PMID(sorted descending)
genomic characterization of a cell-culture-adapted korean human g9p[8] rotavirus, cau05-202.the human rotavirus g9 strain is the fifth most common rotavirus worldwide. a human rotavirus g9p[8] strain cau05-202 was isolated from a young child with diarrhea using a cell culture system, and its major gene sequences were determined. phylogenetic analysis of the vp7 gene revealed that cau05-202 clustered into genetic lineage iii-d and was most closely related to g9 rotaviruses from turkey (strain guh13) and sri lanka (strain 05slc056 and 05slc057). vp4 and nsp4 gene analysis showed that cau ...201222274623
structural insights into the coupling of virion assembly and rotavirus replication.viral replication is rapid and robust, but it is far from a chaotic process. instead, successful production of infectious progeny requires that events occur in the correct place and at the correct time. rotaviruses (segmented double-stranded rna viruses of the reoviridae family) seem to govern their replication through ordered disassembly and assembly of a triple-layered icosahedral capsid. in recent years, high-resolution structural data have provided unprecedented insight into these events. in ...201222266782
inhibition of rotavirus infectivity by a neoglycolipid receptor a rotaviruses are a major cause of diarrhea in the young of many mammalian species. in rotavirus infected piglets mortality can be as high as 60%. previous research in this laboratory has identified a porcine intestinal gm(3) ganglioside receptor that is required for sialic acid-dependent rotavirus recognition of host cells. in addition, we previously demonstrated exogenously added gm(3) can competitively inhibit porcine rotavirus binding and infectivity of host cells in vitro. sialyllacto ...201122254094
conformational differences unfold a wide range of enterotoxigenic abilities exhibited by rnsp4 peptides from different rotavirus strains.nsp4 has been recognized as the rotavirus-encoded enterotoxin. however, a few studies failed to support its diarrheagenic activity. as recombinant nsp4 (rnsp4) peptides of different lengths were used in the limited number of studies, a comparison of relative diarrheagenic potential of nsp4 from different strains could not be possible. to better understand the diarrheagenic potential of nsp4 from different strains, in this report we have evaluated the enterotoxigenic activity of the deletion muta ...201122253650
efficacy of a pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine against rotavirus gastroenteritis among american indian children.background:: before the widespread use of rotavirus vaccines, rotavirus was a leading cause of gastroenteritis among children. navajo and white mountain apache children suffer a disproportionate burden of severe rotavirus disease compared with the general us population. methods:: we enrolled navajo and white mountain apache infants in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (prv). subjects received 3 doses of vaccine or plac ...201222252206
sequence and phylogenetic analyses of nonstructural protein 2 genes of species b porcine rotaviruses detected in japan during 2001-2009.porcine rotavirus b (rvb) has been often detected in diarrhea of suckling and weaned pigs. because it is difficult to serially cultivate rvbs in cell culture, the number of available sequence data for rna segments other than vp7 and nsp1 in especially porcine rvbs is still limited. we performed genetic analysis focusing on nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) using several porcine rvb strains, which were detected in diarrheic feces collected around japan during 2001-2009. comparison of nsp2 nucleotide ...201222248642
evaluation of a multiplex real time reverse transcription pcr assay for the detection and quantitation of the most common human rotavirus a rotaviruses (rvs) are important pathogens that cause acute, dehydrating gastroenteritis in infants and young children. in this study, a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction protocol using primers and taqman(®) probes specific for viral vp4 and vp7 genes was evaluated. this assay offers simultaneous genotyping and quantification of the most common rv genotypes g1p[8], g2p[4], g3p[8], g4p[8], and g9p[8]. it was compared to the molecular typing results provided by conventional pcr. ...201222245180
bifidobacterium lactis bb12 enhances intestinal antibody response in formula-fed infants: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.background: addition of probiotics to infant formula may positively affect immune function in nonexclusively breastfed infants. this study aimed to investigate the effect of infant starter formula containing the probiotic bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis (bb12) on intestinal immunity and inflammation. methods: six-week-old healthy, full-term infants (n = 172) were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial with 2 groups studied in parallel to a breas ...201222237870
safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of the human rotavirus vaccine in pre-term european infants: a randomized phase iiib study.background: rotavirus disease is more severe in pre-term infants than in full-term infants. this study assessed the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a human rotavirus vaccine, rix4414 in european pre-term infants. methods: 1009 pre-term infants were randomized (2:1; vaccine: placebo) and stratified into two groups: 20% of early [27-30 weeks; group 1] and 80% of late [31-36 weeks; group 2] gestational age pre-term infants in each group. two doses of rix4414/placebo were administered t ...201222228231
whole genomic analysis reveals the porcine origin of human g9p[19] rotavirus strains mc323 and mc345.the group a rotavirus (rva) p[19] is a rare p-genotype of the rva vp4 gene, reported so far in humans and pigs. whole genomic analyses of p[19] strains are essential to study their origin and evolutionary patterns. to date, all the 11 genes of only two p[19] strains, rva/human-wt/ind/rmc321/1990/g9p[19] and rva/human-wt/ind/mani-97/2006/g9p[19], have been analyzed, providing evidence for their porcine origin. in the present study, the whole genomes of the first reported human p[19] strains, rva/ ...201122226701
no evidence of murine leukemia virus-related viruses in live attenuated human vaccines.the association of xenotropic murine leukemia virus (mlv)-related virus (xmrv) in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome reported in previous studies remains controversial as these results have been questioned by recent data. nonetheless, concerns have been raised regarding contamination of human vaccines as a possible source of introduction of xmrv and mlv into human populations. to address this possibility, we tested eight live attenuated human vaccines using generic pcr for xmrv and mlv ...201122216219
burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis and distribution of rotavirus strains in asia: a systematic review.background: rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children worldwide. we systematically reviewed the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) and distribution of rotavirus strains in asia. methods: we searched medline, embase and the world health organization (who) website for the term "rotavirus" and the name of each country. we included studies that were conducted in children between 2000 and 2011 and that examined the epidemiology, health and/or economic burden of rvge, and g ...201122212128
Astrovirus gastroenteritis in hospitalized children of less than 5 years of age in Taiwan, 2009.BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Acute gastroenteritis is a common illness in children under 5 years old. Although rotavirus is a leading cause, other viruses including astrovirus are also important, but have been the subject of limited studies. This is a prospective study to investigate astrovirus gastroenteritis in hospitalized children in Taiwan. MATERIAL/METHOD: From January 2009 to December 2009, children below 5 years of age admitted to three hospitals in Taiwan due to acute gastroenteritis were eligib ...201122209687
First description of group A rotavirus from fecal samples of ostriches (Struthio camelus).This study investigated the occurrence of rotavirus infections in ostriches (Struthio camelus) reared in Northern Paraná, Brazil. Fecal (n=66) and serum (n=182) samples from nine farms located in four different cities were analyzed by silver stained-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (ss-PAGE), RT-PCR assay, virus isolation, and counterimmunoelectroosmophoresis (CIE). Rotavirus group A seropositivity occurred in 5.49% (10/182) of serum samples of ostriches originated from two farms. Only 9.09% ( ...201122209018
[hemicerebellitis associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis.] 201122206883
vaccine adjuvant properties of probiotic bacteria.vaccine-preventable diseases are still responsible for the deaths of more than 1 million children under the age of 5 years annually, mostly in developing countries. a substantial number of these deaths are due to pneumococcal bacteria and infections with rotavirus. important issues faced by the who, governments, vaccine manufacturers, and international organizations such as unicef and the global alliance for vaccines and immunization (gavi) are the cost-effective introduction of these life-savin ...201122204769
molecular characterization of two strains of porcine group c c rotaviruses are an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans and animals. fecal samples were collected from a porcine herd in july, 2009. group c rotavirus rna was detected using rt-pcr for the vp6 gene. the identified strain was further characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the partial vp4, and complete vp6 and vp7 gene sequences. the partial vp4 and complete vp6 gene sequences of the cuk-5 strain were most closely related to those of the cuk-6 strain of grou ...201122203575
Rotavirus cerebellitis: new aspects to an old foe?Rotavirus infection is a significant cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although infection primarily causes gastroenteritis and dehydration, systemic signs and neurologic manifestations in rotavirus infection are widely recognized. The pathophysiologic origins of neurologic signs in rotavirus infection remain incompletely understood. We present a 4-year-old girl with clinical features of severe cerebellitis in association with abnormalities detected on magnetic resonance imagi ...201222196493
a new pentameric structure of rotavirus nsp4 revealed by molecular replacement.the region spanning residues 95-146 of the rotavirus nonstructural protein nsp4 from the asymptomatic human strain st3 has been purified and crystallized and diffraction data have been collected to a resolution of 2.6 å. several attempts to solve the structure by the molecular-replacement method using the available tetrameric structures of this domain were unsuccessful despite a sequence identity of 73% to the already known structures. a more systematic approach with a dimer as the search model ...201222194333
complete molecular genome analyses of equine rotavirus a strains from different continents reveal several new genotypes and a largely conserved genotype this study, the complete genome sequence of seven equine group a rotavirus (rva) strains (rva/horse-tc/gbr/l338/1991/g13p[18], rva/horse-wt/irl/03v04954/2003/g3p[12] and rva/horse-wt/irl/04v2024/2004/g14p[12] from europe; rva/horse-wt/arg/e30/1993/g3p[12], rva/horse-wt/arg/e403/2006/g14p[12], and rva/horse-wt/arg/e4040/2008/g14p[12] from argentina, and rva/horse-wt/zaf/eqrv-sa1/2006/g14p[12] from south africa) were determined. multiple new genotypes were identified and genotype numbers were a ...201122190012
Effects of vaccine on rotavirus disease in the pediatric population.PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe diarrhea disease in infants and young children worldwide and continues to have a major global impact on childhood morbidity and mortality. Two effective rotavirus vaccines are available and recommended for routine immunization of all infants. These vaccines have been introduced in both developed and developing countries. As rotavirus vaccines are implemented, studies have been undertaken that assess the effects of vaccinat ...201122189398
genetic analyses reveal differences in the vp7 and vp4 antigenic epitopes between human rotaviruses circulating in belgium and rotaviruses in rotarix™ and rotateq™two live-attenuated rotavirus group a (rva) vaccines, rotarix™ (g1p[8]) and rotateq™ (g1-g4, p[8]), have been successfully introduced in many countries worldwide, including belgium. the parental rva strains used to generate the vaccines were isolated more than 20 years ago in france (g4 parental strain in rotateq™) and the united states (all other parental strains). at present, little is known about the relationship between currently circulating human rvas and the vaccine strains. in this study, ...201122189107
Clinical characteristics of obstructive uropathy associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis in Japan.Aims: Rotavirus gastroenteritis is severe and often results in dehydration and pre-renal azotemia. However, we have encountered four children with acute obstructive uropathy associated with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis, and several similar cases have been reported. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the epidemiology and clinical features of acute obstructive uropathy associated with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in Japanese children. Patients and methods: We sent questio ...201222185968
