future rotavirus research.since the discovery of animal rotaviruses (rvs) in the 1960s (1,2), and of human rotaviruses (hrvs) 25 yr ago (3,4), much has been learned about virus structure, classification, evolution, replication, pathogenesis, and specific immune responses, and their correlation with protection and epidemiology. as pathogens that infect the gastrointestinal tract, these viruses continue to serve as useful models to understand mucosal virus-cell interactions. recently, a rv vaccine to prevent disease in chi ...200021318863
dna hypomethylation causes bile duct defects in zebrafish and is a distinguishing feature of infantile biliary atresia.infantile cholestatic disorders arise in the context of progressively developing intrahepatic bile ducts. biliary atresia (ba), a progressive fibroinflammatory disorder of extra- and intrahepatic bile ducts, is the most common identifiable cause of infantile cholestasis and the leading indication for liver transplantation in children. the etiology of ba is unclear, and although there is some evidence for viral, toxic, and complex genetic causes, the exclusive occurrence of ba during a period of ...201121319190
herd immunity after two years of the universal mass vaccination program against rotavirus gastroenteritis in austria.austria was the first country in europe implementing a universal mass vaccination program against rotavirus gastroenteritis (rv-ge) for all infants nationwide. epidemiological data from a hospital based surveillance system show that incidence rates of children hospitalized with rv-ge decreased in 2009 compared to 2008 and compared to the prevaccination period 2001-2005. decreasing hospitalization-rates from rv-ge were observed in children of all age groups, even in those not eligible for vaccina ...201121320539
safety and reactogenicity of dtpa-hbv-ipv/hib and dtpa-ipv/i-hib vaccines in a post-marketing surveillance setting.combination vaccines have been shown to improve the timeliness of vaccination and vaccine coverage. safety and reactogenicity of combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus and haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (dtpa-ipv/hib, infanrix ipv+hib, glaxosmithkline biologicals) was assessed in two clinical studies. in study a, 2,590 subjects received dtpa-ipv/hib at 3, 4 and 5 months of age with a booster at 18 months. in study b, 702 subjects received the same schedule ...201121323176
infectious diarrhea: cellular and molecular mechanisms.diarrhea caused by enteric infections is a major factor in morbidity and mortality worldwide. an estimated 2-4 billion episodes of infectious diarrhea occur each year and are especially prevalent in infants. this review highlights the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying diarrhea associated with the three classes of infectious agents, i.e., bacteria, viruses and parasites. several bacterial pathogens have been chosen as model organisms, including vibrio cholerae as a classical example of ...201021327112
emergence of g9 as a predominant genotype of human rotaviruses in study human rotaviruses in cuban children up to 5 years old with acute diarrhea, a total of 64 faecal samples from two pediatric hospitals between 2006 and 2008 were analyzed. thirty-nine samples (60.9%) were found positive for rotaviruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page), while four (6.2%) exhibited discordant results (elisa positives/page negatives). all the positive samples were genotyped by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain ...201121328392
phylogenetic analysis of human rotavirus in myanmar: detection of indian-bangladeshi g1/g2 lineages, chinese g3 lineage and op354-like p[8] lineage (p[8]b subtype).as a first phylogenetic study of human rotavirus in myanmar, vp7 and vp8* gene sequences of 5 group a human rotaviruses detected in children in yangon city were determined and analyzed for their relatedness to rotavirus strains reported in other countries. vp7 genes of the two g1p[8] strains and the two g2p[4] strains clustered phylogenetically with those of indian-bangladeshi lineages with extremely high sequence identities. in contrast, a g3p[8] strain exhibited a close relatedness of vp7 gene ...201021329316
breastfeeding and the risk of rotavirus diarrhea in hospitalized infants in uganda: a matched case control study.rotavirus is responsible for over 25 million outpatient visits, over 2 million hospitalizations and 527,000 deaths annually, worldwide. it is estimated that breastfeeding in accordance with the world health organization recommendations would save 1.45 million children's lives each year in the developing countries. the few studies that examined the effect of breastfeeding on rotavirus diarrhea produced conflicting results. this study aimed to determine the effect of breastfeeding on rotavirus dia ...201121329521
sequence analysis of the vp6-encoding genome segment of avian group f and g rotaviruses.rotavirus groups a to e are mainly defined by antibody reactivity to the capsid protein vp6. additionally, two putative rotavirus groups (f and g) have been identified in birds. here, the first nucleotide sequences of the vp6-encoding genome segment of group f (strain 03v0568) and group g (strain 03v0567) rotaviruses, both derived from chickens, are presented. the group f rotavirus is most closely related to avian group a and d rotaviruses, with 49.9-52.3% nucleotide and 36.5-39.0% amino acid se ...201121329955
co-dominance of g1 and emerging g3 rotaviruses in hong kong: a three-year surveillance in three major hospitals.the world health organization recommends rotavirus vaccines be included in all national immunization programs as part of a strategy to control diarrhoeal diseases. sentinel surveillance is advised to monitor impact post-vaccine introduction and to document changes in genotype distribution.201121330195
randomised controlled clinical trial of lactobacillus sporogenes (bacillus coagulans), used as probiotic in clinical practice, on acute watery diarrhoea in assess the clinical efficacy of lactobacillus sporogenes (bacillus coagulans), as probiotic preparation, against dehydrating diarrhoea in children.201121332891
