Publications

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characterising aquifer treatment for pathogens in managed aquifer recharge.in this study the value of subsurface treatment of urban stormwater during aquifer storage transfer recovery (astr) is characterised using quantitative microbial risk assessment (qmra) methodology. the astr project utilizes a multi-barrier treatment train to treat urban stormwater but to date the role of the aquifer has not been quantified. in this study it was estimated that the aquifer barrier provided 1.4, 2.6, >6.0 log(10) removals for rotavirus, cryptosporidium and campylobacter respectivel ...201021045325
high level of gastrointestinal nosocomial infections in the german surveillance system, 2002-2008.surveillance of nosocomial infections (nis) is well established in many countries but often does not include gastrointestinal infections. we sought to determine the proportion of nis among all hospitalized cases for the 4 most prevalent types of gastrointestinal infections in germany.201021047180
improvement of recombinant protein production by an anti-apoptotic protein from hemolymph of lonomia obliqua.apoptosis is a major problem in animal cell culture during production of biopharmaceuticals, such as recombinant proteins or viral particles. in the present work baculovirus-insect cell expression system (bevs/ic) is used as model to produce rotavirus like-particles, composed by three layers of three different viral proteins (vp2, vp6 and vp7). in this model baculovirus infection also induces host cell death. herein a new strategy to enhance cell life span and to increase recombinant rotavirus p ...201020936342
dual selection mechanisms drive efficient single-gene reverse genetics for rotavirus.current methods for engineering the segmented double-stranded rna genome of rotavirus (rv) are limited by inefficient recovery of the recombinant virus. in an effort to expand the utility of rv reverse genetics, we developed a method to recover recombinant viruses in which independent selection strategies are used to engineer single-gene replacements. we coupled a mutant sa11 rv encoding a temperature-sensitive (ts) defect in the nsp2 protein with rnai-mediated degradation of nsp2 mrnas to isola ...201020937889
dynamic model of rotavirus transmission and the impact of rotavirus vaccination in kyrgyzstan.new rotavirus vaccines show promise to reduce the burden of severe diarrhea among children in developing countries. we present an age-specific dynamic rotavirus model to assess the effect of rotavirus vaccination in kyrgyzstan, a country in central asia that is eligible for funds from the gavi alliance. a routine rotavirus vaccination program at 95% coverage and 54% effectiveness against severe infection is estimated to lead to a 56% reduction in rotavirus-associated deaths and a 50% reduction i ...201020933563
effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in preventing hospitalization due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in young children in connecticut, usa.rotavirus vaccine was recommended for use in us infants to prevent rotavirus gastroenteritis (rge) in february 2006. this matched case control study assessed the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in preventing hospitalization of young. cases were vaccine-eligible children 8 weeks-3 years of age, hospitalized due to laboratory-confirmed rge. cases (n=42) were matched to 2 control groups: (a) hospitalized controls (n=80): children hospitalized for reasons other than rge, matched to the cases by a ...201020851087
[epidemiological surveillance of norovirus and rotavirus diarrhea among outpatient children in five metropolitan cities].to survey the clinical epidemiological features of norovirus and rotavirus diarrhea among children living in 5 cities.201021055297
[clinical relevance of human bocavirus with acute respiratory tract infection and diarrhea in children: a prospective case-control study].to explore the causative role of human bocavirus (hbov) played in acute respiratory infection and diarrhea in children, a case-control study was prospectively conducted to investigate hbov detection in symptomatic children with acute respiratory tract infection, diarrhea and asymptomatic children.201021055300
adenovirus infection mimics the cerebellitis caused by rotavirus infection. 201020931229
outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in young children with death due to rotavirus genotype g9 in rio branco, brazilian amazon region, 2005.an epidemic of acute gastroenteritis occurred in rio branco city, acre state, in brazil's amazon region in 2005. an investigation was conducted to confirm the etiology and identify possible risk factors for death.201020843719
determination of g and p type diversity of group a rotaviruses in faecal samples of diarrhoeic calves in kashmir, india.to determine the genetic diversity of group a rotaviruses in bovine calves in kashmir, india.201020875036
[study on the epidemiological of rotavirus diarrhea in lulong in 2008-2009].to analyze the feature of epidemiological of rotavirus diarrhea in lulong county, hebei province.201020848835
enteric viruses in ready-to-eat packaged leafy greens. 201021029560
[analysis on epidemiologic characteristics of viral diarrhea among infants in taiyuan, shanxi province, 2007-2008].to study the epidemiologic characteristics of virus-induced acute diarrhea in children under 5 years old in taiyuan, shanxi province.201020848837
multiple-gene characterization of rotavirus strains: evidence of genetic linkage among the vp7-, vp4-, vp6-, and nsp4-encoding genes.a total of 162 rotavirus strains detected between 1996 and 2006 among individuals with diarrhea in rio de janeiro, brazil, were analyzed by multiple-gene genotyping. characterization of strains was done by rt-pcr assay for amplification and typing of the vp7-, vp4-, vp6-, and nsp4-encoding genes. overall, 139 (85.8%) strains belonged to the common group a rotavirus combinations: 67 (41.4%) belonged to genotype g1-p[8]-i1-e1; 18 (11.1%) were g2-p[4]-i2-e2; 11 (6.8%) were g3-p[8]-i1-e1; 12 (7.4%) ...201020827779
[sequence the complete sequence of bocavirus i with sispa-pcr].to sequence the complete sequence of bocavirus i with sequence independent single primer amplification (sispa-pcr).201020848839
