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panel report on the colloquium on selected diarrheal diseases of the young. 1978212391
naturally occurring and experimentally induced rotaviral infections of domestic and laboratory animals. 1978212392
rotaviral infections in human neonates.between may 1, 1976 through may 14, 1977, feces from 1,056 five-day-old babies in newborn nurseries were examined by electron microscopy, of which 343 (32.5%) contained rotavirus. rotaviruses were prevalent throughout the study period, but infection reached its peak during the winter months of december 1976 and january 1977, at which time 46% and 49% of babies, respectively, were excreting rotaviruses. infection occurred substantially less frequently among breast-fed babies. further, infected br ...1978212393
detection of differences among human and animal rotaviruses, using analysis of viral rna. 1978212394
electron microscopy in the diagnosis of infectious diarrhea. 1978212395
pathogenesis of rotaviral infection. 1978212396
rotavirus infection in avian species. 1978213873
epizootiology of bovine rotavirus infection.published information on rotaviruses as pathogens, the source of virus infection and the method of transmission of infection under normal conditions are reviewed. the antigenic differences between rotavirus isolates from children, calves, pigs, foals and mice are discussed. bovine rotaviruses isolated in the usa and the uk were shown to be closely related antigenically and the us vaccine strain protected calves from challenge with the uk rotavirus. nineteen normally reared calves, with 20 or mor ...1978211696
comments on the pathogenesis of rotaviral infections. 1978212397
techniques for rotaviral propagation. 1978212398
secretory antibody directed against rotavirus in human milk--measurement by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.human milk contains antibodies to a variety of enteropathic agents. we utilized the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to investigate anti-rotavirus secretory iga in 113 human milk and colostral specimens from a rural area in guatemala, 32 colostral specimens from an urban area of costa rica, and 12 from an urban area of the united states. anti-rotavirus sciga was found in all colostral samples and in 94% of the milk specimans. both the absolute concentration of anti-rotavirus sciga and ...1978214534
nosocomial infantile gastroenteritis associated with minirotavirus and calicivirus. 1978214535
detection of antibody to rotavirus by counterimmunoelectrophoresis in human serum, colostrum, and milk. 1978214536
studies on rotaviral antibody in bovine serum and lacteal secretions, using radioimmunoassay. 1978212399
isolation of a reovirus-like agent (rotavirus) from neonatal calf diarrhea in japan. 1978214670
passive immunity in rotaviral infections. 1978212400
comments on passive immunity in rotaviral infections. 1978212401
immunization of infants and young children against rotaviral gastroenteritis--prospects and problems. 1978212402
economic impact of rotavirus and other neonatal disease agents of animals.methods for estimating the economic impact of disease agents were developed and utilized to assess the relative economic importance of rotavirus and other disease agents in calves. based on incidence data from 2 sources, escherichia coli was responsible for the most devastating economic losses (50.9% and 74.6%). coronaviral (17.5% and 29.7% loss) and rotaviral (3.2% and 9.1% loss) infections ranked 2nd and 3rd, respectively. in one study, cryptosporidial infections (6.5% loss) were estimated to ...1978212403
pathogenic relationships of rotavirus, escherichia coli, and other agents in mixed infections in calves.infection with agents interpreted as causing or contributing to diarrhea (rotavirus, coronavirus, enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, and cryptosporidia) were demonstrated in 24 of 32 newborn calves that had naturally occurring diarrheal disease. the calves were from 12 herds in iowa. infections as well as enteric lesions and hypoglobulinemia occurred more frequently among diarrheal calves than among nondiarrheal calves from these same herds. in most calves, infections were mixed; ie, both viruses ...1978212404
antibody titres to lamb rotavirus in colostrum and milk of vaccinated ewes.ewes were vaccinated two to three weeks prior to mating with a formalin-treated preparation of lamb rotavirus. the colostrum and milk produced by vaccinated ewes after the subsequent pregnancy were shown to contain significantly higher titres of antibody to the virus than did mammary secretions from non-vaccinates. the virus neutralising antibody activity was associated with igg in both colostrum and milk. however, igg concentrations in the mammary secretions of vaccinates and non-vaccinates did ...1978211697
