genotypes of rotavirus associated with acute gastroenteritis in seoul, korea.acute viral gastroenteritis is one of the most common infectious diseases in infants and young children. rotavirus is mainly important in childhood. the present study determined the detection rate, seasonality and g and p genotypes of rotaviruses in children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis in seoul, korea in 2009. a total of 1,423 stool specimens were screened by elisa for the presence of rotavirus antigens and the rotavirus-positive stools genotyped by rt-pcr. the g genotype was determin ...201121752085
update on childhood and adolescent immunizations: selected review of us recommendations and literature: part provide a clinically relevant synopsis of research findings regarding childhood and adolescent vaccines.201121750429
impact of rotavirus vaccination on diarrhoea mortality and hospital admissions in brazil.objective to analyse the data reported by the national surveillance system of brazil, including data on diarrhoea mortality and hospital admissions before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction, and evaluate the impact of its widespread use under operational conditions. method retrospective analysis of routinely collected data was reported by several surveillance systems of brazil, comprising an 8-year period of all diarrhoea-related hospitalisations and deaths in children <5 years old (2002 ...201121749584
epidemiology and prevention of rotavirus infection: an underestimated issue? 201121749188
monitoring of group c rotavirus in children with acute gastroenteritis in brazil: an emergent epidemiological issue after rotavirus vaccine?group c rotavirus (gpcrv) has a worldwide distribution; however, its epidemiology and ecology are still unclear. evidence for a possible zoonotic role has been postulated recently for brazilian children strains. the aim of this study was to monitor gpcrv in children ôëñ15 years with acute gastroenteritis during the 2007-2010 national brazilian rotavirus surveillance, and to undertake the molecular characterization of the major vp6 capsid protein. a total of 3,019 fecal samples were first screene ...201121739455
interactions of diarrhea, pneumonia, and malnutrition in childhood: recent evidence from developing countries.this review highlights recent progress toward understanding complex interactions between diarrhea, pneumonia, and undernutrition among children in low-income and middle-income countries.201121734569
phylogenetic analysis of vp1, vp2, and vp3 gene segments of genotype g5 group a rotavirus strains circulating in brazil between 1986 and 2005.genotype g5 group a rotavirus (rv-a), which is common in pigs and also detected in horses and cattle, circulated as endemic genotype in the 1980s and early 1990s in brazil. after 1996, g5 rv-a has been replaced by g9 rv-a, becoming only sporadically detected. recently, g5 has been reported in children with severe diarrhea in argentina, cameroon, paraguay, people's republic of china, and vietnam, suggesting that, although uncommon in humans, it has a worldwide distribution. in a previous study, b ...201121827799
development and clinical validation of multiplex taqman-« assays for rapid diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis.there is a need to provide rapid, sensitive, and often high throughput detection of pathogens in diagnostic virology. viral gastroenteritis is a serious health issue often leading to hospitalization in the young, the immunocompromised and the elderly. the common causes of viral gastroenteritis include rotavirus, norovirus (genogroups i and ii), astrovirus, and group f adenoviruses (serotypes 40 and 41). this article describes the work-up of two internally controlled multiplex, probe-based pcr as ...201121739458
monitoring the circulation of rotavirus among children after the introduction of the rotarixôäó vaccine in goi+ónia, brazil.the epidemiological features of rotavirus a (rva) infection differ between children from developing and developed countries which could result in differences in vaccine efficacy around the world. to evaluate the impact of rotarixôäó on rva prevalence, we monitored rva genotypes circulating in goi+ónia by monitoring virus in faecal samples from children that had or had not been previously vaccinated. from february-november of 2008, 220 faecal samples were collected from children in seven day-care ...201121739040
summary of effectiveness and impact of rotavirus vaccination with the oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine: a systematic review of the experience in industrialized countries.the pentavalent rotavirus (rv) vaccine rotateqôäó has been available in industrialized countries since 2006. several studies have been conducted to evaluate the benefit of rv vaccination under routine conditions of use. a systematic review of all publicly available data from rotateqôäó vaccine-effectiveness and vaccination-impact studies in the usa, europe and australia between 2006 and february 2010 was undertaken. depending on the population studied, effectiveness of up to 100% (95% confidence ...201121734466
the rhesus rotavirus gene encoding vp4 is a major determinant in the pathogenesis of biliary atresia in newborn mice.biliary atresia (ba) is a devastating disease of childhood for which increasing evidence supports a viral component in pathogenesis. the murine model of ba is induced by perinatal infection with rhesus rotavirus (rrv) but not with other strains of rotavirus, such as tuch. to determine which rrv gene segment(s) is responsible for pathogenesis, we used the rrv and tuch strains to generate a complete set of single-gene reassortants. eleven single-gene "loss-of-function" reassortants in which a tuch ...201121697466
molecular characterization of fecal microbiota in patients with viral diarrhea.the study provides molecular analyses of fecal microbiota of diarrhea patients infected with four different types of viruses. fecal specimens from 52 patients with viral diarrhea (13 each of adenovirus, norovirus, rotavirus, and astrovirus) and six healthy individuals were collected and etiological viral agent was confirmed by enzyme immunoassay and specific pcr. to assess the changes in microbial diversity in patients with viral diarrhea, dna from stool were extracted and characterized by pcr-d ...201121739252
3,3'-diindolylmethane induces immunotoxicity via splenocyte apoptosis in neonatal mice.3,3'-diindolylmethane (dim), a major product of indole-3-carbinol derived from vegetables of the genus brassica, exhibits chemotherapeutic activity and various immune modulatory effects in animal models and in vitro studies. although extensive studies have only focused on dim's beneficial effects, the toxic effects of dim on the immune systems have not been clearly elucidated. the aim of this study was to explore the immunotoxic effects of dim in a neonatal mouse and to further evaluate whether ...201121820497