case-control study of diarrheal disease etiology in a remote rural area in western thailand.the objective was to assess the association of enteric pathogens in diarrheal disease in a remote rural area in thailand. stool specimens were collected from 236 children aged 3 months to 5 years with acute diarrhea (cases) and from 236 asymptomatic controls. standard microbiologic methods, and enzyme immunoassay for viral pathogens, giardia, and cryptosporidium, were used to identify enteric pathogens with susceptibility testing by disk diffusion. campylobacter, plesiomonas, salmonella, and ent ...201021036846
prevalence and factors associated with rotavirus infection among children admitted with acute diarrhea in uganda.rotavirus remains the commonest cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea among children worldwide. children in developing countries die more because of several factors including poorer access to hydration therapy and greater prevalence of malnutrition. hitherto, the magnitude of rotavirus disease in uganda has remained unknown. this study was therefore done to determine the prevalence and factors associated with rotavirus infection among children aged 3-59 months admitted with acute diarrhea to paed ...201020868488
national, state, and local area vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months --- united states, 2009.since 1994, the national immunization survey (nis) has been collecting data to monitor childhood immunization coverage. this report describes the 2009 nis coverage estimates for children born during january 2006--july 2008 and focuses on the more recently recommended vaccines (i.e., hepatitis b [hepb] vaccine birth dose, hepatitis a vaccine [hepa], pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [pcv], and rotavirus vaccine) for children aged 19--35 months. the most recent nis data indicate that vaccination cove ...201020847720
rotavirus-associated colitis in a six-month-old baby. 201020958865
in vitro anti-rotavirus activity of polyphenol compounds isolated from the roots of glycyrrhiza uralensis.we evaluated the ability of six polyphenols isolated from the roots of glycyrrhiza uralensis to inactivate rotaviruses, specially g5p[7] and g8p[7]. upon finding that all polyphenols possessed anti-rotavirus activity, we evaluated whether these properties were attributable to direct inhibition of the binding of rotavirus to cells and/or to inhibition of viral replication. using the virucidal assay, we found that all six compounds directly inhibited rotavirus binding, with activity being dependen ...201020850329
hospitalisation for rotavirus gastroenteritis in the paediatric population in the veneto region, italy.this study evaluates the epidemiological impact of rvge hospitalisation in the veneto region during the period spanning from 2000-2007 along with the associated costs. the analysis was conducted in an area where rotavirus vaccination is not included into immunization programmes and is an attempt to assess the potential benefits of such introduction.201020969755
rotavirus incidence and genotype distribution before and after national rotavirus vaccine introduction in belgium.rotarix™ was introduced into the belgian market in 2006 and rotateq™ in 2007, quickly reaching more than 85% vaccine coverage of all newborns in belgium. the incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis has been monitored in the gasthuisberg university hospital (guh), belgium since 1986, and since 1999 the genotypes of circulating rotavirus strains have been determined. the average percentage of rotavirus positive cases out of all hospitalized gastro-enteritis cases tested (>95% of these cases are you ...201020851085
hybridization properties of long nucleic acid probes for detection of variable target sequences, and development of a hybridization prediction algorithm.one of the main problems in nucleic acid-based techniques for detection of infectious agents, such as influenza viruses, is that of nucleic acid sequence variation. dna probes, 70-nt long, some including the nucleotide analog deoxyribose-inosine (dinosine), were analyzed for hybridization tolerance to different amounts and distributions of mismatching bases, e.g. synonymous mutations, in target dna. microsphere-linked 70-mer probes were hybridized in 3m tmac buffer to biotinylated single-strande ...201020864443
comparison of viral load and duration of virus shedding in symptomatic and asymptomatic neonatal rotavirus infections.a single rotavirus strain causing asymptomatic infections as well as severe gastrointestinal disease has been described in the neonatal nurseries of the christian medical college, vellore. in this study, quantitative real-time rt-pcr was used to determine the association of viral load with the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms in neonates. viral load was estimated in terms of the crossing point [c(t) value] at which the amplicon could be detected in the real-time pcr assay. the study was car ...201020827780
vigor, an annotation program for small viral genomes.the decrease in cost for sequencing and improvement in technologies has made it easier and more common for the re-sequencing of large genomes as well as parallel sequencing of small genomes. it is possible to completely sequence a small genome within days and this increases the number of publicly available genomes. among the types of genomes being rapidly sequenced are those of microbial and viral genomes responsible for infectious diseases. however, accurate gene prediction is a challenge that ...201020822531
pathogen inactivation during passage of stormwater through a constructed reedbed and aquifer transfer, storage and recovery.a study was undertaken to determine the potential inactivation rates of selected enteric microorganisms in captured urban stormwater within a constructed reedbed and in tertiary carbonated aquifer during an aquifer storage, transfer and recovery (astr) scheme. the study was undertaken in-situ in the constructed reedbed and aquifer using diffusion chambers. the results showed that all tested bacteria had one log(10) reduction time of less than 6 and 2.5 days respectively in constructed reedbeds a ...201020818064
an update to "the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination: comparative analyses for five european countries and transferability in europe".a cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination in belgium, england and wales, finland, france and the netherlands published in 2009 was updated based on recent studies on rotavirus burden of disease and vaccine efficacy. all the qualitative conclusions in the previous study were found to remain valid. vaccination remains cost-effective in finland only when using plausible tender prices.201020846529
