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sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the coding region of six common rotavirus strains: evidence for intragenogroup reassortment among co-circulating g1p[8] and g2p[4] strains from the united states.the segmented genome of rotaviruses provides an opportunity for rotavirus strains to generate a large genetic diversity through reassortment; however, this mechanism is considered to play little role in the generation of mosaic gene constellations between wa-like and ds-1-like strains in genes other than the neutralization antigens. a pilot study was undertaken to analyze these two epidemiologically important strains at the genomic level in order to (i) identify intergenogroup reassortment and ( ...201121264876
diarrheagenic escherichia coli in acute gastroenteritis in infants in north-west italy.enteropathogenic escherichia coli may cause diarrhoea in infancy, but it is not routinely detected and regarded as a major causative agent. the aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence of enteropathogenic e. coli infection and to investigate its epidemiology and pathogenesis from faecal specimens in infants hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis. between march 2008 and june 2009, faecal samples were collected and examined to recognize diarrhoeal aetiology, especially for e. coli, b ...201121344146
age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in dar es salaam, tanzania.this study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. the study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using integrated management of childhood illness (imci) guidelines.201121345186
accounting for model uncertainty in estimating global burden of disease.to illustrate the effects of failing to account for model uncertainty when modelling is used to estimate the global burden of disease, with specific application to childhood deaths from rotavirus infection.201121346922
a first report on the characterization of rotavirus strains in sierra leone.in an effort to reduce the high mortalities associated with rotavirus infections, a number of african countries are considering introducing human rotavirus vaccines. the demonstrated safety and efficacy of the live-attenuate human rotavirus vaccines in several clinical trials worldwide has accelerated such initiatives. although the percentage-mortality rates for sierra leone are top of the list for rotavirus-associated deaths in africa, no study has reported the prevalent strains circulating wit ...201121264877
rotavirus replication requires a functional proteasome for effective assembly of viroplasms.the ubiquitin-proteasome system has been shown to play an important role in the replication cycle of different viruses. in this study, we describe a strong impairment of rotavirus replication upon inhibition of proteasomal activity. the effect was evidenced at the level of accumulation of viral proteins, viral rna, and yield of infective particles. kinetic studies revealed that the early steps of the replicative cycle following attachment, entry, and uncoating were clearly more sensitive to prot ...201121228236
monitoring and evaluation of infectious rotaviruses in various wastewater effluents and receiving waters revealed correlation and seasonal pattern of occurrences.sewage systems are important nodes to monitor enteric pathogens transmitted via water. the aim of this study was to assess the presence of rotaviruses in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (wwtps) and receiving streams in beijing, china, to evaluate the reductions of rotaviruses in wwtps and to provide viral fate and transport data for further epidemiological studies.201121276144
breastfeeding and the risk of rotavirus diarrhea in hospitalized infants in uganda: a matched case control study.rotavirus is responsible for over 25 million outpatient visits, over 2 million hospitalizations and 527,000 deaths annually, worldwide. it is estimated that breastfeeding in accordance with the world health organization recommendations would save 1.45 million children's lives each year in the developing countries. the few studies that examined the effect of breastfeeding on rotavirus diarrhea produced conflicting results. this study aimed to determine the effect of breastfeeding on rotavirus dia ...201121329521
sequence analysis of the vp6-encoding genome segment of avian group f and g rotaviruses.rotavirus groups a to e are mainly defined by antibody reactivity to the capsid protein vp6. additionally, two putative rotavirus groups (f and g) have been identified in birds. here, the first nucleotide sequences of the vp6-encoding genome segment of group f (strain 03v0568) and group g (strain 03v0567) rotaviruses, both derived from chickens, are presented. the group f rotavirus is most closely related to avian group a and d rotaviruses, with 49.9-52.3% nucleotide and 36.5-39.0% amino acid se ...201121329955
co-dominance of g1 and emerging g3 rotaviruses in hong kong: a three-year surveillance in three major hospitals.the world health organization recommends rotavirus vaccines be included in all national immunization programs as part of a strategy to control diarrhoeal diseases. sentinel surveillance is advised to monitor impact post-vaccine introduction and to document changes in genotype distribution.201121330195
randomised controlled clinical trial of lactobacillus sporogenes (bacillus coagulans), used as probiotic in clinical practice, on acute watery diarrhoea in children.to assess the clinical efficacy of lactobacillus sporogenes (bacillus coagulans), as probiotic preparation, against dehydrating diarrhoea in children.201121332891
safety of rotavirus vaccines: postmarketing surveillance in the who region of the americas. 201121337810
one-year monthly survey of rotavirus, astrovirus and norovirus in three sewage treatment plants in beijing, china and associated health risk assessment.to evaluate the presence and distribution of the three main viruses (rotavirus, astrovirus, and norovirus) responsible for human acute gastroenteritis in sewerage system an one-year study was carried out in beijing, china. a total of 96 samples of influent and effluents from three sewage treatment plants (stps) were collected from november 2006 to october 2007. silica was used to concentrate viral particles from water samples and a reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction (rt-neste ...201121245573
