evidence for equimolar synthesis of double-strand rna and minus-strand rna in rotavirus-infected cells.the genome of the rotaviruses consists of eleven segments of double-strand rna (dsrna). each segment is replicated asymmetrically with viral plus-strand rna, i.e. messenger (m)rna, serving as the template for the synthesis of minus-strand rna to produce dsrna. to examine the relative frequency of replication of each of the eleven genome segments, ma104 cells were infected with low (3rd) and high (12th) passage stocks of simian rotavirus sa11. the total cytoplasmic rna of the infected cell was ra ...19901963957
electropherotypes, subgroups and serotypes of human rotavirus strains causing gastroenteritis in infants and young children in palermo, italy, from 1985 to 1989.during 1985-89, an epidemiological survey was conducted in palermo, sicily (southern italy) on group a human rotavirus (hrv) strains which cause gastroenteritis in infants and young children. two hundred and thirty eight hrv strains were characterized for subgroup and serotype using monoclonal-antibody-based elisa systems, and for electropherotype using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. subgroup ii strains were largely predominant, constituting 218/238 of the positive stool samples (91.6%). am ...19901964238
from hela cell division to infectious diarrhoea.hela s3 cells were grown in suspension both randomly and, synchronously using hydroxyurea which blocks cells at the g1/s interface. cryosections were prepared, freeze-dried and analyzed by x-ray microanalysis. as cells moved into s and through m phases [na] and [cl] increased; both returned to normal levels upon re-entering g1 phase. the na/k ratio was 1:1 in g1 phase. infection of hela s3 cells in g1 phase with vaccinia virus resulted in no change in intracellular [na]. infection of neonatal mi ...19901964248
detection of rotavirus antigen from buffalo calves in iraq. 19901964469
[rotavirus etiology of hospital cases of acute gastroenteritis].the etiology of enteric illnesses occurring during hospitalization in children admitted in january-may, 1985, for respiratory tract illnesses was studied by several methods including electron microscopy (em), enzyme immunoassay (eia), and pag electrophoresis. rotaviruses were detected in 22 (44.9%) t of 49 children with symptoms of intestinal infection, in february in 11 (84.6%) out of 13 patients. the analysis of virus genome rna of 7 isolates positive in em and eia revealed in all the isolates ...19901964515
[rapid analysis of viral antigens using the coagglutination reaction in screening of cesium chloride gradients]. 19901964516
[occurrence of rotavirus rna electropherotypes in the pediatric population in slovakia].using the method of electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel (page), the authors assessed electropherotypes of rotavirus rna in extracts of 119 specimens of faeces of sick children and from neonates with asymptomatic rotavirus infection. in both investigated groups they detected electropherotypes of five profiles: of these three had the nature of "long" electropherotypes and were detected in 91.6% of the tested samples. in the group of sick children they recorded circulation of four electropherotyp ...19901964631
evaluation of combined commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of rota and adenoviruses for automation.219 stools were examined by direct electron microscopy (em), culture and 'combined' commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits (celisa). the specificity of the combined elisa for rotavirus was 100% as compared with em, and 100% for adenovirus when both culture in addition to em were carried out. elisa appeared to be more sensitive than em for both viruses. there was no cross-reaction between the 2 'combined' antisera. this technique may be useful for automation of viral diagnosis with eli ...19901964946
[usefulness of immunoenzyme diagnostic kits and latex tests for isolation of rotaviruses].the aim of this study was to compare characteristic parameters of 4 diagnostic kits available in poland-immunoenzymatic rotazyme ii and enzygnost kits and latex kits rotalex and slidex. studies were performed on 67 samples of feces of children treated because of diarrhea. the sensitivity, specificity, frequency of positive tests, false positives and false negatives and the accuracy of the tests under evaluation were determined. the results obtained were further verified using a reference test el ...19901964992
[the clinical pictures of rotavirus infection in childhood. studies on the admissions to the clinica pediatrica di catania in 1984-1988].the authors carried out a rotavirus investigation on the stools of 6057 children admitted in the department of pediatric and pediatric gastroenterology of catania university, during the years 1984-1988. the stool samples of 264 children were found positive for rotavirus. while 204 children presented gastrointestinal symptoms with diarrhoea, 12 had subclinical signs, 26 presented only respiratory symptoms and 22 had no clinical symptomatology. moreover 122 children with diarrhoea had associated r ...19901965027
[rotavirus diarrhea in children hospitalized in wrocław clinics].studies have been performed in 250 children aged 0 to 3 years suffering from diarrhoea. rotaviruses have been founded in 25% of cases, most frequently in children aged 0 to 3 months (29.6%), and 6 to 12 months (21.8%). frequency of rotavirus infections was highest during february. in 26% of subjects studied the coexisting infection with enteropathogenic escherichia coli strains or salmonella and campylobacter jejuni has been observed. the rotazyme ii test is more sensitive than the rotalex and r ...19901965233
[clinical and epidemiologic aspects of acute diarrhea caused by rotavirus in children. cuba, 1982-1984].a total of 256 infants younger than three years, hospitalized by acute diarrhea, was studied from december 1983 to may 1984. presence of rotavirus in their feces was demonstrated in 27.7%; in 4.3% of them, rotaviruses were associated with other agents. vomiting followed by respiratory symptoms and fever were the main clinical symptoms observed in such patients, and in most of them diarrhea was profuse and liquid. influence on infection by rotavirus of maternal feeding, hygienic-sanitary conditio ...19901965235
[use of the polymerase chain reaction for analysis of rotaviruses. nucleotide sequence of a gene, coding for the basic neutralizing antigen vr7 of a human rotavirus with a new g-serotype].a procedure based on polymerase chain reaction use for the detection of rotavirus has been developed. full length cdna copy of the vp7 gene coding for the major neutralization glycoprotein of the human rotavirus rk9 with an unusual "wide" electrophoretype is cloned and sequenced. glycoprotein vp7 of rk9 has a unique amino acid composition in a and c antigenic regions. it shows that strain rk9 represents a new (12) rotavirus serotype.19901965285