hospital-based surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the era of limited vaccine uptake through the private investigate possible impact of limited vaccine uptake by the private sector since 2007, a prospective observational study included all children <5 years hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis (age) in a tertiary care hospital between 09/2006 and 08/2010. rotavirus (rv) antigen was detected in stools by a rapid immunochromatographic test and genotype analysis was performed on positive samples by rt-pcr. compared to 2006-2008, the likelihood of rotavirus infection was significantly reduced amon ...201121816195
grazing management effects on sediment, phosphorus, and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures.erosion and runoff from pastures may lead to degradation of surface water. a 2-yr grazing study was conducted to quantify the effects of grazing management on sediment, phosphorus (p), and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures. six adjoining 12.1-ha pastures bisected by a stream in central iowa were divided into three treatments: continuous stocking with unrestricted stream access (csu), continuous stocking with restricted stream access (csr), and rotational stocking (rs). ra ...201121712600
norovirus infections in children under 5 years of age hospitalized due to the acute viral gastroenteritis in northeastern poland.the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and seasonality of norovirus infection in hospitalized polish children under 5 years of age, and a secondary aim was to compare the clinical severity of norovirus and rotavirus disease. the prospective surveillance study was carried out from july 2009 through june 2010. stool samples from 242 children hospitalized due to acute viral gastroenteritis were tested for rotavirus group a and adenovirus with commercial immunochromatographic te ...201121732202
acute gastroenteritis: from guidelines to real life.acute gastroenteritis is a very common disease. it causes significant mortality in developing countries and significant economic burden to developed countries. viruses are responsible for approximately 70% of episodes of acute gastroenteritis in children and rotavirus is one of the best studied of these viruses. oral rehydration therapy is as effective as intravenous therapy in treating mild to moderate dehydration in acute gastroenteritis and is strongly recommended as the first line therapy. h ...201021694853
biofilms in drinking water and their role as reservoir for pathogens.most microorganisms on earth live in various aggregates which are generally termed "biofilms". they are ubiquitous and represent the most successful form of life. they are the active agent in biofiltration and the carriers of the self-cleaning potential in soils, sediments and water. they are also common on surfaces in technical systems where they sometimes cause biofouling. in recent years it has become evident that biofilms in drinking water distribution networks can become transient or long-t ...201121697011
rotavirus in a wild english red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris) identified by electron microscopy. 201121821691
intra-genotypic diversity of archival g4p[8] human rotaviruses from washington, a human rotaviruses (rvs) remain the most frequently detected viral agents associated with acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. despite their medical importance, relatively few complete genome sequences have been determined for commonly circulating g/p-type strains (i.e., g1p[8], g2p[4], g3p[8], g4p[8], and g9p[8]). in the current study, we sequenced the genomes of 11 g4p[8] isolates from stool specimens that were collected in washington, dc during the years of 1974-1991. w ...201121712102
osteopontin upregulation in rotavirus-induced murine biliary atresia requires replicating virus but is not necessary for development of biliary atresia.biliary atresia (ba) is a progressive fibro-inflammatory pediatric liver disease in which osteopontin (opn), a glycoprotein with inflammatory and fibrogenic activity, may play a pathogenic role. the current studies were conducted in a mouse model of rotavirus-induced ba to test the hypotheses that live but not inactivated rotavirus causes antigenemia, upregulation of hepatic opn expression, and induction of ba and fibrosis; and that opn is necessary for development of ba. prolonged or transient ...201121742364
investigations of porcine circovirus type 1 (pcv1) in vaccine-related and other cell lines.porcine circovirus type 1 (pcv1) is highly prevalent in swine and was recently reported in u.s. licensed rotavirus vaccines. since animal-derived raw materials, such as cells, trypsin, and serum, can be a major source of introducing virus contamination in biological products, we have investigated pcv1 in several cell lines obtained from atcc that have broad use in research, diagnostics, or vaccine development. it is expected that these cell lines have been exposed to bovine and porcine viruses d ...201121835219
clinical features and molecular epidemiology of rotavirus and norovirus infections in libyan children.rotaviruses and noroviruses are leading viral causes of diarrhoea in children. a cross-sectional study was undertaken among children aged <5 years with acute gastroenteritis at al-jala children's hospital, tripoli, libya, from october 2007 to september 2008. of 1,090 fecal samples collected, 260 from inpatients and 830 from outpatients, all inpatients and approximately a third of outpatients, selected systematically, were investigated for rotavirus and norovirus infection by elisa and real-time ...201121837804
the incidence and direct medical cost of hospitalization due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in kyoto, japan, as estimated from a retrospective hospital study.anticipating imminent licensure of rotavirus vaccine for use in japan, we estimated the incidence of rotavirus hospitalization and calculated the direct medical cost associated with rotavirus hospitalization in a hospital that provided virtually exclusive pediatric beds to the local community adjacent to the northern outskirts of metropolitan kyoto, japan. for a 2 year period between september, 2008 and august, 2010, there were 103 hospitalizations due to acute gastroenteritis among children les ...201121821087
identification of a novel biomarker candidate, a 4.8-kda peptide fragment from a neurosecretory protein vgf precursor, by proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from children with acute encephalopathy using seldi-tof-ms.abstract: background: acute encephalopathy includes rapid deterioration and has a poor prognosis. early intervention is essential to prevent progression of the disease and subsequent neurologic complications. however, in the acute period, true encephalopathy cannot easily be differentiated from febrile seizures, especially febrile seizures of the complex type. thus, an early diagnostic marker has been sought in order to enable early intervention. the purpose of this study was to identify a novel ...201121838886