recognition of the gm3 ganglioside glycan by rhesus rotavirus particles. 201121240883
development of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.in this study, a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) was developed for detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (pedv). six primers were designed to amplify the nucleocapsid (n) gene of pedv. the optimization, sensitivity, and specificity of the rt-lamp were investigated. the results showed that the optimal reaction condition for rt-lamp amplifying pedv n gene was achieved at 63°c for 50 min. the rt-lamp assay was more sensitive than gel-based rt-pcr and en ...201121286798
viral gastroenteritis in adults.viral gastroenteritis presents a major public health concern worldwide. it is mostly a disease of young children. however, acquired immunity may wane and symptomatic infection can also occur in adults. furthermore, asymptomatic adults may promote the spread of infections by shedding virus in their stools. this review covers the four most common causes of adult viral gastroenteritis, calicivirirdae (predominantly noroviruses), astroviruses, enteric adenoviruses and rotaviruses focussing on their ...201121210762
whole genome characterization of new bovine rotavirus g21p[29] and g24p[33] strains provides evidence for interspecies transmission.we have reported a novel bovine rotavirus, the azuk-1 (g21p[29]) strain, isolated from an asymptomatic calf. we isolated another bovine rotavirus, the dai-10 strain, bearing new g24p[33] genotypes, assigned by the rotavirus classification working group (rcwg), from an asymptomatic cow in hyogo prefecture, japan in 2007. to gain an insight into the origins and evolution of these strains, we determined the complete orf sequences of all 11 genes of the two strains. the nsp3 genes of both strains we ...201121228131
gavi takes steps to address funding woes. 201121300591
oral immunization of mice with lactococcus lactis expressing the rotavirus vp8* protein.the efficacy of recombinant lactococcus lactis as a delivery vehicle for a rotavirus antigen was evaluated in a mouse model. the rotavirus vp8* protein was expressed intracellularly and extracellularly in l. lactis wild type and in an alr mutant deficient in alanine racemase activity, necessary for the synthesis of the cell-wall component d: -alanine. when the mucosal immune response was evaluated by measuring vp8*-specific iga antibody in faeces, wild-type l. lactis triggered a low iga synthesi ...201121302132
environmental survey to assess viral contamination of air and surfaces in hospital settings.the presence of pathogenic viruses in healthcare settings represents a serious risk for both staff and patients. direct viral detection in the environment poses significant technical problems and the indirect indicators currently in use suffer from serious limitations. the aim of this study was to monitor surfaces and air in hospital settings to reveal the presence of hepatitis c virus, human adenovirus, norovirus, human rotavirus and torque teno virus by nucleic acid assays, in parallel with me ...201121277649
complete genomic characterization of cell culture adapted human g12p[6] rotaviruses isolated from south korea.two unusual human rotavirus g12 strains, cau195 and cau214, were isolated from female pediatric diarrhea patients under 12 months of age in 2006 using a cell culture system and their full genome sequences were analyzed. the 11 gene segments of both korean g12 strains were classified as g12-p[6]-r1-c1-m1-i1-a1-n1-t1-e1-h1 genotypes. notably, the korean strains were of the same genotypes as previously reported strains isolated from bangladesh in 2003 (dhaka12-03), from the united states in 2005-20 ...201121279677
prime immunization with rotavirus vlp 2/6 followed by boosting with an adenovirus expressing vp6 induces protective immunization against rotavirus in mice.rotavirus (rv) is the main cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. an effective vaccination regime against rv can substantially reduce morbidity and mortality. previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of virus-like particles formed by rv vp2 and vp6 (vlp2/6), as well as that of recombinant adenovirus expressing rv vp6 (rad), in eliciting protective immunities against rv. however, the efficacy of such prime-boost strategy, which incorporates vlp and rad in inducing protective immuniti ...201121205330
immune responses to rotavirus infection and vaccination and associated correlates of protection. 201121288818
projected impact and cost-effectiveness of a rotavirus vaccination program in india, 2008.to assess the value of rotavirus vaccination in india, we determined the potential impact and cost-effectiveness of a national rotavirus vaccination program.201121288839
reaching mdg 4 in india: a role for rotavirus vaccine? 201121288840
case-control evaluation of the effectiveness of the g1p[8] human rotavirus vaccine during an outbreak of rotavirus g2p[4] infection in central australia.the human rotavirus vaccine was evaluated during an outbreak of rotavirus g2p[4] infection in central australia. no overall protective effect against hospitalization was demonstrated, raising concerns over the durability of vaccine protection against heterotypic strains.201121288843
economic impact of dengue illness in the americas.the growing burden of dengue in endemic countries and outbreaks in previously unaffected countries stress the need to assess the economic impact of this disease. this paper synthesizes existing studies to calculate the economic burden of dengue illness in the americas from a societal perspective. major data sources include national case reporting data from 2000 to 2007, prospective cost of illness studies, and analyses quantifying underreporting in national routine surveillance systems. dengue i ...201121292885
burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the middle eastern and north african pediatric population.rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide. objectives were to estimate the burden of rvge among children less than five years old in the middle east (bahrain, iran, iraq, israel, jordan, kuwait, oman, qatar, saudi arabia, syria, uae, yemen), north africa (algeria, egypt, libya, morocco, tunisia) and turkey.201121214934
paediatric hospital admissions for rotavirus gastroenteritis and infectious gastroenteritis of all causes in england: an analysis of correlation with deprivation.infectious intestinal diseases cause substantial morbidity and economic loss in the uk. rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge), a form of gastroenteritis, is the primary cause of severe diarrhoea in children. the primary objective of this study was to examine whether hospitalisation for gastroenteritis, and particularly rvge, is linked to social deprivation.201121294699
[vaccination schedule of the spanish association of paediatrics: recommendations 2011].the advisory committee on vaccines of the spanish paediatric association updates annually the immunization schedule, taking into account epidemiological data as well as evidence of the effectiveness and efficiency of vaccines. this vaccination schedule includes grades of recommendation. the committee has graded as universal vaccines those that all children should receive, as recommended, those with a profile of universal vaccines of childhood and as are desirable those that all children may rece ...201121215719
[rotavirus infections].rotaviruses are genetically highly variable, non-enveloped viruses with a double-stranded, segmented ribonucleic acid genome. they are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. in children aged less than 5 years, they are the most frequent agent of severe acute diarrheal illnesses. in less developed countries, rotavirus diseases are one of the most frequent causes of death in infants and little children. typically, symptomatic rotavirus diseases in infants (<5 years) and the elderly (>70 years ...201121313775
detection of human bocavirus 3 in china.since its first identification in 2005, four species of human bocavirus (hbov1-4) have been documented. hbov1 and hbov2 have been shown to be associated with respiratory tract illnesses, as well as with acute gastroenteritis (age), worldwide. however, reports on the prevalence, clinical significance, and molecular characteristics of the two most newly identified hbov species, hbov3 and hbov4, are very limited. to detect and characterize hbov3 and hbov4 infections in children with age in china, s ...201121286929
rotavirus vp2 core shell regions critical for viral polymerase activation.the innermost vp2 core shell of the triple-layered, icosahedral rotavirus particle surrounds the viral genome and rna processing enzymes, including the rna-dependent rna polymerase (vp1). in addition to anchoring vp1 within the core, vp2 is also an essential cofactor that triggers the polymerase to initiate double-stranded rna (dsrna) synthesis using packaged plus-strand rna templates. the vp2 requirement effectively couples packaging with genome replication and ensures that vp1 makes dsrna only ...201121248043
burden of rotavirus infections in liguria, northern italy: hospitalisations and potential savings by vaccination.we evaluated the rates of gastroenteritis admissions to the emergency department and of rotavirus-related hospitalisations in children =5 years of age in 2006 at an italian paediatric hospital. we calculated the number of rotavirus cases avoidable through the universal vaccination of children. epidemiological data were extracted from the data elaboration centre. to calculate the hospitalisation rate due to rotavirus, the virus was sought in the faeces of children hospitalised for acute gastroent ...201121293899
evaluation of the rida(®)quick immunochromatographic norovirus detection assay using specimens from australian gastroenteritis incidents.a range of laboratory methods is now available for the detection of norovirus, a major cause of gastroenteritis. recently, a commercial immunochromatographic assay for norovirus detection, the rida(®)quick assay, has become available, but there is still only limited information on its efficacy. this study examined the sensitivity and specificity of the rida(®)quick assay, using faecal material received for testing in a major diagnostic/reference laboratory in australia. the sensitivity of the as ...201121295607
modeling protein structure at near atomic resolutions with gorgon.electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-em) has played an increasingly important role in elucidating the structure and function of macromolecular assemblies in near native solution conditions. typically, however, only non-atomic resolution reconstructions have been obtained for these large complexes, necessitating computational tools for integrating and extracting structural details. with recent advances in cryo-em, maps at near-atomic resolutions have been achieved for several macromolecular assemblies ...201121296162
the early interferon response to rotavirus is regulated by pkr and depends on mavs/ips-1, rig-i, mda-5, and irf3.in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (mefs), the bovine rotavirus (uk strain) but not the simian rhesus rotavirus (rrv) robustly triggers beta interferon (ifn-ß) secretion, resulting in an ifn-dependent restriction of replication. we now find that both rotavirus strains trigger antiviral transcriptional responses early during infection and that both transcriptional responses and ifn-ß secretion are completely abrogated in mavs/ips-1(-/-) mefs. replication of uk virus could be rescued in mavs/ips-1(-/- ...201121307186
development of a combined immunomagnetic separation and quantitative reverse transcription-pcr assay for sensitive detection of infectious rotavirus in water samples.a quantitative and rapid detection method for rotavirus in water samples was developed using immunomagnetic separation combined with quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (ims-rt-qpcr). magnetic beads coated with antibodies against representative group a rotavirus were used to capture and purify intact rotavirus particles in both artificial and real environmental water sample matrix. compared to extracting rna using commercial kits and rt-qpcr assay, the developed ims-rt-q ...201121256895