[sybr green i real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of norovirus ii in the shellfish].we set up an sybr green i real-time rt-pcr method for the detection of genogroup ii norovirus, and this method's primers were encompassed the conservative region of norovirus ii. the limit of the detection was 10(2) copies. the standard curve's linear range was 10(2)-10(6) copies, correlation coefficient was 0.9952, the slope was -2.982, and the intercept was 35.84. this method possessed specificity for genogroup ii norovirus, without any cross-reaction with rotavirus, adenovirus, hepatitis a vi ...201020815263
[verotoxin as a major laboratory criterion for escherichia coli o157-induced enteric infection complicated by hemolytic uremic syndrome in infants in the omsk region].the paper presents the results of etiological interpretation of the outbreak of escherichia coli o157-induced enteric infection complicated by hemolytic uremic syndrome in omsk in spring 2009. seventeen infants aged 5 months to 2.5 years were examined; of them 9 patients were on hemodialysis. the diagnosis was verified in 7 children, by isolating verotoxin after fecal enrichment on the concentrating nutrient rida enrichment bouillon medium containing bile salts and mitomycin c, e. coli o157:h7 c ...201020886723
handling uncertainty in dynamic transmission models. 201020888874
emerging norovirus gii.4 2008 variant detected in hospitalised paediatric patients in south africa.noroviruses (novs) are important enteric pathogens that cause gastroenteritis worldwide. the first documented nov outbreaks in south africa (sa) were described in 1993. the current nov prevalence and circulating genotypes are unknown. sa lacks nov outbreak reporting systems and therefore the number and impact of nov infections is underestimated.201020869912
outbreak of neonatal gastroenteritis associated with astrovirus serotype 1 at a hospital in inner mongolia, china.this report describes for the first time an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis among neonates associated with human astrovirus (hastv) serotype 1b at a maternity hospital in inner mongolia, china. of 40 specimens, 28 were astrovirus positive and rotavirus, calicivirus, and adenovirus negative. poor hygiene likely contributed to the spread and persistence of hastv in the neonatal care room.201020810774
prospective surveillance of nosocomial viral infections during and after hospitalization at a university children's hospital.in switzerland 5% to 10% of hospitalized adults acquire nosocomial infections (ni) but few data are available in children. most former studies on ni in hospitalized children analyzed specific units or pathogens and neglected the postdischarge period. we aimed to prospectively assess viral ni occurring during and shortly after hospitalization in children.201020879093
molecular characterization of unusual bovine group a rotavirus g8p[14] strains identified in western india: emergence of p[14] genotype.a total of 78 fecal specimens were collected from both apparently healthy (n=71) and diarrheic (n=7) cattle from an organized farm in pune, western india in december 2007-january 2008. three specimens tested positive for group a rotavirus (rv) by antigen capture elisa were subjected to rt-pcr for amplification of entire coding regions of three structural (vp4, vp6 and vp7) and one nonstructural (nsp4) genes. all three strains were genotyped as g8p[14]. phylogenetic analysis of the vp7 and vp4 ge ...201020880637
exploring model uncertainty in economic evaluation of health interventions: the example of rotavirus vaccination in vietnam.motivated by observed discrepancies between 2 published studies on the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in vietnam, the authors' objectives were to illustrate a specific, systematic approach to assessing model (structure and process) uncertainty and to quantify explicitly the contributions of different sources of variation in the outputs of different studies that share the same research question.201020729510
efficacy of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants in developing countries in asia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.rotavirus vaccine has proved effective for prevention of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants in developed countries, but no efficacy studies have been done in developing countries in asia. we assessed the clinical efficacy of live oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine for prevention of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants in bangladesh and vietnam.201020692031
pentavalent rotavirus vaccine and prevention of gastroenteritis hospitalizations in australia.a publicly funded, universal infant pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) program was implemented in queensland, australia, in mid-2007. we sought to assess vaccine effectiveness (ve) of 3 doses of rv5 at preventing rotavirus and nonrotavirus acute gastroenteritis (age) hospitalizations in the first birth cohort and impact on hospitalizations in all age groups.201020732946
[toward the elimination of rotavirus gastroenteritis by universal vaccination].rotavirus is the most important cause of severe gastroenteritis in children worldwide, and is most effectively controlled by vaccines. the strategic advisory group of experts (sage) of the world health organization (who) recommended, in 2009, the inclusion of rotavirus vaccination of infants into all national immunization programs. two, live, orally-administrable vaccines are licensed globally. they are rotarix, a g1p[8] monovalent, human rotavirus-based vaccine (glaxosmithkline), and rotateq, a ...201020848863
probiotics in the treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhoea. a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial using two different probiotic preparations in bolivian children.evidence suggests that probiotics reduce rotavirus diarrhoea duration. although there are several probiotic strains potentially useful, daily practice is often limited by the type and number of products locally available. in general, information about combined products is scarce. in this study we compare the effect of two probiotic products in the treatment of diarrhoea in children less than 2 years of age.201020735858