safety of rotavirus vaccines: postmarketing surveillance in the who region of the americas. 201121337810
self-assembled virus-like particles from rotavirus structural protein vp6 for targeted drug delivery.proteins of viral capsid may self-assemble into virus-like particles (vlps) that can find many biomedical applications such as platform for drug delivery. in this paper, we describe preparation of vlps by self-assembly of vp6, a rotavirus capsid protein that was chemically conjugated with doxorubicin (dox), an anticancer drug. vp6 was first highly expressed in e. coli, followed by purification and renaturation. dox was then covalently attached to vp6 to form dox-vp6 (dvp6) conjugates, which were ...201121338097
molecular characterization of viruses associated with gastrointestinal infection in hiv-positive patients.diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among hiv-infected patients worldwide.201021340293
detection and characterization of human rotavirus in hospitalized patients in the cities of ponta grossa, londrina and assai - pr, brazil.acute diarrheal disease is still one of the major public health problems worldwide. rotaviruses (rv) are the most important viral etiologic agents and children under five years of age are the target population.201021340294
[vaccines, immunization and technological innovation: an update].the smallpox worldwide eradication was the major world public health achievement. the binomial - vaccines and immunization - continues to demonstrate very high performance in the prevention and control of other diseases preventable by vaccination. the new global initiatives on vaccination, such as gavi, have made possible the introduction of new and important vaccines preventing million of children deaths in the poorest countries in the world. the national immunization program of brazil is also ...201121340320
[the rotavirus disease and the oral human rotavirus vaccination in the brazilian scenario: an integrative literature review].due to the epidemiological relevance of rotavirus disease on the worldwide panorama as an important cause of morbid-mortality in the infantile public and to the still incipient production of studies concerning the problematic in the nationwide scenario, not to mention the unique necessity of encouraging the promotion of care and education as inseparable factors in the health spaces, it was delimited as study object of the present article the rotavirus disease in the brazilian scenario, emphasizi ...201121340332
[rotavirus prevalence in children with acute gastroenteritis and the distribution of serotypes and electropherotypes].rotavirus is the major cause of gastroenteritis in children worldwide as well as in turkey. the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of rotavirus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis and to investigate the prevalent rotavirus serotypes and electropherotypes. stool specimens collected from 251 (108 female, 143 male) children age between 0-5 years old who were admitted to gazi university hospital between april 2009 and february 2010 were included to the study. the presen ...201121341165
[preliminary investigation of viruses to the wild tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinese)].virological testing and monitoring is a fundamental part of quality control of experimental animals. however, there are few papers regarding the spectrum and status of natural infection in wild tree shrews with human and animal pathogenic viruses. using enzyme-linked immunosorbent adsorption assay (elisa), we tested sixty wild tree shrews captured from qinglong, an outskirt region of kunming, yunnan province, china for eleven viruses, including herpes simplex virus, coxsackie virus, influenza vi ...201121341387
an infant with rotavirus infection presenting as a severe acute duodenal ulcer. 201121342334
a waterborne outbreak of epidemic diarrhea due to group a rotavirus in malatya, turkey.we characterized an outbreak of acute diarrheal disease caused by group a rotavirus that occurred during the autumn of 2005 in malatya city, turkey. a total 9907 patients between 0 to 91 years old (mean age: 25.05?19.67) were included in the epidemic. the patients? data were prospectively collected and statistically analyzed. microbiologic analyses were performed to determine the etiologic agent. rapid onset diarrhea (98.36%), abdominal cramps (69%), fever (44.4%) and vomiting (69.6%) were the m ...201121344142
diarrheagenic escherichia coli in acute gastroenteritis in infants in north-west italy.enteropathogenic escherichia coli may cause diarrhoea in infancy, but it is not routinely detected and regarded as a major causative agent. the aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence of enteropathogenic e. coli infection and to investigate its epidemiology and pathogenesis from faecal specimens in infants hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis. between march 2008 and june 2009, faecal samples were collected and examined to recognize diarrhoeal aetiology, especially for e. coli, b ...201121344146
age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in dar es salaam, tanzania.this study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. the study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using integrated management of childhood illness (imci) guidelines.201121345186
accounting for model uncertainty in estimating global burden of illustrate the effects of failing to account for model uncertainty when modelling is used to estimate the global burden of disease, with specific application to childhood deaths from rotavirus infection.201121346922
a single-tube multiplex pcr for rapid detection in feces of 10 viruses causing diarrhea.a novel multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was developed to identify 10 viruses in a single tube. the assay was targeted to detect group a and c rotaviruses, adenovirus, norovirus gi, norovirus gii, sapovirus, astrovirus, aichi virus, parechovirus, and enterovirus. a total of 235 stool samples were collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in kyoto, japan, from 2008 to 2009, then tested by this novel multiplex pcr and compared with a multiplex pcr described previously ...201121349292