prevalence of norovirus gii-4 antibodies in finnish children.noroviruses (novs) are the second most common cause of viral gastroenteritis after rotavirus in children. nov genotype gii-4 has emerged as the major type not only in outbreaks of nov gastroenteritis but also endemic gastroenteritis among infants and young children worldwide. using baculovirus-insect cell system virus-like particles (vlps) of nov genotype gii-4 and an uncommon genotype gii-12 were produced. these vlps were used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) for detection of nov-s ...201121264875
highly sensitive detection of the group a rotavirus using apolipoprotein h-coated elisa plates compared to quantitative real-time pcr.the principle of a capture elisa is binding of specific capture antibodies (polyclonal or monoclonal) to the surface of a suitable 96 well plate. these immobilized antibodies are capable of specifically binding a virus present in a clinical sample. subsequently, the captured virus is detected using a specific detection antibody. the drawback of this method is that a capture elisa can only function for a single virus captured by the primary antibody. human apolipoprotein h (apoh) or ß2-glycoprote ...201121310042
a feline rotavirus g3p[9] carries traces of multiple reassortment events and resembles rare human g3p[9] rotaviruses.the full-length genome sequence of a feline g3p[9] rotavirus (rv) strain, ba222, identified from the intestinal content of an adult cat, was determined. strain ba222 possessed a g3-p[9]-i2-r2-c2-m2-a3-n1-t3-e2-h3 genomic constellation, differing substantially from other feline rvs. phylogenetic analyses of each genome segment revealed common origins with selected animal and zoonotic human rvs, notably with rare multi-reassortant human g3p[9] rvs (ita/pai58/96 and ita/pah136/96). altogether, the ...201121228122
immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of the human rotavirus vaccine rix4414 oral suspension (liquid formulation) in finnish infants.the lyophilized formulation of a human rotavirus vaccine, rotarix™ (rix4414) is highly immunogenic. in order to comply with the world health organization's (who) recommendation, a liquid formulation of the vaccine that does not require reconstitution was developed. the immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of the liquid formulation were compared with lyophilized formulation in two finnish studies. in study a infants aged 6-12 weeks received two doses of the lyophilized or liquid formulation ...201121238572
instability of human rotavirus g genotypes circulating in a rural area of bangladesh.a total of 280 fecal specimens from patients with acute gastroenteritis attending one rural hospital (dharmapasha health complex, sunamgonj) in bangladesh from august 2004 to may 2006 were tested for rotavirus by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). the diversity of rotavirus was investigated using electropherotyping and reverse transcription-pcr amplification of the vp7 and vp4 genes. the electrophoretic patterns of dsrna of rotavirus showed 9 different migrations (6 long and 3 short) by ...201121240155
herd immunity after two years of the universal mass vaccination program against rotavirus gastroenteritis in austria.austria was the first country in europe implementing a universal mass vaccination program against rotavirus gastroenteritis (rv-ge) for all infants nationwide. epidemiological data from a hospital based surveillance system show that incidence rates of children hospitalized with rv-ge decreased in 2009 compared to 2008 and compared to the prevaccination period 2001-2005. decreasing hospitalization-rates from rv-ge were observed in children of all age groups, even in those not eligible for vaccina ...201121320539
safety and reactogenicity of dtpa-hbv-ipv/hib and dtpa-ipv/i-hib vaccines in a post-marketing surveillance setting.combination vaccines have been shown to improve the timeliness of vaccination and vaccine coverage. safety and reactogenicity of combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus and haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (dtpa-ipv/hib, infanrix ipv+hib, glaxosmithkline biologicals) was assessed in two clinical studies. in study a, 2,590 subjects received dtpa-ipv/hib at 3, 4 and 5 months of age with a booster at 18 months. in study b, 702 subjects received the same schedule ...201121323176
severe gastroenteritis associated with g3p[9] rotavirus in taiwan. 201121424852
a single-tube multiplex pcr for rapid detection in feces of 10 viruses causing diarrhea.a novel multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was developed to identify 10 viruses in a single tube. the assay was targeted to detect group a and c rotaviruses, adenovirus, norovirus gi, norovirus gii, sapovirus, astrovirus, aichi virus, parechovirus, and enterovirus. a total of 235 stool samples were collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in kyoto, japan, from 2008 to 2009, then tested by this novel multiplex pcr and compared with a multiplex pcr described previously ...201121349292
replacing traditional diagnostics of fecal viral pathogens by a comprehensive panel of real-time pcrs.molecular dna-based diagnostics are increasingly being used for diagnosis of viral infections. for enteric viruses, pcr assays have also been developed. the aims of this study were to compile and evaluate a comprehensive panel of pcr assays for diagnosis of viruses causing diarrheal disease and to evaluate its use in a largely pediatric population in a 750-bed university medical center. the pcr panel was designed to include assays for detection of adenovirus, astrovirus, enterovirus, norovirus, ...201121430103
meeting of the global advisory committee on vaccine safety, december 2010. 201121299033
emergence of human rotavirus genotype g9 in metropolitan detroit between 2007 and 2009.between january 2007 and april 2009, rotavirus (rv)-positive stool samples from 238 children with acute gastroenteritis, seen at children's hospital of michigan in detroit, usa, were collected and rv genotyping was performed. g and p genotypes were determined by rt-pcr and nucleotide sequencing was conducted on selected g9 and p[6] strains. correlation between the severity of gastroenteritis episode and the infecting g genotype was done using a 14-point scoring system. the predominant g genotype ...201121372186