In situ gastrointestinal protection against anthrax edema toxin by single-chain antibody fragment producing lactobacilli.ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Anthrax is caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis and is regarded as one of the most prominent bioterrorism threats. Anthrax toxicity is induced by the tripartite toxin complex, composed of the receptor-binding anthrax protective antigen and the two enzymatic subunits, lethal factor and edema factor. Recombinant lactobacilli have previously been used to deliver antibody fragments directed against surface epitopes of a variety of pathogens, including Streptococcus mutan ...201122185669
rotavirus nsp4 is secreted from infected cells as an oligomeric lipoprotein and binds to glycosaminoglycans on the surface of non-infected cells.abstract: background: nonstructural glycoprotein 4 (nsp4) encoded by rotavirus is the only viral protein currently believed to function as an enterotoxin. nsp4 is synthesized as an intracellular transmembrane glycoprotein and as such is essential for virus assembly. infection of polarized caco-2 cells with rotavirus also results in the secretion of glycosylated nsp4 apparently in a soluble form despite retention of its transmembrane domain. we have examined the structure, solubility and cell ...201122185400
sensitivity of poliovirus type 1 chat strain and rotavirus sa-11 to e-beam irradiation on iceberg lettuce and spinach: quantifying the reduction in potential health risks.fresh produce such as lettuce and spinach serve as routes of foodborne illnesses. the u.s. fda has approved the use of ionizing irradiation upto 4 kgy as a pathogen kill step for fresh cut lettuce and spinach. the focus of this study was to determine the inactivation of poliovirus and rotavirus on lettuce and spinach when exposed to varying doses of high energy e-beam irradiation and to calculate the theoretical reduction in infection risks that can be achieved under different contamination scen ...201122179244
High dose and low dose Lactobacillus acidophilus exerted differential immune modulating effects on T cell immune responses induced by an oral human rotavirus vaccine in gnotobiotic pigs.BACKGROUND: Strain-specific effects of probiotics in pro- or anti-inflammatory immune responses have been well recognized. Several proinflammatory Lactobacillus strains have been shown to act as adjuvants to enhance the immunogenicity of vaccines. However, dose effects of probiotics in modulating immune responses are not clearly understood. This study examined the dose effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) NCFM strain on T cell immune responses to rotavirus vaccination in a gnotobiotic (Gn) ...201122178726
report of the second european expert meeting on rotavirus vaccination. 201122178724
immunization schedule of the spanish association of pediatrics: 2012 recommendations.the advisory committee on vaccines of the spanish association of pediatrics (cav-aep) updates the immunization schedule every year, taking into account epidemiological data as well as evidence on the effectiveness and efficiency of vaccines. the present schedule includes grades of recommendation. we have graded as routine vaccinations those that the cav-aep believes all children should receive; as recommended those that fit the profile for universal childhood immunization and would ideally be gi ...201122177960
[immunization schedule of the spanish association of pediatrics: 2012 recommendations].the advisory committee on vaccines of the spanish association of pediatrics (cav-aep) updates the immunization schedule every year, taking into account epidemiological data as well as evidence on the effectiveness and efficency of vaccines. the present schedule includes grades of recommendation. we have graded as routine vaccinations those that the cav-aep believes all children should receive; as recommended those that fit the profile for universal childhood immunization and would ideally be giv ...201122177424
Increased prevalence of rotavirus among children associated gastroenteritis in Riyadh Saudi Arabia.ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to assess the epidemiology along with the molecular structure of rotavirus causing pediatric diarrhea among Saudi patients. However, in this report we sited the epidemiological reflect coming from our project. METHODS: One thousand and seven diarrheal stool samples had been collected between Jan1st, 2008 and OCT 31st, 2010 from hospitalized patients below the age of 5 year. Samples were then examined using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Demographic ...201122176997
adsorption characteristics of an enteric virus-binding protein to norovirus, rotavirus and poliovirus.abstract:201122176631
antigenemia, rnaemia, and innate immunity in children with acute rotavirus diarrhea.antigenemia is commonly detected in children with acute rotavirus diarrhea, but the prevalence of viremia has not been clearly defined. we examined antigenemia in plasma and rnaemia in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) of children with acute diarrhea by eia, rt-pcr, and southern hybridization, using primers and a probe specific to rotavirus nsp4 gene. we detected the presence of rotavirus antigen in 33.3% and almost full-length nsp4 gene in 70.8% of the acute-phase plasma and pbmc, respe ...201122176605
Rotavirus disease burden among children <5 years of age - Santa Rosa, Guatemala, 2007-2009.Objectives To assess the burden of rotavirus disease in Guatemala, in view of the recent introduction of a national rotavirus vaccination programme. Methods We examined data from an active, facility-based surveillance system in Santa Rosa, Guatemala, from October 2007 through September 2009 among children <5 years of age presenting to the hospital or ambulatory clinics with diarrhoea (=3 loose stools in 24 h during the last 7 days). Demographic and epidemiological data were collected, and spec ...201122175547
post marketing evaluation of the short-term safety of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine.background: a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) demonstrated efficacy and safety in a large clinical trial before us licensure in 2006. the primary objective of this observational study was to assess the occurrence of intussusception (is) among infants who received rv5 in routine use. secondary objectives assessed the occurrence of kawasaki disease (kd) and general safety. methods: we identified and followed infants with a health insurance claim for rv5 during the first 2 years of rv5 availabi ...201122173146
incidence of intussusception among infants in a large commercially insured population in the united states.background: to estimate the incidence of intussusception among infants treated in inpatient and emergency department settings during the period preceding the us launch of second generation rotavirus vaccines. methods: from a large us health insurance claims database, we sampled 100,000 infants aged 1 to 3 months at first diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dtap) vaccination between 2001 and 2005. potential intussusception cases were identified on the basis of claims and confirmed by medical ...201122173141