oral rehydration salts, zinc supplement and rota virus vaccine in the management of childhood acute diarrhea.acute diarrhea remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. since the introduction of oral rehydration salts (ors) mortality has dropped to less than 50% worldwide. low osmolarity ors improved the outcome and reduced the hospitalization further. zinc difficiency has been found to be associated with severe episodes of acute diarrhea. zinc supplement in developing countries did reduce the incidence and prevalence of diarrhea. in addition, zinc supplement significantly reduced the ...201021359029
index of suspicion: case 1: fatigue, shortness of breath, and chest pain in an adolescent boy. case 2: poor feeding and weight gain, tachypnea, and vomiting in a neonate. case 3: afebrile seizures after a bout of diarrhea in a 2-year-old girl. 201121364016
[clinical and epidemiological characteristics of rotavirus infection in children of cumaná, venezuela].the detection rate of group a human rotavirus (hrv-a), as well as its association with clinical and epidemiological parameters, was studied in children younger than 5 years old with acute diarrhea attending to the university hospital "antonio patricio de alcalá" of cumaná, between march 2006 and september 2007. of 241 fecal samples collected in this study, 47 (19.5%) were positive to hrv-a by immunoassay. rotavirus were present throughout the study and the major detection rates were on march, ap ...201021365878
reconciliation of rotavirus temperature-sensitive mutant collections and assignment of reassortment groups d, j, and k to genome segments.four rotavirus sa11 temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants and seven rotavirus rrv ts mutants, isolated at the national institutes of health (nih) and not genetically characterized, were assigned to reassortment groups by pairwise crosses with the sa11 mutant group prototypes isolated and characterized at baylor college of medicine (bcm). among the nih mutants, three of the rrv mutants and all four sa11 mutants contained mutations in single reassortment groups, and four rrv mutants contained mutatio ...201121367894
emergence of human rotavirus genotype g9 in metropolitan detroit between 2007 and 2009.between january 2007 and april 2009, rotavirus (rv)-positive stool samples from 238 children with acute gastroenteritis, seen at children's hospital of michigan in detroit, usa, were collected and rv genotyping was performed. g and p genotypes were determined by rt-pcr and nucleotide sequencing was conducted on selected g9 and p[6] strains. correlation between the severity of gastroenteritis episode and the infecting g genotype was done using a 14-point scoring system. the predominant g genotype ...201121372186
update on available vaccines in india: report of the appa vu 2010: i.the asia pacific pediatric association vaccinology update 2010 was held in mumbai on november 13-14, 2010 to discuss the latest information on burden of infectious diseases, recent developments in vaccines and their impact on immunization practices against infectious diseases occurring in indian children. during the conference the importance of including conjugate haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine and anti-rabies vaccines in routine immunization was stressed. also, the need for giving a seco ...201121373831
canadian paediatricians' opinions on rotavirus vaccination.rotavirus is the leading cause of dehydration and hospitalization due to gastroenteritis (ge) in young children. almost all children are affected by the age of 5 years. two safe and effective rotavirus vaccines are available for clinical use in canada. in the context where rotavirus vaccination is recommended, but not publicly funded, we have assessed paediatricians' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (kab) regarding rotavirus disease and its prevention by vaccination. a self-administered anonymou ...201121376118
human rotavirus vaccine is highly efficacious when coadministered with routine expanded program of immunization vaccines including oral poliovirus vaccine in latin america.the efficacy of a rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis when coadministered with routine expanded program on immunization (epi) vaccines including oral polio vaccine (opv) was evaluated in this study.201121378594
burden and typing of rotavirus group a in latin america and the caribbean: systematic review and meta-analysis.the efficacy of licensed rotavirus vaccines has only been shown against certain rotavirus group a (rv-a) types. it is critical to understand the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) and its prevalent types to assess the potential impact of these vaccines in latin america and the caribbean (la&c). we performed a systematic review and meta-analyses of all the available evidence reported from 1990 to 2009 on the burden of rotavirus disease and strains circulating in la&c. eligible studies-185 ...201121384462
[membrane technologies in medicine and ecology].the paper considers the state-of-the-art of membrane technologies, as applied to the needs of medicine and ecology, the major benefits of membranes for microfiltration and ultrafiltration, and perspectives for the application of new membranes based on new materials. a number of membranes based on aromatic polyamide imides (pas) have been investigated using rotavirus models. due to the good solubility of pas in amide solvents, their based asymmetric membranes can be formed in one step, by applyin ...201021384576
a gastrointestinal rotavirus infection mouse model for immune modulation studies.rotaviruses are the single most important cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. the current study was conducted to assess whether colostrum containing rotavirus-specific antibodies (gastrogard-r-«) could protect against rotavirus infection. in addition, this illness model was used to study modulatory effects of intervention on several immune parameters after re-infection.201121385425