update on available vaccines in india: report of the appa vu 2010: i.the asia pacific pediatric association vaccinology update 2010 was held in mumbai on november 13-14, 2010 to discuss the latest information on burden of infectious diseases, recent developments in vaccines and their impact on immunization practices against infectious diseases occurring in indian children. during the conference the importance of including conjugate haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine and anti-rabies vaccines in routine immunization was stressed. also, the need for giving a seco ...201121373831
rotavirus enteric infection in children of northwest iran.this is a cross-sectional and analytical-descriptive study of 511 children less than 36 months of age who were admitted to tabriz children's hospital with acute gastroenteritis during a period of 2 years (from october 2007 to october 2009). rotavirus was found in stool specimens of 284 (55.6%) of 511 children with diarrhea. two-thirds of them were admitted during autumn and winter for a mean hospital stay of 3.1 ± 1.8 days.201121217537
immunogenicity of a scalable inactivated rotavirus vaccine in mice.inactivated rotavirus vaccine is a safe and effective potential vaccine for the prevention of rotavirus infection among children, but no approved licensed vaccine is available now. in this study, a scalable inactivated rotavirus vaccine, prepared in vero cells cultured by microcarrier fermentation, inactivated by formalin and absorbed by al(oh) 3 adjuvant, was vaccinated into the six weeks-old female balb/c mice by intramuscular injection. after twice immunization at interval of three weeks, bot ...201121307650
index of suspicion: case 1: fatigue, shortness of breath, and chest pain in an adolescent boy. case 2: poor feeding and weight gain, tachypnea, and vomiting in a neonate. case 3: afebrile seizures after a bout of diarrhea in a 2-year-old girl. 201121364016
recurrent intussusception in infants.aim:ôçâ clinical features to identify infants at increased risk of recurrence after a primary episode of intussusception (is) are poorly defined. methods:ôçâ prospective study of the clinical presentation, treatment and outcome in infants <2ôçâyears presenting with acute is to the national hospital of pediatrics, hanoi, over a 14-month period (1 november 2002 to 31 december 2003). a retrospective review of medical records was performed to verify complete patient ascertainment. results:ôçâ five h ...201121435072
hospital-based, prospective, multicentre surveillance to determine the incidence of intussusception in children aged below 15 years in germany.a new vaccine against rotavirus (rv) gastroenteritis was introduced in germany in 2006. in 1997 the first rv vaccine was withdrawn due to an increased incidence in intussusception (is). thus, an accurate estimation of the incidence of is is important for post-licensure surveillance.201121435207
intussusception following rotavirus vaccine administration: post-marketing surveillance in the national immunization program in australia.in australia, post-marketing surveillance for intussusception following vaccination commenced with funding of rotateq(®) and rotarix(®) vaccines under the national immunization program (nip) in july 2007.201121316503
reduction in pediatric rotavirus-related hospitalizations after universal rotavirus vaccination in belgium.this study investigated the effect of pediatric vaccination against rotavirus on the number of rotavirus-related hospitalizations of children in belgium.201121436757
g2 as an emerging rotavirus strain in pediatric gastroenteritis in southern italy.human rotaviruses (hrvs) represent a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. it is estimated that they are responsible for a large number of diarrhea-associated hospitalizations in childhood each year. in italy, limited data are available on the patterns of distribution of hrv g and p types. we report here the results of 2 years of rotavirus strain surveillance among children with severe gastroenteritis diagnosed in the town of portici, campania, southern italy.201121437737
[isolation precautions in a tertiary paediatric hospital].isolation is one of the measures to prevent the spread of nosocomial infections. however, in children's hospitals, given the type of patients and infections, and the architectural features of hospital wards, isolation precautions are sometimes difficult to implement and enforce.201121439920
efficacy of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, rotateq® (rv5), between doses of a 3-dose series and with less than 3 doses (incomplete regimen).post-hoc analyses of the rotavirus efficacy and safety trial (rest) were conducted to determine whether the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) confers early protection against rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) before completion of the 3-dose regimen. to evaluate the efficacy of rv5 between doses in reducing the rates of rvge-related hospitalizations and emergency department (ed) visits in infants who ultimately received all 3 doses of rv5/placebo, events occurring from 2 weeks after the first an ...201121441783
canadian paediatricians' opinions on rotavirus vaccination.rotavirus is the leading cause of dehydration and hospitalization due to gastroenteritis (ge) in young children. almost all children are affected by the age of 5 years. two safe and effective rotavirus vaccines are available for clinical use in canada. in the context where rotavirus vaccination is recommended, but not publicly funded, we have assessed paediatricians' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (kab) regarding rotavirus disease and its prevention by vaccination. a self-administered anonymou ...201121376118
scaling up diarrhea prevention and treatment interventions: a lives saved tool analysis.diarrhea remains a leading cause of mortality among young children in low- and middle-income countries. although the evidence for individual diarrhea prevention and treatment interventions is solid, the effect a comprehensive scale-up effort would have on diarrhea mortality has not been estimated.201121445330