identification of an antibody binding epitope on the rotavirus non-structural protein nsp2 using phage display analysis.the nsp2 of rotavirus has important roles in rotavirus replication associated with rna binding, hydrolysis of ntps and rna, and helix destabilising properties. a cell culture assay using a nsp2 specific monoclonal antibody (mab) and polyclonal antiserum to block viral replication showed a 73% and a 96% reduction in the amount of virus produced during replication respectively. phage display technology was used to identify the antibody binding region on the nsp2 protein with the motif (244)t-(y/f) ...201121697352
rotavirus-induced ifn-{beta} promotes anti-viral signaling and apoptosis that modulate viral replication in intestinal epithelial cells.rotavirus (rv), a leading cause of diarrhea, primarily infects intestinal epithelial cells (iec). rotavirus-infected iec produce ifn-+¦ and express hundreds of ifn-dependent genes. we thus hypothesized that type 1 ifn plays a key role in helping iec limit rv replication and/or protect against cell death. to test this hypothesis, we examined iec (ht29 cells) infected with rv (moi 1) -¦ neutralizing antibodies to ifn-+¦/+¦ via microscopy and sds-page immunoblotting. we hypothesized that neutraliza ...201121733977
randomized, open-label, multicentre pharmacokinetic studies of two dose levels of pantoprazole granules in infants and children aged 1 month through <6 years with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.the primary objective of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetic profile of pantoprazole delayed-release granules in infants and children aged 1 month to <6 years with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (gord). the studies described in this manuscript were conducted to fulfil the requirements of the paediatric written request for pantoprazole by the us fda.201121740077
case report: detection of rotavirus rna in the cerebrospinal fluid of a child with rotavirus gastroenteritis and meningism.although case reports have described detection of rotavirus (rv) in extraintestinal sites such as the liver, kidney, and central nervous system (cns) of children with rv gastroenteritis, cns localization in rv infection seems to be rare. rt-pcr and nucleotide sequencing detected a g1p[8] strain in the stool and cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples of a patient with concurrent rv-associated enteritis and cns signs. upon sequence analysis, the viruses detected in the csf was identical to the virus de ...201121739456
evidence aid and the disaster response in pakistan and haiti.this editorial has also been recorded as a podcast; please click here to if a natural disaster was not enough, vibrio cholerae emerged to make the situation worse in post-flood pakistan, and for the first time since the 1960s in post-earthquake haiti . how do we, as researchers, policy-makers and human beings, respond to such situations? in response to the tsunami on 26 december 2004, concerned reviewers within the cochrane collaboration established evidence aid - an initiative that po ...201021833937
rotavirus vaccination in germany: analysis of nationwide surveillance data 2006 to 2010.background:: efficacy of rotavirus (rv) vaccination is difficult to assess outside of controlled clinical trials. in countries with low-to-moderate rv vaccination coverage, annual variation in rv outbreak might have a stronger influence on morbidity than rv vaccination. methods:: we analyzed german rv surveillance data from 2006 to 2010 in the 16 federal states of germany. to overcome the bias of annual variation of rv infections, we analyzed the effects of rv vaccination in germany by comparing ...201121817956
impact of early life exposures to geohelminth infections on the development of vaccine immunity, allergic sensitization, and allergic inflammatory diseases in children living in tropical ecuador: the ecuavida birth cohort study.geohelminth infections are highly prevalent infectious diseases of childhood in many regions of the tropics, and are associated with significant morbidity especially among pre-school and school-age children. there is growing concern that geohelminth infections, particularly exposures occurring during early life in utero through maternal infections or during infancy, may affect vaccine immunogenicity in populations among whom these infections are endemic. further, the low prevalence of allergic d ...201121714922
genetic divergence and classification of nonstructural protein 1 among porcine rotaviruses of species b.porcine rotavirus b (rvb) has been often detected in diarrhea of suckling and weaned pigs. moreover, epidemiological studies using elisa demonstrated high antibody prevalence in sera from sows, indicating that rvb infections are widespread. because it is difficult to serially propagate rvbs in cell culture, genetic analysis of rna segments of porcine rvbs other than those encoding vp7 and nsp2 has been scarcely performed. we conducted sequence and phylogenetic analyses focusing on nonstructural ...201121832005
the occurrence of amino acid substitutions d96n and s242n in vp7 of emergent g2p[4] rotaviruses in nepal in 2004-2005: a global and evolutionary perspective.rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among children worldwide. strains with g2p[4] have captured recent attention because of its abrupt increase or re-emergence in many locations in the world. in nepal, g2p[4] strains were detected at a rate of 1% in 2003-2004, but increased to 33% in 2004-2005. thus, the vp7 genes of 45 emergent g2 strains from nepal were sequenced and analyzed together with a total of 339 g2vp7 sequences detected over the last 34-áyears that were compiled from the ...201121842161
molecular characterization of rotavirus strains from children with diarrhea in italy, 2007-2009.the surveillance network rotanet-italia was established in 2007 in order to investigate the diversity of co-circulating rotavirus strains in italy, and to provide a baseline for future assessment of possible effects of vaccine implementation in selecting novel versus common rotavirus strains. a total of 2,645 rotavirus strains from pediatric patients with acute diarrhea were collected over three consecutive seasons from september 2006 through august 2009, and partially characterized by standardi ...201121739459