the burden of rotavirus disease in denmark 2009-2010.this study sought to determine the incidence and the burden of severe diarrheal disease in denmark with emphasis on rotavirus (rv) disease.201121386748
results from a randomized clinical trial of coadministration of rotateq, a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, and neisvac-c, a meningococcal serogroup c conjugate vaccine.rotateq (merck & co. inc./sanofi pasteur msd) is a three-dose, oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine for the immunization of infants from 6 weeks of age for the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis. the primary objective of the present trial was to demonstrate that rotateq can be coadministered with meningococcal serogroup c conjugate vaccine (mencc; neisvac-c; baxter healthcare) to healthy infants without impairing the protective immune responses to mencc. this was an open-label, randomized, co ...201121389149
viral agents associated with acute gastroenteritis in seoul, korea.the present study was carried out to describe the epidemiologic characteristics of viral gastroenteritis and determine the phylogenetic composition of norovirus strains detected in hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in seoul, korea.201121391466
rotavirus and norovirus infections in children in sana'a, describe the epidemiology of rotavirus and norovirus infection among children with acute gastroenteritis in sana'a, yemen.201121392189
molecular characterization of group a rotaviruses detected in children with gastroenteritis in ireland in 2006-2009.summarycommunity and hospital-acquired cases of human rotavirus are responsible for millions of gastroenteritis cases in children worldwide, chiefly in developing countries, and vaccines are now available. during surveillance activity for human rotavirus infections in ireland, between 2006 and 2009, a total of 420 rotavirus strains were collected and analysed. upon either pcr genotyping and sequence analysis, a variety of vp7 (g1-g4 and g9) and vp4 (p[4], p[6], p[8] and p[9]) genotypes were dete ...201121396145
an unusual outbreak of rotavirus genotype g2p[6] during the 2005-2006 epidemic season in philadelphia.most rotavirus gastroenteritis is caused by g1p[8] strains. when g2 infections are encountered, the p type has most often been reported to be p[4]. the purpose of our study was to describe an unusual outbreak of g2p[6] cases. children presenting to the children's hospital of philadelphia with acute gastroenteritis have been monitored for rotavirus antigen in stool by elisa (with g-typing if elisa positive) since 1994-1995. compared to the last 12 rotavirus seasons before the 2006 introduction of ...201121398071
rotavirus toxin nsp4 induces diarrhea by activation of tmem16a and inhibition of na+ absorption.rotavirus infection is the most frequent cause for severe diarrhea in infants, killing more than 600,000 every year. the nonstructural protein nsp4 acts as a rotavirus enterotoxin, inducing secretory diarrhea without any structural organ damage. electrolyte transport was assessed in the colonic epithelium from pups and adult mice using ussing chamber recordings. western blots and immunocytochemistry was performed in intestinal tissues from wild-type and tmem16a knockout mice. ion channel current ...201121399895
three clusters of bovine kobuvirus isolated in korea, 2008-2010.fecal samples (n = 107) were collected from cattle with ascertained or suspected diarrheal disease on korean farms during 2008-2010. of these, 37 samples tested positive for bovine kobuvirus. the 37 positive samples came from 32 cattle that exhibited diarrhea and five cattle that were non-diarrhetic. the majority of the virus-positive feces samples were from calves under 1 month of age (n = 25). nine of the 37 cattle infected with bovine kobuvirus were confirmed to have a co-infection with other ...201121399921
[pathogenesis of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy].many aspects of the pathogenesis of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy have been clarified in this decade, although many unknown mechanisms remain to be elucidated. according to progress of mri and neuroimmunological analysis and the observation of clinical findings, many new syndromes were found, which enhanced our understanding of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy. the pathogenesis of encephalitis is divided into infection and immune mediated mechanisms. the antibodies to ne ...201121400830
[rota virus encephalopathy].rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children, but the pathogenesis and immunity of this disease are not completely understood. less well recognized is the association of rotavirus-induced central nervous system (cns) involvement, which has been associated with seizure, encephalopathy and death etc. the term 'rotavirus encephalopathy' has been used for cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis with cns involvement as evidenced by clinical features of encephalopathy with ...201121400834
successful sanitation of an edim-infected mouse colony by breeding cessation.despite decreasing prevalence, rotavirus infections still rank among the most important viral infections in colonies of laboratory mice. although the disease is characterized by low mortality and a relatively short and mild clinical period, the infection has the potential to alter the outcome of experiments substantially. for animal facilities, it is therefore essential to eradicate the virus. here we report a successful sanitation of a rotavirus-infected mouse colony in an animal facility. desp ...201121402733
[annual incidence of human group a rotavirus g-serotypes detected in a japanese university hospital between 2003 and 2007].group a rotavirus g-serotyping by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using university hospital subject samples in september 2003 to august 2004, september 2004 to august 2005, september 2005 to august 2006, and september 2006 to august 2007 showed the most common serotypes g1 and g3, detected in 27 and 33 subjects, compared to 4 subjects in whom serotype g4 was detected. between 2003 and 2004, serotypes g1 accounted for 50% and g3 for 38%, contrasting with serotype g3 at 79% between 2004 and 2005, ...201121404601