sequential generalized likelihood ratio tests for vaccine safety evaluation.the evaluation of vaccine safety involves pre-clinical animal studies, pre-licensure randomized clinical trials, and post-licensure safety studies. sequential design and analysis are of particular interest because they allow early termination of the trial or quick detection that the vaccine exceeds a prescribed bound on the adverse event rate. after a review of the recent developments in this area, we propose a new class of sequential generalized likelihood ratio tests for evaluating adverse eve ...201020799244
detection of rotavirus a in sewage samples using multiplex qpcr and an evaluation of the ultracentrifugation and adsorption-elution methods for virus concentration.group a rotaviruses (rv-a) are the most common agents of viral gastroenteritis in children worldwide. the goal of this study was to compare two different methods to concentrate rv-a from sewage samples and to improve the detection and quantification of rv-a using a multiplex quantitative pcr assay with an internal control. both rv-a and the internal control virus, bacteriophage pp7, were seeded into wastewater and then concentrated using either an ultrafiltration-based adsorption-elution protoco ...201020804786
rotavirus: realising the potential of a promising vaccine. 201020692032
the american society for virology--29th annual meeting.the american society for virology 29th annual meeting, held in bozeman, mt, usa, included topics covering new vaccine technologies, delivery methods and treatments in the field of virology. this conference report highlights selected presentations on human norovirus (hunov), sars coronavirus and rift valley fever virus vaccine technologies; programmed cell death-1 (pd1) blockade and hyperacute alpha-gal platform technology methods; aerosol vaccination delivery; novel technologies to produce influ ...201020799142
prevention of rotavirus infections in vitro with aqueous extracts of quillaja saponaria molina.rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea disease in newborns and young children worldwide, estimated to be responsible for over 300,000 childhood deaths every year, mostly in developing countries. rotavirus-related deaths represent approximately 5% of all deaths in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide. saponins are readily soluble in water and are approved by the us fda for inclusion in beverages intended for human consumption. the addition of saponins to existing water suppli ...201020725585
orthogonal predictions: follow-up questions for suggestive data.when a biological hypothesis of causal effect can be inferred, the hypothesis can sometimes be tested in the selfsame database that gave rise to the study data from which the hypothesis grew. valid testing happens when the inferred biological hypothesis has scientific implications that predict new relations between observations already recorded. testing for the existence of the new relations is a valid assessment of the biological hypothesis, so long as the newly predicted relations are not a lo ...201020309840
porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line (ipec-j2) of rotavirus infection as a new model for the study of innate immune responses to rotaviruses and probiotics.previous studies of epithelial immune responses to rotavirus infection have been conducted in transformed cell lines. in this study, we evaluated a non-transformed porcine jejunum epithelial cell line (ipec-j2) as an in-vitro model of rotavirus infection and probiotic treatment. cell-culture-adapted porcine rotavirus (prv) osu strain, or human rotavirus (hrv) wa strain, along with lactobacillus acidophilus (la) or lactobacillus rhamnosus gg (lgg) were used to inoculate ipec-j2 cells. la or lgg t ...201020373994
mechanism of intraparticle synthesis of the rotavirus double-stranded rna genome.rotaviruses perform the remarkable tasks of transcribing and replicating 11 distinct double-stranded rna genome segments within the confines of a subviral particle. multiple viral polymerases are tethered to the interior of a particle, each dedicated to a solitary genome segment but acting in synchrony to synthesize rna. although the rotavirus polymerase specifically recognizes rna templates in the absence of other proteins, its enzymatic activity is contingent upon interaction with the viral ca ...201020351108
diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis by simultaneous detection of adenovirus group f, astrovirus, rotavirus group a, norovirus genogroups i and ii, and sapovirus in two internally controlled multiplex real-time pcr assays.norovirus, rotavirus group a, astrovirus, sapovirus and adenovirus serotypes 40 and 41, are common causes of gastroenteritis. conventional diagnosis of these causative agents is based on antigen detection and electron microscopy.201020829103
comment on the contribution by weycker et al., "cost of routine immunization of young children against rotavirus infection with rotarix ® versus rotateq ®". 201020831915
evaluation of the prevalence of enterotoxigenic bacteroides fragilis and the distribution bft gene subtypes in patients with diarrhea.the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enterotoxigenic bacteroides fragilis (etbf) in the patients with diarrhea in our region and to assess the association between diarrhea and bft gene subtypes. the presence of etbf and bft gene subtypes were investigated in 200 stool samples from patients with diarrhea, diagnosed as gastroenteritis, which were sent to clinical microbiology laboratory at zonguldak karaelmas university, training and research hospital and in 200 stool samples f ...201020709181
prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants and children: rotavirus vaccine safety, efficacy, and potential impact of vaccines.rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis globally, with greater than 86% of deaths occurring in low-income and middle-income countries. there are two rotavirus vaccines currently licensed in the united states and prequalified by the world health organization. rv1 is a monovalent attenuated human rotavirus strain, given orally in two doses. rv5 is a pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine, given orally in three doses. a third rotavirus vaccine, llv, is ...201020714358