phylogenetic analysis of rotavirus a nsp2 gene sequences and evidence of intragenic recombination.the rotavirus non-structural protein nsp2 is one of the earliest and most abundant viral proteins produced during infection. this protein has multiple essential roles in the replication cycle involving rna binding, viroplasm formation, helicase and can hydrolyse the +¦-phosphate of rna and ntps acting as an rtpase and ntpase. in studying sequences from rotavirus strains isolated in australia between 1984 and 2009, the nsp2 gene was seen to be highly conserved and clustered with defined nsp2 geno ...201121689784
baseline estimates of diarrhea-associated mortality among united states children before rotavirus vaccine introduction.objectives:: deaths due to diarrhea among us children declined substantially from the 1960s through the 1980s, but have not been recently assessed. we examined diarrhea-associated mortality among young us children from 1992 to 2006 to establish baseline estimates through which the effect of rotavirus vaccines, introduced in 2006, can be assessed. methods:: national center for health statistics multiple cause-of-death mortality data were used to examine diarrhea-associated deaths and death rates ...201121691244
hospital-based study of the economic burden associated with rotavirus diarrhea in eastern china.rotavirus infection is one of the most common causes of severe diarrhea in china. to evaluate the economic burden associated with rotavirus infection of children in china, we combined data on the disease burden of rotavirus-associated costs for samples comprising 832 outpatients and 604 inpatients from five seaside cities. the average social costs and direct medical costs for rotavirus-associated admissions were calculated to be us $61.64 and us $40.73 for outpatients, and us $684.15 and us $559 ...201121843578
incidence of intussusception in early infancy: a capture-recapture estimate for germany.background: rotavirus (rv) vaccination with the first generation vaccine (rotashield) has been associated with intussusception (is). reliable age specific baseline incidence data for children ôëñ6 months of age in particular is fundamental for further post marketing monitoring of potential effects of recently introduced new rv vaccines. methods: is incidence was estimated by a 2-source capture-recapture calculation (crc) based on esped (german paediatric surveillance unit) reports and on hospita ...201121698555
direct and indirect effects of rotavirus vaccination upon childhood hospitalizations in 3 us counties, 2006-2009.routine rotavirus vaccination of us infants began in 2006. we conducted active, population-based surveillance for rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalizations in 3 us counties to assess vaccine impact.201121705316
effects of viscogens on rna transcription inside reovirus particles.the dsrna genome of mammalian reovirus (mrv), like the dsdna genomes of herpesviruses and many bacteriophages, is packed inside its icosahedral capsid in liquid-crystalline form, with concentrations near or more than 400 mg/ml. viscosity in such environments must be high, but the relevance of viscosity for the macromolecular processes occurring there remains poorly characterized. here, we describe the use of simple viscogens, glycerol and sucrose, to examine their effects on rna transcription in ...201121719697
gastroenteritis in children.acute gastroenteritis results from infection of the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly with a virus. it is characterised by rapid onset of diarrhoea with or without vomiting, nausea, fever, and abdominal pain. diarrhoea is defined as the frequent passage of unformed, liquid stools. regardless of the cause, the mainstay of management of acute gastroenteritis is provision of adequate fluids to prevent and treat dehydration. methods and outcomes: we conducted a systematic review and aimed to ans ...200921726481
one-step rt-qpcr with an internal control system for the detection of turkey rotaviruses in faecal samples.turkey rotaviruses are one of the major pathogens responsible for the poult enteritis syndrome (pes). in this study a one step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-qpcr) assay targeting the rotaviral non-structural protein 4 (nsp4) was developed. the nsp4 is a highly conserved gene inside the turkey rotavirus genome and contains an internal control system to monitor any potential rt-qpcr inhibitors. the detection limit of the optimized nsp4-rt-qpcr assay ranged from 8.15 ...201121816176
genotype diversity of group a rotavirus strains in children with acute diarrhea in urban burkina faso, this study, the diversity of g and p genotypes of rotavirus strains in burkinabe children were examined. between november 2008 and february 2010, 447 stool samples were collected from children <5 years of age with acute diarrhea visiting hospital in ouagadougou. group a rotavirus was previously detected in 151/447 (33.8%) of the samples tested by an immunochromatographic test and these samples were now tested further for rotavirus g and p genotypes by rt-pcr. of these, the rotavirus type gene ...201121678452
cost-effectiveness of universal rotavirus vaccination in reducing rotavirus gastroenteritis in ireland.we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of universal infant rotavirus (rv) vaccination compared to current standard of care of "no vaccination". two rv vaccines are currently licensed in ireland: rotarixôäó and rotateqôäó. a cohort model used in several european countries was adapted using irish epidemiological, resource utilisation and cost data. the base case model considers the impact of rotarix vaccination on health-related quality of life of children under five years old from a healthcare payer ...201121821085
circovirus and impact of temporary withdrawal of rotavirus vaccines in the beginning of 2010 dna fragments of a porcine circovirus 1 (pcv-1) were detected in the monovalent rotavirus vaccine, rotarix-« (glaxosmithkline), and later also of pcv-1 and pcv-2 in the rotateq-« (msd) vaccine. these viruses are frequently found in meat and other products for normal human consumption and have not been shown to cause disease in humans. although the world health organization (who) and the european medicines agency (ema) did not recommended discontinuation of vaccination ag ...201121715979
complications in hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus: a retrospective analysis.acute gastroenteritis (age) caused by rotavirus (rv) is a common disease among infants and toddlers, often leading to hospitalization and, in resource-poor countries, to death. however, little is known on specific complications of severe rv-positive (rv+) age and on the clinical course in chronically ill children. this was a retrospective analysis of data for children <5-áyears of age hospitalized due to age during six rotavirus seasons in three large german pediatric hospitals. the primary stud ...201121833497