etiology of diarrhea in young children and patterns of antibiotic resistance in cambodia.little is known about diarrhea etiology and antibiotic resistance in developing countries where diarrhea is a major public health problem.201121412204
australian rotavirus surveillance program: annual report, 2009/2010.the australian rotavirus surveillance program together with 15 collaborating laboratories australia-wide conducts a laboratory based rotavirus surveillance program. this report describes the genotypes of rotavirus strains responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 july 2009 to 30 june 2010, the 3rd year of surveillance following introduction of rotavirus vaccines into the national immunisation program. seven hundred and seventy-eight faecal sam ...201021413527
specific, simple and rapid detection of porcine circovirus type 2 using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification method.porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) is the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws), and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (pdns). it has caused heavy losses in global agriculture in recent decades. rapid detection of pcv2 is very important for the effective prophylaxis and treatment of pmws.201121414233
intussusception: incidence and treatment-insights from the nationwide german surveillance.intussusception (is) is one of the most common paediatric emergencies, and the best mode of conservative reduction and its exact incidence remains unclear. for different reasons, availability of reliable incidence data are useful and additionally may be fundamental to monitor potential effects of recently introduced rotavirus (rv) vaccines.201121415671
neonatal immunization: where do we stand?recognition of the high burden of disease in early life and advances in the understanding of neonatal immunology have resulted in renewed interest in maternal and neonatal vaccination. this article reviews existing information and recent advances in neonatal human immunization.201121415741
[transport and storage of privately purchased vaccines].describe the transport and storage of privately purchased vaccines.201121420341
burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the pediatric population in central and eastern europe: serotype distribution and burden of illness.rotaviral gastroenteritis (rvge) is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children under five years of age worldwide. this comprehensive review aims to estimate the burden of rvge among children in central and eastern europe.201121422818
projecting the effectiveness of rotateq® against rotavirus-related hospitalizations and deaths in six asian countries.rotateq is an oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) that has shown high and consistent efficacy in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis (rge) in randomized clinical trials conducted mostly in industrialized countries. we projected the effectiveness of rv5 against rge-related hospitalizations and deaths in 6 asian countries by using a simple mathematical model. model inputs included rotavirus surveillance data collected 2006-2007 in china, 2001-2002 in hong kong, 2005-2007 in india, 2005-2007 ...201121422820
tylosema esculentum (marama) tuber and bean extracts are strong antiviral agents against rotavirus infection.tylosema esculentum (marama) beans and tubers are used as food, and traditional medicine against diarrhoea in southern africa. rotaviruses (rvs) are a major cause of diarrhoea among infants, young children, immunocompromised people, and domesticated animals. our work is first to determine anti-rv activity of marama bean and tuber ethanol and water extracts; in this case on intestinal enterocyte cells of human infant (h4), adult pig (clab) and adult bovine (cieb) origin. marama cotyledon ethanoli ...201121423688
severe gastroenteritis associated with g3p[9] rotavirus in taiwan. 201121424852
[detection of rotavirus in 2745 children with diarrhea]. 201121426650
replacing traditional diagnostics of fecal viral pathogens by a comprehensive panel of real-time pcrs.molecular dna-based diagnostics are increasingly being used for diagnosis of viral infections. for enteric viruses, pcr assays have also been developed. the aims of this study were to compile and evaluate a comprehensive panel of pcr assays for diagnosis of viruses causing diarrheal disease and to evaluate its use in a largely pediatric population in a 750-bed university medical center. the pcr panel was designed to include assays for detection of adenovirus, astrovirus, enterovirus, norovirus, ...201121430103
development, clinical evaluation, and post-licensure impact of rotateq, a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine.rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children worldwide. this paper provides an overview of the development, clinical evaluation, and postlicensure impact of rotateqôäó(rotavirus vaccine, live, oral, pentavalent, merck & co., inc.). rotateq, an oral vaccine, is uniquely designed to contain five human-bovine reassortant rotavirus strains expressing the human serotypes g1, g2, g3, g4, and p1a[8], which represent the most common human rotavirus serotypes respo ...201121434938
recurrent intussusception in infants.aim:ôçâ clinical features to identify infants at increased risk of recurrence after a primary episode of intussusception (is) are poorly defined. methods:ôçâ prospective study of the clinical presentation, treatment and outcome in infants <2ôçâyears presenting with acute is to the national hospital of pediatrics, hanoi, over a 14-month period (1 november 2002 to 31 december 2003). a retrospective review of medical records was performed to verify complete patient ascertainment. results:ôçâ five h ...201121435072
