinations of paired acute and convalescent sera of the patients revealed the presence in convalescent sera of specific antibodies neutralizing simian rotavirus sa 11 antigenically relate ...1979225885
[human rotavirus in cell culture: its isolation and passage].rotavirus was isolated from feces of patients and passaged in green monkey kidney cell subculture using the factors affecting the initiation of infection of tissue culture cells with human rotavirus. the effective factors were found to include the presence of low concentrations of trypsin in the infected culture and virus centrifugation of a cell layer which agreed with the data by almeida et al. (1978) and shoub and bertran (1978) obtained in other cell systems. immune electron microscopy was u ...1979225886
infantile gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus: comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and electron microscopy for rapid diagnosis.elisa and negative contrast em have used for the detection of rotavirus in one hundred stools from children, less than two years old, hospitalized for acute gastro-enteritis during the winter 1977-78. samples obtained from the same children some months after hospitalization were also tested. a good correlation was found between the results given by em and elisa, but the later technique turned out to be more sensitive (12% more positive using elisa). a rotavirus infection could be demonstrated in ...1979226197
use of electron microscopy and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of rotaviruses in neonatal calf diarrhea.electron microscopy and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were compared for the diagnosis of rotaviruses associated with neonatal calf diarrhea. one hundred percent correlation was observed when 125 samples were tested by both techniques. both techniques were equally efficient in detecting rotaviruses. the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was more sensitive but being specific could not detect other viruses.1979226249
enzyme-linked fluorescence assay: ultrasensitive solid-phase assay for detection of human rotavirus.enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) has proven to be a useful assay system for the direct detection of infectious agents. however, when the usual color-producing substrates are employed, relatively large amounts of substrate must be hydrolyzed by the bound enzyme before detection can be achieved. we attempted to improve the sensitivity of elisa by utilizing a substrate that yields a fluorescent product on enzyme action. the enzyme-linked fluorescence assay (elfa) based on this principle wa ...1979226564
human rotavirus in an adult population with travelers' diarrhea and its relationship to the location of food consumption.the role of human rotavirus in adult diarrhea was evaluated in 164 newly arrived us students attending summer school at an urban mexican university. rotavirus was identified in stool samples by electron microscopy. rotavirus was found in 26 of 109 students with diarrhea (24%) and in 8 of 55 asymptomatic control students (15%). although bacterial pathogens were recovered from virus positive students with diarrhea, viral shedding also occurred independently of other agents. clinical disease in stu ...1979226656
viral gastroenteritis in children. 1979226912
[rotavirus gastro-enteritis in infants (author's transl)].deviation of complement antibodies were studied in 630 hospitalized infants aged from 0 to 4 years suffering from rotavirus gastro-enteritis, over a period of one year. seroconversion was observed in 30 cases out of the 256 infants in whom 2 serological samples were taken. in 29 cases out of 30, these rotavirus infections occurred in infants under 18 months of age, and they were all seen during ther period from november to march, rotavirus being responsible for one third of the gastro-enteritis ...1979227090
[acute infectious gastroenteritis. etiology and its correlation with clinical manifestations and fecal mucus].343 children with acute diarrhea were studied from january 1976 to september 1977. rotavirus was the agent most frequently isolated (18 per cent) followed by shigella (12 per cent) and salmonella (10 per cent). enterotoxigenic e. coli was identified in 8 per cent and invasive e. coli only in two cases. 80 per cent of isolated rotavirus fell in the neonate group and 25 per cent in the infant group. diarrhea caused by rotavirus had a short duration, fever was negligible and abundant liquid stools ...1979227338
the role of viruses in acute diarrhoeal disease. 1979227633
prevalence of antibody to the norwalk virus in various countries.serum samples from children and adults from several countries were tested by radioimmunoassay for antibody to the norwalk virus. antibody was commonly found in adults from all the countries tested. antibody appears to be acquired more rapidly in children from underdeveloped countries than in children from the united states.1979227798