comparative evaluation of the potential impact of rotavirus versus hpv vaccination in gavi-eligible countries: a preliminary analysis focused on the relative disease burden.immunization policymakers at global and local levels need to establish priorities among new vaccines competing for limited resources. however, comparison of the potential impact of single vaccination programs is challenging, primarily due to the limited number of vaccine analyses as well as their differing analytic approaches and reporting formats. the purpose of this study is to provide early insight into how the comparative impact of different new vaccines could be assessed in resource-poor se ...201121679420
astrovirus infections in humans and animals - molecular biology, genetic diversity, and interspecies transmissions.astroviruses are small, non-enveloped, positive sense, single-stranded rna viruses first identified in 1975 in children suffering from diarrhea and then described in a wide variety of animals. to date, the list of animal species susceptible to astrovirus infection has expanded to 22 animal species or families, including domestic, synantropic and wild animals, avian, and mammalian species in the terrestrial and aquatic environments. astrovirus infections are considered among the most common cause ...201121843659
infection: preventing 5 million child deaths from diarrhea in the next 5 years. 201121725348
enteric vaccines for resource-limited countries: current status and future prospects. 201121736257
use of the state immunization information system to assess rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in connecticut, 2006-2008.immunization information systems (iis) contain individual vaccination records and have potential use for evaluating post-licensure vaccine effectiveness (ve). a matched case-control study was performed by using the connecticut state iis to calculate rotavirus ve against hospitalization; results were compared with pre-licensure efficacy and with estimates previously obtained by traditional case-control methods using matched controls from medical sources and medical chart abstracted data. case-pat ...201121723356
iron oxide amended biosand filters for virus removal.laboratory studies were performed to determine if the addition of iron oxides throughout biosand filter (bsf) media would increase virus removal due to adsorption. the proposed mechanism is electrostatic adsorption of negatively charged virion particles to positively charged iron oxides formed during the corrosion of zerovalent iron. initial tests conducted using continuous flow, small-scale glass columns showed high ms2 bacteriophage removal in an iron-amended sand column (5log10) compared to a ...201121708394
comparative review of three cost-effectiveness models for rotavirus vaccines in national immunization programs; a generic approach applied to various regions in the world.abstract:201121740545
intussusception risk and health benefits of rotavirus vaccination in mexico and brazil.because postlicensure surveillance determined that a previous rotavirus vaccine, rotashield, caused intussusception in 1 of every 10,000 recipients, we assessed the association of the new monovalent rotavirus vaccine (rv1) with intussusception after routine immunization of infants in mexico and brazil.201121675888
rotavirus vaccination and intussusception--act two. 201121675894
nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis in a canadian paediatric hospital: incidence, disease burden and patients affected.rotavirus is a well-recognised nosocomial pathogen in paediatric settings. although rotavirus gastroenteritis is a vaccine-preventable disease, there is currently no publicly funded programme in canada. the objective of this study was to inform rotavirus vaccination strategy by determining the incidence of nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis (nrvge), estimating the burden of disease and characterising the patients affected. we performed a retrospective cohort study of all nrvge cases over a per ...201121723643
viruses exploiting peroxisomes.viruses that are of great importance for global public health, including hiv, influenza and rotavirus, appear to exploit a remarkable organelle, the peroxisome, during intracellular replication in human cells. peroxisomes are sites of lipid biosynthesis and catabolism, reactive oxygen metabolism, and other metabolic pathways. viral proteins are targeted to peroxisomes (the spike protein of rotavirus) or interact with peroxisomal proteins (hiv's nef and influenza's ns1) or use the peroxisomal mem ...201121824805
experimental infection of pigs with group a rotavirus and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli in india: gross, histopathological and immunopathological study.the authors describe a detailed study conducted in assam, india, of gross, histopathological and immunopathological alterations in pigs experimentally infected with rotavirus and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) expressing k88 pili. a total of 30 caesarean derived piglets were infected experimentally with rotavirus alone or in combination with etec to study the gross and histopathological alterations and the distribution pattern of different b- and t cell subsets in the gut. villus atroph ...201121706463
characterization of human rotavirus subgroups and serotypes in children under five with acute gastroenteritis in a saudi hospital.rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in children. currently, there is no published data on the prevalence of subgroups and serotypes of rotavirus in the eastern province of saudi arabia. the objectives of the present study were to assess the rotavirus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis and to assess the subgroups and serotypes of rotavirus in the children and maternity hospital in dammam, eastern saudi arabia.201121694956
etiology of acute gastroenteritis in children requiring hospitalization in the netherlands.infectious gastroenteritis causes a considerable burden of disease worldwide. costs due to gastroenteritis are dominated by the hospitalized cases. effective control of gastroenteritis should be targeted at the diseases with the highest burden and costs. for that, an accurate understanding of the relative importance of the different bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens is needed. the objective of the present study was to determine the incidence and etiology of gastroenteritis requiring hosp ...201121725865
Noroviruses as a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in children in Finland, 2009-2010.Abstract Noroviruses are, after rotaviruses, the second most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children. In a prospective study conducted in 2009-2010 at the Tampere University Hospital, 195 stool specimens were collected from cases of acute gastroenteritis in children and examined for noroviruses, sapoviruses, and rotaviruses, using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Noroviruses were found in 49 (25%) of the cases and sapoviruses in 12 (6%). The norovirus g ...201121696253
