molecular characterization by rna-rna hybridization of a serotype 8 human rotavirus with "super-short" rna electropherotype.a human rotavirus isolate (the 69m strain) with a "super-short" rna electropherotype has been classified as serotype 8, a new human serotype [matsuno et al., 1985]rna-rna hybridization using 32p-labeled transcription probes was used to assess the genetic relatedness of the 69m strain to a panel of human and animal rotaviruses. the 69m strain showed a medium level of homology with subgroup 1, serotype 2 human rotaviruses with short rna electropherotypes. however, the 69m strain was not significan ...19902156004
serotype-specific antibody responses of calves infected naturally with bovine rotavirus. 19902156101
construction of recombinant dna molecules by the use of a single stranded dna generated by the polymerase chain reaction: its application to chimeric hepatitis a virus/poliovirus subgenomic order to study the importance of vp4 in picornavirus replication and translation, we replaced the hepatitis a virus (hav) vp4 with the poliovirus (pv1) vp4. using a modification of oligonucleotide site directed mutagenesis and the polymerase chain reaction (pcr), we created a subgenomic cdna chimera of hepatitis a virus in which the precise sequences coding for hav vp4 capsid protein were replaced by the sequences coding for the poliovirus vp4 capsid protein. the method involved the use of pc ...19902156236
evaluation of a reassortant rhesus rotavirus vaccine in young children.a candidate live attenuated rotavirus vaccine representative of serotype 1 was administered orally to 26 children, 14 of whom were undergoing primary exposure to rotavirus. the vaccine was derived by reassortment between rhesus rotavirus strain, mmu 18006, and the human serotype 1 strain wa. the resultant virus has the gene coding for the major surface glycoprotein vp-7 from the human strain and all other genes from the attenuated rhesus parent which is a serotype 3 strain. prior natural exposur ...19902156387
uncontrolled nosocomial rotavirus transmission during a community outbreak.between jan. 11 and march 31, 1983, 60 pediatric patients were diagnosed with rotavirus gastroenteritis. of these cases 24 were community acquired, 29 were nosocomial, and 7 were of undetermined origin. despite intensive infection control efforts, nosocomial transmission continued as long as patients with community-acquired cases were admitted. the use of disinfectants and germicides that were ineffective against rotavirus may have contributed to the continued nosocomial spread during a communit ...19902156470
homotypic and heterotypic epitope-specific antibody responses in adult and infant rotavirus vaccinees: implications for vaccine development.sera from infants and adults who received a live, attenuated monovalent rotavirus vaccine of serotype 1, 2, 3, or 4 vp7 specificity and rhesus rotavirus (rrv) vp4 specificity were analyzed for serotype-specific antibody responses by an epitope blocking immunoassay (eba) and by neutralization. although the assays correlated well, responses to the individual neutralization proteins or to different defined antigenic sites on the same protein could be distinguished only by eba. in general, adult vac ...19902156942
immunization with baculovirus-expressed vp4 protein passively protects against simian and murine rotavirus challenge.a baculovirus-expressed vp4 protein derived from the simian rhesus rotavirus (rrv) was used to parenterally immunize murine dams. vp4-immunized dams developed high levels of neutralizing antibodies against rrv and low levels of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies against human strains wa, st3, and s2 and animal strains sa-11, ncdv, and eb. newborn mice suckled on vp4-immunized dams were protected against a virulent challenge dose of the simian strain rrv and against murine rotavirus eb. the c ...19902157052
a virus with bi-segmented double-stranded rna genome in guinea pig intestines. 19892157131
atypical rotavirus among diarrhoeic children living in belém, brazil.atypical rotaviruses were detected in faeces from two diarrhoeic children living in belém, pará, brazil. rotavirus particles were detected by electron microscopy and the rna electrophoresis showed patterns which were compatible with group c rotaviruses. tests for the presence of group a antigen by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (elisa) were negative. the two children had three successive rotavirus infections and in both cases the atypical strains were excreted at the time of the third infecti ...19892157132
prevalence of human rotavirus serotypes in some european countries extended epidemiological survey on the circulation of the 4 established human rotavirus (hrv) serotypes in some european countries was carried out on 831 fecal strains collected from infants and young children with acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis during 1981-88. typing was done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or solid-phase immune electron microscopy using vp7 type-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. serotype 1 hrv strains were found to be largely predominant in this per ...19902157276
risk of diarrhea during the first year of life associated with initial and subsequent colonization by specific enteropathogens.the incidence of colonization by enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic, enteroinvasive, and enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli (detected by dna hybridization with specific radiolabeled probes), salmonella sp., shigella sp., campylobacter jejuni, and rotavirus was related to the presence of diarrhea in a cohort of 75 rural infants followed longitudinally during the first year of life. the study was carried out between august 1985 and february 1987 in the village of lugar sobre la tierra blanca, in th ...19902157338
rotavirus induces proliferative response and augments non-specific cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes in vitro cell-mediated immune responses to rotavirus in humans were studied. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) of healthy adults proliferated in response to stimulation with the infectious and u.v.-inactivated wa strain of human rotavirus, showing a maximum response on day 7 of culture; however, cord blood lymphocytes failed to respond to rotavirus. a cross-reactive proliferative response of pbmc detected by stimulation with the ncdv strain of bovine rotavirus suggests the existence of e ...19902157566
rotavirus serotypes 6 and 10 predominate in cattle.calf fecal rotavirus strains were serotyped in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, using monoclonal antibodies to the vp7s of serotypes 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 and to the vp4 of b223 (designated serotype 10). sixty-six percent of 162 samples were typed as serotype 6, and 7% were serotyped as serotype 10. most of the untyped strains did not react with a monoclonal antibody directed to a common vp7 epitope, indicating insufficient virus present in the samples. however, seven untyped samples that did rea ...19902157736
