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monitoring of group a rotaviruses in wild-living birds in hungary.rotavirus is a common pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans and domesticated animals. the incidence of rotavirus in wild-living animals, particularly in avian species, has not been systematically investigated. in this study 1220 fecal samples and cloacal swabs collected from wild-living birds during 2008 in hungary were tested for the presence of group a rotaviruses by a vp6 gene-specific reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction assay. of the 1220 samples, 276 and 944 were processed ...201121500648
rotavirus encephalitis and cerebellitis with reversible magnetic resonance signal changes. 201121501312
rotavirus vaccine and diarrhea mortality: quantifying regional variation in effect size.diarrhea mortality remains a leading cause of child death and rotavirus vaccine an effective tool for preventing severe rotavirus diarrhea. new data suggest vaccine efficacy may vary by region.201121501433
immunization safety in us print media, 1995-2005.to identify and describe vaccine safety in us newspaper articles.201121502237
detection and molecular characterisation of rotavirus and norovirus infections in jordanian children with acute gastroenteritis.rotavirus and norovirus are globally important causes of paediatric gastroenteritis, but no studies of viral genotypes have been reported from jordan. we undertook a molecular epidemiological study in children hospitalised with acute gastroenteritis in jordan between january 2006 and december 2007. among 368 children, rotavirus and norovirus infections were detected in 49.5% and 11.4% of children, respectively. rotavirus genotypes p[8],g1 (56%), p[4],g2 (14%) and p[8],g9 (13%) were most commonly ...201121503643
rotavirus a genotype p[4]g2: genetic diversity and reassortment events among strains circulating in brazil between 2005 and 2009.group a rotaviruses (rv-a) are the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. due to the epidemiologic complexity of rv-a, especially in developing countries, it is important to determine which genotypes are circulating, principally after the introduction in march 2006 of the monovalent (p[8]g1) rotarix® vaccine in brazil by the national immunization program. in phase iii trials with rotarix®, the prevalence of genotype p[4]g2 was extremely low, and therefor ...201121503926
rotavirus vaccine rix4414 (rotarix™): a pharmacoeconomic review of its use in the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in developed countries.the most common cause of severe diarrhoea in infants and young children is rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge), which is associated with significant morbidity, healthcare resource use and direct and indirect costs in industrialized nations. the monovalent rotavirus vaccine rix4414 (rotarix™) is administered as a two-dose oral series in infants and has demonstrated protective efficacy against rvge in clinical trials conducted in developed countries. in addition, various naturalistic studies have dem ...201121504245
influence of birth rates and transmission rates on the global seasonality of rotavirus incidence.rotavirus is a major cause of mortality in developing countries, and yet the dynamics of rotavirus in such settings are poorly understood. rotavirus is typically less seasonal in the tropics, although recent observational studies have challenged the universality of this pattern. while numerous studies have examined the association between environmental factors and rotavirus incidence, here we explore the role of intrinsic factors. by fitting a mathematical model of rotavirus transmission dynamic ...201121508015
[safe drinking water supply to the vologda region's population using risk assessment methodology].to supply the population with qualitative potable water is a priority problem in the provision of sanitary-and-epidemiologic well-being and in the prevention of disease in the vologda region. the monitoring of the results of laboratory control over the quality of drinking-water and the assessment of health risk enabled a package of measures to be proposed to optimize the conditions of drinking water supply in the vologda region. the risk assessment technology used by a state agency for sanitary- ...201121513060
racecadotril for childhood gastroenteritis: an individual patient data meta-analysis.background: racecadotril is an antidiarrhoeal drug with intestinal antisecretory mechanism of action. aim: to assess racecadotril efficacy as an adjunct to oral rehydration solution, against oral rehydration solution alone or with placebo in childhood acute gastroenteritis. methods: individual patient data meta-analysis following multilevel mixed models testing the significance of the treatment effect adjusted for baseline covariates. results: nine randomised clinical trials (n=1384) were identi ...201121514257
ifn-{lambda} determines the intestinal epithelial antiviral host defense.type i and type iii ifns bind to different cell-surface receptors but induce identical signal transduction pathways, leading to the expression of antiviral host effector molecules. despite the fact that type iii ifn (ifn-λ) has been shown to predominantly act on mucosal organs, in vivo infection studies have failed to attribute a specific, nonredundant function. instead, a predominant role of type i ifn was observed, which was explained by the ubiquitous expression of the type i ifn receptor. he ...201121518880
detection of the first g6p[14] human rotavirus strain from a child with diarrhea in egypt.we report the first detection of a g6p[14] rotavirus strain in egypt from the stool of a child participating in a hospital-based diarrhea surveillance study conducted throughout the year 2004. rotavirus infection was initially detected using a rotavirus group a vp6 enzyme immunoassay; the p (vp4) and g (vp7) genotypes of the strain were identified by rt-pcr. we sequenced the vp7 gene and the vp8* portion of the vp4 gene and the strain displayed the strongest identity to the vp7 [>94% nucleotides ...201121640199
efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of rix4414 in japanese infants during the first two years of life.a phase iii, randomized, double-blind study evaluated the efficacy, reactogenicity, safety and immunogenicity of a human rotavirus vaccine, rix4414 in japanese infants aged 6-14 weeks when administered as two doses (0, 1-month schedule). efficacy against any and severe rotavirus gastroenteritis leading to medical intervention caused by circulating wild-type rotavirus from two weeks post-dose 2 until two years of age was 79.3%(95% ci: 60.5-89.8%) and 91.6%(95% ci: 62.4-99.1%), respectively. solic ...201121640780