first reports of human rotavirus g8p[4] gastroenteritis in the united 2009, three children were hospitalized in rochester, ny with sequence-confirmed g8p[4] rotavirus gastroenteritis-the first us detection of this uncommon strain more typically found in africa. continued monitoring of g8p[4] and other rotavirus genotypes not represented in current vaccines is essential to assess whether vaccination will result in an increase in prevalence of these strains.201122170918
enteric viral pathogens in children with inflammatory bowel disease.the causes of exacerbations of inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) are unknown. the presence of rna of an enterovirus, norovirus gi, norovirus gii, rotavirus, astrovirus, and sapovirus was sought in stool samples of 50 children (median age 12.9 years) undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopies for ibd or its exclusion (crohn's disease n = 18, ulcerative colitis n = 13, indeterminate colitis n = 2, non-ibd n = 17). viral rna was found in three fecal samples (norovirus gii n = 2, sapovirus n = 1), all i ...201222170557
Detection and molecular characterization of noroviruses and sapoviruses in children admitted to hospital with acute gastroenteritis in Vietnam.Noroviruses (NoV) and sapoviruses (SaV) are recognized as important causes of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. In this study, the prevalence and genetic variability of NoV and SaV were determined in hospitalized children <5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis in Hanoi, Vietnam. A total of 501 fecal specimens collected between November-2007 and October-2008, that previously had been tested for rotavirus (RV), were tested for NoV and SaV by realtime RT-PCR. Positive samples were ge ...201222170550
antigenemia and cytokine expression in rotavirus gastroenteritis in children.background: antigenemia is commonly found in children with rotavirus infection, although its clinical significance is undetermined. the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of antigenemia with clinical manifestations and cytokine profiles in children infected by rotavirus. methods: in total, 68 children hospitalized with rotavirus gastroenteritis were enrolled. serum samples were collected for detection of antigenemia and viremia. clinical, laboratory and demographic data were analy ...201122169122
Phages bearing affinity peptides to bovine rotavirus differentiate the virus from other viruses.The aim of this study was to identify potential ligands and develop a novel diagnostic test to pathogenic bovine rotavirus (BRV) using phage display technology. The viruses were used as an immobilized target followed by incubation with a 12-mer phage display random peptide library. After five rounds of biopanning, phages had a specific binding activity to BRV were isolated. DNA sequencing indicated that phage displayed peptides HVHPPLRPHSDK, HATNHLPTPHNR or YPTHHAHTTPVR were potential ligands to ...201122163050
[interaction of rotavirus with protein disulfide isomerase in vitro and cell system].rotavirus entry process involves a multi-step mechanism, the first of which is when the outermost viral proteins interact with four different integrins and hsc70. recently, rotavirus infection reportedly has been decreased after blocking cell surface protein disulfide isomerase (pdi). this suggested that this protein interacts with rotavirus during the entry process.201122159485
Acute arthritis associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis: an unusual extraintestinal manifestation of a common enteric pathogen. 201222157276
detection of human g10 rotavirus strains with similarity to bovine and bovine-like equine strains from untypable samples.g10 rotaviruses, which are usually found in cattle, have also been reported in neonatal infections in recent years. during the rotavirus surveillances of children less than 4years of age between 2003 and 2006 in kolkata, eastern india, 60 out of 1153 samples could not be typed. all 60 samples gave usual electropherotype pattern in polyacrylamide gel. thirty-one out of these 60 g and p untypable rotavirus strains were successfully characterized during the study. among 31 samples, g9p[4] (n=8), g1 ...201122155585
detection of enterovirus 71 using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp).reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp), which is a visual assay for nucleic acids, is performed in a single step using one tube at 65°c for 1.5h. in this study, rt-lamp was established as a method for the detection of enterovirus 71 (ev71). the detection limit of the assay was approximately 10 copies, and no cross-reactivity was noted with coxsackievirus a16, echovirus, human rotavirus (hrv) or norovirus. this assay, which offers greater sensitivity at a lower cos ...201122155579
clinical manifestations of a cluster of rotavirus infection in young infants hospitalized in neonatal care units.purpose: to define the clinical manifestations of rotavirus (rv) infection in neonates and young infants hospitalized in neonatal care units, which are rarely reported. materials and methods: from october 2008 to september 2010, a total of 153 stool specimens positive for rv were detected from 100 neonates and young infants hospitalized in neonatal care units of our hospital. four infants had two episodes of rv infection. demographics and clinical presentations of these infants were collected an ...201122154991
impact of rotavirus vaccination on childhood gastroenteritis-related mortality and hospital discharges in panama.background: rotavirus vaccination was introduced in panama in march 2006. this study was carried out in order to describe the trends in gastroenteritis-related (ger) hospitalizations and mortality in children <5 years of age during the pre- and post-vaccination periods. methods: data from the expanded program on immunization (ministry of health) were used to calculate vaccine coverage. ger mortality and hospitalizations were obtained through database review of the contraloría general de la repúb ...201122154592
virucidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour disinfection.viral contamination of surfaces is thought to be important in transmission. chemical disinfection can be an effective means of intervention, but little is known about the virucidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour (hpv) against enteric and respiratory viruses.201122153909
aetiology of acute gastroenteritis in adults requiring hospitalization in the netherlands.summaryinfectious gastroenteritis causes a considerable burden of disease worldwide. effective control should be targeted at diseases with the highest burden and costs. therefore, an accurate understanding of the relative importance of the different microorganisms is needed. the objective of this study was to determine the incidence and aetiology of gastroenteritis in adults requiring hospital admission in the netherlands. five hospitals enrolled patients admitted with gastroenteritis for about ...201122152987