clinical studies of a quadrivalent rotavirus vaccine in venezuelan infants.phase i studies of an oral quadrivalent rotavirus vaccine were conducted in 130 venezuelan infants 10 to 20 weeks of age. the vaccine consists of a mixture of equal amounts of rhesus rotavirus (rrv) vaccine (serotype 3 [vp7]) and each of three human rotavirus-rrv reassortant strains: d x rrv (serotype 1 [vp7]), ds1 x rrv (serotype 2 [vp7]), and st3 x rrv (serotype 4 [vp7]). three different doses of the quadrivalent vaccine (0.25 x 10(4), 0.5 x 10(4), and 10(4) pfu of each component) were evaluat ...19902157737
porcine rotaviruses antigenically related to human rotavirus serotypes 1 and 2.fecal samples from rotavirus-infected piglets were characterized by a serotyping enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) by using monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific to human serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 (d. o. matson, m. k. estes, j. w. burns, h. b. greenberg, k. taniguchi, and s. urasawa, submitted for publication). rotavirus in 19 of 25 specimens tested from two herds of pigs from buenos aires province, argentina, were classified antigenically as follows: one serotype 1, four serotype 2, two ...19902157739
viral agents of gastroenteritis. public health importance and outbreak management.each year, infectious gastroenteritis causes greater than 210,000 children in the united states to be hospitalized and 4-10 million children to die worldwide. since the mid-1970s, knowledge has increased dramatically concerning the viral agents that are responsible for much of this public health burden. rotavirus, the most common cause of diarrhea among children, infects virtually every child in the united states by the age of 4 years and causes potentially lethal dehydration in 0.75% of childre ...19902157945
[acute gastroenteritis in childhood. epidemiological comments on a hospital case series].thirty children suffering from acute diarrhoea have been examined over a period of 10 months. salmonellae were present in 16.6% of the cases, campylobacter in 10%, e. coli in 60%, rotavirus in 10%. the monthly incidence of the infections has been studied, verifying values which fall into line with those reported by other authors. it has also been observed that macroscopic blood, fecal leucocytes are present in diarrhoea by bacterial agents, while kerry test is more indicative of infections by ro ...19902158011
cdna cloning of each genomic segment of the group b rotavirus adrv: molecular characterization of the 11th rna segment.the group b noncultivatable rotavirus, adrv, was purified from infected stool specimens. double-stranded rna was extracted, polyadenylated, reverse transcribed into cdna, and cloned into plasmid vector pat153. each cdna clone hybridized to a single adrv rna segment and cdna clones of each genomic rna segment were identified. sequencing of genomic rna and a full-length cdna clone (ad63) determined that adrv rna segment 11 is 631 bases in length and contains a single open reading frame of 170 amin ...19902158190
superinfecting rotaviruses are not excluded from genetic interactions during asynchronous mixed infections in vitro.asynchronous infections of ma104 cells with temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of simian rotavirus sa11 were performed to determine if the superinfecting ts mutant could contribute to the formation of reassortant progeny. significant yields of ts+ reassortant progeny were obtained in crosses where infection with the first and second ts mutant was separated by as much as 24 hr, indicating that superinfecting viruses were not excluded from participation in genetic interactions. the practical and t ...19902158696
prevention of human rotavirus infection with chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins containing rotavirus antibody in cat.a study was made on the passive protection against rotavirus-induced diarrhea. chickens were immunized with bovine rotavirus (serotype 1) and the egg yolk immunoglobulins containing a high titer anti-rotavirus neutralizing antibody (ceyi) was obtained. the ceyi was then orally administered to specific-pathogen-free cats, and the cats were infected with human rotavirus. the cats treated with the ceyi remained clinically healthy after challenge, whereas diarrhea occurred in the placebo-fed cats as ...19902159511
rotavirus proteins vp7, ns28, and vp4 form oligomeric structures.sucrose gradient sedimentation analysis of rotavirus sa11-infected ma104 cells revealed the presence of oligomers of vp7, the structural glycoprotein, and ns28, the nonstructural glycoprotein. cross-linking the proteins, either before or after sucrose gradient centrifugation, stabilizes oligomers, which can be analyzed by nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) after immunoprecipitation. the major ns28 oligomer was tetrameric, though dimers and higher-ord ...19902159536
serum-neutralizing antibody to vp4 and vp7 proteins in infants following vaccination with wc3 bovine rotavirus.serum specimens from infants 2 to 12 months old vaccinated with the wc3 bovine rotavirus were analyzed to determine the relative concentrations of neutralizing antibody to the vp4 and vp7 proteins of the vaccine virus. to do this, reassortant rotaviruses that contained the wc3 genome segment for only one of these two neutralization proteins were made. the segment for the other neutralization protein in these reassortants was from heterotypic rotaviruses that were serotypically distinct from wc3. ...19902159538
evaluation of a new enzyme immunoassay (testpack rotavirus) for diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis.testpack rotavirus, a simple 10 min enzyme immunoassay, was compared with reversed passive hemagglutination assay (rpha) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of virus rna (rna-page) for the detection of rotaviral antigens in feces from 104 diarrheal children. the results of testpack rotavirus were identical with those of rna-page. discordant results of rpha were further examined by latex agglutination and electron microscopy and were finally decided to be negative. pararotaviruses, adenoviruse ...19902159966
rotaviral enteritis in a raccoon.a hand-reared raccoon (procyon lotor) kit had severe diarrhea and died within 24 hr. gross and histopathologic findings were compatible with a diagnosis of viral enteritis. the immunoperoxidase test revealed rotavirus group a antigen in the intestinal mucosa. this is the first record of rotaviral enteritis in a raccoon.19902160022