effect of enzymes on rotavirus infectivity.the infectivity of a bovine rotavirus was enhanced 140-, 8-, and 3-fold, respectively, by trypsin, protease, and lactase. ficin, carboxypeptidases a and b, lysozyme, and beta-galactosidase had little effect on the infectivity. chymotrypsin caused a threefold decrease in the infectivity. trypsin acts directly on the rotavirus and not on the host cell.1979227917
comparison of electron microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, solid-phase radioimmunoassay, and indirect immunofluorescence for detection of human rotavirus antigen in faeces.four techniques were compared for their practicability, speed, and sensitivity for the detection of human rotavirus. radioimmunoassay (ria) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) were found to be the most sensitive means of identifying rotavirus, and, once processed, up to 40 specimens could be examined daily. electron microscopy, although less sensitive than these techniques, had the advantage of being able to detect other viral agents present in faecal extracts. indirect immunofluoresce ...1979227941
common exposure outbreak of gastroenteritis due to type 2 rotavirus with high secondary attack rate within families.a sharp outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with human rotavirus type 2 involved not only all of nine infants and young children in a playgroup but also seven of 10 parents and grandparents studied. the source of the outbreak appeared to be two non-playgroup siblings. six of 11 individuals studied shed human rotavirus type 2, and each of seven from whom paired sera were obtained developed a type 2 sero-response. overall, evidence of infection with rotavirus type 2 was demonstrated in 10 of 11 ...1979227970
rotavirus polypeptides.rotavirus infected monkey kidney cells (llc-mk2) have been labelled with 35s-methionine in the presence of actinomycin d. the cells have been lysed with sds and the polypeptides separated by discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. rotavirus polypeptides began to appear 4 to 5 h p.i.; incorporation was maximum at 8 h, but all the polypeptides were still being made 15 to 18 h p.i. tissue culture adapted calf rotavirus particles were labelled with 35s-methionine and the polypeptides compa ...1979227989
ultrasensitive enzymatic radioimmunoassay: application to detection of cholera toxin and rotavirus.rotavirus and enterotoxin-producing bacteria are major causes of diarrheal disease in humans. a method of rapid diagnosis, ultrasensitive enzymatic radioimmunoassay, has been developed to quantitatively detect cholera toxin and rotavirus. the method uses features of both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay; however, the sensitivity of the assay is 100- to 1000-fold more sensitive than the two parent assays. ultrasensitive enzymatic radioimmunoassay should also be useful in mea ...1979228285
viral gastroenteritis. 1979228348
the aetiology of diarrhoea in pigs weaned at two days of age.when pigs are weaned at two days of age large numbers of excherichia coli appear in the anterior gut and the incidence of diarrhoea rises. the two phenomena do not appear to be directly related because the strains of e coli isolated are not serotypes previously found to be associated with neonatal pig scouring. representative strains of the non-enteropathogenic serotypes did not produce enterotoxin and did not adhere to small intestine brush borders. moreover when antibiotics were fed to elimina ...1979228367
rotavirus gastroenteritis in hospitalized infants and young children in mexico city. 1978228369
structure of rotaviruses as studied by the freeze-drying technique. 1979228484
detection of rotavirus from faeces by reversed passive haemagglutination method. 1979229131
simian rotavirus sa11 replication in cell cultures.understanding the basic virology of rotavirus infections has been hampered by the fastidiousness of most isolates and by the lack of a rapid quantitative assay method. the growth characteristics of the simian rotavirus sa11 were studied because it grows to high titers in tissue culture and infectivity can be quantitated by plaque assay. sa11 replication was analyzed in a variety of primary cell cultures or continuous cell lines derived from both homologous and heterologous hosts. viral replicati ...1979229253
[rota virus infection in the newborn and infant -- epidemiological aspects (author's transl)].in a total of 406 sera an age-dependent pattern of complement fixing antibodies against rotavirus (nebraska calf diarrhea virus) was found: 85% of the adults had antibodies, infants in the second half-year of life had the lowest percentage (42%). thereupon a rotavirus survey was carried out in a newborn ward by means of electron microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and complement fixation test during three weeks in january/february 1978. a chronically high infection rate was discovered. ...1979229307