panel report on the colloquium on selected diarrheal diseases of the young. 1978211109
human rotavirus infection in infants and young children with intussusception.human rotavirus was detected by electron microscopy in 11 of 30 infants and young children with intussusception (37% of subjects under study). serologic complement fixation tests revealed evidence of infection with the rotavirus in 70% of the patients examined who eliminated the rotavirus in their stools. these results indicate that human rotavirus, in addition to adenovirus, may be an infectious agent causing intussusception in infants and young children.1978212529
[virus diarrhea in calves in south africa].the importance of diarrhoea in calves is briefly discussed. the role of viruses as primary invaders of the intestinal epithelium is stressed. the pathogenesis and problems encountered in diagnosing virus associated diarrhoea as well as the morphology of rota and coranavirus are discussed. possible methods of prevention and treatment are briefly mentioned.1978212561
epidemiology of human rotavirus types 1 and 2 as studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.to determine the relative importance of two known serotypes of human rotavirus, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to differentiate serotype-specific rotavirus antigen and antibody. using this technic, we studied the epidemiology of the two serotypes in acute gastroenteritis. seventy-seven per cent of 414 rotavirus isolates were type 2, and the remainder were type 1. the serotype distribution was similar in specimens from children in washington, d.c., and other parts of the world. ...1978212678
rotavirus diarrhoea of foals. 1978213048
concurrent rotavirus and salmonella infections in foals. 1978213413
a long-term survey of rotavirus infection in japanese children with acute gastroenteritis.human rotavirus was detected by electron microscopic examination of the stools of 320 (63%) of 506 infants and young children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis between december 1974 and march 1977. serologic responses to infection with the rotavirus were revealed by the complement-fixation test in 130 (70%) of 185 patients examined. during the study period three epidemics of human rotavirus infection occurred during the winter months. the peak incidences occurred in january 1975 (88% of pa ...1978213501
an investigation into the possible role of the family unit in the transmission of rotavirus infections of children. 1978213802
[coronavirus and "astrovirus" observed in stools of children with gastroenteritis (author's transl)].in a year's survey (december 1976-november 1977) of 190 children admitted to hospital with acute gastroenteritis, an "aetiological" agent was found in stools by electron microscopy in 41% of cases. rotavirus were found in 34% of patients. we also found coronavirus-like particles and astrovirus-like particles in 25 and 5 stools, respectively. improvements are awaited to demonstrate the responsibility of these virus in gastroenteritis.1978214002
acute infantile gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus in japan.we had an outbreak of acute infantile gastroenteritis accompanied by milky-white stool (called hakuri in japanese) during the winters of 1976 and 1977. stool specimens collected from 72 cases of hakuri were studied by negative-staining electron microscopy. rotavirus was detected with a very high frequency (89%). rotavirus obtained from one of the patients was isolated and passaged in cultures of primary human embryonic kidney cells. viral antigens could be detected in the cytoplasm of the cells ...1978214305
role of rotavirus (reo-like) in weanling diarrhea of pigs.piglets weaned abruptly and precociously at 3 weeks of age and placed in a crowded nursery commenced diarrhea 3 to 5 days later. death losses were low (approximately 6%), but weight gain ceased for 2 weeks. large numbers of rotavirus (reo-like) particles were seen by electron microscopy in diarrhetic fluids. sections of intestines showed a loss of adsorptive surface in that villi were shortened and fused with adjacent villi. immunofluorescence revealed rotaviral antigens within damaged enterocyt ...1978214458
