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[the rotavirus disease and the oral human rotavirus vaccination in the brazilian scenario: an integrative literature review].due to the epidemiological relevance of rotavirus disease on the worldwide panorama as an important cause of morbid-mortality in the infantile public and to the still incipient production of studies concerning the problematic in the nationwide scenario, not to mention the unique necessity of encouraging the promotion of care and education as inseparable factors in the health spaces, it was delimited as study object of the present article the rotavirus disease in the brazilian scenario, emphasizi ...201121340332
[rotavirus prevalence in children with acute gastroenteritis and the distribution of serotypes and electropherotypes].rotavirus is the major cause of gastroenteritis in children worldwide as well as in turkey. the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of rotavirus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis and to investigate the prevalent rotavirus serotypes and electropherotypes. stool specimens collected from 251 (108 female, 143 male) children age between 0-5 years old who were admitted to gazi university hospital between april 2009 and february 2010 were included to the study. the presen ...201121341165
[preliminary investigation of viruses to the wild tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinese)].virological testing and monitoring is a fundamental part of quality control of experimental animals. however, there are few papers regarding the spectrum and status of natural infection in wild tree shrews with human and animal pathogenic viruses. using enzyme-linked immunosorbent adsorption assay (elisa), we tested sixty wild tree shrews captured from qinglong, an outskirt region of kunming, yunnan province, china for eleven viruses, including herpes simplex virus, coxsackie virus, influenza vi ...201121341387
an infant with rotavirus infection presenting as a severe acute duodenal ulcer. 201121342334
a waterborne outbreak of epidemic diarrhea due to group a rotavirus in malatya, turkey.we characterized an outbreak of acute diarrheal disease caused by group a rotavirus that occurred during the autumn of 2005 in malatya city, turkey. a total 9907 patients between 0 to 91 years old (mean age: 25.05?19.67) were included in the epidemic. the patients? data were prospectively collected and statistically analyzed. microbiologic analyses were performed to determine the etiologic agent. rapid onset diarrhea (98.36%), abdominal cramps (69%), fever (44.4%) and vomiting (69.6%) were the m ...201121344142
diarrheagenic escherichia coli in acute gastroenteritis in infants in north-west italy.enteropathogenic escherichia coli may cause diarrhoea in infancy, but it is not routinely detected and regarded as a major causative agent. the aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence of enteropathogenic e. coli infection and to investigate its epidemiology and pathogenesis from faecal specimens in infants hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis. between march 2008 and june 2009, faecal samples were collected and examined to recognize diarrhoeal aetiology, especially for e. coli, b ...201121344146
age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in dar es salaam, tanzania.this study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. the study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using integrated management of childhood illness (imci) guidelines.201121345186
accounting for model uncertainty in estimating global burden of disease.to illustrate the effects of failing to account for model uncertainty when modelling is used to estimate the global burden of disease, with specific application to childhood deaths from rotavirus infection.201121346922
a single-tube multiplex pcr for rapid detection in feces of 10 viruses causing diarrhea.a novel multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was developed to identify 10 viruses in a single tube. the assay was targeted to detect group a and c rotaviruses, adenovirus, norovirus gi, norovirus gii, sapovirus, astrovirus, aichi virus, parechovirus, and enterovirus. a total of 235 stool samples were collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in kyoto, japan, from 2008 to 2009, then tested by this novel multiplex pcr and compared with a multiplex pcr described previously ...201121349292
a gastrointestinal rotavirus infection mouse model for immune modulation studies.rotaviruses are the single most important cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. the current study was conducted to assess whether colostrum containing rotavirus-specific antibodies (gastrogard-r-«) could protect against rotavirus infection. in addition, this illness model was used to study modulatory effects of intervention on several immune parameters after re-infection.201121385425
the burden of rotavirus disease in denmark 2009-2010.this study sought to determine the incidence and the burden of severe diarrheal disease in denmark with emphasis on rotavirus (rv) disease.201121386748
results from a randomized clinical trial of coadministration of rotateq, a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, and neisvac-c, a meningococcal serogroup c conjugate vaccine.rotateq (merck & co. inc./sanofi pasteur msd) is a three-dose, oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine for the immunization of infants from 6 weeks of age for the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis. the primary objective of the present trial was to demonstrate that rotateq can be coadministered with meningococcal serogroup c conjugate vaccine (mencc; neisvac-c; baxter healthcare) to healthy infants without impairing the protective immune responses to mencc. this was an open-label, randomized, co ...201121389149
viral agents associated with acute gastroenteritis in seoul, korea.the present study was carried out to describe the epidemiologic characteristics of viral gastroenteritis and determine the phylogenetic composition of norovirus strains detected in hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in seoul, korea.201121391466