electron microscopic examination of primate feces for rotaviruses.using electron microscopic procedures known to be capable of detecting rotaviruses, feces from both human and nonhuman primates were examined for the presence of these viruses. fecal samples were taken from man and animals with and without diarrhea. rotaviruses were not observed in these specimens.1979229338
virus detection in monkeys with diarrhea: the association of adenoviruses with diarrhea and the possible role of explore the role of viruses in the etiology of diarrhea in colony-reared monkeys, direct electron microscopy, the fluorescent virus precipitin test and cell culture inoculation were used to examine the stools of monkeys with and without diarrhea. the animals were predominantly rhesus with a few macaques of other species, and included infants, juveniles and adults. adenoviruses were isolated from a higher proportion of specimens from rhesus monkeys with diarrhea (73% of specimens from infants ...1979229340
rotavirus and coronavirus-like particles in aboriginal and non-aboriginal neonates in kalgoorlie and alice a series of six-month surveys carried out in kalgoorlie and alice springs hospitals, rotavirus was infrequently detected both in aboriginal and in non-aboriginal neonates. coronavirus-like particles were also detected infrequently, but they were found more often in aboriginal than in non-aboriginal neonates. the surveys did not detect any 28-nm virus-like particles.1979229391
an epidemic of gastroenteritis in auckland 1978.during an epidemic of gastroenteritis which spread throughout new zealand in 1978, 372 cases of nonbacterial illness were documented in children in auckland during the months of june and july. a brief account is given of the clinical picture observed. evidence from virological techniques suggests that some if not all cases were due to rotavirus. the severity of illness may have been greater than most observers to date have noted. from our observations we raise the possibility of air-borne spread ...1979229441
two strains of human rotavirus in auckland.polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of human rotavirus rna has identified at least two distinct strains of virus currently circulating in auckland. the sensitivity of the method both for detecting rotavirus infection and for identifying variation in rotavirus strains is discussed.1979229442
[cultivation of rotavirus, agent of neonatal diarrhea in calves]. 1979229623
[rotavirus diarrhea in young infants].clinical and serological studies were made in 62 children with various purulent infections, who were placed in the same hospital unit. the precipitation test with the antigen of monkey virus sa-11 showed that diarrhea in 32 of these children was etiologically linked with rotaviruses. the diagnostic titers of virus antibodies were detected in children having diarrhea 5.5 times as frequently as in the control group. the characteristic feature in the clinical picture of this diarrhea was the absenc ...1979229664
a morphological study of human rotavirus.human rotavirus has a characteristic icosahedral structure which has a honeycomb-like appearance on the surface of the smooth particles and 42 polygonal capsomeres in the rough particles.1979229794
rotabirus infection in private practice in nairobi city. 1979230020
rotavirus antibody assays on monkey sera: a comparison of enzyme immunoassay with neutralization and complement-fixation enzyme immunoassay (eia) for the detection of rotaviral antibodies was developed, using a purified, cell culture-grown sa 11 viral antigen and alkaline phosphatase as an enzyme label. this technique was evaluated by comparative testing with tube neutralization and complement-fixation assays on a collection of simian sera. there was close correlation between positive and negative results obtained by eia and by neutralization. the eia was as easy to perform as complement fixation testing, but s ...1979230760
enteric adenoviruses: detection, replication, and significance.adenoviruses can be demonstrated readily in the stools of pediatric gastroenteritis patients by electron microscopy or counterimmunoelectrophoresis, but in 45% of these cases the virus will not grow in cell culture. indirect immunofluorescence microscopy can be used to detect nongrowing strains of adenovirus; these strains have a unique single-cell fluorescence pattern. hematoxylin and eosin staining reveals adenovirus-like inclusion bodies in the same distribution as fluorescent cells. pretreat ...1979231050