jejunal microbial flora of southern indian infants in health and with acute gastroenteritis.the microbial flora of the jejunal lumen of 28 infants with acute gastroenteritis was compared with that of a group of 10 normal infants. the jejunum of control subjects harboured an "oral" type of flora and in a few instances enterobacteria in small numbers. the concentrations of all but one of the groups of organism were higher in the patients than in controls, and the differences were of statistical significance for enterobacteria and lactobacilli. in eight subjects, the same pathogen was ide ...1978214565
comparison of five diagnostic methods for the detection of rotavirus antigens in calf faeces.immunoelectroosmophoresis, complement fixation, immunofluorescence on inoculated cell cultures, electron microscopy, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were compared for the detection of rotavirus in faecal samples from calves. rotavirus particles could be detected in 39 out of 98 faecal samples by electron microscopy. immunofluorescence, complement fixation, and immunoelectroosmophoresis detected rotavirus antigens in 39, 42, and 30 samples, respectively. the enzyme-linked immunosorbent a ...1978214679
rotavirus infections in families. a clinical and virological study.among 25 family members of 8 children with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis (8 siblings and 17 adults) gastroenteritis was recorded in 9 (5 siblings and 4 adults), and minor symptoms in 8 (2 siblings and 6 adults). a rotavirus infection was diagnosed in 7 of the family members with gastroenteritis and was probably the cause of the disease in the remaining 2 in this group. four of the 8 family members with minor symptoms were infected with rotavirus, whereas no infection was detected among the 8 f ...1978214850
a study on the ultrastructure of human rotavirus. 1978214956
viral diarrhea. etiology and control. 1978215028
prevalence of rotavirus antibody in infants and children. 1978217819
synthesis of coreless, probably defective virus particles in cell cultures infected with rotaviruses.pk-15 cells infected with pig and lamb rotavirus strains which were not adapted to serial growth in cell cultures were examined by electron microscopy. a major difference between virus morphogenesis in the initial passage in pk-15 cells and in intestinal epithelial cells was the generation of large numbers of coreless virus particles in pk-15 cells. the numbers of coreless particles increased with increasing multiplicity of infection. infectious virus was synthesized in pk-15 cells, but a variab ...1978215104
clinical management and control of neonatal enteric infections of calves. 1978212411
comparison of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantitation of rotavirus antibodies with complement fixation in an epidemiological survey.the development of a micro-scale enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with horseradish peroxidase as the marker enzyme for the detection and measurement of human rotavirus antibodies is described. a semipurified preparation of the serologically related simian agent, sa-11 virus, was used as the antigen. test sera were reacted with antigen-sensitized wells in disposable poly-vinyl microplates. any attached antibody was detected by the addition of peroxidase-labeled anti-species immunoglobuli ...1978212451
measurement of rotavirus antibody by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay blocking assay.a new method for the measurement of rotavirus antibody is described, utilizing the system of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). in this method, serum is incubated with a fixed amount of rotavirus antigen, and the amount of antibody is determined by measuring the amount of unneutralized antigen. such an assay system proved to be as efficient as the other available rotaviral antibody systems. the elisa blocking assay also has the advantages of not requiring purified or gnotobiotic antigen ...1978212453
["indigestion" in infants mostly virus infections]. 1979218376
a search for faecal viruses in new-born and other infants.faecal specimens were collected at weekly intervals over the winter months from 141 new-born infants without diarrhoea. contrary to the findings in other studies, no viruses were detected by electron micriscopy or culture in any of these specimens. over the same period faecal specimens were collected from 84 infants up to four years of age admitted to hospital. rotaviruses or adenoviruses were found in 48% of infants with gastroenteritis. enteroviruses and other small round virus-like particles ...1978212477