rotavirus and norovirus infections in children in sana'a, yemen.to describe the epidemiology of rotavirus and norovirus infection among children with acute gastroenteritis in sana'a, yemen.201121392189
molecular characterization of group a rotaviruses detected in children with gastroenteritis in ireland in 2006-2009.summarycommunity and hospital-acquired cases of human rotavirus are responsible for millions of gastroenteritis cases in children worldwide, chiefly in developing countries, and vaccines are now available. during surveillance activity for human rotavirus infections in ireland, between 2006 and 2009, a total of 420 rotavirus strains were collected and analysed. upon either pcr genotyping and sequence analysis, a variety of vp7 (g1-g4 and g9) and vp4 (p[4], p[6], p[8] and p[9]) genotypes were dete ...201121396145
an unusual outbreak of rotavirus genotype g2p[6] during the 2005-2006 epidemic season in philadelphia.most rotavirus gastroenteritis is caused by g1p[8] strains. when g2 infections are encountered, the p type has most often been reported to be p[4]. the purpose of our study was to describe an unusual outbreak of g2p[6] cases. children presenting to the children's hospital of philadelphia with acute gastroenteritis have been monitored for rotavirus antigen in stool by elisa (with g-typing if elisa positive) since 1994-1995. compared to the last 12 rotavirus seasons before the 2006 introduction of ...201121398071
rotavirus toxin nsp4 induces diarrhea by activation of tmem16a and inhibition of na+ absorption.rotavirus infection is the most frequent cause for severe diarrhea in infants, killing more than 600,000 every year. the nonstructural protein nsp4 acts as a rotavirus enterotoxin, inducing secretory diarrhea without any structural organ damage. electrolyte transport was assessed in the colonic epithelium from pups and adult mice using ussing chamber recordings. western blots and immunocytochemistry was performed in intestinal tissues from wild-type and tmem16a knockout mice. ion channel current ...201121399895
three clusters of bovine kobuvirus isolated in korea, 2008-2010.fecal samples (n = 107) were collected from cattle with ascertained or suspected diarrheal disease on korean farms during 2008-2010. of these, 37 samples tested positive for bovine kobuvirus. the 37 positive samples came from 32 cattle that exhibited diarrhea and five cattle that were non-diarrhetic. the majority of the virus-positive feces samples were from calves under 1 month of age (n = 25). nine of the 37 cattle infected with bovine kobuvirus were confirmed to have a co-infection with other ...201121399921
[pathogenesis of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy].many aspects of the pathogenesis of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy have been clarified in this decade, although many unknown mechanisms remain to be elucidated. according to progress of mri and neuroimmunological analysis and the observation of clinical findings, many new syndromes were found, which enhanced our understanding of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy. the pathogenesis of encephalitis is divided into infection and immune mediated mechanisms. the antibodies to ne ...201121400830
[rota virus encephalopathy].rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children, but the pathogenesis and immunity of this disease are not completely understood. less well recognized is the association of rotavirus-induced central nervous system (cns) involvement, which has been associated with seizure, encephalopathy and death etc. the term 'rotavirus encephalopathy' has been used for cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis with cns involvement as evidenced by clinical features of encephalopathy with ...201121400834
successful sanitation of an edim-infected mouse colony by breeding cessation.despite decreasing prevalence, rotavirus infections still rank among the most important viral infections in colonies of laboratory mice. although the disease is characterized by low mortality and a relatively short and mild clinical period, the infection has the potential to alter the outcome of experiments substantially. for animal facilities, it is therefore essential to eradicate the virus. here we report a successful sanitation of a rotavirus-infected mouse colony in an animal facility. desp ...201121402733
[annual incidence of human group a rotavirus g-serotypes detected in a japanese university hospital between 2003 and 2007].group a rotavirus g-serotyping by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using university hospital subject samples in september 2003 to august 2004, september 2004 to august 2005, september 2005 to august 2006, and september 2006 to august 2007 showed the most common serotypes g1 and g3, detected in 27 and 33 subjects, compared to 4 subjects in whom serotype g4 was detected. between 2003 and 2004, serotypes g1 accounted for 50% and g3 for 38%, contrasting with serotype g3 at 79% between 2004 and 2005, ...201121404601
etiology of diarrhea in young children and patterns of antibiotic resistance in cambodia.little is known about diarrhea etiology and antibiotic resistance in developing countries where diarrhea is a major public health problem.201121412204
reconciliation of rotavirus temperature-sensitive mutant collections and assignment of reassortment groups d, j, and k to genome segments.four rotavirus sa11 temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants and seven rotavirus rrv ts mutants, isolated at the national institutes of health (nih) and not genetically characterized, were assigned to reassortment groups by pairwise crosses with the sa11 mutant group prototypes isolated and characterized at baylor college of medicine (bcm). among the nih mutants, three of the rrv mutants and all four sa11 mutants contained mutations in single reassortment groups, and four rrv mutants contained mutatio ...201121367894
emergence of human rotavirus genotype g9 in metropolitan detroit between 2007 and 2009.between january 2007 and april 2009, rotavirus (rv)-positive stool samples from 238 children with acute gastroenteritis, seen at children's hospital of michigan in detroit, usa, were collected and rv genotyping was performed. g and p genotypes were determined by rt-pcr and nucleotide sequencing was conducted on selected g9 and p[6] strains. correlation between the severity of gastroenteritis episode and the infecting g genotype was done using a 14-point scoring system. the predominant g genotype ...201121372186