molecular characterization of genotype g6 human rotavirus strains detected in italy from 1986 to 2009.group a human rotavirus (hrv) strains with a bovine-like (g6) major outer capsid protein vp7 were first detected in palermo, italy, in the late 1980s, and subsequently worldwide. during a 25-year rotavirus surveillance period, additional hrv g6 strains, associated with either a p[9] or p[14] vp4 genotype, have been detected sporadically, but repeatedly, in palermo. whether these g6 hrvs were transmitted to humans directly from an animal reservoir or could have circulated at low prevalence in sus ...201121640847
full genomic analyses of human rotavirus strains possessing the rare p[8]b vp4 subtype.rotaviruses with the p[8] vp4 genotype are a major cause of acute infantile diarrhea. the p[8] genotype is classified into two genetically distinct subtypes, p[8]a and p[8]b. most of the p[8] strains belong to subtype p[8]a, whilst p[8]b strains are rare. to date, the whole genomes of a few p[8]a strains have been analyzed, whilst there are no reports on full genomic analysis of the p[8]b strains. to determine the genetic makeup of the rare p[8]b strains and their overall genetic relatedness to ...201121640848
a duplex real-time rt-pcr assay for the simultaneous genogroup-specific detection of noroviruses in both clinical and environmental specimens.norovirus (nov) is the major etiological agent causing foodborne and waterborne outbreaks worldwide. we developed a novel duplex real-time quantitative rt-pcr assay designed for the simultaneous detection of and discrimination between nov genogroups gi and gii, by targeting the short junction region between orf1 and orf2, with sensitivity and efficiency comparable to those of each simplex rt-pcr assay. this new duplex assay was evaluated against clinical stool (n = 82) and environmental (groundw ...201121643768
epidemiological and clinical characteristics of pediatric gastroenteritis associated with new viral agents.a 22-month study (2008-2009) was carried out on 273 patients (average age 40 months), admitted with gastroenteritis to the pediatric unit of l. sacco university hospital in milan, italy. fecal samples were investigated for rotavirus (hrv), norovirus (nov), adenovirus (adv), sapovirus (sav), enterovirus, astrovirus and bocavirus (hbov). a 38.3% incidence of infection was observed for hrv, followed by nov (16.2%), hbov (13.6%), adv (2.6%) and sav (0.6%). clinical evaluation of 109 gastroenteritis ...201121643788
rotavirus nsp4: cell type-dependent transport kinetics to the exofacial plasma membrane and release from intact infected cells.abstract: background: rotavirus nsp4 localizes to multiple intracellular sites and is multifunctional, contributing to rv morphogenesis, replication and pathogenesis. one function of nsp4 is the induction of early secretory diarrhea by binding surface receptors to initiate signaling events. the aims of this study were to determine the transport kinetics of nsp4 to the exofacial plasma membrane (pm), the subsequent release from intact infected cells, and rebinding to naive and/or neighboring cell ...201121645398
rotavirus diarrhea among children less than 5 years of age in urban ghana.we collected clinical and morphologic data from children with diarrhea attending 3 diverse hospitals/clinics in accra. stool samples were tested for rotavirus and cryptosporidium spp. in all, 58% of the children with diarrhea had rotavirus infections, 25% of which were of the g3 sero/genotype. the most common strains were g3p [6] (18.8%) and g2p [6] (12.5%). cryptosporidium spp. infections were uncommon (3/143, 2.0%).201121646938
egg yolk igy: protection against rotavirus induced diarrhea and modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in newborn calves.bovine rotavirus (brv) is an important cause of diarrhea in newborn calves. local passive immunity is the most efficient protective strategy to control the disease. igy technology (the use of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins) is an economic and practical alternative to prevent brv diarrhea in dairy calves. the aim of this study was to evaluate the protection and immunomodulation induced by the oral administration of egg yolk enriched in brv specific igy to experimentally brv infected calves. all ...201121652087
estimated economic benefits during the 'decade of vaccines' include treatment savings, gains in labor productivity.in 2010 the bill & melinda gates foundation announced a $10 billion commitment over the next ten years to increase access to childhood vaccines in the world's poorest countries. the effort was labeled the "decade of vaccines." this study estimates both the short- and long-term economic benefits from the introduction and increased use of six vaccines in seventy-two of the world's poorest countries from 2011 to 2020. increased rates of vaccination against pneumococcal and haemophilus influenzae ty ...201121653952
vaccines as a global imperative--a business perspective.during the past thirty years, vaccines have experienced a renaissance. advances in science, business, and distribution have transformed the field to the point where vaccines are recognized as a "best buy" in global health, a driver of pharmaceutical industry growth, and a key instrument of international development. with many new vaccines available and others on the horizon, the global community will need to explore new ways of ensuring access to vaccines in developing nations. so-called tiered ...201121653955
acute diarrhoea in a community cohort of children who received an oral rotavirus vaccine in northeast brazil.rotavirus is an important cause of childhood diarrhoea. a monovalent rotavirus vaccine (rotarix®) was introduced into the immunization program of brazil in 2006. in this study, we describe the incidence and burden of disease of rotavirus diarrhoea in two cohorts of children (vaccinated and unvaccinated). we followed two groups of 250 children under one year old, who were enrolled in december 2006 from a low-income residential area in northeast brazil. the children were monitored every two weeks ...201121655821
detection and full genomic analysis of g6p[9] human rotavirus in japan.a rare genotype g6p[9] was identified in two human group a rotavirus strains designated as kf14 and kf17, that were detected in stool specimens from children with diarrhea in japan. vp7 gene sequences of these two strains were identical and genetically closely related to g6 human rotavirus strains reported in european countries and the united states. to our knowledge, this is the first report of detection of a g6 human rotavirus in japan. for further genetic analysis to elucidate the origin of t ...201121656185
intestinal and extra-intestinal pathogenicity of a bovine reassortant rotavirus in calves and piglets.despite the impact of bovine group a rotaviruses (garvs) as economically important and zoonotic pathogens, there is a scarcity of data on cross-species pathogenicity and extra-intestinal spread of bovine reassortant garvs. during the course of characterizing the genotypes of all 11 genomic segments of bovine garvs isolated from diarrheic calves in south korea, a unique g6p[7] reassortant garv strain (kj9-1) was isolated. the strain harbors five bovine-like gene segments (vp7: g6; vp6: i2; vp1: r ...201121658866
cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in the netherlands; the results of a consensus model.each year rotavirus gastroenteritis results in thousands of paediatric hospitalisations and primary care visits in the netherlands. while two vaccines against rotavirus are registered, routine immunisation of infants has not yet been implemented. existing cost-effectiveness studies showed inconsistent results for these vaccines because of lack of consensus on the impact. we aimed to investigate which factors had a major impact on cost-effectiveness and were primarily responsible for the large di ...201121663620
first description of gastroenteritis viruses in lebanese children: a pilot study.human enteric viruses are important causes of acute gastroenteritis in infants and children. the role of rotaviruses, adenoviruses, human caliciviruses and astroviruses in the development of severe acute gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization of infants and young children in north lebanon was investigated. stool specimens collected between april and may 2010 from 79 lebanese infants and children hospitalized for severe acute gastroenteritis, were screened for enteric viruses by immunoassays a ...201121663874
high prevalence of enteric viruses in untreated individual drinking water sources and surface water in slovenia.waterborne infections have been shown to be important in outbreaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. although improved sanitary conditions are being progressively applied, fecal contaminations remain an emerging problem also in developed countries. the aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of fecal contaminated water sources in slovenia, including surface waters and groundwater sources throughout the country. in total, 152 water samples were investigated, of which 72 samples ...201121665537
molecular characterization of noroviruses and rotaviruses involved in a large outbreak of gastroenteritis in northern italy.noroviruses and rotaviruses from a gastroenteritis outbreak affecting >300 people near garda lake (northern italy) in 2009 were investigated. characterization of viruses from 40 patient stool samples and 5 environmental samples identified three distinct rotavirus and five norovirus genotypes; two of the latter were detected in both patient and environmental samples.201121666024
rotavirus vaccines: safety, efficacy and public health impact.abstract.ôçé gray j (norfolk and norwich university hospital, norwich, uk). rotavirus vaccines: safety, efficacy and public health impact (foresight). j intern med 2011; 270: 206-214. rotaviruses are the cause of acute gastroenteritis, and disease is widespread amongst infants and young children throughout the world. also, rotavirus is associated with significant mortality in developing countries with more than 500ôçâ000 children dying each year as a result of the severe dehydration associated w ...201121668823
rotavirus infection in a tertiary hospital: laboratory diagnosis and impact of immunization on pediatric hospitalization.rotavirus (rv) is the main etiological agent of diarrhea in childhood; its laboratory diagnosis is crucial to guide the clinical management and prevention of its spread. rv immunization was introduced in brazilian 6-month-old children in 2006. the present study was aimed to evaluate three methodologies used for human rv detection in stool samples obtained from patients hospitalized due to gastroenteritis in a teaching hospital and report the impact of rv immunization in hospitalization by diarrh ...201121670920
detection of mutations in antigenic regions of rotavirus viral proteins 4 and 7 in a child with chronic shedding of rotavirus vaccine-type strain. 201121673551
modification of the trypsin cleavage site of rotavirus vp4 to a furin-sensitive form does not enhance replication efficiency.the infectivity of rotavirus (rv) is dependent on an activation process triggered by the proteolytic cleavage of its spike protein vp4. this activation cleavage is performed by exogenous trypsin in the lumen of the intestines in vivo. here, we report the generation and characterization of a recombinant rv expressing cdna-derived vp4 with a modified cleavage site (arginine at position 247) recognized by endogenous furin as well as exogenous trypsin. unexpectedly, the mutant virus (ku//rvp4-r247fu ...201121813706
monovalent rotavirus vaccine provides protection against an emerging fully heterotypic g9p[4] rotavirus strain in mexico.after the introduction of monovalent rotavirus vaccine (rv1) in mexico in 2006-2007, diarrhea mortality and morbidity declined substantially among mexican children under 5 years of age. in january 2010, surveillance identified the emergence of a novel g9p[4] rotavirus strain nationwide. we conducted a case-control study to assess the field effectiveness of rv1 against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by this unusual strain and to determine whether the g9p[4] emergence was related to vacci ...201121810915
[impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization or presenting to emergency room among children less than 5years in france.]background: in france, rotavirus infections are responsible for approximately 300,000 cases of acute gastroenteritis (age) in children less than 5 years every year, 138,000 outpatient consultations and 18,000 hospitalizations. surveillance for rotavirus infections in hospitalized kids (shrik) is a european prospective observational study conducted to assess the burden related to rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) in these children. methods: patients less than 5 years visiting emergency rooms for a ...201121807470
economic evaluations of rotavirus immunization for developing countries: a review of the literature.diarrhea is a leading cause of mortality for children under 5 years of age, and rotavirus is identified as the main cause of severe diarrhea worldwide. since 2006, two rotavirus vaccines, rotarix and rotateq, have been available in the market. these vaccines have proved to have high efficacy in developed countries. clinical trials are being undertaken in asia and africa, and early clinical results found that the vaccine significantly reduces severe diarrhea episodes due to rotavirus (48.3% for a ...201121806398
sequence analysis of vp4 genes of wild type and culture adapted human rotavirus g1p[8] strains.to conduct a comparative analysis of the vp4 gene sequences of indian wild type (06361, 0613158, 061060 and 0715880) and cell culture adapted (06361-ca, 0613158-ca, 061060-ca and 0715880-ca) g1p[8] rotavirus strains.201121803305
porcine rotavirus closely related to novel group of human rotaviruses.we determined nucleotide sequences and inferred amino acid sequences of viral protein (vp) 4, vp6, vp7, and nonstructural protein 4 genes of a porcine rotavirus strain (ska-1) from japan. the strain was closely related to a novel group of human rotavirus strains (b219 and j19).201121801631