construction of a bovine-murine heteromyeloma cell line; production of bovine monoclonal antibodies against rotavirus and pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin.bovine-murine heteromyeloma cell lines were prepared by fusing lymphoid cells from a bovine leukemia virus (blv)-infected cow with mouse myeloma cells. selection of hybrid cell colonies was based on the ratio of bovine and murine chromosomes, the presence of cell-surface immunoglobulins and growth characteristics. first-generation fusion partners were compared for fusion efficiency and the number of antigen-specific antibody-producing clones generated. hybrid cell colonies that initially secrete ...19902160144
inactivation of human and simian rotaviruses by chlorine dioxide.the inactivation of single-particle stocks of human (type 2, wa) and simian (sa-11) rotaviruses by chlorine dioxide was investigated. experiments were conducted at 4 degrees c in a standard phosphate-carbonate buffer. both virus types were rapidly inactivated, within 20 s under alkaline conditions, when chlorine dioxide concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 mg/liter were used. similar reductions of 10(5)-fold in infectivity required additional exposure time of 120 s at 0.2 mg/liter for wa and ...19902160222
prospective study of diarrheal diseases in venezuelan children to evaluate the efficacy of rhesus rotavirus vaccine.the efficacy of a rhesus rotavirus vaccine (mmu 18006, serotype 3) against infantile diarrhea was evaluated by active home surveillance of a group of 320 children 1-10 months of age in caracas, venezuela. during a 1 year period following oral administration of vaccine or placebo under a double-masked code, over 600 diarrheal episodes were detected. etiologic studies revealed that heat-stable toxin (st) producing enterotoxigenic e. coli (etec) was the most common diarrheal agent detected (34%) fo ...19902160516
papular and papulovesicular acrolocated eruptions and viral infections.twenty-six children with a symmetric papular or papulovesicular acrolocated eruption were studied to evaluate a possible link with viral infection. a history of a recent immunization was present in four patients, two of whom had a polio vaccine virus isolated from their stool samples. there was serologic evidence of a recent epstein-barr virus infection in one patient, adenovirus infection in another, a concurrent epstein-barr virus and adenovirus infection in a third, and cytomegalovirus infect ...19902160656
a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the major capsid protein of simian rotavirus-induced anti-rotavirus antibodies.cdna molecules encoding the major structural protein (vp6) of the simian rotavirus sa11 were inserted under the control of the vaccinia virus 7.5 kda promoter into the thymidine kinase gene. synthesis of vp6 was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation of recombinant virus-infected cell. mice inoculated via several routes with this recombinant vaccinia produce high titers of antirotavirus antibodies lacking neutralizing activity.19902160766
molecular epidemiology of human rotavirus infections in chandigarh (india).molecular epidemiology of rotavirus infections was studied in children with acute gastroenteritis attending the nehru hospital, chandigarh. a total of 87 stool samples were studied for rna migration pattern by polyacrylamide gel electropherosis. only 33 strains could be electropherotyped and two different rna types 'short' and 'long' were observed. fifteen had a short rna pattern and 18 had a long rna pattern. there were no intergenomic variations between the short or long rna types. on analysis ...19902160917
immune protection of infants against rotavirus gastroenteritis by a serotype 1 reassortant of bovine rotavirus wc3.the safety and protective efficacy of a serotype 1 reassortant of bovine rotavirus wc3, disignated strain wi79-9, was evaluated in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. rotavirus reassortant wi79-9 contains a gene segment 9 coding for the surface structural protein vp7 of a human serotype 1 rotavirus, with all other gene segments derived from wc3 rotavirus, which had previously been shown to be safe and immunogenic in infants. infants 2-11 months of age were given two doses of vaccine (10(7.3 ...19902161038
group- and type-specific serologic response in infants and children with primary rotavirus infections and gastroenteritis caused by a strain of known serotype.antibody response to group a rotavirus (rv), investigated in paired sera from 72 infants and young children with acute gastroenteritis caused by an rv infection, was diagnosed on the basis of a fourfold or greater rise in group a common rv igg antibody titer. virus-specific igm was detected in sera from 64 patients showing seroconversion; these were considered primary infection. rv was detected in stools of 56 (77.8%) patients with serologic evidence of infection and 54 were considered primary i ...19902161039
rotavirus rna replication: single-stranded rna extends from the replicase particle.the rotavirus genome consists of 11 segments of dsrna that are replicated asymmetrically with plus strand rna serving as the template for minus strand rna synthesis. in this study, we have used non-denaturing gel electrophoresis to examine subviral particles that synthesize dsrna (replicase particles), for possible changes in structure during rna replication. analysis of svps purified from simian rotavirus sa11-infected ma104 cells and resolved on 0.6% agarose gels containing 50 mm-tris-glycine ...19902161046
experimental group a rotaviral infection in cynomolgus monkeys raised on formula diet.rotaviral infections in cynomolgus monkeys (macaca fasicularis) were studied to ascertain its suitability as a model of infection and diarrhea caused by group a human rotaviruses. formula-fed monkeys were used as they could be observed closely. experimental rotaviral infection of cynomolgus monkeys was age-dependent; only young monkeys were readily infected. formula-fed newborns were readily infected with cell-culture-adapted human (wa) and simian (sa11) viruses and with a rotavirus from a human ...19902161071
intraruminal administration of milk in the calf as a model for ruminal drinking: morphological and enzymatical changes in the jejunal order to develop a calf model for studying the syndrome of ruminal drinking (rd) in veal calves, three dual-fistulated calves were used to test the effect of intraruminal administration of milk replacer on the jejunal mucosa. biopsies of the proximal jejunal mucosa were taken through a jejunal fistula and the mucosal morphology and the activities of two brush border enzymes, lactase and alkaline phosphatase, were determined. means of villus length and brush border enzyme activities decreased ...19902161140
study of virus excretion in feces of diarrheic and asymptomatic calves infected with rotavirus.infection of calves by rotavirus could lead to diarrhea or subclinical disease. therein, kinetic of viral excretion from a group of asymptomatic calves, previously exposed to a virulent strain of rotavirus, is compared to that of a group the calves of which had diarrhea associated with rotavirus infection. as determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), duration of rotavirus shedding in feces and maximum yield of virus antigen were similar within the two groups of calves. rotaviru ...19902161171