update on available vaccines in india: report of the appa vu 2010: i.the asia pacific pediatric association vaccinology update 2010 was held in mumbai on november 13-14, 2010 to discuss the latest information on burden of infectious diseases, recent developments in vaccines and their impact on immunization practices against infectious diseases occurring in indian children. during the conference the importance of including conjugate haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine and anti-rabies vaccines in routine immunization was stressed. also, the need for giving a seco ...201121373831
canadian paediatricians' opinions on rotavirus vaccination.rotavirus is the leading cause of dehydration and hospitalization due to gastroenteritis (ge) in young children. almost all children are affected by the age of 5 years. two safe and effective rotavirus vaccines are available for clinical use in canada. in the context where rotavirus vaccination is recommended, but not publicly funded, we have assessed paediatricians' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (kab) regarding rotavirus disease and its prevention by vaccination. a self-administered anonymou ...201121376118
human rotavirus vaccine is highly efficacious when coadministered with routine expanded program of immunization vaccines including oral poliovirus vaccine in latin america.the efficacy of a rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis when coadministered with routine expanded program on immunization (epi) vaccines including oral polio vaccine (opv) was evaluated in this study.201121378594
burden and typing of rotavirus group a in latin america and the caribbean: systematic review and meta-analysis.the efficacy of licensed rotavirus vaccines has only been shown against certain rotavirus group a (rv-a) types. it is critical to understand the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) and its prevalent types to assess the potential impact of these vaccines in latin america and the caribbean (la&c). we performed a systematic review and meta-analyses of all the available evidence reported from 1990 to 2009 on the burden of rotavirus disease and strains circulating in la&c. eligible studies-185 ...201121384462
index of suspicion: case 1: fatigue, shortness of breath, and chest pain in an adolescent boy. case 2: poor feeding and weight gain, tachypnea, and vomiting in a neonate. case 3: afebrile seizures after a bout of diarrhea in a 2-year-old girl. 201121364016
biofilms in drinking water and their role as reservoir for pathogens.most microorganisms on earth live in various aggregates which are generally termed "biofilms". they are ubiquitous and represent the most successful form of life. they are the active agent in biofiltration and the carriers of the self-cleaning potential in soils, sediments and water. they are also common on surfaces in technical systems where they sometimes cause biofouling. in recent years it has become evident that biofilms in drinking water distribution networks can become transient or long-t ...201121697011
rotavirus in a wild english red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris) identified by electron microscopy. 201121821691
intra-genotypic diversity of archival g4p[8] human rotaviruses from washington, dc.group a human rotaviruses (rvs) remain the most frequently detected viral agents associated with acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. despite their medical importance, relatively few complete genome sequences have been determined for commonly circulating g/p-type strains (i.e., g1p[8], g2p[4], g3p[8], g4p[8], and g9p[8]). in the current study, we sequenced the genomes of 11 g4p[8] isolates from stool specimens that were collected in washington, dc during the years of 1974-1991. w ...201121712102
osteopontin upregulation in rotavirus-induced murine biliary atresia requires replicating virus but is not necessary for development of biliary atresia.biliary atresia (ba) is a progressive fibro-inflammatory pediatric liver disease in which osteopontin (opn), a glycoprotein with inflammatory and fibrogenic activity, may play a pathogenic role. the current studies were conducted in a mouse model of rotavirus-induced ba to test the hypotheses that live but not inactivated rotavirus causes antigenemia, upregulation of hepatic opn expression, and induction of ba and fibrosis; and that opn is necessary for development of ba. prolonged or transient ...201121742364
investigations of porcine circovirus type 1 (pcv1) in vaccine-related and other cell lines.porcine circovirus type 1 (pcv1) is highly prevalent in swine and was recently reported in u.s. licensed rotavirus vaccines. since animal-derived raw materials, such as cells, trypsin, and serum, can be a major source of introducing virus contamination in biological products, we have investigated pcv1 in several cell lines obtained from atcc that have broad use in research, diagnostics, or vaccine development. it is expected that these cell lines have been exposed to bovine and porcine viruses d ...201121835219
clinical features and molecular epidemiology of rotavirus and norovirus infections in libyan children.rotaviruses and noroviruses are leading viral causes of diarrhoea in children. a cross-sectional study was undertaken among children aged <5 years with acute gastroenteritis at al-jala children's hospital, tripoli, libya, from october 2007 to september 2008. of 1,090 fecal samples collected, 260 from inpatients and 830 from outpatients, all inpatients and approximately a third of outpatients, selected systematically, were investigated for rotavirus and norovirus infection by elisa and real-time ...201121837804
the incidence and direct medical cost of hospitalization due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in kyoto, japan, as estimated from a retrospective hospital study.anticipating imminent licensure of rotavirus vaccine for use in japan, we estimated the incidence of rotavirus hospitalization and calculated the direct medical cost associated with rotavirus hospitalization in a hospital that provided virtually exclusive pediatric beds to the local community adjacent to the northern outskirts of metropolitan kyoto, japan. for a 2 year period between september, 2008 and august, 2010, there were 103 hospitalizations due to acute gastroenteritis among children les ...201121821087