rotavirus nonstructural protein 1 antagonizes innate immune response by interacting with retinoic acid inducible gene i.abstract:201122152002
compatible immuno-nasba loc device for quantitative detection of waterborne pathogens: design and validation.waterborne pathogens usually pose a global threat to animals and human beings. there has been a growing demand for convenient and sensitive tools to detect the potential emerging pathogens in water. in this study, a lab-on-a-chip (loc) device based on the real-time immuno-nasba (immuno-nucleic acid sequence-based amplification) assay was designed, fabricated and verified. the disposable immuno-nasba chip is modelled on a 96-well elisa microplate, which contains 43 reaction chambers inside the bi ...201122146918
Molecular Techniques in Ecohealth Research Toolkit: Facilitating Estimation of Aggregate Gastroenteritis Burden in an Irrigated Periurban Landscape.Assessment of microbial hazards associated with certain environmental matrices, livelihood strategies, and food handling practices are constrained by time-consuming conventional microbiological techniques that lead to health risk assessments of narrow geographic or time scope, often targeting very few pathogens. Health risk assessment based on one or few indicator organisms underestimates true disease burden due a number of coexisting causative pathogens. Here, we employed molecular techniques i ...201122146856
extraction of food-borne viruses from food samples: a review.detection of food-borne viruses such as noroviruses, rotaviruses and hepatitis a virus in food products differs from detection of most food-borne bacteria, as most of these viruses cannot be cultivated in cell culture to date. therefore, detection of food-borne viruses in food products requires multiple steps: first, virus extraction; second, purification of the viral genomic material (rna for the majority of food-borne viruses); and last, molecular detection. this review is focused on the first ...201122137685
transaminase on rotavirus gastroenteritis.background:  children infected with rotavirus often show increased levels of transaminase, and their symptom is characterized by white stool similar as in biliary atresia. rotavirus infections are also sporadically accompanied with convulsions, encephalopathy and reye syndrome. methods:  we evaluated the results of the liver function tests, mainly the elevation of transaminase and interleukin (il)-6 in rotavirus gastroenteritis with or without convulsions in order to better understand their clin ...201122136601
Impact of rotavirus vaccination on epidemiological dynamics in England and Wales.Rotavirus infection causes severe gastroenteritis (RVGE) in children worldwide. Its disease burden has been reduced in countries where mass vaccination programs have been introduced. However, England and Wales have not yet implemented such a mass vaccination program. This paper uses a dynamic model to predict the effect of a mass vaccination program in England and Wales beginning in the fall of 2011. The dynamic model is parameterized with country-specific data for the introduction of a rotaviru ...201222133508
progress in the introduction of rotavirus vaccine - latin america and the caribbean, 2006-2010.rotavirus disease is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality related to diarrhea in latin america and the caribbean (lac), where an estimated 8,000 deaths related to rotavirus diarrhea occur annually among children aged <5 years. after two safe and effective rotavirus vaccines became available, the world health organization (who) in 2007 recommended inclusion of rotavirus vaccine in the immunization programs of europe and the americas, and in 2009 expanded the recommendation to al ...201122129995
intussusception after rotavirus vaccination--spontaneous reports. 201122129263
intussusception risk of rotavirus vaccination. 201122129262
intussusception risk of rotavirus vaccination. 201122129261
applications of pcr (real-time and masstag) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in diagnosis of respiratory infections and diarrheal illness among deployed u.s. military personnel during exercise balikatan 2009, philippines.laboratory-based surveillance for diarrheal and respiratory illness was conducted at the 2009 republic of the philippines-united states balikatan exercise to determine the presence of specific pathogens endemic in the locations where the military exercises were conducted. ten stool and 6 respiratory specimens were obtained from individuals meeting case definitions for diarrhea or respiratory illness. stool specimens were frozen in dry ice and remotely tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent ass ...201122128641
progress introducing rotavirus vaccine into latin america and the caribbean, 2006–2010. 201122128387
rotavirus infection and epidermal necrolysis of the bowel in a patient with aids.a 44-year-old man with hiv, with a cd4+ count of 45/µl and a viral load of 88 000 copies/ml, who was completing therapy for pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, presented with severe bloody diarrhoea, fevers and abdominal pain. endoscopy revealed total epidermal necrolysis of the colon, and partial epidermal necrolysis of the duodenum, a histologic pattern most typically seen in severe graft versus host disease. computed tomography (ct) documented inflammation of the entire gastrointestinal tract dis ...200922125583
rotavirus and biliary atresia: can causation be proven?new knowledge on rotavirus infection in children and well established mouse models has renewed interest in whether rotavirus could cause biliary atresia, an idiopathic, obliterative infantile disease of bile ducts that is the primary indication for liver transplant in children.201222123643
Effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines in preventing cases and hospitalizations due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in Navarre, Spain.Two rotavirus vaccines have been available since 2006. This study evaluates the effectiveness of these vaccines using a test-negative case-control design in Navarre, Spain. We included children 3-59 months of age who sought medical care for gastroenteritis and for whom stool samples were taken between January 2008 and June 2011. About 9% had received the pentavalent vaccine (RotaTeq) and another 8% received the monovalent vaccine (Rotarix). Cases were the 756 children with confirmed rotavirus an ...201222122860
the african vaccine-preventable diseases network: a vaccine advocacy initiative.achieving high and equitable childhood immunisation coverage in africa will not only protect children from disability and premature death, it will also boost productivity, reduce poverty and support the economic growth of the continent. thus, africa needs innovative and sustainable vaccine advocacy initiatives. one such initiative is the african vaccine-preventable diseases network, formed in 2009. this association of immunisation practitioners, vaccinologists, paediatricians, and infectious dis ...201122121433