a solid-phase system (space) for the detection and quantification of rotavirus in faeces.this report describes the development of a solid-phase haemadsorption system using chromic chloride-linked, antibody coated erythrocytes. it is proposed to call this technique solid phase aggregation of coupled erythrocytes (space). the system is suitable for the detection of virus antigens, such as from rotavirus infections, which are present in 'dirty' or 'mixed' preparations such as faeces, urine or exudates. the test uses microtitre u-form plates coated with specific antivirus antibody; faec ...1979231086
a study of infections and illnesses in a day nursery based on inclusion-bearing cells in the urine and infectious agent in faeces, urine and nasal secretion.during an epidemic-free period of nearly 2 years infections and illnesses were followed in a group of small children (2-3 1/2 years) in a day nursery. the incidence of illness was fairly low, 6.3 per child and year. the viral infections were followed by means of the inclusion reaction in the urine and isolation of virus, and the bacterial by culture of nasal secretion. in 60% of the cases the viral infection was accompanied by illness. in 57 cases of illness there were 27 (47%) with merely virus ...1979231298
viruses and diarrhoea. 1979231336
[rotavirus detection in the feces: experiences with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa)]. 1979231354
[structure of calf rotavirus. 1. hydrodynamic and electron microscopic parameters of the virus].rotavirus was isolated from the faeces of calves afflicted with diarrhoea and purified. isolation was preceded by chloroform treatment, oxide wax a-precipitation, as well as differential and density gradient centrifugation. virus density in cscl solution was 1.38 +/- 0.01 g/ml. cell culture virus prepared without chloroform (nebraska-type isolation) would be 1.37 +/- 0.01 g/ml in density, for comparison. the mean capsid diameters measured were 55 nm and 60 nm, sedimentation coefficents being bet ...1979231417
epidemiological and virological studies on outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis associated with rotavirus in primary schools in osaka.there have been three recent outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in primary schools in osaka prefecture caused by rotavirus: one in a school (ta) in april, 1974 and two in two other schools (te and k) in may 1975. the morbidity from the disease was 2.4--15.8% for all age groups in the schools, and 20.1--34.1% for a certain age group. the disease lasted for 4 (k) to 14 days (te). the first cases in schools ta and te were followed by successive cases. the main clinical symptoms were higher frequenc ...1979231434
rotaviruses and the respiratory tract. 1979231474
antibody to rotavirus in various animal species. 1979231743
rotavirus and coronavirus associated diarrohoea in calves. 1979231751
experimental infection of pigs with belgian isolates of the porcine rotavirus. 1979231875
[serologic detection of rotavirus infection in swine from the region of brittany (author's transl)].indirect immunofluorescence (micromethod) was used to detect antirotavirus antibodies. sera (166) were collected on adult pigs at slaughterhouse in the following french departments: finistere, morbihan and ille et vilaine. antibodies were detected in 83% of the samples.1979231922
[electron microscopy in the diagnosis of rotavirus infection (author's transl)]. 1979232009
prevalence of rotavirus infection in neonates. 1979232081
a serological survey of st lucia.a serological survey of a random sample of 541 of the population of st lucia was undertaken. the prevalence of antibodies to dengue, herpes virus, vz, rotavirus, rubella and syphilis is described and compared with other communities.1979232090
comparison of four-layer radioimmunoassay and electron microscopy for detection of human rotavirus.a four-layer radioimmunoassay (ria) using polystyrene beads as the solid phase, anti-rota guinea pig igg as primary antibody, anti-rota rabbit igg as secondary antibody, and 125i-labelled sheep anti-rabbit immunoglobulin as indicator antibody has been developed for the detection of human rotavirus in stool specimens. a comparison was made of the developed ria, routine electron microscopy, and research electron microscopy of 147 unconcentrated stool specimens from patients with infantile gastroen ...1979232141
the effect of sodium thiocyanate on virus structure.a study of two different virus types after elution from immunosorbent columns by sodium thiocyanate has shown that virus degradation occurs. the two virus types studied were hepatitis b and rotavirus. hepatitis b antigen (hbag) was only slowly degraded and retained many of its morphological features, although in an altered form; rotavirus was highly sensitive to the chaotropic agent, losing both its viability and its morphological integrity. during the process of disassembly a previously undetec ...1979232143