[use of a rapid method for detecting adenovirus in the feces of children].adenovirus (adv) and rotavirus (rv) were screened by latex aglutination (la) in 772 fecal samples from hospitalized and non hospitalized children under 7 years of age, those included 55 control samples. reactive samples were confirmed by electron microscopy (me) and enzimoimmunoassay (eia). adv were found in 20 (2.6%) samples and rv in 25 (3.2%). coinfection by both viruses was not demonstrated. the greatest percentage of findings was observed in watery (23% adv and 25% rv) and almost watery sto ...19902161190
rotavirus infection and rotavirus serum antibody in a cohort of children from gaza observed from birth to the age of one year.rotaviruses were studied in a cohort of children from gaza, during their first year of life. surveillance was effected through visits to the local health clinic by parents and infants, and to a lesser extent, field workers' home visits. the observed rate of diarrhoea (all causes), and of rotavirus-associated diarrhoea was 1.25 and 0.1 episode per child-year, respectively. of the 130 diarrhoea episodes in the cohort, only 6.9% were rotavirus-associated. only nine (37.5%) of 24 children in whom ro ...19902161805
three-dimensional structure of rhesus rotavirus by cryoelectron microscopy and image reconstruction.the structure of rhesus rotavirus was examined by cryoelectron microscopy and image analysis. three-dimensional reconstructions of infectious virions were computed at 26- and 37-a resolution from electron micrographs recorded at two different levels of defocus. the major features revealed by the reconstructions are (a) both outer and inner capsids are constructed with t = 13l icosahedral lattice symmetry; (b) 60 spikelike projections, attributed to vp4, extend at least 100 a from the outer capsi ...19902161857
distinct populations of rotaviruses circulating among neonates and older infants.we obtained three stool specimens from each of 371 neonates. two specimens were obtained between days 1 and 3 after birth, while they were in the hospital, and one specimen was obtained between days 6 and 14 after birth, after they had been discharged from the hospital. seventy neonates excreted human rotavirus (hrv) while they were in the hospital, and the incidence rate for the cohort was 0.094 episodes per infant day. the incidence rate of community-acquired neonatal infections was markedly r ...19902161863
sensitive solid-phase immune electron microscopy double-antibody technique with gold-immunoglobulin g complexes for detecting rotavirus in cell culture and feces.a new solid-phase immune electron microscopy double-antibody colloidal-gold technique (spiemdagt) was developed and compared with direct electron microscopy, direct immune electron microscopy, and enzyme immunoassay for detecting rotavirus. guinea pig and rabbit antirotavirus antisera were used as capture and detector antibodies, respectively, and goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin g-gold complexes were employed as a label. animal rotavirus in cell culture media and human virus in stool specimens w ...19902161868
biochemical characterization of the structural and nonstructural polypeptides of a porcine group c rotavirus.purified virions or radiolabeled lysates of infected ma104 cells were used to characterize the structural and nonstructural polypeptides of a porcine group c rotavirus. at least six structural proteins were identified from purified group c rotavirus by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. of these, two (37,000- and 33,000-molecular-weight polypeptides) were associated with the outer shell, as demonstrated by the ability of edta to remove them from the purified virion. the o ...19902161936
rotavirus diarrhea in jewish and bedouin children in the negev region of israel: epidemiology, clinical aspects and possible role of malnutrition in severity of illness.we conducted a 1-year prospective study in the negev region of southern israel to determine the epidemiologic and clinical patterns of rotavirus diarrhea. a total of 605 patients were studied, 392 bedouins and 213 jews, 441 of whom had diarrhea (449 episodes) and 164 did not. rotavirus was the most common organism detected in children with diarrhea (63 of 444; 14%) but was rarely found in controls (3 of 163; 2%) (p less than 0.001). in 22% (12 of 54) of the rotavirus-positive patients, at least ...19902162026
effect of dose and a comparison of measures of vaccine take for oral rhesus rotavirus vaccine. the maryland clinical studies group.ninety-six healthy infants ages 2 to 5 months received rhesus rotavirus vaccine serotype 3 (rrv) as a single dose of 10(3), 10(4) or 10(5) plaque-forming units (pfu) in this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. half of the infants in each dose group were also randomized to receive either 30 ml of infant formula as buffer before vaccination or were vaccinated on an empty stomach. the incidence of fever, increased stool frequency and decreased activity level was consistently higher among infa ...19902162027
evaluation of killed and modified live porcine rotavirus vaccines in cesarean derived colostrum deprived pigs.twenty-eight cesarean derived, colostrum deprived (cdcd) piglets were used to evaluate the efficacy of killed and modified live rotavirus (mlv) vaccines against challenge with virulent a-1 and a-2 rotaviruses. two killed rotavirus vaccines were evaluated: an experimental vaccine and a commercially available vaccine. efficacy parameters included: average daily weight gains, rotavirus shedding in feces, morbidity incidence and duration, and rotavirus serum antibody conversion post-vaccination and ...19902162098
completion of the genomic sequence of the simian rotavirus sa11: nucleotide sequences of segments 1, 2, and 3.the nucleotide sequences for gene segments 1, 2, and 3 of the simian rotavirus sa11 genome, coding for the structural polypeptides vp1, vp2, and vp3, respectively, have been determined. comparison of the vp1 and vp2 amino acid sequences with those determined for other strains indicates that certain features of these proteins are conserved. the possible functions of the viral polypeptides vp1, vp2, and vp3 are discussed in the light of enzyme functions known to be present in the rotavirus particl ...19902162107
rotavirus gastroenteritis in pediatric diarrhoea in jos, nigeria.four hundred and forty-two samples from children, age 0-5 years old, with acute diarrhoea attending hospitals and clinics in jos between may 1986 to april 1987 were examined for the presence of rotavirus by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. one hundred and forty-six of these samples were positive, giving a prevalence rate of 33 per cent. the virus was more prevalent in infants 0-6 months old and decreased with an increase in age. rotavirus was found to occur throughout the year, but there w ...19902162394