[electropherotypes of rotavirus in children with and without gastroenteritis].it was defined the electropherotypes of rotavirus identified in stools of a groups (named "case") of 500 children with diarrhea, ranging in age from 0 to 12 months. a group (named "control") of 500 children of the same age group, without diarrhea or respiratory infections, were evaluated. human rotavirus was detected in 14.8% of the children with diarrhea. of the positive samples 5 had the "short" and 11 the "long" electropherotype. in the control group rotavirus was detected in 0.8% of children ...19901965558
comparison of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, an enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay, and an agglutination test for the direct identification of bovine rotavirus from feces and coelectrophoresis of viral rnas.the dsrna concentrated polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (cpage) detected rotavirus directly from 19% of 77 stool specimens from diarrheic calves. a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) detected 25%, latex agglutination test, 23%, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page), 19%. establishing cpage as the "standard," the commercial elisa and the latex agglutination test both had higher sensitivity (84%) than page (79%). however, page produced the highest specificity (100%), fo ...19901965584
comparison of three bovine group a rotaviruses possessing supershot genome electropherotypes. 19901965588
relative prevalence of typical and atypical strains among rotaviruses from diarrheic pigs in conventional swine herds.polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was conducted on genomic rna extracted from rotaviruses detected in diarrheic pigs from conventional swine herds. ninety samples contained sufficient virus for rna band visualization and genome classification. genome profiles were characteristic of typical group a rotaviruses in 67.8% of the 90 samples, of group b rotaviruses in 10.0%, and of group c rotaviruses in 11.1%. in 11.1% of the samples, the presence of more than 11 bands suggested concurrent infection ...19901965637
[rotavirus vaccines]. 19901965938
the current status of diarrhoea related vaccines.since diarrhea is responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in india as well as in developing and developed countries, public health specialists strive to develop vaccines against various pathogens which cause diarrhea. rotavirus (rv) causes 20-40% of severe diarrhea among 6-24 month olds. so they hope for a single dose vaccine against all 4 rv serotypes which can be administered to newborns, but such a vaccine does not yet exist. the bovine and rhesus vaccines are the only heterol ...19901966245
expression of rotavirus vp7 antigens in fusions with bacterial proteins.we have cloned antigenic regions of the vp7 gene from rotavirus rv-5 into the lamb gene. the insertions discussed in this paper comprise 250bp of rotavirus dna and cover the a and b antigenic regions of the protein. the fusion proteins are expressed and are present in the outer membrane: they react with anti-rotavirus antibody. however, as yet we have not been able to demonstrate that the fusion has lamb protein functions with regard to maltodextrins or l phage, and the fusion protein appears to ...19901966251
synthesis of the surface glycoprotein of rotavirus sa11 in the aroa strain of salmonella typhimurium sl3261. 19901966256
[electrophoretic types of rotavirus rna during a 4-yr study of gastroenteritis in tucumán].between may 1986 and november 1989 a total of 796 faecal samples obtained from children with symptoms of acute diarrhea were analyzed. rotavirus (rv) was detected in 166 cases by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral rna (page) (fig. 1). this technique allowed us to identify 19 different electropherotypes (ept) eleven with a long pattern and 8 with a short one (fig. 2). two ept's were dominant during this study; one detected in 1986 only and the other one in 1987, 1988 and 1989. during ...19901966305
development of hybridization probes on the basis of recombinant dna to identify porcine parvoviruses and rotaviruses.porcine parvovirus (ppv) and porcine rotavirus (prv) infections can be diagnosed, and the diagnosis greatly contributes to their control. for the diagnosis of ppv and prv of pigs recombinant dna were obtained which could be used as hybridization probes. homology between ppv-rna and cloned cdna was confirmed, and the ability of plasmid probes to detect prv was demonstrated. hybridization with preparations of both ppv-infected cells and purified ppv gave positive reproducible results. the results ...19901966361
[seroepidemiology of human rotaviruses in a community of the avellaneda district, province of buenos aires].the results obtained during a prospective study performed in 49 families of the avellaneda district, buenos aires province, in order to known the seroepidemiology of human rotaviruses under natural conditions were described. families which included a pregnant woman, were voluntarily recruited. the newborn was studied together with its family until two years of age, in order to assess the moment of the primary rotavirus infection. feces from every person with gastrointestinal symptoms were obtain ...19901966501
cell culture propagation of calf rotavirus and detection of rotavirus specific antibody in colostrum and milk of cows and buffaloes.a bovine rotavirus was adapted to serial propagation in madin darby bovine kidney (mdbk) cells. virus of cell culture origin when examined by electron microscopy exhibited characteristic rotavirus morphology and had a typical rna electropherotype on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. mean igg concentration in the first colostral whey was 62.80 +/- 6.56 mg/ml in cows and 104.40 +/- 31.12 mg/ml and 2.52 +/- 0.28 mg/ml respectively. the geometric mean neutralising antibody titre against bovine rot ...19901966750
[isolation of rotavirus from the feces of subjects (children and adults) from various hospitals in rome].enteric infections in childhood are estimated to be a primary cause of illness and death in the third world and rotaviruses play a very important role in acute nonbacterial diarrheal enterocolitis. the authors analyse the latest results of the direct investigation of the virus in the feces by elisa method. the improvements in diagnostic techniques and the new knowledges about rotaviruses and their pathogenic power acquired during the last decade have made it easier to know the consequences of ro ...19901966819