incidence of acute gastroenteritis and role of norovirus, georgia, usa, 2004-2005.approximately 179 million cases of acute gastroenteritis (age) occur annually in the united states. however, lack of routine clinical testing for viruses limits understanding of their role among persons seeking medical care. fecal specimens submitted for routine bacterial culture through a health maintenance organization in georgia, usa, were tested with molecular diagnostic assays for norovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, and adenovirus. incidence was estimated by using national health c ...201121801613
control and prevention of viral gastroenteritis.diarrheal illness remains 1 of the top 5 causes of death in low-income and middle-income countries, especially for children <5 years of age. introduction of universal childhood vaccination against rotaviruses has greatly reduced the incidence and severity of illness in upper-income and lower-income settings. for adults, norovirus is the leading cause of sporadic cases and outbreaks of diarrheal illness and is responsible for nearly 21 million episodes annually in the united states, of which 5.5 ...201121801608
rotavirus vaccine and intussusception:report from an expert consultation. 201121800466
detection of a porcine rotavirus strain with vp4, vp7 and nsp4 genes of different animal origins.a new rotavirus strain, sh0902, was detected in diarrheic piglets on a farm in shanghai, china, and its genotype was characterized as g1p[7]. analysis of the vp4, vp7 and nsp4 genes demonstrated vp4 homology to bovine and swine rotavirus strains; the nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) identities were 99.7% and 99.5%, respectively. the vp7 gene was highly homologous to that of a giant panda rotavirus strain, with 98.5% similarity at the nt level and 99% similarity at the aa level. the nucleotide ...201121796401
sequence analysis of human rotavirus strains: comparison of clinical isolates from northern and southern italy.the surveillance and monitoring of rotavirus (rv)-related diseases, preferably through the establishment of sentinel surveillance sites, are essential for assessing the need for vaccination and the projected results of the vaccine in terms of reducing the burden of disease. the objective of the present study was to compare rv strains isolated in northern (ferrara) and southern (galatina-le) italy. during 2007-2008, 115 rv-positive stool samples were collected from children with diarrhea admitted ...201121796344
protective effect of natural rotavirus infection in an indian birth cohort.more than 500,000 deaths are attributed to rotavirus gastroenteritis annually worldwide, with the highest mortality in india. two successive, naturally occurring rotavirus infections have been shown to confer complete protection against moderate or severe gastroenteritis during subsequent infections in a birth cohort in mexico. we studied the protective effect of rotavirus infection on subsequent infection and disease in a birth cohort in india (where the efficacy of oral vaccines in general has ...201121793745
gastroenteritis in children.acute gastroenteritis results from infection of the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly with a virus. it is characterised by rapid onset of diarrhoea with or without vomiting, nausea, fever, and abdominal pain. diarrhoea is defined as the frequent passage of unformed, liquid stools. regardless of the cause, the mainstay of management of acute gastroenteritis is provision of adequate fluids to prevent and treat dehydration. methods and outcomes: we conducted a systematic review and aimed to ans ...201121791124
[molecular and epidemiological study on viral diarrhea among infants in lanzhou].to study the epidemiologic characteristics of viral diarrhea in children under 5 years old in lanzhou, understand the four major virus in children of distribution.201121789851
[advances and challenges in immunoprophylaxis].a significant progress in the management of controllable infections achieved by the early xxi century made it possible eliminate poliomyelitis across the nation, and practically eliminate measeles by vaccinating 96-99% of the children without raising the complication rate. the list of counterindications was shortened significantly, the calendar of immunoprophylaxis was supplemented by inoculations against hepatitis b, rubella, flu, and type b haemophilis influenzae infections. morbidity of contr ...201121789797
cost-effectiveness analysis of a universal rotavirus immunization program in japan.in anticipation of the imminent licensure of rotavirus vaccine, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in japan by taking into account the considerable variations in the incidence of rotavirus-associated hospitalizations previously reported in the literature. we assumed that the variation was due to local differences in healthcare utilization practices rather than a true difference in the incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. thus, a markov model was constructed such t ...201121788701
rotavirus stimulates release of serotonin (5-ht) from human enterochromaffin cells and activates brain structures involved in nausea and vomiting.rotavirus (rv) is the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children. a virus-encoded enterotoxin, nsp4 is proposed to play a major role in causing rv diarrhoea but how rv can induce emesis, a hallmark of the illness, remains unresolved. in this study we have addressed the hypothesis that rv-induced secretion of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-ht) by enterochromaffin (ec) cells plays a key role in the emetic reflex during rv infection resulting in activation of vagal afferent nerves c ...201121779163
viruses in diarrhetic dogs include novel kobuviruses and sapoviruses.the close interactions of dogs with humans and surrounding wild life provide frequent opportunities for cross-species virus transmissions. in order to initiate an unbiased characterization of the eukaryotic viruses in the gut of dogs we used deep sequencing of partially purified viral-capsid protected nucleic acids from the feces of eighteen diarrhetic dogs. we identified known canine parvoviruses, coronaviruses, and rotaviruses, and characterized the genomes of the first reported canine kobuvir ...201121775584
evaluation and verification of the seeplex(r) diarrhea-v ace assay for the simultaneous detection of adenovirus, rotavirus and norovirus genogroups i and ii in clinical stool specimens.acute viral gastroenteritis is an intestinal infection that can be caused by several different viruses. here we describe the evaluation and verification of seeplex® diarrhea-v ace (seeplex® dv), a novel commercial multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay that detects 5 diarrheal pathogens including adenovirus, rotavirus, norovirus genogroup i (gi) and gii and astrovirus. we describe a retrospective study of 200 clinical specimens of which 177 were stool specimens ...201121775550