rotavirus from children of an urban settlement of papua new guinea.rotavirus is a leading cause of severe dehydrating diarrhoea among children admitted to hospitals in papua new guinea. a community-based study in an urban settlement of port moresby, the capital of papua new guinea, revealed that rotavirus was a major cause of diarrhoea, especially of the severe type, in this community. two serotypes of rotavirus were observed and were explained on the basis of a 'shift and drift' phenomenon, or an introduction of a new strain from outside. implications for such ...19902162395
[diagnosis of rotavirus and other gastroenteritis virus infections]. 19902162429
[immunoglobulin components and anti-viral activities in bovine colostrum].bovine colostrum whey and immunoglobulins were prepared. their characteristics and anti-viral activities were studied:igg, iga and igm were found in bovine colostrum. most igg was polymerized. although neutralization activities against bovine, simian and human rotaviruses existed, anti-human adenovirus antibody was not found. effects on prophylaxis and treatment for rotavirus gastroenteritis were expected.19902162896
[the preventive effect of coproantibody to rotavirus infection]. 19902162897
experiments on antiviral activity of hand disinfectants. some theoretical and practical considerations.various members of the picornavirus family, adenovirus 2, papovavirus sv40, as well as rotaviruses were tested for inactivation of infectivity by hand disinfectants formulated on the basis of ethanol. the inactivating effect of povidine-iodine (betaisodona) on enteroviruses and rotaviruses was also investigated. the degree of inactivation by these disinfectants on the various non-enveloped viruses studied, however, was found unpredictable. in fact, striking differences with the very same disinfe ...19902163645
persistent excretion of rotavirus by pregnant a study of the epizootiology and prevalence of enteropathogens which may be involved in neonatal calf diarrhoea, 10 in-calf cows from a herd with a history of rotavirus-induced calf diarrhoea were monitored over a period of six to seven months. all the cows excreted rotavirus intermittently without showing any clinical signs, and 21.8 per cent of faecal samples contained rotavirus. reoviruses were isolated from 87 per cent of the samples from the cows, and from all the 10 calves born to them. ...19902164274
isolation in europe of 69 m-like (serotype 8) human rotavirus strains with either subgroup i or ii specificity and a long rna electropherotype.during an epidemiological study on the prevalence of human rotavirus (hrv) serotypes 1-4 in europe, we found that some strains could not be typed. however, when a monoclonal antibody directed to serotype 8 hrv was included in the typing assay, we detected seven 69 m-like (serotype 8) strains, six from finland and one from italy. the previously reported serotype 8 hrv strains, 69 m, b 37, and b 38 isolated in indonesia, were of subgroup i specificity and presented a peculiar "super short" rna ele ...19902164375
dual-label time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for the simultaneous detection of adenovirus and rotavirus in faeces.dual-label time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (tr-fia) was used for the simultaneous detection of adenovirus and rotavirus in stool specimens. a one-incubation 1 h assay was used. altogether 169 stool specimens collected from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis were tested. the specimens were dispensed with europium and terbium labelled antibodies against adenovirus and rotavirus, respectively, to coated microtitration strip wells. the 11 specimens positive for adenovirus in the eia we ...19902164524
the finest ultrastructural details of the inner layer of rotavirus revealed by minimal electron doses.the inner layer of human and calf rotavirus ultrastructure was analyzed using minimal doses in transmission electron microscopy. the morphological unit of spontaneously disrupted virions has the aspect of a flower-like structure, and its petals are hexagonally arranged and have a central pin hole. the similar flower appearance can be observed in complete virions and in rotavirus tube structures produced in aged samples of rotavirus kept for more than a year.19902164557
polypeptide composition of rotavirus empty capsids and their possible use as a subunit vaccine.two types of empty capsid particles that differed with respect to the presence of the two outer shell proteins were isolated from ma-104 cells infected with bovine rotavirus v1005. three previously uncharacterized polypeptides, i, ii, and iii, migrating between vp2 and vp6, were detected in empty capsids but not in single- and double-shelled rotavirus particles. peptide mapping revealed that all three proteins were related to vp2. polypeptides i, ii, and iii could be generated by in vitro trypsi ...19902164590
identification of human rotavirus serotype by hybridization to polymerase chain reaction-generated probes derived from a hyperdivergent region of the gene encoding outer capsid protein vp7.we have synthesized 32p-labeled hybridization probes from a hyperdivergent region (nucleotides 51 to 392) of the rotavirus gene encoding the vp7 glycoprotein by using the polymerase chain reaction method. both rna (after an initial reverse transcription step) and cloned cdna from human rotavirus serotypes 1 through 4 could be used as templates to amplify this region. high-stringency hybridization of each of the four probes to rotavirus rnas dotted on nylon membranes allowed the specific detectio ...19902164610
evaluation of rit 4237 bovine rotavirus vaccine in newborn infants: correlation of vaccine efficacy to season of birth in relation to rotavirus epidemic period.a single oral dose of bovine rotavirus vaccine rit 4237 or placebo was given to 2 groups of 5-day-old infants, born in october 1984 (n = 244) and june 1985 (n = 245), who remained in follow-up for 2.8 and 2.0 years, respectively. the vaccine had no effect on the total number of detectable episodes of rotavirus diarrhoea: there were 22 cases in the vaccinees and 24 in the placebo recipients in the october group and 18 and 16 respectively in the june group. however, vaccination decreased significa ...19902164706
molecular cloning and comparative sequence analyses of bluetongue virus s1 segments by selective synthesis of specific full-length dna copies of dsrna genes.using primers complementary to the conserved sequences of the 3' ends of bluetongue virus genomic dsrna segments, full-length dna clones of all 10 dsrna genes from the five u.s. btv serotypes were synthesized and amplified by a novel method (clampr). this amounts to nearly 100,000 base pairs of dsrna cloned as unique full-length dna copies. this continuous one-tube procedure combined cloning of the denatured dsrna with reverse transcriptase and the selective amplification of full-length dna by t ...19902164738