hospital-based, prospective, multicentre surveillance to determine the incidence of intussusception in children aged below 15 years in germany.a new vaccine against rotavirus (rv) gastroenteritis was introduced in germany in 2006. in 1997 the first rv vaccine was withdrawn due to an increased incidence in intussusception (is). thus, an accurate estimation of the incidence of is is important for post-licensure surveillance.201121435207
childhood intussusception in uzbekistan: analysis of retrospective surveillance data.estimates of baseline incidence of childhood intussusception could help safety monitoring after the introduction of rotavirus vaccines. we studied the incidence of intussusception in uzbekistan, a gavi-fund eligible state in central asia.201121435218
reduction in pediatric rotavirus-related hospitalizations after universal rotavirus vaccination in belgium.this study investigated the effect of pediatric vaccination against rotavirus on the number of rotavirus-related hospitalizations of children in belgium.201121436757
g2 as an emerging rotavirus strain in pediatric gastroenteritis in southern italy.human rotaviruses (hrvs) represent a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. it is estimated that they are responsible for a large number of diarrhea-associated hospitalizations in childhood each year. in italy, limited data are available on the patterns of distribution of hrv g and p types. we report here the results of 2 years of rotavirus strain surveillance among children with severe gastroenteritis diagnosed in the town of portici, campania, southern italy.201121437737
burden of disease and costs of treating rotavirus diarrhea in mexican children for the period estimate the health impact and the costs of treatment associated with rotavirus diarrhea in six yearly cohorts (2001-2006) of mexican infants.201121439316
[isolation precautions in a tertiary paediatric hospital].isolation is one of the measures to prevent the spread of nosocomial infections. however, in children's hospitals, given the type of patients and infections, and the architectural features of hospital wards, isolation precautions are sometimes difficult to implement and enforce.201121439920
efficacy of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, rotateq® (rv5), between doses of a 3-dose series and with less than 3 doses (incomplete regimen).post-hoc analyses of the rotavirus efficacy and safety trial (rest) were conducted to determine whether the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) confers early protection against rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) before completion of the 3-dose regimen. to evaluate the efficacy of rv5 between doses in reducing the rates of rvge-related hospitalizations and emergency department (ed) visits in infants who ultimately received all 3 doses of rv5/placebo, events occurring from 2 weeks after the first an ...201121441783
impact of rotavirus vaccination on hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea: the ivanhoe study.the aim of the ivanhoe study was to determine the real-world impact of the rotavirus vaccine, controlling for epidemic-to-epidemic variation in disease burden. a population-based prospective cohort study was conducted in brest city and 7 suburban districts (cub area), north-western brittany, france (210,000 inhabitants; 5500 births per year). the vaccination program started in may 2007 for a 2-year period for all infants born in the brest birth zone through pediatricians, public outpatient clini ...201121443962
scaling up diarrhea prevention and treatment interventions: a lives saved tool analysis.diarrhea remains a leading cause of mortality among young children in low- and middle-income countries. although the evidence for individual diarrhea prevention and treatment interventions is solid, the effect a comprehensive scale-up effort would have on diarrhea mortality has not been estimated.201121445330
noroviruses in children seen in a hospital for acute gastroenteritis in finland.noroviruses (novs) are second only to rotaviruses (rvs) as causative agents of acute gastroenteritis (age) in children. the proportional role of novs is likely to increase after control of rv by vaccination. we investigated novs in children seen in tampere university hospital either treated as outpatients or hospitalized because of age before universal rv vaccination was implemented in finland. this prospective study was conducted from september 2006 to august 2008. a total of 1,128 children <15 ...201121465124
fighting child mortality. 201121465702
diarrheagenic pathogens in polymicrobial infections.during systematic active surveillance of the causes of diarrhea in patients admitted to the infectious diseases and beliaghata general hospital in kolkata, india, we looked for 26 known gastrointestinal pathogens in fecal samples from 2,748 patients. samples from about one-third (29%) of the patients contained multiple pathogens. polymicrobial infections frequently contained vibrio cholerae o1 and rotavirus. when these agents were present, some co-infecting agents were found significantly less o ...201121470448
strategies for the purification and characterization of protein scaffolds for the production of hybrid nanobiomaterials.rotavirus vp6 self-assembles into high order macrostructures useful as novel scaffolds for the construction of multifunctional hybrid nanobiomaterials. this application requires large quantities of high quality pure material with strict structural consistency. strategies for obtaining high quality recombinant vp6 and different characterization techniques are explored and compared in this work. vp6 was expressed in the insect cell-baculovirus system. vp6 assemblies were selectively purified utili ...201121474396
detection of fecal shedding of rotavirus vaccine in infants following their first dose of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine.studies on rotavirus vaccine shedding and its potential transmission within households including immunocompromised individuals are needed to better define the potential risks and benefits of vaccination. we examined fecal shedding of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) for 9 days following the first dose of vaccine in infants between 6 and 12 weeks of age. rotavirus antigen was detected by enzyme immunoassay (eia), and vaccine-type rotavirus was identified by nucleotide sequencing based on genet ...201121477676