an inside job: subversion of the host secretory pathway by intestinal pathogens.the cellular secretory pathway, composed of the endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, and cellular vesicles, mediates the intracellular trafficking of proteins and lipids. gastrointestinal pathogens frequently affect the functions of enterocytes, the differentiated cells involved in secretion and absorption of extracellular molecules. microbial pathogenesis can be enhanced by altering the trafficking of key molecules such as brush border enzymes, soluble immune mediators such as cytokines and ...201020717028
characterization and molecular epidemiology of rotavirus strains recovered in northern pretoria, south africa during 2003-2006.rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe dehydrating gastroenteritis in infants and young children and remains a significant clinical problem worldwide. the severity and the burden of rotavirus disease could be reduced through the implementation of an effective vaccine. the aim of this study was to characterize rotavirus strains circulating in the local community as part of an ongoing hospital burden of disease study when a g1p[8] rotavirus vaccine candidate was being evaluated in ...201020684694
prevalence and diversity of rotavirus strains in children with acute diarrhea from rural communities in the limpopo province, south africa, from 1998 to 2000.data regarding the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of rotavirus infection in rural areas of africa are limited. in this study the prevalence and genetic diversity of rotaviruses in a rural south african setting were investigated.201020684695
characterization of rotavirus strains detected in windhoek, namibia during 1998-1999.namibia, located on the southwestern coast of southern africa, is characterized by vast deserts, limited fresh water, and low population density. mortality estimates among children <5 of age are 63 deaths per 1000 live-births, with diarrheal diseases contributing to 3% of these deaths. data on the burden of rotavirus disease and circulating serotypes in namibia are currently not available.201020684697
acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (sweet's syndrome) in a child, associated with a rotavirus infection: a case report.abstract:201020727148
estimating the primary etiologic agents in recreational freshwaters impacted by human sources of faecal contamination.epidemiology studies of recreational waters have demonstrated that swimmers exposed to faecally-contaminated recreational waters are at risk of excess gastrointestinal illness. epidemiology studies provide valuable information on the nature and extent of health effects, the magnitude of risks, and how these risks are modified or associated with levels of faecal contamination and other measures of pollution. however, such studies have not provided information about the specific microbial agents t ...201020728915
characterization of human rotavirus strains from children with diarrhea in nairobi and kisumu, kenya, between 2000 and 2002.rotavirus infection is a major cause of diarrheal illness and hospitalization in children <5 years old in kenya and has been described in various settings and locations across the country and for different time points. in this study, we expand on the molecular characterization of rotavirus strains collected in nairobi and kisumu, kenya, between 2000 and 2002. rotavirus strains were typed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and characterized using vp6 monoclonal antibodies and rna ...201020684701
characterization of human rotavirus recovered from children with acute diarrhea in kinshasa, democratic republic of congo.between july and october of 2003, 2004, and 2005, outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis occurred among children <5 years of age in kinshasa, democratic republic of the congo. stool specimens (67 in 2003, 108 in 2004, and 116 in 2005) were collected and screened for rotaviruses using either latex agglutination (diarlex laa; orion diagnostics) or enzyme immunoassay (ideia; dakocytomation). the molecular characteristics of the rotavirus strains were then determined. group a rotavirus was detected in 1 ...201020684702
plasmon-induced inactivation of enteric pathogenic microorganisms with ag-agi/al2o3 under visible-light irradiation.the plasmon-induced photocatalytic inactivation of enteric pathogenic microorganisms in water using ag-agi/al(2)o(3) under visible-light irradiation was investigated. the catalyst was found to be highly effective at killing shigella dysenteriae (s. dysenteriae), escherichia coli (e. coli), and human rotavirus type 2 wa (hrv-wa). its bactericidal efficiency was significantly enhanced by hco(3)(-) and so(4)(2-) ions, which are common in water, while phosphate had a slightly positive effect on the ...201020734989
diversity of rotavirus vp7 and vp4 genotypes in northwestern nigeria.nigeria has recently been ranked third among the 10 countries with the greatest number of rotavirus disease-associated deaths per year. estimates attribute up to 33,000 deaths annually to rotavirus disease in nigerian children <5 years old. although the introduction of the new oral, live attenuated rotavirus vaccines may not occur for another 4-6 years in developing countries, background data on burden of disease, cost of rotavirus disease, and characterization of circulating strains is required ...201020684703
rotavirus vp4 and vp7 genotypes circulating in cameroon: identification of unusual types.rotavirus remains a priority candidate for vaccine development, because it is the major cause of viral diarrhea in children worldwide. this study characterized rotavirus strains in 195 stool specimens collected from children <5 years of age with diarrhea, in the southwest province and western province of cameroon during 1999-2000. the predominant g type was g1 (detected in 44.9% of specimens) and the most predominant p type was p[8] (in 82.7%). the most common g-p combination detected was g1p[8] ...201020684704
characterization of 2 human genotype g10 rotavirus strains, 3008cm and 1784/ci/1999, isolated in cameroon and cote d'ivoire during the 1999-2000 rotavirus season.during routine rotavirus surveillance projects in cameroon and cote d'ivoire, 2 fecal samples collected from 2 children <5 years of age who presented with symptoms of gastroenteritis were found to give anomalous g typing results. these specimens were strongly rotavirus positive by enzyme immunoassay, displayed vp6 subgroup ii specificity and long rna electropherotypes, and were typed as rotavirus serotype g2 with monoclonal antibodies. in addition, the strains were typed as rotavirus vp7 genotyp ...201020684705