stool viruses in babies in glasgow 2. investigation of normal newborns in hospital.the stools of 37 newborn babies born in hospital were examined for the presence of virus. an extract of every stool passed by each baby was examined in the electron microscopy and inoculated into cell cultures. the babies were delivered in four separate maternity units (a-d). all the babies from unit a and c(9 babies) were found to be excreting rotavirus though none showed any evidence of diarrhoea. two of the babies also excreted astrovirus. subsequently unit a was closed for cleaning and, on r ...1978212478
summary of a workshop on new and useful methods in viral diagnosis. 1978212491
ultrastructural changes in small intestinal epithelium of neonatal pigs infected with pig rotavirus.the small intestine of piglets orally infected with rotavirus was examined by electron microscopy 18, 24, 48 and 60 hours after infection. at 18 and 24 hours after infection columnar epithelial cells covered the villi. infected epithelial cells tended to be less electron-dense than uninfected cells and were more numerous at 24 hours after infection. two types of rotavirus particle were seen, usually within dilated cisternae of the rer: non-enveloped particles measuring 50 to 60 nm and enveloped ...1979218530
prevalence of antibody to the norwalk agent by a newly developed immune adherence hemagglutination assay.an immune adherence hemagglutination assay (iaha) for the detection of antibody to the norwalk agent of acute epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis was developed using as antigen virus purified from stool from an experimentally infected volunteer. the assay was sensitive and specific and was efficient for detecting norwalk antibody seroresponses. the prevalence of norwalk antibody in various groups in the united states was studied. antibody to the norwalk agent was acquired gradually, beginning ...1978215713
[rotavirus infections in children (author's transl)].in 43 out of 90 children suffering from acute gastroenteritis rotaviruses could be identified in stool-specimens by electronmicroscopy. symptoms were watery diarrhoea (100%), vomiting (88%), fever (77%), dehydration (47%) and upper respiratory tract infection (21%). in 3 out of 9 patients liver involvement could be documented. in 29 children i.v.-fluid therapy for 1-2 days was necessary. only in 1 patient severe diarrhoea persisted for 11 days.1979215817
enteropathogenic organisms. new etiologic agents and concepts of disease. 1978215856
rotaviral immunity in gnotobiotic calves: heterologous resistance to human virus induced by bovine virus.the possibility of immunizing human infants against rotaviruses, which cause severe dehydrating diarrheal disease, may depend on the use of a related rotavirus, derived from another animal species, as a source of antigen. to test the feasibility of this approach, calves were infected in utero with a bovine rotavirus and challenged with bovine or human type 2 rotavirus shortly after birth. infection in utero with bovine rotavirus induced resistance to diarrheal disease caused by the human virus a ...1979216077
machakos project studies: agents affecting health of mother and child in a rural area of kenya. vii. the incidence of diarrhoeal disease in the under-five population.the outcome of three years of fortnightly diarrhoea surveillance of about 4000 children under the age of five is described. the two-weekly incidence of diarrhoea in children in the age group 0-5 months, 6-11 months and 12-23 months, who were reported and/or observed to be ill, was 3.4%, 5.6% and 3.4% respectively. a decline in the attack rates of diarrhoea not associated with measles at the end of 1975 and the beginning of 1976 corresponds with a similar decline in the incidence of measles and m ...1978216135
[detection of an agent similar to rotavirus in infantile gastroenteritis].the etiology of nonbacterial enterovirus infections in children was studied in autumn and winter under conditions of focal outbreaks in moscow hospitals. electron microscopy revealed a reovirus-like agent in concentrated suspensions of feces collected in the acute period of the disease from children suffering from diarrhea. examinations of paired sera from the patients by the cf test with the antigen of nebraska calf disease virus established significant rises in antibody titers in 68.3% of case ...1978216151
[rotavirus gastroenteritides in infants and toddlers]. 1978216499
simplified radioimmunoassay for detection of human rotavirus in stools.a simplified radioimmunoassay (ria) technique was developed to facilitate the diagnosis of human rotavirus in stools of infants with diarrhea. this microtiter solid-phase ria utilizes as a critical reagent hyperimmune serum against a tissue culture-grown simian rotavirus that is immunologically closely related to the human agent. one hundred thirteen pediatric stool samples were tested. thiry-five specimens known to be positive for rotavirus by electron microscopy were also positive by ria. all ...1978216754