small intestinal segment perfusion test in piglets: future applications in studying probiotics-gut crosstalk in infectious diarrhoea?worldwide infectious diarrhoea, mainly caused by rotavirus and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec), accounts for a large part of deaths in children. etec is also the main cause of traveller's diarrhoea. probiotics are promising for prevention and treatment of diarrhoea, but there is insufficient evidence to support the use of any specific probiotic or probiotics in general. because of the sensitivity of suckling and weaned piglets for etec, piglets are a good model for infectious diarrhoea i ...201021831782
Productive infection of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by porcine circovirus type 1.Porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1), a small DNA virus in pigs, recently gained its notoriety when commercial human rotavirus vaccines were discovered to be contaminated by infectious PCV1. Here we report, for the first time, definitive evidence of productive PCV1 infection in a subclone of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Huh-7, subclone 10-3). Infectious virus was detected in the lysates of infected Huh-7 cells by immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and can be serially passaged in Huh-7-S10-3 ...201121742002
Treatment of Acute Diarrhea With Saccharomyces Boulardii in Infants: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial.OBJECTIVES:: To determine if an oral treatment with a commercial pharmaceutical product containing Saccharomyces boulardii would reduce the duration of diarrhea in infants with acute diarrhea. MATERIAL AND METHODS:: In this double-bind, placebo controlled study, 186 infants, 6 to 48 months old and hospitalized within 72ÔÇèhours after the onset of acute diarrhea in two hospitals in Goi+ónia, Goi+ís, Brazil, were randomly assigned to receive twice a day during five days 200ÔÇèmg of a commercial ph ...201121734600
extraction of food-borne viruses from food samples: a review.detection of food-borne viruses such as noroviruses, rotaviruses and hepatitis a virus in food products differs from detection of most food-borne bacteria, as most of these viruses cannot be cultivated in cell culture to date. therefore, detection of food-borne viruses in food products requires multiple steps: first, virus extraction; second, purification of the viral genomic material (rna for the majority of food-borne viruses); and last, molecular detection. this review is focused on the first ...201122137685
Prospective evaluation of indirect costs due to acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in Spain: the ROTACOST study.The effect of rotavirus in developed countries is mainly economic. This study aimed to assess the indirect costs induced by rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (RVAGE) in Spain.201121917176
a new pentameric structure of rotavirus nsp4 revealed by molecular replacement.the region spanning residues 95-146 of the rotavirus nonstructural protein nsp4 from the asymptomatic human strain st3 has been purified and crystallized and diffraction data have been collected to a resolution of 2.6 å. several attempts to solve the structure by the molecular-replacement method using the available tetrameric structures of this domain were unsuccessful despite a sequence identity of 73% to the already known structures. a more systematic approach with a dimer as the search model ...201222194333
impact of introducing the pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines into the routine immunization program in niger.objectives. we investigated whether introducing the rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines, which are greatly needed in west africa, would overwhelm existing supply chains (i.e., the series of steps required to get a vaccine from the manufacturers to the target population) in niger. methods. as part of the bill and melinda gates foundation funded vaccine modeling initiative, we developed a computational model to determine the impact of introducing these new vaccines to niger's expanded programs on ...201121940923
Molecular epidemiology and clinical characterization of group A rotavirus infections in Tunisian children with acute gastroenteritis.Rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe viral gastroenteritis in early childhood worldwide. Thus, the objectives of our study were to determine the molecular epidemiology and the clinical features of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Tunisia. Between January 2003 and April 2007, a prospective study was conducted on 788 stool samples collected from children under 12 years of age who were suffering from acute gastroenteritis. Rotavirus was detected by multiplex RT-PCR in 27% (n = 213) of sample ...201121942357
suspected zoonotic transmission of rotavirus group a in danish adults.summarygroup a rotaviruses infect humans and a variety of animals. in july 2006 a rare rotavirus strain with g8p[14] specificity was identified in the stool samples of two adult patients with diarrheoa, who lived in the same geographical area in denmark. nucleotide sequences of the vp7, vp4, vp6, and nsp4 genes of the identified strains were identical. phylogenetic analyses showed that both danish g8p[14] strains clustered with rotaviruses of animal, mainly, bovine and caprine, origin. the high ...201121943834
Contribution of enteric infection, altered intestinal barrier function, and maternal malnutrition to infant malnutrition in bangladesh.Background. Malnourished children are at increased risk for death due to diarrhea. Our goal was to determine the contribution of specific enteric infections to malnutrition-associated diarrhea and to determine the role of enteric infections in the development of malnutrition. Methods. Children from an urban slum in Bangladesh were followed for the first year of life by every-other-day home visits. Enteropathogens were identified in diarrheal and monthly surveillance stools; intestinal barrier fu ...201222109945
Respiratory syncytial virus--the unrecognised cause of health and economic burden among young children in Australia.Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) presents very similar to influenza and is the principle cause of bronchiolitis in infants and young children worldwide. Yet, there is no systematic monitoring of RSV activity in Australia. This study uses existing published data sources to estimate incidence, hospitalisation rates, and associated costs of RSV among young children in Australia. Published reports from the Laboratory Virology and Serology Reporting Scheme, a passive voluntary surveillance system, a ...201122010512