identification of a novel biomarker candidate, a 4.8-kda peptide fragment from a neurosecretory protein vgf precursor, by proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from children with acute encephalopathy using seldi-tof-ms.abstract: background: acute encephalopathy includes rapid deterioration and has a poor prognosis. early intervention is essential to prevent progression of the disease and subsequent neurologic complications. however, in the acute period, true encephalopathy cannot easily be differentiated from febrile seizures, especially febrile seizures of the complex type. thus, an early diagnostic marker has been sought in order to enable early intervention. the purpose of this study was to identify a novel ...201121838886
identification of an antibody binding epitope on the rotavirus non-structural protein nsp2 using phage display analysis.the nsp2 of rotavirus has important roles in rotavirus replication associated with rna binding, hydrolysis of ntps and rna, and helix destabilising properties. a cell culture assay using a nsp2 specific monoclonal antibody (mab) and polyclonal antiserum to block viral replication showed a 73% and a 96% reduction in the amount of virus produced during replication respectively. phage display technology was used to identify the antibody binding region on the nsp2 protein with the motif (244)t-(y/f) ...201121697352
rotavirus-induced ifn-{beta} promotes anti-viral signaling and apoptosis that modulate viral replication in intestinal epithelial cells.rotavirus (rv), a leading cause of diarrhea, primarily infects intestinal epithelial cells (iec). rotavirus-infected iec produce ifn-+¦ and express hundreds of ifn-dependent genes. we thus hypothesized that type 1 ifn plays a key role in helping iec limit rv replication and/or protect against cell death. to test this hypothesis, we examined iec (ht29 cells) infected with rv (moi 1) -¦ neutralizing antibodies to ifn-+¦/+¦ via microscopy and sds-page immunoblotting. we hypothesized that neutraliza ...201121733977
randomized, open-label, multicentre pharmacokinetic studies of two dose levels of pantoprazole granules in infants and children aged 1 month through <6 years with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.the primary objective of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetic profile of pantoprazole delayed-release granules in infants and children aged 1 month to <6 years with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (gord). the studies described in this manuscript were conducted to fulfil the requirements of the paediatric written request for pantoprazole by the us fda.201121740077
case report: detection of rotavirus rna in the cerebrospinal fluid of a child with rotavirus gastroenteritis and meningism.although case reports have described detection of rotavirus (rv) in extraintestinal sites such as the liver, kidney, and central nervous system (cns) of children with rv gastroenteritis, cns localization in rv infection seems to be rare. rt-pcr and nucleotide sequencing detected a g1p[8] strain in the stool and cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples of a patient with concurrent rv-associated enteritis and cns signs. upon sequence analysis, the viruses detected in the csf was identical to the virus de ...201121739456
evaluation of potential medical and economic benefits of universal rotavirus vaccination in greece.to evaluate the potential benefits of introducing universal rotavirus (rv) vaccination in greece.201121223372
impact of rotavirus vaccination on hospital-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis in children.data show that after the implementation of routine rotavirus vaccination for infants in the united states, community-acquired (ca) rotavirus cases declined substantially in the 2007-2008 season. the impact of community-based rotavirus vaccination on the substantial burden of hospital-acquired (ha) rotavirus has not been documented.201121262887
the early interferon response to rotavirus is regulated by pkr and depends on mavs/ips-1, rig-i, mda-5, and irf3.in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (mefs), the bovine rotavirus (uk strain) but not the simian rhesus rotavirus (rrv) robustly triggers beta interferon (ifn-ß) secretion, resulting in an ifn-dependent restriction of replication. we now find that both rotavirus strains trigger antiviral transcriptional responses early during infection and that both transcriptional responses and ifn-ß secretion are completely abrogated in mavs/ips-1(-/-) mefs. replication of uk virus could be rescued in mavs/ips-1(-/- ...201121307186
immunogenicity of a scalable inactivated rotavirus vaccine in mice.inactivated rotavirus vaccine is a safe and effective potential vaccine for the prevention of rotavirus infection among children, but no approved licensed vaccine is available now. in this study, a scalable inactivated rotavirus vaccine, prepared in vero cells cultured by microcarrier fermentation, inactivated by formalin and absorbed by al(oh) 3 adjuvant, was vaccinated into the six weeks-old female balb/c mice by intramuscular injection. after twice immunization at interval of three weeks, bot ...201121307650
norovirus as cause of benign convulsion associated with gastro-enteritis.rotavirus and norovirus gastro-enteritis (ge) are common in children. complications, except severe dehydration, are rare. rotavirus was known to cause seizures and even ge encephalopathy, but these complications are less described in norovirus infection. the objective of this study is to compare the demographic features, clinical manifestations including the incidence of afebrile seizure, and the outcomes in children with rotavirus and norovirus infections.201121309881
highly sensitive detection of the group a rotavirus using apolipoprotein h-coated elisa plates compared to quantitative real-time pcr.the principle of a capture elisa is binding of specific capture antibodies (polyclonal or monoclonal) to the surface of a suitable 96 well plate. these immobilized antibodies are capable of specifically binding a virus present in a clinical sample. subsequently, the captured virus is detected using a specific detection antibody. the drawback of this method is that a capture elisa can only function for a single virus captured by the primary antibody. human apolipoprotein h (apoh) or ß2-glycoprote ...201121310042