health economics of rotavirus immunization in vietnam: potentials for favorable cost-effectiveness in developing countries.introduction: rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhoea worldwide. vietnam is situated in the region of high rotavirus infection incidence and eligible for financial support to introduce rotavirus vaccines into the expanded program of immunization (epi) from the gavi. this study was designed to assess the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus immunization in vietnam, explicitly the use of rotateq(®) and to assess the affordability of implementing universal rotavirus immunization based on ...201122119590
the molecular biology of rotaviruses x: intercellular dissemination of rotavirus nsp4 requires glycosylation and is mediated by direct cell-cell contact through cytoplasmic extrusions.the effect of expressing the nsp4 protein of group a rotaviruses in cells has been studied. it led to the rapid appearance of long cytoplasmic extrusions, which, through site-directed mutagenesis of the n-linked glycosylation sites near the amino terminus of the protein, were shown to be dependent on its ability to become fully glycosylated. real-time confocal microscopy was used to follow the appearance of similar cytoplasmic extrusions in virus-infected cells and revealed them to grow at a rat ...201122116494
Rotavirus-Associated Acute Gastroenteritis Hospitalizations among Japanese Children Aged <5 Years: Active Rotavirus Surveillance in Mie Prefecture, Japan.Two effective vaccines for rotavirus infection will be available near future in Japan and data on the burden of rotavirus disease and the circulating rotavirus strains are urgently needed. To obtain these data, we set up active rotavirus hospitalization surveillance in three cities, Tsu, Matsusaka, and Ise in Mie Prefecture, Japan. From November 1, 2007 through October 31, 2009, we enrolled children <5 years of age who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and co ...201122116326
Methods suitable for high-throughput screening of siRNAs and other chemical compounds with the potential to inhibit rotavirus replication.Rotaviruses are an important cause of severe gastroenteritis in children under two years of age. Two vaccines have become recently available, however, there are no specific pharmacological interventions of rotavirus disease. Recently, libraries of siRNAs or libraries of chemical compounds that can be tested for their ability to inhibit biological processes have been developed. To search these libraries for drugs or siRNAs that may prevent rotavirus replication it is necessary to have methods for ...201222115788
[rotavirus vaccines: a long and difficult journey].diarrhea is the second cause of death worldwide. the main causative agent in infants and children less than 5 years is rotavirus. consequently, for the world health organization and the global alliance for vaccines and immunization (gavi), rotavirus vaccination is an urgent priority. the global distribution of rotavirus serotypes varies from country to country, but in 80-90% of cases is caused by five types: g1p[8], g2p[4], g3p[8], g4p[8] and g9p[8]. currently, two rotavirus vaccines are availab ...201122112634
bluetongue virus vp1 polymerase activity in vitro: template dependency, dinucleotide priming and cap dependency.bluetongue virus (btv) protein, vp1, is known to possess an intrinsic polymerase function, unlike rotavirus vp1, which requires the capsid protein vp2 for its catalytic activity. however, compared with the polymerases of other members of the reoviridae family, btv vp1 has not been characterized in detail.201122110731
Contribution of enteric infection, altered intestinal barrier function, and maternal malnutrition to infant malnutrition in bangladesh.Background. Malnourished children are at increased risk for death due to diarrhea. Our goal was to determine the contribution of specific enteric infections to malnutrition-associated diarrhea and to determine the role of enteric infections in the development of malnutrition. Methods. Children from an urban slum in Bangladesh were followed for the first year of life by every-other-day home visits. Enteropathogens were identified in diarrheal and monthly surveillance stools; intestinal barrier fu ...201222109945
Rotavirus vaccines: Update on global impact and future priorities.Early rotavirus vaccine adopter countries in the Americas, Europe, and in Australia have documented substantial declines in rotavirus disease burden following the introduction of vaccination.  However, the full public health impact of rotavirus vaccines has not been realized as they have not been introduced into routine immunization programs in countries of Africa and Asia with the highest rotavirus disease morbidity and mortality burden.  In this article, we review the epidemiology of rotavirus ...201122108032
early observations in the use of oral rotavirus vaccination in infants with functional short gut syndrome.aim:  universal vaccination with an oral live-attenuated rotavirus vaccine at 2, 4 and 6 months of age was introduced in australia in july 2007. there are no data on the short-term effects of vaccination for those infants most at risk of severe complications from rotavirus infection. the aim of this study was to describe the effects of rotavirus vaccination on weight gain and gastrointestinal losses in infants with functional short gut syndrome secondary to an ileostomy. methods:  a retrospectiv ...201122107074
The management of acute diarrhea in children in developed and developing areas: from evidence base to clinical practice.Introduction: Acute diarrhea remains a major problem in children and is associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and costs. While vaccination against rotavirus could reduce the burden of the disease, the persistent impact of intestinal infections requires effective treatment in adjunct to oral rehydration solutions, to reduce the severity and duration of diarrhea. Several therapeutic options have been proposed for acute diarrhea, but proof of efficacy is available for few of them, inclu ...201222106840
analysis of rotavirus antigenemia in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.systemic rotavirus infection, such as rotavirus antigenemia, has been found in immunocompetent rotavirus gastroenteritis patients. however, the pathogenesis of rotavirus infection in immunocompromised transplant recipients remains unclear. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure rotavirus antigen levels in serially collected serum samples obtained from 62 pediatric patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (hsct). rotavirus antigen was detected in 43 (6.8%) ...201122093089