picobirnavirus detection in bovine and buffalo calves from foothills of himalaya and central india.the present study describes detection of picobirnavirus (pbv) in faecal samples from bovine and buffalo calves employing the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). a total of 136 faecal samples from buffalo (n = 122) and cow calves (n = 14) exhibiting clinical signs of diarrhoea and from healthy calves were collected during 2007-2010 from subtropical (central india) and tarai area of western temperate himalayan foothills (uttarakhand). the dsrna nature of the virus was confirmed by nuclease ...201121479844
rotavirus gastroenteritis and strain diversity in saudi arabia. current status and future prospects. 201121484010
norovirus genotypes in endemic acute gastroenteritis of infants and children in finland between 1994 and 2007.summarynoroviruses are, after rotaviruses, the second most common causative agents of acute gastroenteritis in young children. we studied norovirus genotypes in faecal specimens collected from finnish children followed-up prospectively in rotavirus vaccine trials. almost 5000 faecal specimens collected from cases of acute gastroenteritis were examined using reverse transcriptase-pcr. a total of 1172 cases (25% of all acute gastroenteritis) were associated with noroviruses. of these, 96% were gen ...201121489338
development of γδ t cell subset responses in gnotobiotic pigs infected with human rotaviruses and colonized with probiotic lactobacilli.γδ t cell responses are induced by various viral and bacterial infections. different γδ t cells contribute to activation and regulation of the inflammatory response and to epithelial repair. how γδ t cells respond to rotavirus infection and how the colonization of probiotics influences the γδ t cell response were unknown. in this study, we evaluated by multicolor flow cytometry the frequencies and distribution of total γδ t cells and three major subsets (cd2-cd8-, cd2+cd8- and cd2+cd8+) in ileum ...201121489639
[current events in vaccination.]the annual meeting of the infectious disease society of america (idsa); which brought together nearly 5000 participants from over 80 countries in vancouver, canada, october 21 to 24, 2010; provided a review of the influenza (h1n1) 2009 pandemic, evaluated vaccination programmes and presented new vaccines under development. with 12 500 deaths in the united states in 2009-2010, the influenza (h1n1) 2009 pandemic was actually less deadly than the seasonal flu. but it essentially hit the young, and ...201121489733
gastroenteritis in childhood: a retrospective study of 650 hospitalized pediatric patients.background: acute diarrhea continues to be an important cause of hospitalization in young children, and deaths still occur as a result. we reviewed a large cohort of hospitalized children affected by gastroenteritis. the hypothesis of our study was that clinical characteristics and a limited set of laboratory data can differentiate between the different causative pathogens of diarrhea. methods: a chart review was performed of 650 patients with pathogen-proven diarrhea treated between april 2005 ...201121489842
active participation of cellular chaperone hsp90 in regulating the function of rotavirus nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3).heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) has been reported to positively regulate rotavirus replication by modulating virus induced pi3k/akt and nfκb activation. here, we report the active association of hsp90 in the folding and stabilization of rotavirus nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3). in pcd-nsp3-transfected cells, treatment with hsp90 inhibitor (17-n,n-dimethylethylenediamine-geldanamycin (17dmag)) resulted in the proteasomal degradation of nsp3. sequence analysis and deletion mutations revealed that th ...201121489987
outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis in a nursing home, slovenia, december 2010.a gastroenteritis outbreak affected 45 people (40 residents and five staff) in a nursing home for the elderly in the celje region, north-east slovenia, between 17 december and 31 december 2010. rotavirus group a was laboratory confirmed in the stools of five ill individuals. the outbreak was identified when the number of affected persons was high but was successfully controlled after implementing preventive measures.201121492527
cost analysis of care for children admitted to kenyatta national hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis.rotavirus infection is the single most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in children under five years of age. the costs of care and treatment for rotavirus gastroenteritis are high. the objective was to compute average cost of care for children admitted with rotavirus gastroenteritis. a survey was conducted in children admitted with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis in nairobi, kenya. these were recruited and followed up till discharge or death. the costs they incurred were collected and ...201121492742
prevalence of major enteric pathogens in australian dairy calves with diarrhoea.determine the prevalence of the major enteric pathogens in dairy and dairy beef calves with diarrhoea in australia.201121495987
economic burden of rotavirus disease in children under 5 years in kazakhstan.we aimed to estimate the societal costs of rotavirus cases among children less than 5 years in kazakhstan, an upper-middle income country in central asia.201121496473
prospective study of the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in danish children and their families.this was the first study to characterize the total burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) at both hospital and general physician (gp) clinics in denmark, and also the first to confirm rotavirus (rv) as the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (ge) among children <5 years in gp clinics nationwide. several aspects of rvge were reported, including the impact of rvge on family life by changes in hrqol and by the number of days absent from day care. rv was detected in 225 (63.6%) children, and ...201121499690