[rotavirus infections].rotaviruses are genetically highly variable, non-enveloped viruses with a double-stranded, segmented ribonucleic acid genome. they are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. in children aged less than 5 years, they are the most frequent agent of severe acute diarrheal illnesses. in less developed countries, rotavirus diseases are one of the most frequent causes of death in infants and little children. typically, symptomatic rotavirus diseases in infants (<5 years) and the elderly (>70 years ...201121313775
intussusception following rotavirus vaccine administration: post-marketing surveillance in the national immunization program in australia.in australia, post-marketing surveillance for intussusception following vaccination commenced with funding of rotateq(®) and rotarix(®) vaccines under the national immunization program (nip) in july 2007.201121316503
dna hypomethylation causes bile duct defects in zebrafish and is a distinguishing feature of infantile biliary atresia.infantile cholestatic disorders arise in the context of progressively developing intrahepatic bile ducts. biliary atresia (ba), a progressive fibroinflammatory disorder of extra- and intrahepatic bile ducts, is the most common identifiable cause of infantile cholestasis and the leading indication for liver transplantation in children. the etiology of ba is unclear, and although there is some evidence for viral, toxic, and complex genetic causes, the exclusive occurrence of ba during a period of ...201121319190
herd immunity after two years of the universal mass vaccination program against rotavirus gastroenteritis in austria.austria was the first country in europe implementing a universal mass vaccination program against rotavirus gastroenteritis (rv-ge) for all infants nationwide. epidemiological data from a hospital based surveillance system show that incidence rates of children hospitalized with rv-ge decreased in 2009 compared to 2008 and compared to the prevaccination period 2001-2005. decreasing hospitalization-rates from rv-ge were observed in children of all age groups, even in those not eligible for vaccina ...201121320539
safety and reactogenicity of dtpa-hbv-ipv/hib and dtpa-ipv/i-hib vaccines in a post-marketing surveillance setting.combination vaccines have been shown to improve the timeliness of vaccination and vaccine coverage. safety and reactogenicity of combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus and haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (dtpa-ipv/hib, infanrix ipv+hib, glaxosmithkline biologicals) was assessed in two clinical studies. in study a, 2,590 subjects received dtpa-ipv/hib at 3, 4 and 5 months of age with a booster at 18 months. in study b, 702 subjects received the same schedule ...201121323176
development of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.in this study, a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) was developed for detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (pedv). six primers were designed to amplify the nucleocapsid (n) gene of pedv. the optimization, sensitivity, and specificity of the rt-lamp were investigated. the results showed that the optimal reaction condition for rt-lamp amplifying pedv n gene was achieved at 63°c for 50 min. the rt-lamp assay was more sensitive than gel-based rt-pcr and en ...201121286798
detection of human bocavirus 3 in china.since its first identification in 2005, four species of human bocavirus (hbov1-4) have been documented. hbov1 and hbov2 have been shown to be associated with respiratory tract illnesses, as well as with acute gastroenteritis (age), worldwide. however, reports on the prevalence, clinical significance, and molecular characteristics of the two most newly identified hbov species, hbov3 and hbov4, are very limited. to detect and characterize hbov3 and hbov4 infections in children with age in china, s ...201121286929
emergence of g9 as a predominant genotype of human rotaviruses in cuba.to study human rotaviruses in cuban children up to 5 years old with acute diarrhea, a total of 64 faecal samples from two pediatric hospitals between 2006 and 2008 were analyzed. thirty-nine samples (60.9%) were found positive for rotaviruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page), while four (6.2%) exhibited discordant results (elisa positives/page negatives). all the positive samples were genotyped by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain ...201121328392
breastfeeding and the risk of rotavirus diarrhea in hospitalized infants in uganda: a matched case control study.rotavirus is responsible for over 25 million outpatient visits, over 2 million hospitalizations and 527,000 deaths annually, worldwide. it is estimated that breastfeeding in accordance with the world health organization recommendations would save 1.45 million children's lives each year in the developing countries. the few studies that examined the effect of breastfeeding on rotavirus diarrhea produced conflicting results. this study aimed to determine the effect of breastfeeding on rotavirus dia ...201121329521
sequence analysis of the vp6-encoding genome segment of avian group f and g rotaviruses.rotavirus groups a to e are mainly defined by antibody reactivity to the capsid protein vp6. additionally, two putative rotavirus groups (f and g) have been identified in birds. here, the first nucleotide sequences of the vp6-encoding genome segment of group f (strain 03v0568) and group g (strain 03v0567) rotaviruses, both derived from chickens, are presented. the group f rotavirus is most closely related to avian group a and d rotaviruses, with 49.9-52.3% nucleotide and 36.5-39.0% amino acid se ...201121329955
co-dominance of g1 and emerging g3 rotaviruses in hong kong: a three-year surveillance in three major hospitals.the world health organization recommends rotavirus vaccines be included in all national immunization programs as part of a strategy to control diarrhoeal diseases. sentinel surveillance is advised to monitor impact post-vaccine introduction and to document changes in genotype distribution.201121330195