human rotavirus vaccine is highly efficacious when coadministered with routine expanded program of immunization vaccines including oral poliovirus vaccine in latin america.the efficacy of a rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis when coadministered with routine expanded program on immunization (epi) vaccines including oral polio vaccine (opv) was evaluated in this study.201121378594
fighting child mortality. 201121465702
burden and typing of rotavirus group a in latin america and the caribbean: systematic review and meta-analysis.the efficacy of licensed rotavirus vaccines has only been shown against certain rotavirus group a (rv-a) types. it is critical to understand the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) and its prevalent types to assess the potential impact of these vaccines in latin america and the caribbean (la&c). we performed a systematic review and meta-analyses of all the available evidence reported from 1990 to 2009 on the burden of rotavirus disease and strains circulating in la&c. eligible studies-185 ...201121384462
the burden of rotavirus disease in denmark 2009-2010.this study sought to determine the incidence and the burden of severe diarrheal disease in denmark with emphasis on rotavirus (rv) disease.201121386748
rotavirus gastroenteritis and strain diversity in saudi arabia. current status and future prospects. 201121484010
rotavirus toxin nsp4 induces diarrhea by activation of tmem16a and inhibition of na+ absorption.rotavirus infection is the most frequent cause for severe diarrhea in infants, killing more than 600,000 every year. the nonstructural protein nsp4 acts as a rotavirus enterotoxin, inducing secretory diarrhea without any structural organ damage. electrolyte transport was assessed in the colonic epithelium from pups and adult mice using ussing chamber recordings. western blots and immunocytochemistry was performed in intestinal tissues from wild-type and tmem16a knockout mice. ion channel current ...201121399895
development of γδ t cell subset responses in gnotobiotic pigs infected with human rotaviruses and colonized with probiotic lactobacilli.γδ t cell responses are induced by various viral and bacterial infections. different γδ t cells contribute to activation and regulation of the inflammatory response and to epithelial repair. how γδ t cells respond to rotavirus infection and how the colonization of probiotics influences the γδ t cell response were unknown. in this study, we evaluated by multicolor flow cytometry the frequencies and distribution of total γδ t cells and three major subsets (cd2-cd8-, cd2+cd8- and cd2+cd8+) in ileum ...201121489639
[current events in vaccination.]the annual meeting of the infectious disease society of america (idsa); which brought together nearly 5000 participants from over 80 countries in vancouver, canada, october 21 to 24, 2010; provided a review of the influenza (h1n1) 2009 pandemic, evaluated vaccination programmes and presented new vaccines under development. with 12 500 deaths in the united states in 2009-2010, the influenza (h1n1) 2009 pandemic was actually less deadly than the seasonal flu. but it essentially hit the young, and ...201121489733
three clusters of bovine kobuvirus isolated in korea, 2008-2010.fecal samples (n = 107) were collected from cattle with ascertained or suspected diarrheal disease on korean farms during 2008-2010. of these, 37 samples tested positive for bovine kobuvirus. the 37 positive samples came from 32 cattle that exhibited diarrhea and five cattle that were non-diarrhetic. the majority of the virus-positive feces samples were from calves under 1 month of age (n = 25). nine of the 37 cattle infected with bovine kobuvirus were confirmed to have a co-infection with other ...201121399921
active participation of cellular chaperone hsp90 in regulating the function of rotavirus nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3).heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) has been reported to positively regulate rotavirus replication by modulating virus induced pi3k/akt and nfκb activation. here, we report the active association of hsp90 in the folding and stabilization of rotavirus nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3). in pcd-nsp3-transfected cells, treatment with hsp90 inhibitor (17-n,n-dimethylethylenediamine-geldanamycin (17dmag)) resulted in the proteasomal degradation of nsp3. sequence analysis and deletion mutations revealed that th ...201121489987
outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis in a nursing home, slovenia, december 2010.a gastroenteritis outbreak affected 45 people (40 residents and five staff) in a nursing home for the elderly in the celje region, north-east slovenia, between 17 december and 31 december 2010. rotavirus group a was laboratory confirmed in the stools of five ill individuals. the outbreak was identified when the number of affected persons was high but was successfully controlled after implementing preventive measures.201121492527
[rota virus encephalopathy].rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children, but the pathogenesis and immunity of this disease are not completely understood. less well recognized is the association of rotavirus-induced central nervous system (cns) involvement, which has been associated with seizure, encephalopathy and death etc. the term 'rotavirus encephalopathy' has been used for cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis with cns involvement as evidenced by clinical features of encephalopathy with ...201121400834
prevalence of major enteric pathogens in australian dairy calves with diarrhoea.determine the prevalence of the major enteric pathogens in dairy and dairy beef calves with diarrhoea in australia.201121495987
[vaccines, immunization and technological innovation: an update].the smallpox worldwide eradication was the major world public health achievement. the binomial - vaccines and immunization - continues to demonstrate very high performance in the prevention and control of other diseases preventable by vaccination. the new global initiatives on vaccination, such as gavi, have made possible the introduction of new and important vaccines preventing million of children deaths in the poorest countries in the world. the national immunization program of brazil is also ...201121340320