production of calf rotavirus hemagglutinin inhibitors in the infected cell culture fluid. 1978216892
viral gastroenteritis in children. 1979217132
travelers' diarrhea among u.s. army troops in south korea.a prospective study of diarrhea was conducted among 98 u.s. army soldiers during their first six weeks in south korea. diarrhea developed in 54 (55%) of 98 soldiers and had a mean duration of five days. infections with salmonella, shigella, vibrio, enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, enteroviruses, and intestinal parasites were uncommon. four (8%) of 50 soldiers with documented diarrhea, two (6%) or 32 with a history of diarrhea, and one (3%) of 29 who denied gastrointestinal symptoms had serologi ...1979220334
[rotaviruses, the etiological agent of gastroenteritis]. 1979217181
s-iga cholera toxin and rotavirus antibody in human colostrum.s-iga antibodies against cholera toxin and rotavirus were assayed in 43 colostral samples by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). all specimens contained specific s-iga antibodies against both antigens. significant antibody titres to the antigens were demonstrated in almost all colostral samples.1979217230
structural and functional abnormalities of the small intestine in infants and young children with rotavirus enteritis.structural and functional alterations in duodenal mucosa from 17 children with rotavirus enteritis were assessed. structural changes were found in specimens from all patients. patients with the most severe mucosal damage were more likely to require intravenous therapy to correct dehydration. depression of one or more mucosal disaccharidases was found in 14 of 16 patients. repeat duodenal biopsy three to eight weeks later in six patients showed marked improvement. the study clearly shows that rot ...1979217231
[rotavirus infections in cattle herds in northern germany: demonstration by electron microscopy and virus isolation in cell culture (author's transl)]. 1979217579
rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants and young children.the electronmicroscopic examination of stool samples from 18 infants and young children with gastroenteritis, hospitalized at the clinic of infectious diseases in prague, was carried out. in ten children rotavirus was found in the faeces and the bacteriological findings were negative. rotavirus particles were aggregated by convalescent child sera and by normal human gamma globulin. the clinical picture was characterized by the sudden onset of vomiting and fever, in one case with febrile convulsi ...1979217837
rotaviral diarrhea in pigs: brief review.rotavirus is a name given to a group of viruses that have similar characteristics and are generally capable of causing diarrhea in the young. infection of pigs with porcine rotavirus is common and widespread and can result in diarrhea, especially in 1- to 4-week-old pigs. this virus is frequently associated with a diarrheal syndrome popularity known as "white scours," "milk scours," or "3-week-old scours." pigs less than 1 week old are infrequently infected, presumably because of adequate passiv ...1979217858
rotavirus gastro-enteritis in northern nigeria. 1979220757
isolation of rotavirus from foals with diarrhoea.a rotavirus, morphologically similar to other known rotaviruses, was demonstrated in the faeces of 5 foals with diarrhoea on two properties. four of these 5 samples produced specific intracytoplasmic fluorescence in cell culture when reacted with calf rotavirus antiserum conjugate. sixteen affected foals from both properties were depressed, did not suckle and became recumbent. most had a watery diarrhoea which lasted for 3 days and resulted in some dehydration and loss of body condition. sick fo ...1978215112
etiology of infantile enteritis in south africa.infantile enteritis constitutes a major health problem in developing countries. several investigations into the etiology of this condition among various south african populations have been undertaken during the past few years. recent studies of black urban infants have revealed that salmonellae, shigellae, enterotoxigenic enterobacteriaceae, and rotaviruses play a relatively minor role in infantile enteritis. on the other hand, all studies, including a number performed several years ago, have de ...1979221438
antibodies to viral gastroenteritis viruses in crohn's disease.antibody prevalence and titer to rotavirus and norwalk virus were studied in crohn's disease patients and in age-, sex-, and time-matched controls. there were no significant antibody differences between the groups studied.1979215490