serotypes and electropherotypes of human rotavirus in the usa: 1987-1989.the epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis was investigated for two consecutive seasons (1987-1988 and 1988-1989) in seven locales in the continental usa. the 281 representative fecal samples obtained from children with diarrhea were electropherotyped and serotyped by an enzyme immunoassay with serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies and a new amplification typing technique (polymerase chain reaction typing). serotype 1 was predominant in both years, particularly in the north and east; seroty ...19902165108
serotyping of human group a rotavirus with oligonucleotide probes.rotaviruses (rv) in stools of children with diarrhea in thailand were serotyped by monoclonal enzyme immunoassay (meia), and rna extracted from these specimens were tested for hybridization with oligonucleotides constructed from the nucleotide sequences of vp7 of human serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4. of 178 specimens that contained rv as identified with a monoclonal antibody to group a rv, 84% (149/178) hybridized with serotype-specific oligonucleotides, and 42% (74/178) were serotyped by meia (p less ...19902165109
nucleotide sequence of gene 2 of the uk tissue culture adapted strain of bovine rotavirus. 19902165258
tubular rotavirus structures in human stool. 19902165637
serotyping of human rotaviruses in argentina by elisa with monoclonal antibodies.human rotaviruses are the major, recognized cause of infantile diarrhea worldwide. characterization of naturally occurring human isolates indicates that there are six human rotavirus serotypes, four of which (serotype 1 to 4) are widespread. we utilized monoclonal antibodies specific for the vp of serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 as capture antibody in a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent to serotype rotaviruses directly in stool samples. the stool samples were collected from 1983 through 1986, from t ...19902165768
minimal infective dose of the osu strain of porcine rotavirus. 19902165770
porcine group c rotavirus as a cause of neonatal diarrhea in a quebec swine herd.a porcine group c rotavirus was found to be the unique cause of a problem of enzootic neonatal diarrhea in a minimal disease herd composed of 190 sows on a continuous farrowing program. during the outbreaks of diarrhea, 10 to 80% of the litters were affected with a morbidity rate of 100% and case fatality rates of 5 to 10%. clinical signs began 24 to 48 h after birth and were characterized by a profuse yellow diarrhea lasting a few days. piglets from different outbreaks of diarrhea were necropsi ...19902165848
diversity of rotavirus serotypes in mexican infants with hundred thirty-two stool specimens from infants with rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalized in two mexican cities (mexico city and mérida) were examined by serotype- and subgroup-specific enzyme immunoassays. among them, 38 (29%) were serotype 1, 15 (11%) were serotype 2, 13 (10%) were serotype 3, 22 (17%) were serotype 4, none was serotype 5 or 6, and 44 (33%) could not be serotyped. by subgrouping, 121 specimens were characterized as follows: 24 (18%) were subgroup 1, 97 (74%) were subgrou ...19902166073
occurrence of nonspecific reactions among stool specimens tested by the abbott testpack rotavirus enzyme immunoassay.sixty-five stool specimens obtained from children suffering from gastroenteritis were tested for the presence of antigen to rotavirus by the abbott testpack rotavirus (testpack) enzyme immunoassay kit. the kallestad pathfinder enzyme immunoassay, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immune electron microscopy, and virus isolation were utilized as reference assays. fifty-four specimens were in accord by testpack and kallestad pathfinder. among 11 discordant specimens positive with testpack but neg ...19902166074
molecular identification by rna-rna hybridization of a human rotavirus that is closely related to rotaviruses of feline and canine origin.with a few exceptions subgroup i group a human rotavirus strains have short rna patterns, whereas most animal rotavirus strains belong to subgroup i and have long rna patterns. thus, new isolates of subgroup i human rotaviruses with long rna patterns are considered to have a high likelihood of being animal rotaviruses. a group of human rotaviruses represented by the au-1 strain has recently been shown to be genetically related to a feline rotavirus (frv-1) isolated in japan. a human rotavirus, s ...19902166076
choice of reference assay for the detection of rotavirus in fecal specimens: electron microscopy versus enzyme immunoassay.two previously demonstrated sensitive and specific enzyme immunoassays (eias) for rotavirus, one using polyclonal and monoclonal antisera (testpack rotavirus [tpk]; abbott laboratories) and the other using only monoclonal anti-rotavirus antibodies (rotaclone [rtc]; cambridge bioscience corporation), were evaluated as potential reference assays for rotavirus testing in comparison with direct negative-staining electron microscopy (em), the current laboratory standard. two hundred and seven stool s ...19902166080
serotype 3 human rotavirus strains with subgroup i specificity.during an epidemiological study on human rotavirus (hrv) infections in italy, three subgroup i strains not associated with serotype 2 reactivity were detected. all three strains were serotype 3, each with a distinct rna pattern showing fast-moving tenth and eleventh segments (long electropherotype). following successful adaptation to growth in cell cultures, the serotype 3 strains (mz58, pcp5, and pa710) were further characterized by neutralization and by rna-rna (northern blot) hybridization. a ...19902166081
comparison of rotavirus immunoglobulin a coproconversion with other indices of rotavirus infection in a longitudinal study in order to determine the sensitivity and reliability of antirotaviral fecal immunoglobulin a (iga) as an indicator of rotavirus reinfection, the antibody responses to rotavirus of 44 infants with severe rotavirus gastroenteritis recruited on admission to a hospital were studied. feces were collected daily during hospitalization and weekly thereafter, and sera were obtained every 4 months, for 6 to 32 months (median, 17 months). antirotaviral igg, iga, and igm were measured by enzyme immunoassay ...19902166082
measurement of rotavirus-neutralizing coproantibody in children by fluorescent focus reduction assay.a fluorescent focus reduction assay suitable for the measurement of rotavirus-neutralizing antibodies in the feces of children was developed. of 408 stools tested, 7% showed false-positive neutralization, and the number of rotavirus serotypes neutralized by a fecal extract was proportional to the levels of antirotaviral immunoglobulin a in the extract.19902166091