role of lipids on entry and exit of bluetongue virus, a complex non-enveloped virus.non-enveloped viruses such as members of picornaviridae and reoviridae are assembled in the cytoplasm and are generally released by cell lysis. however, recent evidence suggests that some non-enveloped viruses exit from infected cells without lysis, indicating that these viruses may also utilize alternate means for egress. moreover, it appears that complex, non-enveloped viruses such as bluetongue virus (btv) and rotavirus interact with lipids during their entry process as well as with lipid raf ...201021994677
early observations in the use of oral rotavirus vaccination in infants with functional short gut syndrome.aim:  universal vaccination with an oral live-attenuated rotavirus vaccine at 2, 4 and 6 months of age was introduced in australia in july 2007. there are no data on the short-term effects of vaccination for those infants most at risk of severe complications from rotavirus infection. the aim of this study was to describe the effects of rotavirus vaccination on weight gain and gastrointestinal losses in infants with functional short gut syndrome secondary to an ileostomy. methods:  a retrospectiv ...201122107074
characteristics of rotavirus gastroenteritis in hospitalized children in israel.diarrhea is a leading cause of child mortality worldwide. rotavirus is one of the most common causes of severe diarrhea and dehydration in children.201121845967
report of the second european expert meeting on rotavirus vaccination. 201122178724
Full genomic analyses of human rotavirus G4P[4], G4P[6], G9P[19] and G10P[6] strains from North-eastern India: evidence for interspecies transmission and complex reassortment events.In hospitalized patients with acute gastroenteritis in Manipur, India, four rotavirus strains were found to possess VP7 and/or VP4 genes with porcine or bovine characteristics. Considering the animal-like nature of these strains, the remaining eight gene segments were analysed to decipher their exact origin. Analyses of full genome of these strains exhibited their origin from porcine/bovine rotaviruses. This study suggests single or multiple events of reassortment involving multiple gene segment ...201121884295
an assay for detecting neutralization of rotavirus infection by quantitative determination of vp6 protein fluorescence intensity.previous rotavirus infection studies used the focus reduction assay extensively to evaluate cellular responses to viral infection, but this technique has a number of limitations. in this study, we developed a simplified, accurate rotavirus infection assay to evaluate the effects of inhibitory substances on rotavirus infection in vitro by measurement of the fluorescence intensities of stained cells.201121979094
vaccine campaign to target deadly childhood diarrhoea. 201121956306
Rapid and sensitive detection of PRRSV by a reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.A real-time monitoring reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the sensitive and specific detection of prototypic, prevalent North American porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains. As a higher sensitivity and specificity method than reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the RT-LAMP method only used a turbidimeter, exhibited a detection limit corresponding to a 10(-4) dilution of template RNA ex ...201121847756
[Investigation of verotoxigenic escherichia coli O157:H7 incidence in gastroenteritis patients].Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the most common serotype among verotoxigenic E.coli (VTEC) strains that cause haemolytic uremic syndrome. Although sporadic VTEC cases originating from Turkey and small outbreaks have been reported from our country, VTEC has not been routinely investigated in most of the diagnostic microbiology laboratories in Turkey and studies related to this topic are limited. In this study, the incidence of E.coli O157:H7 in patients who were admitted to Alanya Research and Applic ...201121935785
[Clinical epidemiological study of acute gastro-enteritis outbreak recorded in a children community, in Iasi, during May, 2009].Acute diarrheal disease affect all demographic structures and it is considered a major cause of morbidity and mortality for young age groups; underreporting is due to clinical and epidemiological diversity, everywhere, including the developed countries.201122046808
immunization schedule of the spanish association of pediatrics: 2012 recommendations.the advisory committee on vaccines of the spanish association of pediatrics (cav-aep) updates the immunization schedule every year, taking into account epidemiological data as well as evidence on the effectiveness and efficiency of vaccines. the present schedule includes grades of recommendation. we have graded as routine vaccinations those that the cav-aep believes all children should receive; as recommended those that fit the profile for universal childhood immunization and would ideally be gi ...201122177960
Distribution of rotavirus genotypes causing nosocomial and community-acquired acute gastroenteritis at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia in the new rotavirus vaccine era.Background: Introduction of rotavirus vaccines in the United States beginning in 2006 led to a rapid decline in the frequency of acute rotavirus gastroenteritis necessitating medical attention. We examined whether serotype replacement was occurring as a result of vaccine use. Methods: Children with gastroenteritis presenting to CHOP have been tested for rotavirus antigen in the stool. Commencing with the 1999-2000 season, positive specimens were genotyped to establish the G (VP7) and P (VP4) typ ...201122048265
Novel pentameric structure of the diarrhea-inducing region of the rotavirus enterotoxigenic protein NSP4.A novel pentameric structure which differs from the previously reported tetrameric form of the diarrhea-inducing region of the rotavirus enterotoxin NSP4 is reported here. A significant feature of this pentameric form is the absence of the calcium ion located in the core region of the tetrameric structures. The lysis of cells, the crystallization of the region spanning residues 95 to 146 of NSP4 (NSP4(95-146)) of strain ST3 (ST3:NSP4(95-146)) at acidic pH, and comparative studies of the recombin ...201121917949
replication of the rotavirus genome requires an active ubiquitin-proteasome we show that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is required for the efficient replication of rotavirus rrv in ma104 cells. the proteasome inhibitor mg132 decreased the yield of infectious virus under conditions where it severely reduces the synthesis of not only viral but also cellular proteins. addition of nonessential amino acids to the cell medium restored both viral protein synthesis and cellular protein synthesis, but the production of progeny viruses was still inhibited. in medium supple ...201121900156