[gastroenteritis in children]. 1979218099
[rota virus infantile gastroenteritis: clinical and epidemiological study]. 1978218164
the effect of vaccination on titres of antibody to rotavirus in colostrum and milk.the continued presence of antibody to rotavirus in the gut of the neonatal ruminant has been shown to be important in protecting against clinical disease associated with rotavirus infections. this effect is dependant upon the amount of antibody included in the diet. titres of antibody to rotavirus may be relatively high in ruminant mammary secretions immediately after parturition but decline rapidly over the course of the first day. the influence of vaccination on the titres of antibody, the con ...1978218490
the influence of colostrum on neonatal rotaviral infections. 1978218491
diarrhea associated with rotavirus in rural guatemala: a longitudinal study of 24 infants and young children.a population of 24 infants and young children followed prospectively during the first 3 years of life was studied for the occurrence of rotavirus infection by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect virus in stools. infection with rotavirus was associated with 26 (14.2%) of 183 selected diarrheal episodes. twenty of the 24 infants and young children had diarrhea associated with rotavirus on at least one occasion and six had two such episodes. rotavirus infection was documented in over ...1979222155
the detection of rotavirus specific antibody in colostrum and milk by elisa.the blocking method of elisa for the detection and titration of rotavirus-specific antibody in colostrum is described. the results obtained were positively correlated with those of a neutralizing antibody test. on one farm colostrum samples were obtained over a period of 18 months. no relationship was found between the titer of colostrum obtained shortly after calving, and the development of rotavirus-associated diarrhoea in calves. on a second farm only samples obtained during the calving seaso ...1978218492
elisa: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.similar in design to radioimmunoassay, comparable in sensitivity and specificity but easier, safer, and less expensive, this new diagnostic technique uses enzyme-labeled rather than isotope-labeled reagents. the end point is a color change that can be assessed by colorimetry or with the naked eye. various techniques of elisa are described, along with examples of current and potential clinical applications.1978215505
the calf reo-like virus (rotavirus) vaccine: an ineffective immunization agent for rotaviral diarrhea of piglets.rotavirus, in a commercially available calf vaccine, did not replicate in newborn colostrum-free piglets inoculated orally with one half of a calf dose. gross and microscopic examination of these vaccinated piglets revealed no lesions consistent with rotaviral infection and vaccinated piglets were susceptible to challenge by porcine rotavirus. challenged piglets vomited, had diarrhea and became severely dehydrated. rotavirus was visualized in their gut fluid. villi in the small intestines were s ...1979218709
small intestinal morphology and epithelial cell kinetics in lamb rotavirus infections.morphologic changes in the small intestine of rotavirus-infected gnotobiotic lambs were investigated by measurement of villi and crypts in histologic sections of jejunum, midgut, and posterior ileum. in midgut, villus atrophy developed within 12 hr of infection and was apparent until 72 hr after infection. crypt hypertrophy was evident from 42 hr after infection until the end of the observation period (6 days after infection). changes in posterior ileum were similar in extent, but jejunal change ...1979218864
persistence of antibodies to rotavirus in human milk.human milk obtained from 21 american nursing mothers was studied for the presence of secretory immunoglobulin a antibody to rotavirus, the most common etiological agent of infantile gastroenteritis. antibody was quantitated by adaptation of a recently described solid-phase radioimmunoassay technique that employs simian rotavirus as a convenient substitute antigen for human rotavirus. of the mothers tested, 80% (12 of 15) possessed milk antibody within a week of parturition, whereas 56% of those ...1979219020
complement-fixing immunoglobulin m antibody response in patients with infantile gastroenteritis.complement-fixing immunoglobulin m antibody to infantile gastroenteritis virus (a rotavirus) was detected with highest sensitivity when the antibody-antigen-complement mixture was incubated at 37 degrees c for 1 h prior to the addition of sensitized sheep erythrocytes. sucrose gradient centrifugation of sera collected sequentially from four patients after infection detected 19s complement-fixing antibody up to 5 weeks, with highest titers at 1 week, after the onset of illness. treatment of the w ...1979219023