genetic heterogeneity of wild-type g4p[6] porcine rotavirus strains detected in a diarrhea outbreak in a regularly vaccinated pig herd.group a rotavirus (rv-a) with short electropherotype was identified by ss-page in a neonatal diarrhea outbreak at a brazilian pig farm where the sows were regularly vaccinated with a commercial vaccine containing osu (g5p[7]) and gottfried (g4p[6]) porcine rv-a (porv-a) strains. the ss-page positive stool samples (n=20) were characterized as p[6] genotype by multiplex-nested-rt-pcr assay. the nucleotide analysis of the vp4 gene (vp8*) state that the viruses clustered in p[6] lineages that are al ...201121775076
rotavirus infection activates the upr but modulates its activity.abstract:201121774819
case-control study of the effectiveness of vaccination with pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in nicaragua.background:: in 2006, merck & co., inc., partnered with the nicaraguan ministry of health to demonstrate the public health impact of routine universal vaccination by delivering more than 1.3 million doses of the oral, pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) in a 3-year period. methods:: a matched case-control study evaluated the effectiveness of rv5 in reducing the risk for severe wild-type rotavirus gastroenteritis (rge) resulting in hospitalizations and emergency department visits among children w ...201121768920
effectiveness of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against severe disease.objective: to determine the vaccine effectiveness (ve) of complete and partial vaccination with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) in the prevention of rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (age) hospitalizations and emergency department visits during the first 3 rotavirus seasons after vaccine introduction. methods: active, prospective population-based surveillance for age and acute respiratory infection (aris) in inpatient and emergency department settings provided subjects for a case-control e ...201121768317
burden of rotavirus and other enteropathogens among children with diarrhea in burkina faso.objective: there is limited information available regarding the etiology of gastrointestinal infections in burkina faso. the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and epidemiology of enteric pathogens causing gastroenteritis in young children, with a focus on rotavirus, and to investigate the levels of malnutrition and other clinical factors in association with the severity of diarrhea. methods: a prospective study was undertaken from may 2009 to march 2010, covering the rainy and ...201121763172
antiviral activity of substituted salicylanilides - a review.chemotherapy of viral infections is still challenging. salicylanilides demonstrated a wide range of biological activities including antiviral potency and the review summarizes this field. niclosamide was described to be able to affect coronaviruses, some salicylanilides and salicylamides could inhibit hiv virus by targeting of hiv-1 integrase or reverse transcriptase. hepatitis c virus is another virus, which could be potentially afflicted by salicylanilides on the level of two enzymes - ns3 pro ...201121762100
incidence assessment of rotavirus and adenovirus associated acute gastroenteritis cases in early childhood.this study was undertaken to give an insight into the incidence of acute gastroenteritis cases of rotaviral/adenoviral aetiology in patients presenting to the emergency room of an inner-city government teaching hospital. group a rotavirus and adenovirus serotype 40-41 antigen results were obtained via immunochromatography. in 2007, there were 1543 patients with gastroenteritis between 0-5 years of age whose stool samples were tested for rota and adenovirus, of whom 386 (25%) had positive stool s ...201121753251
genotypes of rotavirus associated with acute gastroenteritis in seoul, korea.acute viral gastroenteritis is one of the most common infectious diseases in infants and young children. rotavirus is mainly important in childhood. the present study determined the detection rate, seasonality and g and p genotypes of rotaviruses in children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis in seoul, korea in 2009. a total of 1,423 stool specimens were screened by elisa for the presence of rotavirus antigens and the rotavirus-positive stools genotyped by rt-pcr. the g genotype was determin ...201121752085
update on childhood and adolescent immunizations: selected review of us recommendations and literature: part 1.to provide a clinically relevant synopsis of research findings regarding childhood and adolescent vaccines.201121750429
impact of rotavirus vaccination on diarrhoea mortality and hospital admissions in brazil.objective to analyse the data reported by the national surveillance system of brazil, including data on diarrhoea mortality and hospital admissions before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction, and evaluate the impact of its widespread use under operational conditions. method retrospective analysis of routinely collected data was reported by several surveillance systems of brazil, comprising an 8-year period of all diarrhoea-related hospitalisations and deaths in children <5 years old (2002 ...201121749584
epidemiology and prevention of rotavirus infection: an underestimated issue? 201121749188
monitoring of group c rotavirus in children with acute gastroenteritis in brazil: an emergent epidemiological issue after rotavirus vaccine?group c rotavirus (gpcrv) has a worldwide distribution; however, its epidemiology and ecology are still unclear. evidence for a possible zoonotic role has been postulated recently for brazilian children strains. the aim of this study was to monitor gpcrv in children ôëñ15 years with acute gastroenteritis during the 2007-2010 national brazilian rotavirus surveillance, and to undertake the molecular characterization of the major vp6 capsid protein. a total of 3,019 fecal samples were first screene ...201121739455
interactions of diarrhea, pneumonia, and malnutrition in childhood: recent evidence from developing countries.this review highlights recent progress toward understanding complex interactions between diarrhea, pneumonia, and undernutrition among children in low-income and middle-income countries.201121734569
phylogenetic analysis of vp1, vp2, and vp3 gene segments of genotype g5 group a rotavirus strains circulating in brazil between 1986 and 2005.genotype g5 group a rotavirus (rv-a), which is common in pigs and also detected in horses and cattle, circulated as endemic genotype in the 1980s and early 1990s in brazil. after 1996, g5 rv-a has been replaced by g9 rv-a, becoming only sporadically detected. recently, g5 has been reported in children with severe diarrhea in argentina, cameroon, paraguay, people's republic of china, and vietnam, suggesting that, although uncommon in humans, it has a worldwide distribution. in a previous study, b ...201121827799