randomised controlled clinical trial of lactobacillus sporogenes (bacillus coagulans), used as probiotic in clinical practice, on acute watery diarrhoea in children.to assess the clinical efficacy of lactobacillus sporogenes (bacillus coagulans), as probiotic preparation, against dehydrating diarrhoea in children.201121332891
safety of rotavirus vaccines: postmarketing surveillance in the who region of the americas. 201121337810
self-assembled virus-like particles from rotavirus structural protein vp6 for targeted drug delivery.proteins of viral capsid may self-assemble into virus-like particles (vlps) that can find many biomedical applications such as platform for drug delivery. in this paper, we describe preparation of vlps by self-assembly of vp6, a rotavirus capsid protein that was chemically conjugated with doxorubicin (dox), an anticancer drug. vp6 was first highly expressed in e. coli, followed by purification and renaturation. dox was then covalently attached to vp6 to form dox-vp6 (dvp6) conjugates, which were ...201121338097
specific, simple and rapid detection of porcine circovirus type 2 using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification method.porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) is the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws), and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (pdns). it has caused heavy losses in global agriculture in recent decades. rapid detection of pcv2 is very important for the effective prophylaxis and treatment of pmws.201121414233
intussusception: incidence and treatment-insights from the nationwide german surveillance.intussusception (is) is one of the most common paediatric emergencies, and the best mode of conservative reduction and its exact incidence remains unclear. for different reasons, availability of reliable incidence data are useful and additionally may be fundamental to monitor potential effects of recently introduced rotavirus (rv) vaccines.201121415671
neonatal immunization: where do we stand?recognition of the high burden of disease in early life and advances in the understanding of neonatal immunology have resulted in renewed interest in maternal and neonatal vaccination. this article reviews existing information and recent advances in neonatal human immunization.201121415741
[transport and storage of privately purchased vaccines].describe the transport and storage of privately purchased vaccines.201121420341
burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the pediatric population in central and eastern europe: serotype distribution and burden of illness.rotaviral gastroenteritis (rvge) is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children under five years of age worldwide. this comprehensive review aims to estimate the burden of rvge among children in central and eastern europe.201121422818
projecting the effectiveness of rotateq® against rotavirus-related hospitalizations and deaths in six asian countries.rotateq is an oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) that has shown high and consistent efficacy in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis (rge) in randomized clinical trials conducted mostly in industrialized countries. we projected the effectiveness of rv5 against rge-related hospitalizations and deaths in 6 asian countries by using a simple mathematical model. model inputs included rotavirus surveillance data collected 2006-2007 in china, 2001-2002 in hong kong, 2005-2007 in india, 2005-2007 ...201121422820
tylosema esculentum (marama) tuber and bean extracts are strong antiviral agents against rotavirus infection.tylosema esculentum (marama) beans and tubers are used as food, and traditional medicine against diarrhoea in southern africa. rotaviruses (rvs) are a major cause of diarrhoea among infants, young children, immunocompromised people, and domesticated animals. our work is first to determine anti-rv activity of marama bean and tuber ethanol and water extracts; in this case on intestinal enterocyte cells of human infant (h4), adult pig (clab) and adult bovine (cieb) origin. marama cotyledon ethanoli ...201121423688
severe gastroenteritis associated with g3p[9] rotavirus in taiwan. 201121424852
[detection of rotavirus in 2745 children with diarrhea]. 201121426650
replacing traditional diagnostics of fecal viral pathogens by a comprehensive panel of real-time pcrs.molecular dna-based diagnostics are increasingly being used for diagnosis of viral infections. for enteric viruses, pcr assays have also been developed. the aims of this study were to compile and evaluate a comprehensive panel of pcr assays for diagnosis of viruses causing diarrheal disease and to evaluate its use in a largely pediatric population in a 750-bed university medical center. the pcr panel was designed to include assays for detection of adenovirus, astrovirus, enterovirus, norovirus, ...201121430103
development, clinical evaluation, and post-licensure impact of rotateq, a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine.rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children worldwide. this paper provides an overview of the development, clinical evaluation, and postlicensure impact of rotateqôäó(rotavirus vaccine, live, oral, pentavalent, merck & co., inc.). rotateq, an oral vaccine, is uniquely designed to contain five human-bovine reassortant rotavirus strains expressing the human serotypes g1, g2, g3, g4, and p1a[8], which represent the most common human rotavirus serotypes respo ...201121434938
recurrent intussusception in infants.aim:ôçâ clinical features to identify infants at increased risk of recurrence after a primary episode of intussusception (is) are poorly defined. methods:ôçâ prospective study of the clinical presentation, treatment and outcome in infants <2ôçâyears presenting with acute is to the national hospital of pediatrics, hanoi, over a 14-month period (1 november 2002 to 31 december 2003). a retrospective review of medical records was performed to verify complete patient ascertainment. results:ôçâ five h ...201121435072