reversible cytotoxic oedema in the splenium of the corpus callosum related to tetracycline therapy.we report a symptomatic girl with reversible circumscribed cytotoxic oedema in the splenium of the corpus callosum (cc) that occurred, to our knowledge, for the first time in relation to tetracycline treatment. after stopping tetracycline therapy the girl recovered completely and the cc lesion, clearly visible on diffusion-weighted mr imaging (dwi), disappeared. reversible circumscribed cytotoxic oedema (cco) of the splenium of the cc is a well-defined entity that is found to be associated with ...201020689948
a novel rt-multiplex pcr for detection of aichi virus, human parechovirus, enteroviruses, and human bocavirus among infants and children with acute gastroenteritis.a novel reverse transcription-multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was developed to detect aichi virus, human parechovirus, enteroviruses, and human bocavirus. a mixture of four pairs of published specific primers, 6261 and 6779, ev22(+) and ev22(-), f1 and r1, 188f and 542r, was used to amplify the viral genomes and specifically generate four different amplicon sizes of 519, 270, 440, and 354 bp for aichi virus, human parechovirus, enteroviruses, and human bocavirus, respectively. a total ...201020691209
development of a bacillus subtilis-based rotavirus vaccine.bacillus subtilis vaccine strains engineered to express either group a bovine or murine rotavirus vp6 were tested in adult mice for their ability to induce immune responses and provide protection against rotavirus challenge. mice were inoculated intranasally with spores or vegetative cells of the recombinant strains of b. subtilis. to enhance mucosal immunity, whole cholera toxin (ct) or a mutant form (r192g) of escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (mlt) were included as adjuvants. to evaluate vac ...201020810679
efficacy of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants in developing countries in sub-saharan africa: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.rotavirus gastroenteritis causes many deaths in infants in sub-saharan africa. because rotavirus vaccines have proven effective in developed countries but had not been tested in developing countries, we assessed efficacy of a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against severe disease in ghana, kenya, and mali between april, 2007, and march, 2009.201020692030
acute pancreatitis due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in a child.serum amylase can be elevated in various pathological conditions, but its primary application is as a biochemical test for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. acute gastroenteritis has not been widely recognized as a cause for hyperamylasemia and pancreatitis.201020693860
assessment of adenovirus, hepatitis a virus and rotavirus presence in environmental samples in florianopolis, south brazil.to assess the presence of human adenovirus (hadv), hepatitis a (hav) virus and rotavirus a (rv-a) in environmental samples from the southern region of brazil and to provide viral contamination data for further epidemiological studies and governmental actions.201020698910
burden of paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) and potential benefits of a universal rotavirus vaccination programme with a pentavalent vaccine in spain.rotavirus is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. the aim of the study was to assess the health outcomes and the economic impact of a universal rotavirus vaccination programme with rotateq, the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, versus no vaccination programme in spain.201020698958
improving the performance of enteric vaccines in the developing world.vaccines against important enteric pathogens such as rotavirus and poliovirus have shown lower efficacy in some populations. the application of new technologies and diverse scientific disciplines are needed to realize the promise of truly universal and effective solutions to combat those and other enteric diseases.201020720580
burden on uk secondary care of rotavirus disease and seasonal infections in children.rotavirus is a common infection affecting children under 5 years, which leads to a significant disease burden. this burden is potentially exacerbated by the seasonality of rotavirus, particularly in the context of the seasonality of other common childhood infections. the primary study objective was to describe the pattern and burden of seasonal infections amongst children under 5 years of age with particular attention placed on rotavirus and other gastrointestinal infections.201020818925
cholera toxin b subunit modulation of mucosal vaccines for infectious and autoimmune diseases.parenteral vaccination is generally considered to be the most effective form of therapy for protection against infectious diseases. in recent years, vaccination at mucosal surfaces and combinatorial vaccination strategies that link immunostimulatory molecules to antigens have been developed to enhance vaccine efficacy. prominent among immunological enhancement strategies are the bacterial a and b toxins, which include the cholera toxin (ct)a and ctb subunits. in contrast to the toxic cta subunit ...201020721834
multiplex semi-nested rt-pcr with exogenous internal control for simultaneous detection of bovine coronavirus and group a rotavirus.neonatal calf diarrhea is a multi-etiology syndrome of cattle and direct detection of the two major agents of the syndrome, group a rotavirus and bovine coronavirus (bcov) is hampered by their fastidious growth in cell culture. this study aimed at developing a multiplex semi-nested rt-pcr for simultaneous detection of bcov (n gene) and group a rotavirus (vp1 gene) with the addition of an internal control (mrna nd5). the assay was tested in 75 bovine feces samples tested previously for rotavirus ...201020723564
nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis in pediatric patients: a multi-center prospective cohort study.few data are available on the incidence of nosocomial rotavirus infections (nrvi) in pediatric hospitals and on their economic impact. the goals of this study were: to evaluate the incidence of nrvi in various italian pediatric wards during the course of two peak rv seasons; to investigate possible risk factors for nrvi; to estimate the costs caused by nrvi.201020696065