development and clinical validation of multiplex taqman-« assays for rapid diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis.there is a need to provide rapid, sensitive, and often high throughput detection of pathogens in diagnostic virology. viral gastroenteritis is a serious health issue often leading to hospitalization in the young, the immunocompromised and the elderly. the common causes of viral gastroenteritis include rotavirus, norovirus (genogroups i and ii), astrovirus, and group f adenoviruses (serotypes 40 and 41). this article describes the work-up of two internally controlled multiplex, probe-based pcr as ...201121739458
monitoring the circulation of rotavirus among children after the introduction of the rotarixôäó vaccine in goi+ónia, brazil.the epidemiological features of rotavirus a (rva) infection differ between children from developing and developed countries which could result in differences in vaccine efficacy around the world. to evaluate the impact of rotarixôäó on rva prevalence, we monitored rva genotypes circulating in goi+ónia by monitoring virus in faecal samples from children that had or had not been previously vaccinated. from february-november of 2008, 220 faecal samples were collected from children in seven day-care ...201121739040
summary of effectiveness and impact of rotavirus vaccination with the oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine: a systematic review of the experience in industrialized countries.the pentavalent rotavirus (rv) vaccine rotateqôäó has been available in industrialized countries since 2006. several studies have been conducted to evaluate the benefit of rv vaccination under routine conditions of use. a systematic review of all publicly available data from rotateqôäó vaccine-effectiveness and vaccination-impact studies in the usa, europe and australia between 2006 and february 2010 was undertaken. depending on the population studied, effectiveness of up to 100% (95% confidence ...201121734466
the rhesus rotavirus gene encoding vp4 is a major determinant in the pathogenesis of biliary atresia in newborn mice.biliary atresia (ba) is a devastating disease of childhood for which increasing evidence supports a viral component in pathogenesis. the murine model of ba is induced by perinatal infection with rhesus rotavirus (rrv) but not with other strains of rotavirus, such as tuch. to determine which rrv gene segment(s) is responsible for pathogenesis, we used the rrv and tuch strains to generate a complete set of single-gene reassortants. eleven single-gene "loss-of-function" reassortants in which a tuch ...201121697466
molecular characterization of fecal microbiota in patients with viral diarrhea.the study provides molecular analyses of fecal microbiota of diarrhea patients infected with four different types of viruses. fecal specimens from 52 patients with viral diarrhea (13 each of adenovirus, norovirus, rotavirus, and astrovirus) and six healthy individuals were collected and etiological viral agent was confirmed by enzyme immunoassay and specific pcr. to assess the changes in microbial diversity in patients with viral diarrhea, dna from stool were extracted and characterized by pcr-d ...201121739252
3,3'-diindolylmethane induces immunotoxicity via splenocyte apoptosis in neonatal mice.3,3'-diindolylmethane (dim), a major product of indole-3-carbinol derived from vegetables of the genus brassica, exhibits chemotherapeutic activity and various immune modulatory effects in animal models and in vitro studies. although extensive studies have only focused on dim's beneficial effects, the toxic effects of dim on the immune systems have not been clearly elucidated. the aim of this study was to explore the immunotoxic effects of dim in a neonatal mouse and to further evaluate whether ...201121820497
hospital-based surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the era of limited vaccine uptake through the private sector.to investigate possible impact of limited vaccine uptake by the private sector since 2007, a prospective observational study included all children <5 years hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis (age) in a tertiary care hospital between 09/2006 and 08/2010. rotavirus (rv) antigen was detected in stools by a rapid immunochromatographic test and genotype analysis was performed on positive samples by rt-pcr. compared to 2006-2008, the likelihood of rotavirus infection was significantly reduced amon ...201121816195
grazing management effects on sediment, phosphorus, and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures.erosion and runoff from pastures may lead to degradation of surface water. a 2-yr grazing study was conducted to quantify the effects of grazing management on sediment, phosphorus (p), and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures. six adjoining 12.1-ha pastures bisected by a stream in central iowa were divided into three treatments: continuous stocking with unrestricted stream access (csu), continuous stocking with restricted stream access (csr), and rotational stocking (rs). ra ...201121712600
norovirus infections in children under 5 years of age hospitalized due to the acute viral gastroenteritis in northeastern poland.the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and seasonality of norovirus infection in hospitalized polish children under 5 years of age, and a secondary aim was to compare the clinical severity of norovirus and rotavirus disease. the prospective surveillance study was carried out from july 2009 through june 2010. stool samples from 242 children hospitalized due to acute viral gastroenteritis were tested for rotavirus group a and adenovirus with commercial immunochromatographic te ...201121732202
genotypes of the circulating rotavirus strains in the seven prevaccine seasons from september 2000 to august 2007 in south korea.a korean nationwide surveillance on circulating rotavirus strains was conducted from september 2000 to august 2007 aiming to obtain prevaccine data for predicting vaccine effectiveness. the predominant strains among the 2779 strains analyzed varied annually and only approximately 50% had either a g or a p antigen present in both rotateq (merck & co. inc., whitehouse station, nj, usa) and rotarix (glaxosmithkline, brentford, uk).201120384698
first detection of group c rotavirus in children with acute gastroenteritis in south korea.group c rotavirus (gpc rv) causes sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute diarrhoea in humans worldwide, but has not been detected among children in south korea. the present study aimed to detect gpc rv among children hospitalized with gastroenteritis in south korea and to perform a molecular characterization of gpc rv strains. from november 2003 to january 2006, 434 faecal samples were collected from children <10 years of age who were hospitalized for treatment of acute diarrhoea and screened for ...201120491826