puzzling diversity of rotaviruses. 19901968577
immunisation practice in developed countries.immunization practice in 32 countries in europe, north america, japan, and australia is reviewed. in most countries, immunization practices are set by the federal government which sometimes works with the private sector. almost all countries routinely immunize against diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, polio, and measles. about half try to prevent rubella, several try to prevent mumps, usually in combination with measles and rubella (mmr). more than half use bacillus calmette-guerin (bgg) ...19901969069
modern vaccines. enteric infections. 19901970034
molecular genetics of the rotaviruses. 19901973014
recovery from chronic rotavirus infection in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency: virus clearance mediated by adoptive transfer of immune cd8+ t lymphocytes.severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice lack both functional t and b cells. these mice develop chronic rotavirus infection following an oral inoculation with the epizootic diarrhea of infant mice (edim) rotavirus. reconstitution of rotavirus-infected scid mice with t lymphocytes from immunocompetent mice allows an evaluation of a role of t-cell-mediated immunity in clearing chronic rotavirus infection. complete rotavirus clearance was demonstrated in c.b-17/scid mice 7 to 9 days after the tr ...19901974652
comparison of reactogenicity and antigenicity of m37 rotavirus vaccine and rhesus-rotavirus-based quadrivalent vaccine.90 venezuelan infants aged 10-20 weeks were randomly allocated to four groups which received one of the following: the m37 vaccine (1 x 10(4) pfu [plaque-forming units]); quadrivalent rotavirus vaccine (1 x 10(4) pfu each of serotype 3 rhesus rotavirus [rrv] and human rotavirus-rrv reassortants of serotypes 1, 2, and 4); balanced quadrivalent vaccine consisting of 1 x 10(4) pfu of serotype 1 and 3 components but 5 x 10(4) pfu of serotype 2 and 4 components; or placebo. the frequencies of transie ...19901975333
rotavirus infection and persistent diarrhoea in young children. 19901978133
rotavirus-specific cytotoxic t lymphocytes passively protect against gastroenteritis in suckling mice.suckling mice are protected against murine rotavirus-induced gastroenteritis after adoptive transfer of splenic lymphocytes from immunized animals. adoptive transfer of thy1(+)-depleted or cd8(+)-depleted lymphocytes abrogated protection against challenge. (we previously found that depletion of thy1+ or cd8+ lymphocytes from rotavirus-immunized mice decreased rotavirus-specific cytotoxic activity in vitro.) protection against disease occurred in the absence of rotavirus-specific neutralizing ant ...19901978734
a simple and effective method of preparing rotavirus antigen in preparative quantities. 19901981461
breath hydrogen test for assessment of lactose malabsorption following rotavirus gastroenteritis.ninety infants and young children with acute gastroenteritis were investigated for lactose malabsorption. each of them was given an oral lactose load of 2g per kg of body weight after which breath hydrogen excretion was measured, and each was observed for clinical symptoms of lactose intolerance. only 2 patients, given 2g per kg of lactose, had clinical lactose intolerance. forty-nine of the 90 patients studied were found to have the rotavirus antigen in their stools. forty-five of them were fou ...19901982676
electron microscopy, immune electron microscopy, enzyme immunoassay and immunofluorescent evaluation of rotaviruses isolated from individual calves and piglets.rotaviruses were isolated in primary bovine foetal kidney cells from 3 of 13 (23.1%) tested suckling calves and from 3 of 14 (21.4%) suckling piglets both suffering of acute diarrhoea, as confirmed by serological tests. the presence of rotaviral antigen in culture supernatant was revealed by double sandwich enzyme immunoassay (eia) and direct immunofluorescence (if). transmission electron microscopy (tem) and immune electron microscopy (iem) showed particles with an average diameter of 70 nm. th ...19901983178
bismuth subsalicylate in the treatment of acute diarrhea in children: a clinical study.bismuth subsalicylate (bss) and placebo were evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study as adjunct to rehydration therapy in 123 children, aged 4 to 28 months, hospitalized with acute diarrhea. the dosing regimen was 20 mg/kg five times daily for 5 days. significant benefits were noted in the bss group compared with placebo as manifested by decreases in stool frequency and stool weights and an improvement in stool consistency, significant improvement in clinical well-being, and shorte ...19911984613
from the centers for disease control. rotavirus surveillance--united states, 1989-1990. 19911992202
etiology of childhood diarrhea in beijing, determine the role of recently recognized enteropathogens in childhood diarrhea in china, 221 children with diarrhea and 108 controls seen at the beijing children's hospital were studied during april and may 1989. stools were examined for ova, parasites, and rotavirus, cultured for bacterial pathogens, and probed for enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec), enteroinvasive e. coli (eiec), enterohemorrhagic e. coli (ehec), and enteropathogenic adherence factor-positive (eaf+) e. coli. pathogens ...19911993771
a field study of the safety and efficacy of two candidate rotavirus vaccines in a native american population.a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a rhesus rotavirus vaccine and rit 4237, a bovine rotavirus vaccine, in a navajo population. infants aged 2-5 months were randomized to receive one dose of either 10(4) pfu of the rhesus rotavirus vaccine or 10(8) pfu of the rit 4237 vaccine or placebo. eleven (10.2%) of 108 infants in the rhesus vaccine group, 11 (10.4%) of 106 in the rit 4237 group, and 9 (8.4%) of 107 in the placebo group ...19911995721
measles-associated diarrhea in hospitalized children in lima, peru: pathogenic agents and impact on growth.because the causes of measles-associated diarrhea are not well known, 0- to 5-year-old children presenting to the hospital with measles-associated diarrhea (cases, n = 77) or acute diarrhea only (controls, n = 77) were compared. growth and diarrheal morbidity were evaluated for 1 month after acute illness. campylobacter jejuni was more frequently isolated from cases (31%) than controls (16%; p = .03). rotavirus was absent in all cases versus 28% of controls (p less than .001). incidence density ...19911995722