polypeptide specificity of antiviral serum antibodies in children naturally infected with human rotavirus.reassortants between serotype 3 sa11 and serotype 6 ncdv rotaviruses were used to determine the relative amounts of serum-neutralizing antibody to vp4 and vp7 of serotype 3 sa11 rotavirus in children after natural rotavirus exposure. sera from ecuadorian children of a population-based study and sera from children of a hospital-based study in germany (excluding diarrhea patients) demonstrated high titers of vp7-specific but only low titers of vp4-specific antibodies. in contrast, paired sera from ...19902166808
impact of rotavirus infection at a large pediatric hospital.information is limited about national patterns of rotavirus infection throughout the usa. discharge records and laboratory rotavirus detection for 1979-1989 at the texas children's hospital, houston, were evaluated to determine the impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis at a large children's hospital. the availability since 1983 of diagnostic assays less expensive than electron microscopy was associated with increased rotavirus detection. only 67% of rotavirus-positive samples came from children li ...19902167331
serotype variation of human group a rotaviruses in two regions of the usa.the first longitudinal study of group a rotavirus serotype distribution in the usa is reported. elisas incorporating neutralizing monoclonal antibodies specific for the vp7 protein of serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 were used to determine the antigenic variation of group a rotaviruses in two collections of stool specimens. stool samples were collected from children hospitalized during 1979-1989 at texas children's hospital, houston, and from children from a more rural population hospitalized during 198 ...19902167332
prevalence and serotype specificity of rotavirus antibodies in different age groups of ecuadorian infants.the age-specific prevalence of antibody to rotavirus was studied in 1404 ecuadorian children enrolled in a national nutrition and health survey. elisa and neutralizing antibody analysis showed evidence for primary rotavirus infection in 6- to 12-month-old children, who showed also a more-than-threefold increase in significant diarrheal episodes in comparison with infants less than 6 months old. at this age, 56% of the sera with neutralizing antibody were monospecific. with increasing age a gradu ...19902167333
effect of breast-feeding on oral rhesus rotavirus vaccine seroconversion: a metaanalysis.the effect of concomitant breast-feeding on seroconversion following oral administration of rhesus rotavirus vaccine (rrv, serotype 3, strain mmu 18006) at 10(4) pfu was analyzed. three studies were included, all randomized, double-blind trials involving a single dose of rrv to infants aged 2-5 months. none received concomitant oral polio vaccine. seroconversion was measured by microneutralization or tube neutralization assay. the results show that 42 (48%) of 88 (95% confidence interval, 37%-58 ...19902167344
intracellular rna synthesis directed by temperature-sensitive mutants of simian rotavirus sa11.the kinetics of intracellular synthesis of single-stranded (ss) rna and double-stranded (ds) rna directed by prototype temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants representing the 10 mutant groups of rotavirus sa11 were examined. cells were infected with individual mutants or wild type under one-step growth conditions and maintained at permissive temperature (31 degrees) or nonpermissive temperature (39 degrees). at various times postinfection, infected cells were pulse-labeled, ssrna and dsrna were puri ...19902167546
identification of the gene encoding the group b rotavirus vp7 equivalent: primary characterization of the adrv segment 9 rna.gene segment 9 of the adult diarrheal rotavirus, adrv, has been cloned, and the full-length gene 9 cdna has been sequenced. sequences at the 5' and 3' termini of the gene 9 double-stranded rna were confirmed by direct rna sequencing. the ninth rna segment is 814 bases in length with a single open reading frame beginning at base 10 and terminating at base 757. the encoded polypeptide contains 249 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 28.5 kda. the protein contains three potential n-li ...19902167559
[electrophoretic heterogeneity of a population of rotaviruses isolated in leningrad in the fall-winter season of 1986-1987]. 19902167567
[comparison of the diagnostic methods for studying parvovirus and rotavirus infections of dogs].79 feces samples of dogs between 7 weeks till 13.5 years of age, showing clinical signs of a hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, were tested by a commercial elisa (diasystems canine parvo, tech-america) for canine parvovirus (cpv) and by two latex-agglutination tests for rotavirus (30 probes were tested by rota screen, 49 samples by slidex rota-kit 2, both tests from biomerieux). all samples were also examined by electron microscopy. the results of the simultaneous investigations showed 28 times positi ...19902167658
nosocomial outbreak of neonatal gastroenteritis caused by a new serotype 4, subtype 4b human rotavirus.a nosocomial outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis involving 52 newborns occurred between june and september 1988 at the university children's hospital of freiburg, federal republic of germany. stools from 27 representative patients were examined for rotavirus serotypes, using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the electropherotype was also examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of genomic rna. as many as 18 patients were found to be infected by serotype 4, su ...19902167942
adenovirus types 40 and 41 and rotaviruses associated with diarrhea in children from guatemala.from march 1987 to february 1988, fecal excretion of adenovirus types 40 and 41 and rotavirus serotypes in 194 children (age, 0 to 3 years) from a rural community of guatemala was monitored. in total, 458 samples taken during 385 episodes of diarrhea and 191 specimens obtained during symptom-free periods were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. fifty-seven children hospitalized because of diarrhea were also studied. among the rural children, 43 (22.2%) excreted adenovirus types 40 and ...19902168438
the pathophysiological basis for viral diarrhea: a progress report. 19902168478
nucleotide sequence of group antigen (vp6) of the uk tissue culture adapted strain of bovine rotavirus. 19902168543
serotype 1 reassortant of bovine rotavirus wc3, strain wi79-9, induces a polytypic antibody response in infants.a reassortant rotavirus, strain w179-9, was constructed bearing gene 9 of serotype 1 rotavirus strain wi79 and all other genes derived from bovine (serotype 6) rotavirus strain wc3. the antigenic phenotype of wi79-9 is bivalent: serotype 1 and serotype 6. wi79-9 administered orally at a dose of 10(7.5) p.f.u. induced no adverse effects in 48 infants of age 2-11 months. serotype 1- and serotype 6-specific serum neutralizing antibody titres were induced with approximately equal frequency in these ...19902168607