chronological diffusion-weighted imaging changes and mutism in the course of rotavirus-associated acute cerebellitis/cerebellopathy concurrent with encephalitis/encephalopathy.rotavirus is one of the most common causes of gastroenteritis in children and is known to accompany some neurological disorders such as encephalitis/encephalopathy and seizures. although cerebellar disorders sometime occur as a complication of rotavirus gastroenteritis in japan, few reports have addressed these issues. here, we report three cases of insulted cerebellums in addition to encephalitis/encephalopathy associated with rotavirus. similar to posterior fossa syndrome after surgery, mutism ...201120510558
molecular and clinical characterization of rotavirus from diarrheal infants admitted to pediatric emergency units in france.rotaviruses are the major cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide, and require careful surveillance, especially in the context of vaccination programs. prospective surveillance is required to monitor and characterize rotavirus infections, including viral and clinical data, and to detect the emergence of potentially epidemic strains.201120686439
rotavirus genotypes in costa rica, nicaragua, honduras and the dominican republic.in this study, 574 stool samples from children with gastroenteritis were obtained from different hospitals in costa rica, honduras, nicaragua and the dominican republic during 2005-2006. diarrhea stool samples were analyzed for rotavirus (rv) by elisa and typed by the rt-pcr-based method. unusual strains were detected: g1p6, g2p8, g3p6, g9p4, and mixed infections. recent studies have indicated that unusual human rv strains are emerging as global strains, which has important implications for effe ...201120689317
rotavirus genotypes co-circulating in europe between 2006 and 2009 as determined by eurorotanet, a pan-european collaborative strain surveillance network.summaryeurorotanet, a laboratory network, was established in order to determine the diversity of co-circulating rotavirus strains in europe over three or more rotavirus seasons from 2006/2007 and currently includes 16 countries. this report highlights the tremendous diversity of rotavirus strains co-circulating in the european population during three years of surveillance since 2006/2007 and points to the possible origins of these strains including genetic reassortment and interspecies transmiss ...201120707941
production of human rotavirus and salmonella antigens in plants and elicitation of fljb-specific humoral responses in mice.a nicotiana benthamiana transient expression system was used to express single antigen and dimeric combinations of the human rotavirus (hrv) vp7 and a truncated vp4 (vp4δ) proteins fused with salmonella typhimurium's flagellin fljb subunit. immunoblot analyses using rabbit antibodies generated against these proteins demonstrated that the constructs were successfully expressed with yields ranging from 0.85 to 31.97 μg of recombinant protein per gram of fresh leaf tissue. expressing the single and ...201120725806
epidemiology of rotavirus infections in children less than 5 years of age: germany, 2001-2008.rotavirus (rv) infection is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. in 2006, 2 live-attenuated rv-vaccines became available for use in infants ≤ 6 months of age. in germany, a statutory notification system for rv infection has been in place since 2001 to monitor rv epidemiology. our objective was to assess rv disease burden in german children <5 years of age.201120724954
rotavirus gastroenteritis in finnish children in 2006-2008, at the introduction of rotavirus vaccination.rotaviruses (rv) are major causative agents of acute gastroenteritis (age) requiring hospitalization in children; rv hospitalizations may be largely eliminated by universal mass vaccination with rv vaccine. we conducted a hospital-based prospective survey of age in children over 2 rv epidemic seasons, from 2006 to 2008, when the coverage of rv vaccination in finland increased to 35% of the birth cohort. rvs were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). in the first s ...201120807022
modeling nosocomial transmission of rotavirus in pediatric wards.nosocomial transmission of viral and bacterial infections is a major problem worldwide, affecting millions of patients (and causing hundreds of thousands of deaths) per year. rotavirus infections affect most children worldwide at least once before age five. we present here deterministic and stochastic models for the transmission of rotavirus in a pediatric hospital ward and draw on published data to compare the efficacy of several possible control measures in reducing the number of infections du ...201120811781
feasibility study of 21-day-on/7-day-off temozolomide in children with brain tumors.temozolomide (tmz) is an oral alkylating agent with proven antitumoral activity in preclinical and clinical studies in adults with high-grade glioma (hgg). however, only limited efficacy has been reported in children with hgg using the 5-day schedule. this study investigated the safety of administering tmz to children and adolescents with brain tumors over an extended period. extended schedules have been proven to overcome chemoresistance without any major toxicity. the toxicity of tmz, administ ...201120811928
safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of human rotavirus vaccine rix4414 in human immunodeficiency virus-positive infants in south africa.rotavirus and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infections are a cause of great public health concern in developing countries. the current study evaluated the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of rix4414 vaccine in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (clinical stages i and ii according to who classification) hiv-infected south african infants.201120842070
primary care-based surveillance to estimate the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis among children aged less than 5 years in six european countries.this observational, prospective study was undertaken to estimate the burden of rotavirus (rv) gastroenteritis (ge) leading to general practitioner (gp)/family paediatrician (fp) visits among children aged <5 years in czech republic, germany, italy, poland, spain and the uk. children aged <5 years presenting with acute ge provided stool samples for rapid rv testing. rv+ samples were confirmed and typed by rt-pcr. demographic and clinical data were collected for all rvge episodes. transmission pat ...201120842379