viruses in the stools.it has long been possible to isolate viruses from the stools by culture, though the viruses found are rarely implicated in disease of the gut. in contrast, only recently has it been possible to identify viruses in the stools of patients with diarrhoea. initially, such identifications were made by electron microscopy but the unsuitability of the microscope for large-scale screening has led to the development of other methods. the new methods have concentrated on rotaviruses but other viruses are ...1979219041
agents affecting health of mother and child in a rural area of kenya. xi. antibodies against rotavirus in sera from children living in the machakos district of kenya.207 sera from children under 5 years of age and living in the machakos district in kenya were tested in the complement fixation test for antibodies against rotavirus. two different antigens were used. the superiority of 'o' antigen over nebraska calf diarrhoea virus antigen was confirmed. after a fall to 29 percent in the 6-8 months age group, the percentage of children with antibodies quickly rises with age to 80 percent at the age of 24 months and to practically 100 percent at the age of 30 mo ...1978219569
rotavirus infection in commercial laying hens. 1979219583
rotavirus infection of foals. 1979223542
the experimental production of diarrhoea in colostrum deprived axenic and gnotoxenic calves with enteropathogenic escherichia coli, rotavirus, coronavirus and in a combined infection of rotavirus and e. coli.we attempted to produce diarrhoea experimentally in the newborn calf by orally injecting 17 colostrum-deprived calves with two serotypes of escherichia coli ent+ k99+, a rotavirus and a coronavirus. with e. coli alone, a dose of 2 x 10(8) bacteria administered 24 hours after birth causes a mild attack of diarrhoea, whereas 1 x 10(10) bacteria leads to dehydration and death. an inoculation of rotavirus is followed by diarrhoea which always contains large quantities of rotavirus. these animals wer ...1978219751
scanning electron microscopy of abomasium and intestine of gnotoxenic calves infected either with rotavirus, coronarivus or enteropathogenic escherichia coli or with rotavirus and e. coli.neonatal calf diarrhoea induced with several agents of infection was studied by scanning electron microscopy. in a gnotoxenic calf infected with e. coli k99+ ent+, slight lesions of the small intestine were observed and desquamation or puffiness of microvilli occurred. in rotavirus-infected calves, the abomasum was covered with abudant mucous film and appeared to be desquamated. in the small intestine, no desquamation of epithelium was observed. inoculation of the rotavirus and e. coli induced s ...1978219752
presence of two distinct types of rotavirus in infants and young children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in mexico city, 1977.between december 1976 and january 1978, infection with rotavirus was detected by electron microscopy in 61 (25%) of 242 infants and young children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis at two hospitals in mexico city. this type of infection was more frequent in autumn than in winter. the presence of virus could also be detected by the electrophoretic pattern of its segmented, double-standed ribonucleic acid (rna) in the stool samples taken from 52 (85%) of the 61 patients who were shown by ele ...1979220338
role of norwalk virus in outbreaks of nonbacterial gastroenteritis.twenty-five separate outbreaks of nonbacterial gastrointestinal illnesses were studied serologically for evidence of infection with the norwalk virus and the rotaviruses that affect humans. eight of 25 outbreaks appeared to be related to the norwalk virus. in one of the 25 outbreaks, there was evidence of rotavirus infection. these observations suggest that the norwalk virus or serologically related agents play an important role in epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis in adults and older childr ...1979220341
reovirus and rotavirus infections. 1975220624
diarrhea in calves: diagnosis and incidence in the north central states. 1977220632
review of rotavirus infections of man and animals. 1977220639