prospective study of the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in danish children and their families.this was the first study to characterize the total burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) at both hospital and general physician (gp) clinics in denmark, and also the first to confirm rotavirus (rv) as the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (ge) among children <5 years in gp clinics nationwide. several aspects of rvge were reported, including the impact of rvge on family life by changes in hrqol and by the number of days absent from day care. rv was detected in 225 (63.6%) children, and ...201121499690
monitoring of group a rotaviruses in wild-living birds in hungary.rotavirus is a common pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans and domesticated animals. the incidence of rotavirus in wild-living animals, particularly in avian species, has not been systematically investigated. in this study 1220 fecal samples and cloacal swabs collected from wild-living birds during 2008 in hungary were tested for the presence of group a rotaviruses by a vp6 gene-specific reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction assay. of the 1220 samples, 276 and 944 were processed ...201121500648
mxa rna quantification in febrile patients who underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation for primary immunodeficiency.the presence of myxovirus resistance protein a (mxa) rna was studied in 55 febrile children with primary immunodeficiency, 27 of whom underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation, and in 28 age-matched controls. the level of mxa rna was above the cutoff, established as the 95th percentile found in controls, with primary immunodeficiency either undergoing transplantation or not in febrile patients, and with a documented diagnosis of infection by adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, epstein-barr virus, re ...201121532489
rotavirus infection: optimal treatment and prevention.which fluids should you avoid when treating patients' gastroenteritis? should nursing mothers continue to breastfeed? and what about the timing of the 2 vaccines and their administration with other vaccines? read on.201121544269
noroviruses in children seen in a hospital for acute gastroenteritis in finland.noroviruses (novs) are second only to rotaviruses (rvs) as causative agents of acute gastroenteritis (age) in children. the proportional role of novs is likely to increase after control of rv by vaccination. we investigated novs in children seen in tampere university hospital either treated as outpatients or hospitalized because of age before universal rv vaccination was implemented in finland. this prospective study was conducted from september 2006 to august 2008. a total of 1,128 children <15 ...201121465124
diarrheagenic pathogens in polymicrobial infections.during systematic active surveillance of the causes of diarrhea in patients admitted to the infectious diseases and beliaghata general hospital in kolkata, india, we looked for 26 known gastrointestinal pathogens in fecal samples from 2,748 patients. samples from about one-third (29%) of the patients contained multiple pathogens. polymicrobial infections frequently contained vibrio cholerae o1 and rotavirus. when these agents were present, some co-infecting agents were found significantly less o ...201121470448
strategies for the purification and characterization of protein scaffolds for the production of hybrid nanobiomaterials.rotavirus vp6 self-assembles into high order macrostructures useful as novel scaffolds for the construction of multifunctional hybrid nanobiomaterials. this application requires large quantities of high quality pure material with strict structural consistency. strategies for obtaining high quality recombinant vp6 and different characterization techniques are explored and compared in this work. vp6 was expressed in the insect cell-baculovirus system. vp6 assemblies were selectively purified utili ...201121474396
molecular characterization and analysis of equine rotavirus circulating in japan from 2003 to 2008.using a total of 2018 fecal samples collected between 2003 and 2008 from foals with diarrhea, the molecular epidemiology of group a equine rotaviruses circulating in japan was investigated by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) typing and sequence analysis of the vp4 (p type) and vp7 (g type) genes. a total of 1149 samples showed positive reactions with rt-pcr, of which 462 samples (40.2%) were positive for g3 type, 502 samples (43.7%) were positive for g14 type, and 185 ...201121565456
detection of fecal shedding of rotavirus vaccine in infants following their first dose of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine.studies on rotavirus vaccine shedding and its potential transmission within households including immunocompromised individuals are needed to better define the potential risks and benefits of vaccination. we examined fecal shedding of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) for 9 days following the first dose of vaccine in infants between 6 and 12 weeks of age. rotavirus antigen was detected by enzyme immunoassay (eia), and vaccine-type rotavirus was identified by nucleotide sequencing based on genet ...201121477676
detection of g3p[3] and g3p[9] rotavirus strains in american indian children with evidence of gene reassortment between human and animal rotaviruses.the distribution and evolution of human rotavirus strains is important for vaccine development and effectiveness. in settings where rotavirus vaccine coverage is high, vaccine pressure could select for replacement of common strains (similar to those included in rotavirus vaccines) with uncommon strains, some of which could be generated by reassortment between human and animal rotaviruses. between 2002 and 2004, a phase-iii rotavirus vaccine clinical trial was conducted among american indian chil ...201121567432