economic barriers to the use of oral rehydration therapy. a case report.diarrheal dehydration is a highly prevalent condition among young children and is readily prevented and treated with oral rehydration therapy. we report a death due to hypernatremic dehydration caused by rotavirus diarrhea of a 9-month-old infant whose mother attempted to purchase oral glucose-electrolyte solution in a pharmacy but was unable to afford it. while efforts such as the national ort project should help to promote the proper at-home treatment of this condition, we conclude that oral r ...19912002575
the effect of diaper type and overclothing on fecal contamination in day-care centers.fecal coliform contamination of environmental surfaces and hands in the day-care center is common. this study evaluated the effect of two diaper types on fecal contamination. ten rooms in four day-care centers containing 141 children were studied in a prospective, randomized, crossover study. a total of 2946 samples were cultured during the 9-week study. fecal coliforms were isolated from 307 inanimate objects (15%), 73 toy balls (46%), and 131 hands (17%). the number of contaminated inanimate o ...19912005734
etiology and mechanisms of acute infectious diarrhea in infants in the united states.infectious diarrhea, caused by a wide variety of viral, bacterial and parasitic pathogens, is a common reason for morbidity and hospitalization for children in the united states. overall, rotavirus is the most common cause of acute diarrheal disease in infants. salmonella, shigella, and campylobacter are the most frequently isolated bacterial pathogens, and giardia and cryptosporidium are the parasites that most commonly produce acute infectious diarrhea. the mechanisms by which these enteropath ...19912007955
enteric vaccines.considerable progress has been made in the past decade in developing vaccines against the most important bacterial and viral infections of the gastrointestinal tract. members of the division of geographic medicine in the center for vaccine development have played a prominent role in the laboratory development and clinical testing of these vaccines. a new oral typhoid vaccine, ty21a, has been licensed in the united states. a genetically engineered live oral cholera vaccine developed in the cvd is ...19912008164
skeletal lesions associated with a naturally occurring poult poults were placed on contaminated litter on which poults previously had developed an enteric disease characterized by diarrhea, increased mortality, and stunting. these exposed birds were examined for clinical signs and pathologic changes in bone and parathyroid glands compared with controls. intestinal and fecal samples were examined for potential pathogens. exposed poults varied in size as early as day 8 and had significantly decreased weight gains and reduced shank lengths on day ...19912029249
cdna probes for the diagnosis of bovine torovirus (breda virus) infection.a genomic cdna library of rna from breda virus (brv), a bovine torovirus, was prepared. the nucleotide sequence of the 3' end of the genome was found to be highly conserved (93% identical) between brv and berne virus, the torovirus prototype. cross-hybridization experiments were performed to select berne virus cdna clones for use as probes in a dot hybridization assay; the objective was to detect heterologous torovirus rna in fecal material. a rapid rna extraction method was employed to make the ...19912037666
pancreatitis with hypoglycemia-associated convulsions following rotavirus gastroenteritis.a case of acute pancreatitis and hypoglycemia-associated convulsions following rotavirus gastroenteritis, occurring in a previously healthy 2-year, 8-month-old girl, is reported. rotavirus infection was demonstrated both by detection of virus particles in stools by electron microscopy and rotazyme abbott, and by detection of specific serum igm and igg antibodies. pancreatitis was revealed by raised serum amylase and lipase levels and by ultrasonographic findings. moreover, transient islet cell a ...19912051281
rotavirus-induced changes in the microcirculation of intestinal villi of neonatal mice in relation to the induction and persistence of diarrhea.using a histochemical peroxidase technique, under conditions that preferentially stain erythrocytes, we have shown changes in the microcirculation of villi of neonatal mice infected with murine rotavirus. between 18 and 48 h postinfection (pi), throughout all areas of the small intestine there occurred, sequentially, a marked ischemia and atrophy of villi. by 72 h pi, villi had recovered their normal height and showed incipient hyperemic microcirculation. at 96 h pi, hyperemic microcirculation w ...19912061766
diarrhea in children newly enrolled in day-care centers in houston.diarrhea is a common illness among children in day-care centers (dcc). we hypothesized that the incidence of diarrhea was greater among children in their first 1 or 2 months after enrollment in a dcc than in any subsequent period in day care. we followed 442 children younger than 2 years of age enrolled in 13 randomly selected dccs for the occurrence of diarrhea during a 14 1/2-month period. parents completed standardized baseline questionnaires and research nurses visited the dcc twice weekly t ...19912062623
rotavirus gastroenteritis in children: a clinical study of 125 patients in hsin-tien area.during a 2-year period from january 1988 to december 1989, 125 patients (68 boys, 57 girls), aged 30 days to 9 years, were diagnosed as rotavirus gastroenteritis at this hospital. diagnosis was made by identification of the rotavirus antigen in stool samples by latex agglutination assay. ninety-nine (79.2%) of them were under 2 years of age. the seasonal peak in incidence was from january to march. the most common clinical characteristics were watery diarrhea (100%), followed by vomiting (68.8%) ...19912063688
[a report of surveillance on acute diarrhoeal diseases in wuwei prefecture from 1987 to 1988].surveillance on acute diarrhoeal diseases in jinta county, wuwei city for two successive years from january 1987 to december 1988 showed that the annual average incidence of diarrhoeal diseases was 0.079-0.124. the total detection rate of the etiologic agent was 58.95%. bacterial infection was predominant. ten species of pathogenic bacteria were detected, of which shigella remained the prevalent bacteria among which flexneri appeared as the predominant species after a decline for several years s ...19912065350
mutagenesis of the putative fusion domain of the semliki forest virus spike protein.semliki forest virus (sfv), an alphavirus, infects cells via a low ph-triggered membrane fusion reaction that takes place within the cellular endocytic pathway. fusion is mediated by the heterotrimeric virus spike protein, which undergoes conformational changes upon exposure to low ph. the sfv e1 spike subunit contains a hydrophobic domain of 23 amino acids that is highly conserved among alphaviruses. this region is also homologous to a domain of the rotavirus outer capsid protein vp4. mutagenes ...19912072453