vaccine-preventable diseases and their impact on latin american children.a joint meeting of the latin american society of pediatric infectious diseases, the dominican society of pediatrics and the dominican society of vaccinology was held in the dominican republic. this report highlights the most relevant issues that were presented and discussed about vaccine-preventable diseases, their epidemiology and impact in latin american children, the need to move forward and expand national immunization programs and the economical and political obstacles to introduce ?new? va ...201122085169
rotarix®: vaccine performance 6 years postlicensure.rotarix(®) was first licensed in 2004 and rapidly introduced into private and public markets worldwide. in a previous 2009 article, we reviewed the impact of rotavirus-associated disease, the rationale for different vaccines, prelicensure efficacy studies and cost-effectiveness studies for rotarix. as of september 2011, rotarix had been licensed in 123 countries in the americas, europe, australia, africa and asia, of which 27 have incorporated the vaccine into national or regional immunization p ...201122085167
leveraging state immunization information systems to measure the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine.electronic immunization information systems (iiss) are now established in almost all us states. we used the iis in minnesota, georgia, and connecticut for immunization data and as the source of 1 of 2 control groups to measure pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) effectiveness (ve) using case-control methodology.201122084328
modeling rotavirus strain dynamics in developed countries to understand the potential impact of vaccination on genotype distributions.understanding how immunity shapes the dynamics of multistrain pathogens is essential in determining the selective pressures imposed by vaccines. there is currently much interest in elucidating the strain dynamics of rotavirus to determine whether vaccination may lead to the replacement of vaccine-type strains. in developed countries, g1p[8] strains constitute the majority of rotavirus infections most years, but occasionally other genotypes dominate for reasons that are not well understood. we de ...201122084114
human myeloid dendritic cells treated with supernatants of rotavirus infected caco-2 cells induce a poor th1 response.we have previously shown that human myeloid dendritic cells treated with purified rotavirus induce an allogenic th1 response. to determine if rotavirus in the context of an intestinal microenvironment modulates the function of dendritic cells, we treated these cells with supernatants from non-infected or infected caco-2 cells and studied their capacity to promote th1 or th2 responses. dendritic cells treated with supernatants from rotavirus-infected caco-2 cells promoted a significantly lower th ...201222082567
the role of type-2 turkey astrovirus in poult enteritis experimental study was conducted to determine the comparative pathogenicity of type-2 turkey astrovirus (tastv-2) obtained from turkey flocks afflicted with poult enteritis syndrome (pes) and from turkey flocks displaying no apparent signs of infection. in total, ninety 7-d-old poults, which tested negative for the presence of astrovirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, and reovirus by reverse transcriptase (rt) pcr , were divided evenly into 3 groups: a, b, and c. birds in group a were inoculated or ...201122080013
Use of PCR-based assays for the detection of the adventitious agent porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) in vaccines, and for confirming the identity of cell substrates and viruses used in vaccine production.Safety and quality are important issues for vaccines. Whereas reversion to virulence poses a safety risk with live attenuated vaccines, the potential for the presence of adventitious agents is also an issue of vaccine quality. The recent detection or porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) in human vaccines has further highlighted the importance of quality control in vaccine production. The purpose of this study was to use a novel conventional PCR to detect PCV1, and subsequently screen materials used ...201222079617
detection of avian rotaviruses of groups a, d, f and g in diseased chickens and turkeys from europe and bangladesh.avian rotaviruses (avrvs) represent a diverse group of intestinal viruses, which are suspected as the cause of several diseases in poultry with symptoms of diarrhoea, growth retardation or runting and stunting syndrome (rss). to assess the distribution of avrvs in chickens and turkeys, we have developed specific pcr protocols. these protocols were applied in two field studies investigating faecal samples or intestinal contents of diseased birds derived from several european countries and banglad ...201122079218
diversity and zoonotic potential of rotaviruses in swine and cattle across a rotaviruses can infect both humans and animals. individual rotavirus strains can occasionally cross species barriers and might hereby contribute to the emergence of new genotypes in heterologous hosts. the incidence and impact of zoonotic rotavirus are not well defined, and one reason for this is a lack of data about strains circulating in suspected reservoir animal hosts. in this study we report the incidence, genetic diversity, and molecular epidemiology of rotaviruses detected in dome ...201122079216
glycan-modifying bacteria-derived soluble factors from bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and lactobacillus casei inhibit rotavirus infection in human intestinal cells.rotaviruses attach to intestinal cells in a process that requires glycan recognition. some bacteria from the gut microflora have been shown to modify cell-surface glycans. in this study, human intestinal cultured cells were incubated with bacteria-derived soluble factors and infected with rotavirus. results show that only bacterial soluble factors that increase cell-surface galactose namely, those of bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and lactobacillus casei were able to efficiently block rotavirus in ...201122079149
molecular characterization of vp4, vp6, vp7 and nsp4 genes of group b rotavirus strains from outbreaks of characterize vp4, vp6, vp7 and nsp4 genes of representative gbr strains (niv-005625, niv-04622 and niv-094456) detected as the major etiologic agent in the outbreaks of gastroenteritis in western india.201122078944
survey of national immunization programs and vaccine coverage rates in asia pacific countries.children in the asia pacific region are still suffering from certain vaccine-preventable diseases. the current study surveyed the national immunization programs and vaccine uptake of traditional and newly developed vaccines in 12 countries in this area. the results showed children in most countries were well protected from conventional vaccine-preventable diseases, while immunization programs for certain diseases such as poliovirus or measles should be strengthened in certain countries. protecti ...201122075085