picobirnavirus detection in bovine and buffalo calves from foothills of himalaya and central india.the present study describes detection of picobirnavirus (pbv) in faecal samples from bovine and buffalo calves employing the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). a total of 136 faecal samples from buffalo (n = 122) and cow calves (n = 14) exhibiting clinical signs of diarrhoea and from healthy calves were collected during 2007-2010 from subtropical (central india) and tarai area of western temperate himalayan foothills (uttarakhand). the dsrna nature of the virus was confirmed by nuclease ...201121479844
norovirus genotypes in endemic acute gastroenteritis of infants and children in finland between 1994 and 2007.summarynoroviruses are, after rotaviruses, the second most common causative agents of acute gastroenteritis in young children. we studied norovirus genotypes in faecal specimens collected from finnish children followed-up prospectively in rotavirus vaccine trials. almost 5000 faecal specimens collected from cases of acute gastroenteritis were examined using reverse transcriptase-pcr. a total of 1172 cases (25% of all acute gastroenteritis) were associated with noroviruses. of these, 96% were gen ...201121489338
gastroenteritis in childhood: a retrospective study of 650 hospitalized pediatric patients.background: acute diarrhea continues to be an important cause of hospitalization in young children, and deaths still occur as a result. we reviewed a large cohort of hospitalized children affected by gastroenteritis. the hypothesis of our study was that clinical characteristics and a limited set of laboratory data can differentiate between the different causative pathogens of diarrhea. methods: a chart review was performed of 650 patients with pathogen-proven diarrhea treated between april 2005 ...201121489842
gastroenteritis outbreak due to g2p[4] rotavirus and gii norovirus at two correctional facilities in brazil, 2010. 201121570903
integrated microfluidic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for rapid detection of food- or waterborne pathogenic rotavirus.the development of microfluidic tools for nucleic acid analysis has become a burgeoning area of research during the postgenome era. here we have developed a microfluidic device that integrates reverse transcription (rt) and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) with online fluorescence detection to realize a rapid detection system for performing both genetic amplification and product analysis. the microfluidic device mainly comprises a grooved copper heating block for rt and a heated cylinder for ampl ...201121570946
cost analysis of care for children admitted to kenyatta national hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis.rotavirus infection is the single most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in children under five years of age. the costs of care and treatment for rotavirus gastroenteritis are high. the objective was to compute average cost of care for children admitted with rotavirus gastroenteritis. a survey was conducted in children admitted with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis in nairobi, kenya. these were recruited and followed up till discharge or death. the costs they incurred were collected and ...201121492742
economic burden of rotavirus disease in children under 5 years in kazakhstan.we aimed to estimate the societal costs of rotavirus cases among children less than 5 years in kazakhstan, an upper-middle income country in central asia.201121496473
rotavirus encephalitis and cerebellitis with reversible magnetic resonance signal changes. 201121501312
immunization safety in us print media, 1995-2005.to identify and describe vaccine safety in us newspaper articles.201121502237
detection and molecular characterisation of rotavirus and norovirus infections in jordanian children with acute gastroenteritis.rotavirus and norovirus are globally important causes of paediatric gastroenteritis, but no studies of viral genotypes have been reported from jordan. we undertook a molecular epidemiological study in children hospitalised with acute gastroenteritis in jordan between january 2006 and december 2007. among 368 children, rotavirus and norovirus infections were detected in 49.5% and 11.4% of children, respectively. rotavirus genotypes p[8],g1 (56%), p[4],g2 (14%) and p[8],g9 (13%) were most commonly ...201121503643
rotavirus a genotype p[4]g2: genetic diversity and reassortment events among strains circulating in brazil between 2005 and 2009.group a rotaviruses (rv-a) are the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. due to the epidemiologic complexity of rv-a, especially in developing countries, it is important to determine which genotypes are circulating, principally after the introduction in march 2006 of the monovalent (p[8]g1) rotarix® vaccine in brazil by the national immunization program. in phase iii trials with rotarix®, the prevalence of genotype p[4]g2 was extremely low, and therefor ...201121503926
rotavirus vaccine rix4414 (rotarix™): a pharmacoeconomic review of its use in the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in developed countries.the most common cause of severe diarrhoea in infants and young children is rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge), which is associated with significant morbidity, healthcare resource use and direct and indirect costs in industrialized nations. the monovalent rotavirus vaccine rix4414 (rotarix™) is administered as a two-dose oral series in infants and has demonstrated protective efficacy against rvge in clinical trials conducted in developed countries. in addition, various naturalistic studies have dem ...201121504245
immune mediators of rotavirus antigenemia clearance in mice.the immunological mediators that clear rotavirus antigenemia or viremia remain undefined. immunodeficient mice and antibody-transfer were used to test whether lymphocytes or rotavirus-specific serum antibodies are essential for resolving antigenemia. clearance of antigenemia required lymphocytes but neither t or b lymphocytes was absolutely required. transfer of convalescent or non-neutralizing rotavirus-specific serum antibodies to the systemic compartment of severe combined immunodeficient (sc ...201121593155
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