intussusception risk of rotavirus vaccination. 201122129261
receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors that block replication of influenza a and other viruses.we have previously reported that two receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (rtkis), called ag879 and tyrphostin a9 (a9), can each block the replication of influenza a virus in cultured cells. in this study, we further characterized the in vitro antiviral efficacies and specificities of these agents. the 50% effective concentration (ec(50)) of each against influenza a was found to be in the high nanomolar range, and the selectivity index (si = 50% cytotoxic concentration [cc(50)]/ec(50)) was determ ...201121930873
[treatment perspectives.]celiac disease (cd) is a chronic inflammatory enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten. a safe and efficient but unpleasant treatment exists for cd in form of a strict gluten-free diet. thus, there is a need for new treatment strategies, which are based on the improved and advanced understanding of the pathophysiology of cd. the first strategy consists in reducing or even eliminating major antigenic motifs in gluten, responsible for the inflammatory reaction. the use of less immunogenic whe ...201122037405
Sudden death from systemic rotavirus infection and detection of nonstructural rotavirus proteins.A 2.5-year-old girl died suddenly during the course of rotavirus gastroenteritis. The autopsy showed encephalopathy with rotavirus systemic infection. Here, we provide evidence of rotavirus replication in multiple organs. Our findings clarify that rotavirus infection in children can extend beyond the intestinal tract through viremia.201121998424
the hidden costs and characteristics of childhood rotavirus emergency visits in canada.background:: administrative databases are often used to determine burden of rotavirus disease in emergency departments (eds). our objective was to describe rotavirus ed visits to include healthcare utilization pre- and postvisit to estimate true societal costs. methods:: during rotavirus seasons in 2007, 2008, and 2009, a convenience sample of children <3 years of age with vomiting and/or diarrhea and rotavirus in stool samples at ed visits was identified at 5 pediatric hospitals in canada. inte ...201122001965
Novel Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CECT 7210 Strain Active against Rotavirus Infections.Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis among children worldwide. It is well known that breast-feeding and vaccination afford infants protection. Since breast-feeding has drastically decreased in developed countries, efforts have been focused on the potential use of probiotics as preventive agents. In this study, a novel Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis strain was isolated from infant feces and selected, based on its capacity to inhibit in vitro rotavirus Wa replicat ...201122003027
Acute arthritis associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis: an unusual extraintestinal manifestation of a common enteric pathogen. 201222157276
Enteropathogens in acute diarrhea: a general practice-based study in a Nordic country.The epidemiology of infectious diarrhea influences the microbiological investigation of the disease, and is best elucidated through prospective studies. We undertook such a study in a Nordic country. Patients of all age groups who had acute diarrhea were recruited prospectively from general practice clinics in Iceland. They completed a questionnaire and provided stool samples for the detection of pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Of the 464 recruited patients, 211 (45%) had 224 infect ...201122057365
cross-linking of rotavirus outer capsid protein vp7 by antibodies or disulfides inhibits viral entry.antibodies that neutralize rotavirus infection target outer coat proteins vp4 and vp7 and inhibit viral entry. the structure of a vp7-fab complex (s. t. aoki, et al., science 324:1444-1447, 2009) led us to reclassify epitopes into two binding regions at inter- and intrasubunit boundaries of the calcium-dependent trimer. it further led us to show that antibodies binding at the intersubunit boundary inhibit uncoating of the virion outer layer. we have now tested representative antibodies for each ...201121849465
Regulation of gene expression by the NSP1 and NSP3 non-structural proteins of rotavirus.The role of the rotavirus non-structural proteins NSP1 and NSP3 in regulating cellular and viral mRNA translation has been investigated by examining the effect of added recombinant NSP3 on protein translation in a T7-based in vitro coupled transcription-translation system. Addition of purified NSP3 to assays primed solely with cellular mRNA was found to have no effect on the translation efficiency of the mRNA. However, as expected, the addition of viral mRNA to such assays competitively inhibite ...201121947567
Norovirus prevalence in 'pathogen negative' gastroenteritis in children from periurban areas in Lima, Peru.Norovirus was detected in 17.4% of 224 diarrhoeal samples from children younger than 24 months of age in Lima, in whom all common pathogens had been excluded (pathogen negative). Norovirus was identified more frequently in children older than 12 months of age than in younger children (34% vs 8%, P<0.001). Among norovirus-positive samples, genogroup II was the predominant group (92%). Compared with rotavirus, norovirus episodes tended to be of shorter duration and less severe. The role of norovir ...201121962615
rotavirus infection and epidermal necrolysis of the bowel in a patient with aids.a 44-year-old man with hiv, with a cd4+ count of 45/µl and a viral load of 88 000 copies/ml, who was completing therapy for pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, presented with severe bloody diarrhoea, fevers and abdominal pain. endoscopy revealed total epidermal necrolysis of the colon, and partial epidermal necrolysis of the duodenum, a histologic pattern most typically seen in severe graft versus host disease. computed tomography (ct) documented inflammation of the entire gastrointestinal tract dis ...200922125583
Rotavirus-Associated Acute Gastroenteritis Hospitalizations among Japanese Children Aged <5 Years: Active Rotavirus Surveillance in Mie Prefecture, Japan.Two effective vaccines for rotavirus infection will be available near future in Japan and data on the burden of rotavirus disease and the circulating rotavirus strains are urgently needed. To obtain these data, we set up active rotavirus hospitalization surveillance in three cities, Tsu, Matsusaka, and Ise in Mie Prefecture, Japan. From November 1, 2007 through October 31, 2009, we enrolled children <5 years of age who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and co ...201122116326
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