Usefulness of fecal lactoferrin in predicting and monitoring the clinical severity of infectious diarrhea.To explore the value of fecal lactoferrin in predicting and monitoring the clinical severity of infectious diarrhea.201122072854
crystallographic analysis reveals octamerization of viroplasm matrix protein p9-1 of rice black streaked dwarf virus.the p9-1 protein of rice black streaked dwarf virus accumulates in viroplasm inclusions, which are structures that appear to play an important role in viral morphogenesis and are commonly found in viruses in the family reoviridae. crystallographic analysis of p9-1 revealed structural features that allow the protein to form dimers via hydrophobic interactions. each dimer has carboxy-terminal regions, resembling arms, that extend to neighboring dimers, thereby uniting sets of four dimers via later ...201222072761
oral immunoglobulin for the prevention of rotavirus infection in low birth weight infants.rotavirus is a common neonatal nosocomial viral infection and epidemics with the newer p(6)g9 strains have been reported. local mucosal immunity in the intestine to rotavirus is important in the resolution of infection and protection against subsequent infections. oral administration of anti-rotaviral immunoglobulin preparations might be a useful strategy in preventing rotaviral infections, especially in low birth weight babies.201122071808
Neutralizing antibodies against rotavirus produced in transgenically labelled purple tomatoes.Edible fruits are inexpensive biofactories for human health-promoting molecules that can be ingested as crude extracts or partially purified formulations. We show here the production of a model human antibody for passive protection against the enteric pathogen rotavirus in transgenically labelled tomato fruits. Transgenic tomato plants expressing a recombinant human immunoglobulin A (hIgA_2A1) selected against the VP8* peptide of rotavirus SA11 strain were obtained. The amount of hIgA_2A1 protei ...201122070155
toxin mediated diarrhea in the 21 century: the pathophysiology of intestinal ion transport in the course of etec, v. cholerae and rotavirus estimated 4 billion episodes of diarrhea occur each year. as a result, 2-3 million children and 0.5-1 million adults succumb to the consequences of this major healthcare concern. the majority of these deaths can be attributed to toxin mediated diarrhea by infectious agents, such as e. coli, v. cholerae or rotavirus. our understanding of the pathophysiological processes underlying these infectious diseases has notably improved over the last years. this review will focus on the cellular mechani ...201022069677
unexpected modulation of recall b and t cell responses after immunization with rotavirus-like particles in the presence of, a mutant of the thermolabile enterotoxin of e. coli, is a potent adjuvant of immunization. immune responses are generally analyzed at the end of protocols including at least 2 administrations, but rarely after a prime. to investigate this point, we compared b and t cell responses in mice after one and two intrarectal immunizations with 2/6 rotavirus-like particles (2/6-vlp) and lt-r192g. after a boost, we found, an unexpected lower b cell expansion measured by flow cytometry, despite a ...201022069670
benign afebrile convulsions in the course of mild acute gastroenteritis: a study of 28 patients and a literature review.since the description of afebrile convulsions in the course of mild acute gastroenteritis (age) in 1982 by morooka in japan, there have been few reports of further cases outside asia. the aim of this study was to share our casuistry--from a non-asian country.201122068069
genetic diversity of group a rotaviruses associated with repeated outbreaks of diarrhea in a farrow-to-finish farm: identification of a porcine rotavirus strain bearing a novel vp7 genotype, g26.abstract: group a rotaviruses (gars) are one of the most common causes of diarrhea in suckling pigs. although a number of g and p genotypes have been identified in porcine gars, few attempts have been made to study the molecular epidemiology of these viruses associated with diarrhea outbreaks within a farm over an extended period of time. here, we investigated the molecular characteristics of gars that caused four outbreaks of diarrhea among suckling pigs in a farrow-to-finish farm over the cour ...201122067072
Enteropathogens in acute diarrhea: a general practice-based study in a Nordic country.The epidemiology of infectious diarrhea influences the microbiological investigation of the disease, and is best elucidated through prospective studies. We undertook such a study in a Nordic country. Patients of all age groups who had acute diarrhea were recruited prospectively from general practice clinics in Iceland. They completed a questionnaire and provided stool samples for the detection of pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Of the 464 recruited patients, 211 (45%) had 224 infect ...201122057365
Effect of Detection Methods on Risk Estimates of Exposure to Biosolids-Associated Human Enteric Viruses.This study illustrates the effect of virus detection methods on estimates of risks of infection of biosolids-associated viruses for occupational workers and residential population during a hypothetical exposure of biosolids. Five gastroenteritis-associated human enteric viruses-enteroviruses (echovirus-12, enteroviruse types 68-71), adenoviruses, rotaviruses, and noroviruses genotype-I-were considered to represent human enteric viruses for risk estimation purposes. Ingested viral doses were calc ...201122050302
rotavirus prevalence in the primary care setting in nicaragua after universal infant rotavirus immunization.nicaragua was the first developing nation to implement universal infant rotavirus immunization with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5). initial studies of vaccine effectiveness in nicaragua and other developing nations have focused on the prevention of hospitalizations and severe rotavirus diarrhea. however, rotavirus diarrhea is more commonly treated in the primary care setting, with only 1-3% of rotavirus cases receiving hospital care. we measured the prevalence of rotavirus infection in ...201122049057
Distribution of rotavirus genotypes causing nosocomial and community-acquired acute gastroenteritis at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia in the new rotavirus vaccine era.Background: Introduction of rotavirus vaccines in the United States beginning in 2006 led to a rapid decline in the frequency of acute rotavirus gastroenteritis necessitating medical attention. We examined whether serotype replacement was occurring as a result of vaccine use. Methods: Children with gastroenteritis presenting to CHOP have been tested for rotavirus antigen in the stool. Commencing with the 1999-2000 season, positive specimens were genotyped to establish the G (VP7) and P (VP4) typ ...201122048265
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