[infantile diarrheal diseases in madagascar: bacterial, parasitologic and viral study].from november 1988 to october 1989, an etiological study showed off the prevalence and the part of several enteropathogen agents which are not yet studied in madagascar. 1,523 stool's samples from 884 children with diarrhea and 639 children without diarrhea from 0 to 14 years old have been investigated. a bacterial, parasitical or viral etiology was found from 36.3% of diarrheic children and 11.2% of healthy children. the three agents the most frequently identified from children with diarrhea ar ...19902078082
immunoglobulins and other modalities for the prevention and treatment of enteric viral infections.viral infections of the gastrointestinal tract constitute a major health problem during the first years of life. in addition to causing acute diarrhea, rotaviruses and other enteric viruses may be involved in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis and other neonatal enteric diseases. there are several potential methods for the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal viral infections. antiviral immune globulins, administered by the parenteral or oral route, might prove useful for the ...19902081794
persistent diarrhoea following gastroenteritis.the persistent diarrhoea of greater than 14 days' duration in 17 infants, comprising 1% of 1672 patients who were admitted to a south african hospital during january 1985-july 1987 for a study on acute gastroenteritis, is described. the age of the patients was between 20 days and 31 months (7.4 +/- 7.8 months), 11 of whom were of less than 6 months and the majority (13) were boys. fifteen had the nutritional status below the 3rd weight-for-age centile. on admission, gastroenteritis was graded as ...19902081879
diarrhoea surveillance in children aged under 5 years in a rural area of hebei province, china.a surveillance of diarrhoeal diseases in children aged under five years was carried out from march 1986 to february 1987 in a rural area of hebei province, china. using a cluster sampling method, 270 study children were selected from 30 villages to represent a population of 105,405. parents noted episodes of diarrhoea in children on a calender using a given definition of diarrhoea. the findings were verified by trained village doctors and were recorded monthly in the county health and anti-epide ...19902081881
epidemiology and transmission of rotavirus infections and diarrhoea in st. lucia, west determine the epidemiology and risk factors of rotavirus infections in st. lucia, 229 children in three valleys with varying levels of sanitation were studied for 2 years. a four-fold rise in complement fixation antibody to rotavirus antigen was used in paired samples as evidence of recent infection. results showed that forty-eight per cent of infants experienced at least one infection during a two-year period, and 17% of children were reinfected. infections occurred within the first months o ...19902082564
[transient idiopathic hyperphosphatasemia in a rotavirus infection].the paper reports two cases of transitory hyperphosphatasemia in two siblings of 13 and 29 months without modifications of the liver, kidney or bones. laboratory data are given for hepatic and renal function and for the calcium/phosphorus metabolism. the paper underlines the observation of rotavirus and the consequent clinical symptoms in the two subjects. the hypothesised etiopathogenesis of transitory idiopathic hyperphosphatasemia is referred to a viral mechanism, and to rotavirus in particul ...19902087231
the incidence of rotavirus infection in children from two selected study areas in zimbabwe.five hundred and twenty faecal samples or rectal swabs, collected over one year from children mainly under 24 months, were tested for the presence of human rotavirus (hrv) in enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (elisa). fifty-three (23.6 pc) of 225 diarrhoea samples and 25 (8.5 pc) of 295 control samples were hrv positive. the association between diarrhoea and detection of hrv in stools was statistically significant with an overall odds ratio of diarrhoea patients of 3.32 (0.001 greater than p). ...19902092874
the detection of rotavirus antigen in faeces of asymptomatic children from two different communities in zimbabwe.a study of the existence in zimbabwe of rotavirus asymptomatic infection was conducted. rectal swabs were collected from children aged between one month and two years, who were attending health clinics at chiweshe hospital (rural area) and rujeko (a harare high density suburb) in zimbabwe. these infants were tested for the presence of rotavirus antigen, using the elisa test. out of 292 specimens collected during a period of one year, 6.9 pc were found positive for rotavirus antigen although none ...19902092890
serological and genetic characterization of bovine rotaviruses in thailand by elisa and rna-rna hybridization: detection of numerous non-serotype 6 strains.a total of 62 fecal specimens positive for rotavirus were collected from diarrheic cows in thailand in 1988 and 1989. the antigenic properties of rotaviruses in stool were examined by enzyme-liked immunosorbent assays using specific monoclonal antibodies directed at vp4, vp6 or vp7: all the bovine rotavirus strains were determined as subgroup i; none of the strains were reactive with serotype 6-specific monoclonal antibody; and different reactivities of the bovine strains with two anti-vp4 monoc ...19902098924
etiological agents of diarrhoea.two decades of research have established newer pathogens and techniques in establishing several organisms of diarrhoeal diseases as aetiological agents. it is now possible to detect an agent in 80% of the situation of diarrhoea in a standard laboratory. the brief review describes the list of pathogens, their diagnostic techniques with short description on clinical and epidemiological status.19902101388
report of an outbreak of diarrhoeal disease caused by cholera followed by rotavirus in outbreak of acute diarrhoeal disease between august and october 1985 in 3 districts of manipur state was investigated amongst 9,29,077 population at risk. the overall attack rate and case fatality rate were 0.2% and 0.9% respectively. hospital records revealed that 58.8% of cases occurred amongst older children above 5 years of age. v.cholera was isolated from 25.3% of cases sampled. interestingly, increased frequency in weekly admission of cases amongst children during first two years of lif ...19902101390