the occurrence of calicivirus in infants with acute gastroenteritis.calicivirus was detected in 8 (1.2%) of 647 hospitalized patients during a survey of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children, conducted between december 1974 and september 1977. morphologically calicivirus was approximately 30 nm in diameter with an easily recognizable staining "star of david" configuration. its buoyant density in cesium chloride was 1.38-1.40 gm/ml. the serologic response to calicivirus by immune electron microscopy (iem) was demonstrated only in paired sera from pa ...1979232145
isolation of cytopathogenic rotavirus from neonatal calves.rotavirus was isolated in rolled calf kidney cultures from the intestinal contents of a calf suffering from diarrhoea. the cytopathic effect was demonstrated in native cultures as well as in stained preparations. the affected cells were elongated, became sickle-like in shape, disintegrated and detached from the monolayer. virus-specific direct immunofluorescence ran parallel, in both time and intensity, with the cytopathic effects. immuno-electron microscopy showed aggregated virus particles cor ...1979232369
comparison of hemagglutination-inhibition, complement-fixation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantitation of human rotavirus antibodies.the hemagglutination-inhibition test for detecting rotavirus antibody was evaluated by using simian rotavirus sa-11 as hemagglutinating antigen. results show that the test is as sensitive as either complement fixation or the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibody to rotavirus in human sera.1979232412
analysis of nonspecific reactions in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing for human rotavirus.solid-phase enzyme immunoassays can be utilized to detect antigens directly in clinical specimens. however, a small number of stools which we tested for human rotavirus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) were found to have nonspecific activity in the absence of rotaviral antigen. similar nonspecific activity was found in eight of eight sera which contained rheumatoid factor. this nonspecific activity was markedly reduced by pretreatment of the specimens with reducing agents, normal goa ...1979232506
rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection: comparison of electron microscopy and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). 1979232652
[immunoelectron microscopic observation of the incidence of rotaviruses in the stools of children with gastroenteritis (author's transl)]. 1979232672
comparison of methods for immunocytochemical detection of rotavirus infections.rotavirus infections in intestinal tissues of animals or in tissue culture cells were detected by the immunocytochemical unlabeled soluble enzyme peroxidase antiperoxidase method. comparison of the immunofluorescence and peroxidase antiperoxidase immunological staining techniques revealed that the two methods are equally sensitive for detection of rotavirus-infected cells. the peroxidase antiperoxidase technique offers the advantages of negligible nonspecific staining reactions, the use of a sta ...1979232694
[epidemiological and clinical significance of rotoviruses]. 1979232752
bovine fetal inoculations with calf rotavirus.the serological and histopathological responses of bovine fetuses to in utero inoculation with virulent and attenuated strains of the calf rotavirus (reovirus-like agent of neonatal calf diarrhea) are described. thirteen bovine fetuses, 63 to 190 days of gestation, were inoculated in utero with attenuated (three fetuses) or field strain virus (nine fetuses) or both (one fetus).serum-neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 1:16 to > 1:256 were detected in six of eight fetuses tested, demonstrat ...1979232853
viral intestinal infections of animals and man. 1979232863
antibodies to rotavirus infection in singapore children. 1979232890
[experiments to obtain and test a cell-culture rotavirus-precipitating antigen].the location of the rotaviral precipitating antigen and the possibility for its production from cattle rotaviral strains adapted on cell cultures of calf kidney were investigated. highest titer antigen was produced by concentration with ammonium sulfate simultaneously from the maintaining medium and from the cell monolayer. comparative studies on the antigenic and physico-chemical properties of the cell-cultural and the faeces rotaviral precipitating antigen were made. the identity of both antig ...1979232949
gel electrophoresis of rotavirus rna derived from six different animal species.rotavirus rna prepared from calf, pig, mouse, deer, foal and dog-adapted human isolates was compared using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. reproducible differences in the rna migration patterns were found between all isolates. there were 11 clearly resolved segments in the pig, mouse and foal samples. the calf rotavirus rna and deer rotavirus rna separated into 9 bands and 10 bands, respectively. the dog-adapted human virus migrated in 12 bands, and this probably results from the complex pas ...1979232982