antibodies to pathogenic livestock viruses in a wild vicuña (vicugna vicugna) population in the argentinean andean altiplano.serum samples from 128 wild vicuñas (vicugna vicugna) were tested for antibodies (ab) to rotavirus (rv), bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (bpiv-3), bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv-1), foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), bluetongue virus (btv), equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1), and influenza a virus equine (eiv). samples were collected in cieneguillas province of jujuy, in northern argentina. feces from 44 vicuñas were also collected to investigate rv shedding. llamas (la ...201020688660
genetic and antigenic diversity of human rotaviruses: potential impact on vaccination programs.the successful development and implementation of rotavirus vaccines will have a significant impact on rotavirus-induced gastroenteritis in children worldwide. however, this introduction will increase the immune pressure against wild-type rotavirus strains circulating in the community, altering the forces and balances that drive rotavirus evolution. there is concern that antigenically distinct novel or rare strains may be selected and spread, decreasing vaccine efficacy. this review describes the ...201020684716
determination of the g and p types of previously nontypeable rotavirus strains from the african rotavirus network, 1996-2004: identification of unusual g types.a total of 215 nontypeable rotavirus samples collected from children <5 years of age by members of the african rotavirus network were characterized using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis and sequencing. the most predominant strain identified was p[8]g1 (46.9%). genotypes p[8]g10, p[8]g8, p[6]g8, and p[7]g5 were also detected at frequencies varying from 0.5% to 2.3%. this study suggests that reassortment of unusual g types into a background of globally common genotype p[8] ...201020684717
re: "age dependence of the risk of intussusception following tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus tetravalent vaccine: is it beyond doubt?". 201020682522
influence of potential protective mechanisms on the development of live rotavirus vaccines.rotaviruses cause extensive morbidity and mortality worldwide, thus corroborating the need for a vaccine that is effective in all socioeconomic environments. vaccines evaluated in clinical trials have all been live attenuated rotaviruses that are delivered orally to mimic the excellent protection observed after natural infection. the mechanisms by which these vaccine candidates or wild-type rotaviruses elicit protection are not fully understood. during the 1980s, several candidate vaccines provi ...201020684721
molecular characterization and genotyping of human rotavirus strains in abidjan, cote d'ivoire.in this study, we characterized human rotavirus strains recovered from infants and young children with acute diarrhea in abidjan, cote d'ivoire, during 2000-2004. in total, 719 fecal specimens were collected from children aged 1-60 months with acute infantile gastroenteritis. examination with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed the presence of group a rotavirus antigen in 208 diarrheal specimens (28.9%). polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the rna extracted from rotavirus-pos ...201020684706
antigenic and molecular characterization of unusual rotavirus strains in burkina faso in 1999.thirty-six of 37 rotavirus strains recovered from the diarrheal stools of 166 children <3 years of age in burkina faso were characterized at both the antigenic and molecular levels. the rotavirus strains were confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; 30 displayed predominantly short electropherotype patterns, and 6 had a long rna pattern. the strains were subgrouped by monoclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay for vp6 and were typed as subgroup i (29 of 30 short rotavirus strains) and subgro ...201020684707
review of rotavirus studies in africa: 1976-2006.rotavirus is a common cause of severe diarrheal disease in children worldwide. ninety percent of the associated deaths occur in sub-saharan africa and south east asia. our aim was to review the prevalence of rotavirus infection in africa over the past 30 years.201020684708
rotarix in developing countries: paving the way for inclusion in national childhood immunization programs in africa.rotavirus gastroenteritis causes more than half a million deaths annually among children aged <5 years, the great majority of which occur in africa and asia. vaccination is considered to be the most effective public health strategy to prevent rotavirus disease and to reduce the significant global burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis. rotarix (glaxosmithkline biologicals) is an oral, live attenuated rotavirus vaccine derived from a human g1p[8] rotavirus strain. results of phase iii studies in eur ...201020684722
rotateq: progress toward developing world access.phase iii studies of an oral, live, pentavalent, human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (rotateq; merck) in developed countries have demonstrated that it is well tolerated with regard to intussusception and other adverse events and is efficacious in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis and associated healthcare encounters. however, it cannot be assumed that rotavirus vaccines will be equally efficacious in infants and young children in the developing world. differences in host populations, a ...201020684723
comparison of 2 different regimens for reactogenicity, safety, and immunogenicity of the live attenuated oral rotavirus vaccine rix4414 coadministered with oral polio vaccine in south african infants.a phase ii, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in south africa during 2003-2004 to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of 2 regimens of the live attenuated oral human rotavirus vaccine rix4414 when coadministered with the expanded program on immunization childhood vaccines, including oral polio vaccine.201020684724
seasonal variation of enteropathogens in infants and preschoolers with acute diarrhea in western mexico.the present study estimates the prevalence of some enteropathogens in infants and preschoolers with acute diarrhea. from 2006 to 2007, 5459 consecutive stool samples were evaluated. cryptosporidium parvum was the parasite identified with the higher frequency (5.1%), followed by giardia lamblia (1.2%). campylobacter jejuni was isolated in 858 cases (15.7%) and was the most frequent enteropathogen overall. the rates of c parvum, shigella, and salmonella were higher in the summer. rotavirus had the ...201020706147