microbiology of diarrhoea in young beef and dairy calves in argentina.rotavirus, cryptosporidium sp, and salmonella spp. were investigated in the faeces of 452 diarrhoeic calves from 36 beef and 33 dairy herds. animals surveyed were from a few days of age up to approximately 1 month of life. enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) was studied in 212 calves, aged 15 days or less. the animals were from the provinces of buenos aires (59% of the calves), córdoba (18%), santa fe (16%), entre ríos (5%) and la pampa (2%). a minimum of 4 calves were sampled on each farm. ...19902102011
causative agents of acute diarrhoea in the first 3 years of life: hospital-based study.during the 2 years of the study, 402 patients and an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls were investigated for the presence of diarrhoeal pathogens. pathogenic organisms were recovered from 277 (68.9%) patients and 97 (24.1%) controls. in the patient group, possible bacterial pathogens were found in 210 (52.2%) cases. enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec) was the most frequently found potential pathogen, being recovered in 132 cases (32.8%) with serotypes 026, 086, 0111 and 0124 bei ...19902103408
structural and functional characterization of a cell surface binding protein of vaccinia virus.the nature of the interaction between the enveloped dna-containing poxviruses and the surfaces of host cells as a first step in virus infection is not known. in this investigation we have identified and defined structural and functional properties of a 32-kda protein of vaccinia virus. this protein is part of the virus envelope and binds to the cell surface of various cultured cells. the gene encoding the 32-kda viral protein was mapped and sequenced. it was found to code a 35,426-da protein wit ...19902104847
diagnosis of astrovirus gastroenteritis by antigen detection with monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), based on monoclonal antibodies to the astrovirus group antigen, was designed for the detection of astroviruses in stools of patients with gastroenteritis. compared to immune electron microscopy used as the standard test, the sensitivity of the astrovirus elisa was 91% (31/34) and the specificity was 96% (54/56). all five of the known astrovirus serotypes could be detected in 16 samples on which serotyping was done. in tests on 155 stools containing o ...19902105359
travelers' diarrhea among u.s. navy and marine corps personnel during a western pacific deployment.the incidence and etiology of travelers' diarrhea was studied in a crew of 1,914 sailors and marines aboard a u.s. navy ship during a western pacific deployment. questionnaires completed by 301 troops indicated that 52% had at least one episode of diarrhea during the deployment; however, only 5% of the ship's company sought treatment. enterotoxigenic escherichia coli was the most commonly identified pathogen (23%), followed by giardia lamblia (6%), salmonella (3%), rotavirus (2%), and shigella, ...19902107464
listeria isolations from feces of patients with diarrhea and from healthy food handlers.a study was undertaken on the presence and frequency of listeria sp. in feces from 1,000 patients suffering from diarrheal diseases and from 2,000 healthy persons. furthermore, the feces of patients were examined for other well-documented enteropathogens such as campylobacter, salmonella, shigella, staphylococcus aureus, yersinia enterocolitica, protozoa and rotavirus as well as for organisms of questionable enteropathogenic potency such as fungi, i.e. candida. finally, in continuation of previo ...19902110118
serological survey of the iriomote cat (felis iriomotensis) in japan.the iriomote cat (felis iriomotensis) was first discovered on iriomote island in the yaeyama islands of japan in 1965. ten male and 11 female adult cats were captured during the 6 yr period from 1983 to 1988. these were examined for evidence of viral and mycoplasmal infections. neither mycoplasma sp. nor ureaplasma sp. were detected in swab samples of oropharyngeal and urogenital regions. a foamy virus was isolated from the oropharyngeal swab of a female cat examined in 1988. feline leukemia vir ...19902110982
targeted immunoglobulin therapy for the prevention of neonatal infections.premature infants demonstrate hypoglobulinemia and are at increased risk for serious infections. although a cause-and-effect relation between low serum igg levels and neonatal infections has not been established, prophylaxis of such severe infections may be possible by replacement of antibody with intravenous immunoglobulin (ivig). for success, ivig must provide specific antibodies to neonatal pathogens and reach therapeutic serum igg target levels. pilot investigations have demonstrated that iv ...19902114035
group a rotavirus infection in animals from an animal house and in wild-caught monkeys.randomly selected samples from different animal colonies from two laboratory animal houses and from the wild-caught monkeys were tested for the presence of anti-rotavirus antibodies to estimate the rates of infection with group a rotavirus. antibodies to the common group a rotaviral antigen were detected by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using reagents of who elisa rotavirus detection kit. the results of the study showed that white mice, albino rats, and guinea pigs from ...19902122998
disaccharidase activities in small intestine of rotavirus-infected suckling mice: a histochemical study.a histochemical study of the time course of the appearance and location of lactase and alpha-glucosidase (used to detect sucrase and maltase) activities was carried out on control and rotavirus-infected mice from 7 to 14 days old. the overall pattern of enzyme activity was in agreement with previous quantitative studies on the activities of these enzymes. no evidence was obtained to support the idea that lactase deficiency was the result of repopulation of villi (denuded of lactase-producing vil ...19902123244
effects of propolis flavonoids on virus infectivity and replication.the effect of five propolis flavonoids on the infectivity and replication of some herpesvirus, adenovirus, coronavirus and rotavirus strains has been studied. experiments were performed in vitro in cell cultures using the viral plaque reduction technique. the cytotoxicity of flavonoids, including chrysine, kaempferol, acacetin, galangin and quercetin, was evaluated on uninfected monolayers to determine their effect on cell growth and viability. chrysine and kaempferol caused a concentration-depe ...19902125682
[etiological research on acute gastroenteritis in the city of cádiz].we researched the microbial etiology of 5,836 diarrheal processes in outpatients and inpatients at the social security hospital in cádiz, for the purpose of evaluating their microbiological and epidemiological characteristics. bacterial gastroenteritis accounted for 51.6% of the cases, while 31.7% were viral and 16.6% were protozoal in origin. salmonella enterica (35.6%) is the most frequently involved microorganism, especially in the summer, followed very closely by rotavirus (31.7%). the incid ...19902129735