an out-break of acute gastroenteritis due to rotavirus in an infant home.in december 1976, an outbreak of acute infectious diarrhea occurred among infants who resided in an infant home in the city of sapporo. rotavirus infection was proved in 42 (90%) of 47 infants by serologic and/or electron microscopic examinations. out of 42 infected infants 38(90%) were clinically affected; diarrhea with or without vomiting in 27 (64%), vomiting without diarrhea in 6 (14%) and only febrile episode in 5 (12%). the remaining 4(10%) infants showed no symptoms. clinical manifestatio ...1979220751
a survey for rotavirus antibodies in papua new guinea cattle. 1979220948
polypeptides of simian rotavirus (sa-11) determined by a continuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method.simian rotavirus (sa-11) isolated from infected african green monkey kidney cells was separated into two virus fractions in a cscl density gradient and their proteins analysed on a continuous phosphte buffered polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system. one peak (buoyant density 1.37 g/ml) contained double capsid virus particles which were radioimmunoassay (ria)- and haemagglutinin (ha)- positive and yielded eight polypeptides whose mol. wt. ranged from 48,000 to 128,000. the second peak (buoyant ...1979225429
rotavirus infection in adults. results of a prospective family study.to study the epidemiologic and clinical features of rotavirus infections, we enrolled 98 families in a prospective study of diarrhea in households with newborn children. families were seen at three-month intervals and whenever ill. the mean follow-up period was 16.4 months. rotavirus infections were documented by electron microscopy of feces, indirect fluorescent-antibody assays in serum or both. the 43 infections identified in adults represented an attack rate of 0.17 per adult per year. ninety ...1979221816
comparison of results using electron microscope, immunodiffusion and fluorescent antibody analyses to detect rotavirus in diarrheic fecal samples of calves.seventy-nine diarrheic calf fecal samples were examined by electron microscopy, immunodiffusion and the fluorescent antibody technique for the presence of rotavirus (reovirus-like agent). thirty-eight (48%) of the samples were positive by electron microscopy, 59% by immunodiffusion and 20% positive by fluorescent antibody technique analyses. another 9% were suspect-positive by fluorescent antibody technique. chymotrypsin treatment of the fecal samples increased the ease of observing the viral pa ...1979218708
enhancement of antigen incorporation and infectivity of cell cultures by human rotavirus.infection of cell cultures with human rotavirus preparations was attempted and the effects of trypsin and low-speed centrifugation on antigen incorporation, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay, were determined. in addition, the effect of viral aggregation on antigen incorporation was investigated by filtering viral preparations. four strains of human rotavirus were employed, and the results were compared to those obtained with two tissue culture-adapted animal rotaviruses. ...1979222805
diarrhea and rotavirus infection associated with differing regimens for postnatal care of newborn babies.surveillance of 2,041 babies born during 4 winter months in one obstetric hospital in melbourne, australia, showed that 215 developed acute diarrhea during the first 2 weeks of life. babies requiring special care from birth had a high incidence of sporadic diarrhea (36%). the incidence of diarrhea among healthy full-term babies was low if they were "rooming-in" with their mothers (2 to 3%) but high if they were housed in communal nurseries (29%). the most important factor influencing incidence o ...1979222807
[virusenteritis in childhood (author's transl)].about 20% of infantile enteritis are caused by bacterial infections. the most cases of non bacterial infantile enteritis are supposed to be viral infections. arguments for the existence of enterotropic viruses arised the first time in 1943. since the middle of the fifties, various kinds of enteroviruses are known to be causative agents of infantile gastroenteritis. the same is true occasionally for some types of adenovirus. in 1973 the norwalk-agent was discovered provocing enteritis mainly in a ...1979222939
[rotavirus diarrhea in childhood].electron microscopy of 350 diarrhoeal faeces revealed rotavirus-particles in 145 cases. all patients with rotavirus-infections showed symptoms of acute gastroenteritis lasting 1 to 8 days. additionally to diarrhoea most cases presented fever and vomiting. none of the patients showed toxicosis.1979225599
[viral and bacterial etiology of infantile gastroenteritis cases: clinical characterization]. 1979223230
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