hospital-based, prospective, multicentre surveillance to determine the incidence of intussusception in children aged below 15 years in germany.a new vaccine against rotavirus (rv) gastroenteritis was introduced in germany in 2006. in 1997 the first rv vaccine was withdrawn due to an increased incidence in intussusception (is). thus, an accurate estimation of the incidence of is is important for post-licensure surveillance.201121435207
childhood intussusception in uzbekistan: analysis of retrospective surveillance data.estimates of baseline incidence of childhood intussusception could help safety monitoring after the introduction of rotavirus vaccines. we studied the incidence of intussusception in uzbekistan, a gavi-fund eligible state in central asia.201121435218
reduction in pediatric rotavirus-related hospitalizations after universal rotavirus vaccination in belgium.this study investigated the effect of pediatric vaccination against rotavirus on the number of rotavirus-related hospitalizations of children in belgium.201121436757
g2 as an emerging rotavirus strain in pediatric gastroenteritis in southern italy.human rotaviruses (hrvs) represent a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. it is estimated that they are responsible for a large number of diarrhea-associated hospitalizations in childhood each year. in italy, limited data are available on the patterns of distribution of hrv g and p types. we report here the results of 2 years of rotavirus strain surveillance among children with severe gastroenteritis diagnosed in the town of portici, campania, southern italy.201121437737
burden of disease and costs of treating rotavirus diarrhea in mexican children for the period 2001-2006.to estimate the health impact and the costs of treatment associated with rotavirus diarrhea in six yearly cohorts (2001-2006) of mexican infants.201121439316
[isolation precautions in a tertiary paediatric hospital].isolation is one of the measures to prevent the spread of nosocomial infections. however, in children's hospitals, given the type of patients and infections, and the architectural features of hospital wards, isolation precautions are sometimes difficult to implement and enforce.201121439920
efficacy of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, rotateq® (rv5), between doses of a 3-dose series and with less than 3 doses (incomplete regimen).post-hoc analyses of the rotavirus efficacy and safety trial (rest) were conducted to determine whether the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) confers early protection against rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) before completion of the 3-dose regimen. to evaluate the efficacy of rv5 between doses in reducing the rates of rvge-related hospitalizations and emergency department (ed) visits in infants who ultimately received all 3 doses of rv5/placebo, events occurring from 2 weeks after the first an ...201121441783
impact of rotavirus vaccination on hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhea: the ivanhoe study.the aim of the ivanhoe study was to determine the real-world impact of the rotavirus vaccine, controlling for epidemic-to-epidemic variation in disease burden. a population-based prospective cohort study was conducted in brest city and 7 suburban districts (cub area), north-western brittany, france (210,000 inhabitants; 5500 births per year). the vaccination program started in may 2007 for a 2-year period for all infants born in the brest birth zone through pediatricians, public outpatient clini ...201121443962
scaling up diarrhea prevention and treatment interventions: a lives saved tool analysis.diarrhea remains a leading cause of mortality among young children in low- and middle-income countries. although the evidence for individual diarrhea prevention and treatment interventions is solid, the effect a comprehensive scale-up effort would have on diarrhea mortality has not been estimated.201121445330
noroviruses in children seen in a hospital for acute gastroenteritis in finland.noroviruses (novs) are second only to rotaviruses (rvs) as causative agents of acute gastroenteritis (age) in children. the proportional role of novs is likely to increase after control of rv by vaccination. we investigated novs in children seen in tampere university hospital either treated as outpatients or hospitalized because of age before universal rv vaccination was implemented in finland. this prospective study was conducted from september 2006 to august 2008. a total of 1,128 children <15 ...201121465124
fighting child mortality. 201121465702
diarrheagenic pathogens in polymicrobial infections.during systematic active surveillance of the causes of diarrhea in patients admitted to the infectious diseases and beliaghata general hospital in kolkata, india, we looked for 26 known gastrointestinal pathogens in fecal samples from 2,748 patients. samples from about one-third (29%) of the patients contained multiple pathogens. polymicrobial infections frequently contained vibrio cholerae o1 and rotavirus. when these agents were present, some co-infecting agents were found significantly less o ...201121470448
strategies for the purification and characterization of protein scaffolds for the production of hybrid nanobiomaterials.rotavirus vp6 self-assembles into high order macrostructures useful as novel scaffolds for the construction of multifunctional hybrid nanobiomaterials. this application requires large quantities of high quality pure material with strict structural consistency. strategies for obtaining high quality recombinant vp6 and different characterization techniques are explored and compared in this work. vp6 was expressed in the insect cell-baculovirus system. vp6 assemblies were selectively purified utili ...201121474396
detection of fecal shedding of rotavirus vaccine in infants following their first dose of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine.studies on rotavirus vaccine shedding and its potential transmission within households including immunocompromised individuals are needed to better define the potential risks and benefits of vaccination. we examined fecal shedding of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) for 9 days following the first dose of vaccine in infants between 6 and 12 weeks of age. rotavirus antigen was detected by enzyme immunoassay (eia), and vaccine-type rotavirus was identified by nucleotide sequencing based on genet ...201121477676