rotavirus strain diversity in the centre coast of tunisia from 2000 through 2003.an epidemiological survey investigating rotavirus infection in children was undertaken in the coastal region of tunisia from january 2000 through september 2003. a total of 309 fecal specimens were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and latex agglutination assay for the presence of group a rotavirus antigen. the detection rate was 26.2%. rotavirus outbreaks showed a temperature-dependant pattern (p = .026) but no significant association with rainfall. rotavirus strains isolated were a ...201020684712
molecular characterization of rotavirus strains circulating in oman in 2005.limited genotyping data are available for rotavirus strains in the middle east. in this study, we investigated the molecular epidemiology of human rotavirus strains circulating in the sultanate of oman during 2005. rotavirus was detected in 178 (57.4%) of 310 of the diarrheal stools of young children <5 years admitted to hospitals and outpatients clinics. polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated the cocirculation of 8 strains, although 2 strains predominated across the sultanate. genotypi ...201020684713
rotavirus genotypes among hospitalized children in egypt, 2000-2002.rotavirus type surveillance is essential to assess the success of rotavirus vaccines. rotavirus strains collected in 2000-2002 during hospital-based surveillance for diarrhea in egyptian children were genotyped. of the 259 (25.2%) rotavirus-positive specimens, 82.4% were common strains (g1p[8], g2p[4], g4p[8]), and the emergent g9 type was detected in 5.3% of samples.201020684714
rotavirus and coeliac autoimmunity among adults with non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms.to determine celiac disease (cd) serology and rotavirus (rv) by polymerase reaction (pcr) in adults with non-specific gastrointestinal complaints.201020714687
cryptosporidium infection in herds with and without calf diarrhoeal problems.a case-control study was designed to investigate the role of different cryptosporidium spp. in swedish dairy herds with and without calf diarrhoeal problems. faecal samples were collected from preweaned calves, young stock and cows. cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by sodium chloride flotation and epifluorescence microscopy. molecular diagnostics were used to identify cryptosporidium species. samples containing c. parvum were further analysed to determine subtypes. calf faecal samples were ...201020714750
burden and epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in selected african countries: preliminary results from the african rotavirus surveillance network.severe rotavirus diarrhea in children <5 years of age is a major public health problem; however, limited regional and country specific data on rotavirus disease burden are available from sub-saharan africa. in june 2006, the world health organization regional office for africa initiated rotavirus surveillance in selected african countries. with use of standardized methodology developed by the world health organization, children <5 years of age who were hospitalized with severe diarrhea were enro ...201020684718
emergence and characterization of serotype g9 rotavirus strains from africa.serotype g9 strains have been detected sporadically and in localized outbreaks in various african countries, including south africa, botswana, malawi, kenya, cameroon, nigeria, ghana, guinea-bissau, libya, and mauritius. serotype g9 strains were analyzed to investigate genogroup characteristics, including subgroup specificity, electropherotype, and p and g genotypes. in addition, the antigenic composition of the south african g9 strains was assessed. african g9 strains were associated with both ...201020684719
diversity of rotavirus strains circulating in west africa from 1996 to 2000. 201020684720
sustained decline in cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis presenting to the children's hospital of philadelphia in the new rotavirus vaccine era.a dramatic diminution in the number of rotavirus gastroenteritis cases during the 2007 to 2008 rotavirus season in the united states was likely attributable to the availability of an effective rotavirus vaccine for infants since february 2006. to exclude the possibility that factors other than vaccination accounted for the declining case frequency, we examined the 2008 to 2009 experience at the children's hospital of philadelphia (chop).201020661099
change in rotavirus epidemiology in northeast florida after the introduction of rotavirus vaccine.retrospective analysis done at a children's hospital showed significant decrease in infections and hospitalizations caused by rotavirus in northeast florida after the introduction of rotavirus vaccines in 2006. the rotavirus season was delayed in onset by 8 months and duration prolonged by 2-3 months in 2008, and no definite season occurred in 2009.201020661105
identification of a g2-like porcine rotavirus bearing a novel vp4 type, p[32].a porcine group a rotavirus (garv) strain, 61/07/ire, was isolated from a 4-5 week asymptomatic piglet, during an epidemiological survey of porcine herds in southern ireland, in 2007. the nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequence of the full-length vp4 protein of the porv strain 61/07/ire was determined. based on the entire vp4 open reading frame (nt), strain 61/07/ire displayed ≤76.5% identity to representatives of the established 31 p-types, a value far lower than the percentage identity cu ...201020663474
presence of enteric viruses in source waters for drinking water production in the netherlands.the quality of drinking water in the netherlands has to comply with the dutch drinking water directive: less than one infection in 10,000 persons per year may occur due to consumption of unboiled drinking water. since virus concentrations in drinking waters may be below the detection limit but entail a public health risk, the infection risk from drinking water consumption requires the assessment of the virus concentrations in source waters and of the removal efficiency of treatment processes. in ...201020622124
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