changes in childhood diarrhea incidence in nicaragua following 3 years of universal infant rotavirus immunization.although the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine was highly efficacious against rotavirus diarrhea in clinical trials, the effectiveness of vaccine under field conditions in the developing world is unclear. in october 2006, nicaragua became the first developing nation to implement universal infant immunization with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine. to assess the effect of the immunization program, we examined the incidence of diarrhea episodes between 2003 and 2009 among children in the state of león ...201120881511
laboratory-based rotavirus surveillance during the introduction of a vaccination program, brazil, 2005-2009.: brazil introduced universal antirotavirus vaccination in march 2006. this article reports the results of rotavirus a (rv-a) surveillance from january 2005 to december 2009.201121048523
decline in rotavirus hospitalizations and health care visits for childhood diarrhea following rotavirus vaccination in el salvador.a recent postlicensure study from el salvador showed that the monovalent rotavirus vaccine conferred 76% protection against rotavirus hospitalizations. we further examined the impact of rotavirus vaccination on the national burden of childhood diarrhea to help assess the total public health benefits of vaccination.201121048524
synthesis of double-layered rotavirus-like particles using internal ribosome entry site vector system in stably-transformed drosophila melanogaster.we established a bicistronic expression system using an encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv)-derived internal ribosomal entry site (ires) element to generate stably transformed drosophila melanogaster schneider 2 (s2) cells expressing human rotavirus wa capsid proteins, vp2 and vp6, for the synthesis of vp2/6 double-layered virus-like particle (dvlp). the emcv-derived ires permitted bicistronic translation of recombinant vp6. recombinant vp2 and vp6 were detected in extracellular fractions of stabl ...201120820877
the percentage of nosocomial-related out of total hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis and its association with hand hygiene compliance.because the absolute numbers of both community-acquired and nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) vary, we studied the percentage of hospitalizations for rvge that were transmitted nosocomially as an indicator of in-hospital acquisition of the infection. in a 4-year prospective study, the percentage of nosocomial rvge declined steadily, from 20.3% in 2003 to 12.7% in 2006 (p = .001). concomitantly, the rate of compliance with hand hygiene increased from 33.7% to 49% (p = .012), with a sign ...201120864220
rotaviruses.rotaviruses can be detected easily, and methods have been developed to visualise their characteristic morphology, to detect rotavirus proteins through immunological methods or the virus genome, either directly by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or after reverse transcription of the viral rna and amplification by pcr. the abundance of virus particles found in clinical samples during an acute infection makes the detection of rotavirus proteins, mainly vp6, the method of choice for virus detecti ...201121116809
norovirus: a possible cause of pneumatosis intestinalis.pneumatosis intestinalis (pi) in children is associated with immunosuppression, mucosal disruption from trauma, obstructive pulmonary disease, congenital heart disease, and gastrointestinal infections. our study is the first report of norovirus infection-associated pi.201121150655
effectiveness of the monovalent g1p[8] human rotavirus vaccine against hospitalization for severe g2p[4] rotavirus gastroenteritis in belém, brazil.brazil initiated universal immunization of infants with the g1p[8] human rotavirus (rv) vaccine in march 2006. this study evaluated vaccine effectiveness (ve) against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) hospitalizations.201121150692
frequency, clinical characteristics, and genotype distribution of rotavirus gastroenteritis in greece (2007-2008).rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis among young children worldwide. a prospective multi-center study was conducted (2007-2008) in five pediatric hospitals to determine the prevalence, the clinical characteristics, and genotype distribution of rotavirus infection in greece. faecal samples were examined for the presence of group a rotavirus antigen by immunochromatography. rotavirus strains were subjected to g and p genotyping by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction ...201121108355
human bocavirus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis in japan and thailand.a total of 329 fecal specimens, which had been known to be negative for rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus, and which were collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in japan and thailand during 2005-2008 were screened for human bocavirus (hbov). hbov was detected by pcr with a primer pair that amplified the np1 region of its genome and was genotyped by sequencing of the vp1/vp2 region. of the 329 samples tested, 6 (1.8%) were positive for hbov. of th ...201121181924
detection of human parechovirus in stool samples collected from children with acute gastroenteritis in japan during 2007-2008.of 477 stool specimens, which had been screened for rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus, sapovirus and astrovirus, collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in pediatric clinics encompassing five localities (sapporo, tokyo, maizuru, osaka, and saga) in japan from july 2007 to june 2008, 247 negative samples (51.7%) were subjected to screening for human parechovirus. human parechovirus (hpev) was detected by rt-pcr using a primer pair to amplify 5'utr region of its genome and wa ...201121181931
genetic characterization of bulgarian rotavirus isolates and detection of rotavirus variants: challenges for the rotavirus vaccine program?annually 20-70% of all hospital admissions and 20% of fatal diarrhea cases among children less than 5 years of age occur due to severe rotavirus diarrhea. universal immunization is the major strategy aimed at controlling rotavirus infection. the main objective of the present study was to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of the most common rotavirus strains co-circulating in bulgaria. the sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed strain diversity and circulation of different rotavirus v ...201121181933
vp7 gene of human rotavirus a genotype g5: phylogenetic analysis reveals the existence of three different lineages worldwide.group a rotavirus (rv-a) genotype g5, which is common in pigs, was also detected in children with severe diarrhea in brazil, argentina, paraguay, cameroon, china, thailand, and vietnam. to evaluate the evolutionary relationship among rv-a g5 strains, the vp7 and vp4 genes of 28 brazilian rv-a g5 human strains, sampled between 1986 and 2005, were sequenced and compared with other rv-a g5 strains currently circulating worldwide in animals and humans. the phylogenetic analysis of rv-a g5 vp7 gene s ...201121181934
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