picobirnavirus detection in bovine and buffalo calves from foothills of himalaya and central india.the present study describes detection of picobirnavirus (pbv) in faecal samples from bovine and buffalo calves employing the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). a total of 136 faecal samples from buffalo (n = 122) and cow calves (n = 14) exhibiting clinical signs of diarrhoea and from healthy calves were collected during 2007-2010 from subtropical (central india) and tarai area of western temperate himalayan foothills (uttarakhand). the dsrna nature of the virus was confirmed by nuclease ...201121479844
rotavirus gastroenteritis and strain diversity in saudi arabia. current status and future prospects. 201121484010
norovirus genotypes in endemic acute gastroenteritis of infants and children in finland between 1994 and 2007.summarynoroviruses are, after rotaviruses, the second most common causative agents of acute gastroenteritis in young children. we studied norovirus genotypes in faecal specimens collected from finnish children followed-up prospectively in rotavirus vaccine trials. almost 5000 faecal specimens collected from cases of acute gastroenteritis were examined using reverse transcriptase-pcr. a total of 1172 cases (25% of all acute gastroenteritis) were associated with noroviruses. of these, 96% were gen ...201121489338
development of γδ t cell subset responses in gnotobiotic pigs infected with human rotaviruses and colonized with probiotic lactobacilli.γδ t cell responses are induced by various viral and bacterial infections. different γδ t cells contribute to activation and regulation of the inflammatory response and to epithelial repair. how γδ t cells respond to rotavirus infection and how the colonization of probiotics influences the γδ t cell response were unknown. in this study, we evaluated by multicolor flow cytometry the frequencies and distribution of total γδ t cells and three major subsets (cd2-cd8-, cd2+cd8- and cd2+cd8+) in ileum ...201121489639
[current events in vaccination.]the annual meeting of the infectious disease society of america (idsa); which brought together nearly 5000 participants from over 80 countries in vancouver, canada, october 21 to 24, 2010; provided a review of the influenza (h1n1) 2009 pandemic, evaluated vaccination programmes and presented new vaccines under development. with 12 500 deaths in the united states in 2009-2010, the influenza (h1n1) 2009 pandemic was actually less deadly than the seasonal flu. but it essentially hit the young, and ...201121489733
gastroenteritis in childhood: a retrospective study of 650 hospitalized pediatric patients.background: acute diarrhea continues to be an important cause of hospitalization in young children, and deaths still occur as a result. we reviewed a large cohort of hospitalized children affected by gastroenteritis. the hypothesis of our study was that clinical characteristics and a limited set of laboratory data can differentiate between the different causative pathogens of diarrhea. methods: a chart review was performed of 650 patients with pathogen-proven diarrhea treated between april 2005 ...201121489842
active participation of cellular chaperone hsp90 in regulating the function of rotavirus nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3).heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) has been reported to positively regulate rotavirus replication by modulating virus induced pi3k/akt and nfκb activation. here, we report the active association of hsp90 in the folding and stabilization of rotavirus nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3). in pcd-nsp3-transfected cells, treatment with hsp90 inhibitor (17-n,n-dimethylethylenediamine-geldanamycin (17dmag)) resulted in the proteasomal degradation of nsp3. sequence analysis and deletion mutations revealed that th ...201121489987
outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis in a nursing home, slovenia, december 2010.a gastroenteritis outbreak affected 45 people (40 residents and five staff) in a nursing home for the elderly in the celje region, north-east slovenia, between 17 december and 31 december 2010. rotavirus group a was laboratory confirmed in the stools of five ill individuals. the outbreak was identified when the number of affected persons was high but was successfully controlled after implementing preventive measures.201121492527
cost analysis of care for children admitted to kenyatta national hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis.rotavirus infection is the single most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in children under five years of age. the costs of care and treatment for rotavirus gastroenteritis are high. the objective was to compute average cost of care for children admitted with rotavirus gastroenteritis. a survey was conducted in children admitted with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis in nairobi, kenya. these were recruited and followed up till discharge or death. the costs they incurred were collected and ...201121492742
prevalence of major enteric pathogens in australian dairy calves with diarrhoea.determine the prevalence of the major enteric pathogens in dairy and dairy beef calves with diarrhoea in australia.201121495987
economic burden of rotavirus disease in children under 5 years in kazakhstan.we aimed to estimate the societal costs of rotavirus cases among children less than 5 years in kazakhstan, an upper-middle income country in central asia.201121496473
prospective study of the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in danish children and their families.this was the first study to characterize the total burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) at both hospital and general physician (gp) clinics in denmark, and also the first to confirm rotavirus (rv) as the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (ge) among children <5 years in gp clinics nationwide. several aspects of rvge were reported, including the impact of rvge on family life by changes in hrqol and by the number of days absent from day care. rv was detected in 225 (63.6%) children, and ...201121499690
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