fluid therapy with specific mucopolysaccharides. a new approach to control evaluation is given of the shortcomings of existing oral fluid therapies and their consequences: lack of protection of the intestinal wall and the supply of unabsorbed carbohydrates to the large intestine. the inclusion of specific mucopolysaccharides having a polyxylose backbone and galactose end residues in the side chains seems to offer effective protection of the intestinal wall. a trial conducted in experimentally infected calves (e. coli) shows that this concept of oral fluid therapy li ...19902138047
[clinical and epidemiologic findings from a study of rotavirus infections in hospitalized children].the authors examined in 1986-1988 the aetiology of acute diarrhoea in 323 children hospitalized at the infectious diseases clinic in plzen. an infectious aetiology was proved in 47.7% of the children, the most frequently detected aetiological agent were rotaviruses which caused 28% of the recorded diseases. their prevalence culminated in december--may; as to age, children between 7 and 24 months predominated. in 41.1% of the subjects with rotavirus infection respiratory symptoms were present all ...19902144474
a small round virus associated with enteritis in turkey a natural outbreak of enteric disease in turkey poults, salmonella, group d rotavirus, astrovirus, and a small (18-24 nm) round virus were detected in the gut contents. except for the small virus, the pathogenic potential of the other agents is recognized. in experiments, the small round virus was shown to be transmissible and pathogenic in specific-pathogen-free turkey poults.19902146946
identification of bluetongue virus vp6 protein as a nucleic acid-binding protein and the localization of vp6 in virus-infected vertebrate cells.recently the insect baculovirus autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (acnpv) has been effectively adapted as a highly efficient vector in insect cells for the expression of various genes. a cdna sequence of rna segment 9 of bluetongue virus serotype 10 (btv-10, an orbivirus member of the reoviridae family) encoding a minor core protein (vp6) has been inserted into the bamhi site of the pacym1 transfer vector derived from acnpv. spodoptera frugiperda cells were cotransfected with the ...19902152806
sequence analysis of gene 11 equivalents from "short" and "super short" strains of rotavirus.the molecular basis for the aberrant migration pattern of the gene 11 equivalent in rotaviruses with "short" (human ds-1) and "super short" (human 69m and bovine vmri) electropherotypes was investigated. the mrnas of these viruses were synthesized in vitro, and the entire gene 11 equivalent of each of these viruses was sequenced with specific synthetic oligonucleotide primers. these sequences were compared with previously published sequences of "long" pattern rotavirus gene 11 segments. the incr ...19902152809
ns35 and not vp7 is the soluble rotavirus protein which binds to target cells.recent studies using radiolabeled rotavirus lysates have demonstrated a 35-kilodalton viral protein that binds specifically to the surface of ma104 cells (n. fukuhara, o. yoshie, s. kitakoa, and t. konno, j. virol. 62:2209-2218, 1988; m. sabara, j. gilchrist, g.r. hudson, and l.a. babiuk, j. virol. 53:58-66, 1985). the binding protein was identified as vp7, an outer capsid glycoprotein and the product of rotavirus gene 9. these studies concluded that vp7 mediated viral attachment to ma104 cells ...19902152820
extramucosal spread and development of hepatitis in immunodeficient and normal mice infected with rhesus rotavirus.the pathogenic profiles of two heterologous animal rotaviruses, rhesus rotavirus strain mmu 18006 and bovine rotavirus strain wc3, were evaluated in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (scid mice) and normal balb/c mice. control animals were inoculated with homologous murine strain edim 5099 or a tissue culture-adapted murine rotavirus. heterologous infection with rhesus rotavirus resulted in hepatitis in 84% of scid and 21% of balb/c mice, with mortality rates of 27 and 0%, respectively. ...19902152822
similarity of the outer capsid protein vp4 of the gottfried strain of porcine rotavirus to that of asymptomatic human rotavirus strains.genomic segment 4 of the porcine gottfried strain (serotype 4) of porcine rotavirus, which encodes the outer capsid protein vp4, was sequences, and its deduced amino acid sequence was analyzed. amino acid homology of the porcine rotavirus vp4 to the corresponding protein of asymptomatic or symptomatic human rotaviruses representing serotypes 1 to 4 ranged from 87.1 to 88.1% for asymptomatic strains and from 77.5 to 77.8% for symptomatic strains. amino acid homology of the gottfried strain to sim ...19902152826
sa11 rotavirus is specifically inhibited by an acetylated sialic acid.bovine salivary mucin (bsm) inhibits rotavirus replication in vitro and in vivo. the inhibitory effect of bsm in vitro is abolished by arthrobacter ureafaciens neuraminidase but not by clostridia perfringens neuraminidase; it is abolished by mild base deacetylation but not by influenza c acetylesterase. the data suggest that sa11 rotavirus binds to a specific sialic acid structure on bsm different from the sialic acids recognized by other viruses.19902153181
the immune response in primary asymptomatic and symptomatic rotavirus infection in newborn infants.systemic and mucosal immune responses were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 18 infants (7-86 days old) experiencing primary rotavirus infections over two winters. fifteen infected infants were asymptomatic; 3 had diarrhea. neutralization antibody (na) was assayed in two asymptomatic infants who had a serotype 1 isolate identified. seven asymptomatic infants had sera available for analysis; none had igg, 1 had igm, but 4 had iga antibody responses. neither tested infant ha ...19902153740
protective levels of intestinal rotavirus antibodies. 19902153741
localization of vp4 neutralization sites in rotavirus by three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy.three-dimensional structures of several spherical viruses have been determined by electron microscopy and x-ray crystallography. we report here the first three-dimensional structure of the complex between an intact virus and fab fragments of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody. the antibody is against vp4, one of the two outer capsid proteins of rotaviruses. these large icosahedral viruses cause gastroenteritis in children and young animals and account for over a million human deaths annually. vp ...19902153941