monitoring of group a rotaviruses in wild-living birds in hungary.rotavirus is a common pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans and domesticated animals. the incidence of rotavirus in wild-living animals, particularly in avian species, has not been systematically investigated. in this study 1220 fecal samples and cloacal swabs collected from wild-living birds during 2008 in hungary were tested for the presence of group a rotaviruses by a vp6 gene-specific reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction assay. of the 1220 samples, 276 and 944 were processed ...201121500648
rotavirus encephalitis and cerebellitis with reversible magnetic resonance signal changes. 201121501312
rotavirus vaccine and diarrhea mortality: quantifying regional variation in effect size.diarrhea mortality remains a leading cause of child death and rotavirus vaccine an effective tool for preventing severe rotavirus diarrhea. new data suggest vaccine efficacy may vary by region.201121501433
immunization safety in us print media, identify and describe vaccine safety in us newspaper articles.201121502237
detection and molecular characterisation of rotavirus and norovirus infections in jordanian children with acute gastroenteritis.rotavirus and norovirus are globally important causes of paediatric gastroenteritis, but no studies of viral genotypes have been reported from jordan. we undertook a molecular epidemiological study in children hospitalised with acute gastroenteritis in jordan between january 2006 and december 2007. among 368 children, rotavirus and norovirus infections were detected in 49.5% and 11.4% of children, respectively. rotavirus genotypes p[8],g1 (56%), p[4],g2 (14%) and p[8],g9 (13%) were most commonly ...201121503643
rotavirus a genotype p[4]g2: genetic diversity and reassortment events among strains circulating in brazil between 2005 and a rotaviruses (rv-a) are the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. due to the epidemiologic complexity of rv-a, especially in developing countries, it is important to determine which genotypes are circulating, principally after the introduction in march 2006 of the monovalent (p[8]g1) rotarix® vaccine in brazil by the national immunization program. in phase iii trials with rotarix®, the prevalence of genotype p[4]g2 was extremely low, and therefor ...201121503926
rotavirus vaccine rix4414 (rotarix™): a pharmacoeconomic review of its use in the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in developed countries.the most common cause of severe diarrhoea in infants and young children is rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge), which is associated with significant morbidity, healthcare resource use and direct and indirect costs in industrialized nations. the monovalent rotavirus vaccine rix4414 (rotarix™) is administered as a two-dose oral series in infants and has demonstrated protective efficacy against rvge in clinical trials conducted in developed countries. in addition, various naturalistic studies have dem ...201121504245
influence of birth rates and transmission rates on the global seasonality of rotavirus incidence.rotavirus is a major cause of mortality in developing countries, and yet the dynamics of rotavirus in such settings are poorly understood. rotavirus is typically less seasonal in the tropics, although recent observational studies have challenged the universality of this pattern. while numerous studies have examined the association between environmental factors and rotavirus incidence, here we explore the role of intrinsic factors. by fitting a mathematical model of rotavirus transmission dynamic ...201121508015
[safe drinking water supply to the vologda region's population using risk assessment methodology].to supply the population with qualitative potable water is a priority problem in the provision of sanitary-and-epidemiologic well-being and in the prevention of disease in the vologda region. the monitoring of the results of laboratory control over the quality of drinking-water and the assessment of health risk enabled a package of measures to be proposed to optimize the conditions of drinking water supply in the vologda region. the risk assessment technology used by a state agency for sanitary- ...201121513060
racecadotril for childhood gastroenteritis: an individual patient data meta-analysis.background: racecadotril is an antidiarrhoeal drug with intestinal antisecretory mechanism of action. aim: to assess racecadotril efficacy as an adjunct to oral rehydration solution, against oral rehydration solution alone or with placebo in childhood acute gastroenteritis. methods: individual patient data meta-analysis following multilevel mixed models testing the significance of the treatment effect adjusted for baseline covariates. results: nine randomised clinical trials (n=1384) were identi ...201121514257
ifn-{lambda} determines the intestinal epithelial antiviral host defense.type i and type iii ifns bind to different cell-surface receptors but induce identical signal transduction pathways, leading to the expression of antiviral host effector molecules. despite the fact that type iii ifn (ifn-λ) has been shown to predominantly act on mucosal organs, in vivo infection studies have failed to attribute a specific, nonredundant function. instead, a predominant role of type i ifn was observed, which was explained by the ubiquitous expression of the type i ifn receptor. he ...201121518880
[intestinal invagination: change in its incidence from 1987 to 2008].some series have shown a decrease in the incidence of intestinal invaginations in last years. moreover, the recent introduction of new types of rotavirus vaccines increases the interest of invagination' s incidence. to this purpose, reliable local epidemiological data are needed. in order to ascertain the trend in the incidence of invaginations and their current value in our area we have performed a retrospective review of patients under 3 years of age with the diagnosis of intussusception and c ...201021520551
Displaying items 9901 - 10000 of 10398