bioecological factors & rotavirus diarrhoea.rotavirus was detected (using rotalex) in 11.72 per cent (120 of 1024) children below 3 yr age with diarrhoea. none of the 25 healthy control children excreted rotavirus in their faeces. group specific elisa for 89 rotalex positive samples revealed 30 subgroup i and 43 subgroup ii whereas 10 were untypable. rotavirus infection ranged from 2.8 to 22.20 per cent in different months. there was no correlation with mean minimum and maximum temperatures. however, the incidence showed a negative correl ...19902168861
the immunogenicity of vp7, a rotavirus antigen resident in the endoplasmic reticulum, is enhanced by cell surface expression.the glycoprotein vp7, the major serotype antigen of rotaviruses, is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (er) of the cell, where it is retained as a membrane-associated protein before assembly into mature virus particles. wild-type vp7 expressed by a recombinant vaccinia virus was also located internally and was poorly antigenic. using recombinant techniques, a correctly processed, secreted form of vp7 (s.c. stirzaker and g.w. both, cell 56:741-747, 1989) was modified by addition to its c term ...19902168965
rotaviruses specifically bind to the neutral glycosphingolipid asialo-gm1.rotaviruses are the major etiologic agents of severe diarrhea in children. many rotaviruses encode a hemagglutinin which binds to sialic acids. we report that rotaviruses specifically recognize the neutral glycosphingolipid gangliotetraosylceramide (asialo-gm1 or ga1). ga1 resolved by thin-layer chromatography is bound by rotavirus, and binding is blocked by neutralizing rotavirus antiserum. similar glycosphingolipid structures, such as globoside, gangliotriaosylceramide, and ga1 oxidized with g ...19902168971
rotavirus rna replication: vp2, but not vp6, is necessary for viral replicase activity.temperature-sensitive mutants of simian rotavirus sa11 were previously developed and organized into 10 of a possible 11 recombination groups on the basis of genome reassortment studies. two of these mutants, tsf and tsg, map to genes encoding vp2 (segment 2) and vp6 (segment 6), respectively. to gain insight into the role of these proteins in genome replication, ma104 cells were infected with tsf or tsg and then maintained at permissive temperature (31 degrees c) until 9 h postinfection, when so ...19902168982
development of an adult mouse model for studies on protection against rotavirus.although mice have been used as an animal model for studies on rotavirus disease, these studies have been limited by the short time period after birth during which mice are susceptible to rotavirus illness (i.e., approximately 15 days). to overcome this limitation, an adult mouse model was developed in which the endpoint was infection rather than illness. the model developed utilized a strain of mouse rotavirus (edim) adapted to grow in culture by multiple passages in ma104 cells. the second cel ...19902168987
latex test for rapid rotavirus diagnosis in calves.a latex agglutination test (la) was compared with direct electron microscopy (em) for detection of rotavirus infection in calves. a total of 375 samples from 62 calves were collected. samples were taken when the calves were 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 20 days old and some scours samples were collected as well. altogether 45/375 (12%) specimens were positive in la and 10/375 (2.7%) were positive in em. samples positive in em were also positive in la. out of the 62 calves studied 26/62 (42%) were positive ...19902169187
molecular epidemiology of rotavirus in children attending day care centers in houston.serotype distribution of group a rotavirus in children attending day care centers has not been previously reported. fifteen centers in houston participated in longitudinal monitoring of rotavirus infection during one to three consecutive rotavirus seasons. monitoring included daily recording of the presence of diarrhea and weekly stool collection. stool specimens containing rotavirus were analyzed by a monoclonal antibody (mab)-based elisa specific for the vp7 protein of serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 ...19902169496
the complete nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the gene encoding the major inner capsid protein, vp7 of us bluetongue virus serotype 17. 19902169609
growth of group a rotaviruses in a human liver cell line.recent observations in children with rotavirus gastroenteritis and in infant mice given rotavirus vaccine by oral administration suggest that this well-known gastrointestinal pathogen may infect the liver. to examine this possibility, the susceptibility of hep g2 cells to infection with a variety of rotavirus strains was tested. these cells were used because they are considered to be well differentiated and exhibit many liver-specific functions. the hep g2 cells supported the growth of the simia ...19902170264
sequences in rotavirus glycoprotein vp7 that mediate delayed translocation and retention of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum.glycosylation and translocation of the simian rotavirus protein vp7, a resident er protein, does not occur co-translationally in vivo. in pulse-chase experiments in cos cells, nonglycosylated vp7 was still detectable after a 25-min chase period, although the single glycosylation site was only 18 residues beyond the signal peptide cleavage site. after labeling, glycosylated and nonglycosylated vp7 was recovered in microsomes but the latter was sensitive to trypsin (i.e., the nascent protein becam ...19902170420
using different sorbents for the concentration of enteroviruses.comparative investigations were carried out to evaluate the efficiency of concentration (ec) of enteroviruses (poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus sa-11) using macroporous glass (brands mpg-1000 vgkh, ussr, and so1, czechoslovakia) and membrane filters (mf): (nitrocellulose pnts 0.45, ussr, millipore hawp 0.45, usa, synpor 0.45, czechoslovakia as well as polycapromide mf pall 0.2, frg, and fmpa 0.55, ussr). to assess the sorption properties of filters, poliovirus preparations and rabbit serum ...19902170506
[a case of massive hemorrhagic enteritis due to rotavirus].we described a 8-month-old boy of massive hemorrhagic enteritis due to rotavirus complicated by shock. as far as we know, this case is the first patient who developed vascular collapse from the gastrointestinal tract bleeding by rotavirus infection. clinicians should be alerted to the possibility of the occurrence of severe hemorrhagic enteritis as a life threatening complication in rotavirus induced enteritis.19902170542
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