dna amplification-restricted transcription-translation: rapid analysis of rhesus rotavirus neutralization sites.dna amplification-restricted transcription-translation (dartt), is based on dna amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and uses pcr to truncate protein-encoding dna while adding transcriptional and translational initiation signals to the segment. the amplified dna segments are transcribed into rna and translated into protein in vitro and the synthesized proteins are used to define functional sites. dartt was applied to rhesus rotavirus gene segment 4 cdna in order to create a serie ...19902153955
rotavirus genome segment 4 determines viral replication phenotype in cultured liver cells (hepg2).one-step growth determinations were performed with five strains of rotavirus in hepg2, a cell line derived from human liver. three virus strains (sa11-c13, sa11-c14, and rrv) replicated in hepg2 cells and attained yields 10- to 100-fold above input titers. two virus strains (b223 and sa11-4f) failed to replicate above input titer. analysis of reassortants that segregated the genes of parental virus pairs able and unable to replicate revealed that the hepg2 cell growth phenotype segregated with g ...19902154590
comparison of four methods for detection of rotavirus in faeces.faecal samples from 325 children with gastroenteritis and 23 children without gastroenteritis were examined for the presence of human rotavirus (hrv) using four different methods. using the who-elisa, hrv was found in the stools of 98 (30%) symptomatic and 2 (9%) asymptomatic children. a latex particle agglutination test had the highest sensitivity (92%) but the lowest specificity (96%). both electron microscopy and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of hrv rna (rna-page) were highly specific (1 ...19902154874
conservation of a potential metal binding motif despite extensive sequence diversity in the rotavirus nonstructural protein ns53.the nucleotide sequence for the simian rotavirus sa11 gene segment 5 has been determined. the gene is 1611 nucleotides in length and contains a single open reading frame of 1485 nucleotides. the segment codes for the nonstructural protein ns53 which is predicted to be a polypeptide of 495 amino acids with a molecular weight of 58,484. when compared to the sequence of bovine rf gene segment 5 there are homologies of only 49 and 36% at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. this is in ...19902154894
rhesus rotavirus candidate vaccine. clinical trial in children vaccinated between 2 and 5 months of attenuated oral rhesus rotavirus candidate vaccine (strain mmu 18006 [lot rrv-1]) was evaluated for immunogenicity, safety, and clinical protection in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 200 infants aged 2 to 5 months when vaccinated. vaccine-induced fourfold or greater rise of rotavirus antibodies was seen in 62% of the infants. febrile reactions of short duration on days 3 and/or 4 after vaccination occurred in 26% of the vaccine recipients. the clinical follow-up covered t ...19902154925
the application of polymerase chain reaction to the detection of rotaviruses in assay protocol based on exploiting the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the detection of rotavirus in infected faeces is described. the assay is 100,000 times more sensitive than the standard electropherotype method that is widely used. it also gives a 5000-fold increase in sensitivity over the hybridisation based assay previously developed (pedley and mccrae, 1984) and does not require the use of radioisotopes. the amplified product is a full length c-dna copy of the gene encoding the maj ...19902155248
future vaccines against enteric pathogens.a small number of bacterial agents, including enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec), enteropathogenic e. coli (epec), shigella and vibrio cholerae 01 and one virus, rotavirus, combine to cause a major proportion of the diarrheal illness of public health importance worldwide. salmonella typhi is by far the major cause of enteric fever. attempts to develop safe, practical, and effective vaccines against these agents are under way. examples of vaccine candidates include live oral vaccines against ...19902155260
genome rearrangements in porcine rotaviruses: biochemical and biological comparisons between a supershort strain and its standard counterpart.two porcine rotavirus strains (cn86 and cc86) isolated during an epidemiological survey of diarrhoea in swine in argentina were studied because of several unique characteristics. both these strains were isolated and cloned from the same faecal sample and the electrophoretic migration of 10 of their 11 genomic dsrna genomic segments in polyacrylamide gels was identical, but strain cc86 had a supershort electropherotype. we analysed biochemical, serological and biological properties of both viruse ...19902155288
a porcine rotavirus strain with dual vp7 serotype specificity.porcine rotavirus mdr-13, which on original isolation showed a two-way antigenic relationship with human rotavirus rv-3, shows vp7 relationships with serotype g5 as well as g3 viruses upon gene reassortment. analysis of porcine mdr-13 and the md-uk reassortant revealed marked nucleotide and amino acid similarity of vp7 genes of these viruses with those of both serotype g3 and g5 viruses. evolution of such a strain, possibly by sequential mutations in the vp7 gene, is discussed.19902155514
polymerase chain reaction amplification and typing of rotavirus nucleic acid from stool specimens.the rotavirus gene segment coding for the major outer capsid glycoprotein vp7 was amplified directly from stool specimens by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). double-stranded rna extracted from stool samples was used as the template for reverse transcription, which was followed immediately and in the same reaction mix with amplification, using the taq polymerase. various conditions were examined to optimize the yield of the amplified gene. the concentrations of mgcl2, dimethyl sulfoxide, and ...19902155916
protection of adults rechallenged with a human rotavirus.previous studies of adults challenged with human rotavirus (cjn strain) showed that 74% became infected and 55% of those infected experienced illness. protection against infection correlated with rotavirus antibody, most significantly (p = .005) serum rotavirus igg. in this study, 20 previously challenged subjects were reinoculated with the same virus 9-12 months after their initial challenge. only 1 of 8 subjects not infected after the initial challenge and 2 of 12 infected after the first inoc ...19902155972
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