[detection of rotavirus antigen in stools by double-gel diffusion technique (author's transl)]. 1979233056
the isolation and cultivation of calf rotavirus in the republic of south africa.calf rotavirus was cultivated and propagated in tissue culture from faeces of 3-week-old calves suffering from severe diarrhoea. criteria for viral involvement were: production of cytopathic effect in primary foetal calf kidney cells, specific fluorescence, and identification of the agent by means of electron microscopy. in a limited serological survey the majority of the cows on an infested farm were found to possess neutralizing antibodies to the local rotavirus strain.1979233145
rotavirus in diarrhoeic calves in iran. 1979233279
rotavirus infection in a domestic cat. 1979233280
rota virus infections of domestic animals and humans. 1979233385
[pediatric aspects of acute infectious diarrhea]. 1979233399
morphological and immunological studies of rotaviruses. (2) demonstration of two types of morphological units released from the capsid surfaces of rotaviruses. 1979233638
[diarrhea outbreak and bacterial resistance to ampicillin in newborns].twenty-eight healthy neonates from the san juan de dios hospital were studied to determine the pattern of antibiotic resistance of indigenous intestinal bacteria. sixty-eight per cent of infants had enterobacteriaceae resistant to several wide-spectrum antibiotics, including ampicillin; 28 per cent of the cultures had plasmid-mediated ampicillin resistance. in the course of the study, an outbreak of 10 acute cases of diarrhea occurred, not associated to any of the commonly known agents, includin ...1977242927
a microbiological investigation of acute summer gastroenteritis in black south african infants.a microbiological investigation of black infants suffering from severe acute summer gastroenteritis revealed enteropathogenic agents in 30 out of 37 patients (81%). enterotoxigenic bacteria were isolated from 15 patients (41%). a total of 16 enterotoxigenic strains were isolated, comprising 9 enterotoxigenic escherichia coli strains secreting labile and stable toxin on their own and in combination, and labile-toxin secreting strains of klebsiella pneumoniae (4), enterobacter cloacae (2) and prot ...1977325127
gastroenteritis in children: a two-year review in manitoba. i. etiology.during two years, 1,217 children hospitalized with gastroenteritis at the children's centre in winnipeg, manitoba, canada were studied. bacterial pathogens were present in 25% of these children: enteropathogenic escherichia coli in 120, shigella in 139, salmonella in 24, and multiple pathogens in 18. rotavirus was detected in 54 (11%) of 472 patients examined. rotavirus and enteropathogenic e. coli were the most common pathogens in infants, and shigella was the most common in older children. bac ...1977330769
a microbiological study of gastro-enteritis in black infants.a survey was carried out to determine the aetiological agents responsible for acute gastro-enteritis in black infants. bacteriological examination of 191 patients and 178 age-matched controls showed that salmonellae and shigellae together accounted for only 15% of cases and were harboured by almost 7% of controls. seropositive 'enteropathogenic' escherichia coli was an important cause of diarrhoea, especially in the summer months. enterotoxin-producing e. coli was not a significant cause of gast ...1977331509
viruses and diarrhea--a review.a critical analysis of the literature shows that only a few viral agents have been proved by accepted criteria to cause acute gastroenteritis. rotavirus, of the rna family reoviridae, is the cause of most childhood gastroenteritis. the parvovirus-like agents (norwalk, hawaii, mc, and w) are proved agents of epidemic gastroenteritis. there is good evidence that the marcy, fs, and niigata agents were the causes of gastroenteritis outbreaks. thirty percent of all acute gastroenteritis episodes in l ...1978343580
a prospective study of enteropathogenic escherichia coli in endemic diarrheal disease.the rate of isolation of escherichia coli belonging to the traditional serotypes enteropathogenic for infants was studied prospectively in two groups. group 1 consisted of children with diarrhea and of controls without gastrointestinal disease who were matched for age and inpatient or outpatient status. group 2 consisted of families entered in a prospective study of rotavirus infections. in group 1 enteropathogenic escherichia coli were found in 13 (6%) of 220 children younger than 12 months of ...1978344810
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