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prevalence of four enteropathogens in the faeces of young diarrhoeic dairy calves in switzerland.the prevalences of cryptosporidium parvum, rotavirus, bovine coronavirus (bcv), and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (e coli k99) were determined in diarrhoeic dairy calves aged one to 21 days on 71 dairy farms in western switzerland during the winter of 2005 to 2006. faecal samples from 147 untreated calves suffering from acute diarrhoea were analysed by standardised diagnostic methods, and the immunoglobulin status of each calf was evaluated. the prevalences of c parvum, rotavirus, bcv and e c ...200818806281
an outbreak of group a rotavirus g1p[8] in an elementary school, nara prefecture. 200818806362
use of vsl[sharp]3 in the treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in children: preliminary results.we conducted a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study to evaluate efficacy and tolerability of vsl[sharp]3 (cd pharma india) in the treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhea in children. the patients were randomly assigned to receive 4 days of oral treatment with vsl[sharp]3 probiotic mixture or placebo in addition to usual care for diarrhea. results: out of 230 rotavirus-positive acute diarrhea children, 224 children completed the study, (113 in the drug group and 111 in the placebo group ...200818806703
[infectious diseases in poland in 2006].over last decade problem of infectious diseases in poland remains stable with trends of decreasing incidence of most reported infectious diseases. in particular there was observed decrease in incidence of tuberculosis and foodborne infections causes by salmonella sp. on the other hand it was observed increase of reported foodborne infections caused by campylobacter and yersinia as well and viral ones caused by noroviruses and rotaviruses. despite marked increase of diagnosed and reported cases s ...200818807459
comparison between two severity scoring scales commonly used in the evaluation of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children.two severity scales, the vesikari 20-point scale, and the clark 24-point scale, were recently used to evaluate rotavirus vaccines. each was used to evaluate a different vaccine. however, the two scales differ and have not been previously compared using the same patients.200818786584
[epileptic status associated with mild gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus]. 200818780280
[status epilepticus associated with mild rotavirus gastroenteritis].convulsions with mild rotavirus gastroenteritis were first described by morooka in 1982. this is a process of convulsions and gastroenteritis without any changes in complementary tests. they are few cases out of asia and they are rarely reported in spain.200818775273
[afebrile convulsions and acute gastroenteritis: a more common than expected combination].afebrile seizures in association with acute gastroenteritis without electrolyte disturbances have been reported in children from asiatic countries, but only few references are from spain. it is a benign, self-limiting process, with no specific examinations or therapy needed. there is no increased risk of epilepsy or impaired neurodevelopment in the children affected. we present five children with seizures during acute gastroenteritis admitted to hospital universitari arnau de vilanova of lleida ...200818775274
rotavirus-associated infantile diarrhea in uberaba, minas gerais, on the wake of the brazilian vaccination program.rotaviruses are major causes of diarrhea in children for which vaccines were developed and are currently in use.200818775667
complications attributable to rotavirus-induced diarrhoea in a swedish paediatric population: report from an 11-year surveillance.the aim of this retrospective observational study was to evaluate age, length of hospital stay and development of complications in children hospitalized with community- or nosocomially- acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis (rv ge). in total, medical records of 984 children with rv ge were analysed retrospectively. the median age was 13.8 months (3 weeks to 99 months) in children with community acquired rv ge (n=723) and 9.0 months (range 3 weeks to 82 months) in children with nosocomially acquired ...200818777248
prevalence of rotavirus-induced diarrhea among children under 5 years in ilorin, nigeria.diarrhoea disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in nigerian children and rotavirus has been identified as an important causative agent among children below 5 years. we determined the prevalence of rotavirus-induced diarrhoea among under-5 s by electrophenotyping. stool samples were collected from eligible subjects who presented with acute diarrhoea. the samples were processed for viral studies by electrophenotyping. among the 299 subjects recruited, 55.9% were positive for rot ...200818786984
group a human rotavirus genomics: evidence that gene constellations are influenced by viral protein interactions.group a human rotaviruses (hrvs) are the major cause of severe viral gastroenteritis in infants and young children. to gain insight into the level of genetic variation among hrvs, we determined the genome sequences for 10 strains belonging to different vp7 serotypes (g types). the hrvs chosen for this study, d, ds-1, p, st3, ial28, se584, 69m, wi61, a64, and l26, were isolated from infected persons and adapted to cell culture to use as serotype references. our sequencing results revealed that mo ...200818786998
expression of nonstructural rotavirus protein nsp4 mimics ca2+ homeostasis changes induced by rotavirus infection in cultured cells.rotavirus infection modifies ca(2+) homeostasis, provoking an increase in ca(2+) permeation, the cytoplasmic ca(2+) concentration ([ca(2+)](cyto)), and total ca(2+) pools and a decrease in ca(2+) response to agonists. a glycosylated viral protein(s), nsp4 and/or vp7, may be responsible for these effects. ht29 or cos-7 cells were infected by the sa11 clone 28 strain, in which vp7 is not glycosylated, or transiently transfected with plasmids coding for nsp4-enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp ...200818787006
human group a rotavirus p[8] hun9-like and rare op354-like strains are circulating among diarrhoeic children in eastern india.during 2004-2006, group a rotavirus p[8] strains were the major vp4 genotype (43.2%, n = 317) among diarrhoeic children in eastern india. phylogenetic analysis of vp8* amino acid sequences of 16 of these strains with other p[8] strains revealed four distinct lineages. p[8] strains from eastern india clustered within rare op354-like and hun9-like lineages, pointing towards co-prevalence of divergent p[8] strains. although it is unclear whether the observed genetic diversity might affect to some e ...200818787756
rotavirus infection in four states in north-western nigeria.rotaviruses are associated with approximately 611,000 deaths worldwide and with 33,000 deaths in nigeria in children < 5 years of age annually however, limited data exit on rotavirus (rv) infection in north-western nigeria. this study surveyed rv infection in four states in northwestern nigeria.200818788254
natural immunity to rotavirus infection in children.annual deaths in infants and young children due to rotavirus (rv) infection are around 100,000 in india and about 600,000 globally. development of a vaccine for this disease is a high priority. the protective mechanisms for rv diarrhea in human are not fully understood, but it is known that children develop natural immunity against rv. early exposure to rv results in most severe episode of diarrhea and subsequent infections are milder or asymptomatic. of the immune responses measured during natu ...200818788471
characterization of rotavirus specific b cells and their relation with serological memory.we quantified circulating total, rotavirus (rv) and tetanus toxin (tt) memory b cells (mbc) in healthy adults using a limiting dilution assay (lda) and a flow cytometry assay (fca) that permit evaluation of both cd27+ and cd27- mbc. rv mbc were enriched in the cd27-, igg+ and in the cd27+, igm+ subsets. the numbers of rv mbc were higher by fca than by lda and results of the two assays did not correlate. tt iggmbc and rv iga mbc determined by fca and by lda correlated with tt plasma igg and rv pl ...200818789807
whole genome sequence and phylogenetic analyses reveal human rotavirus g3p[3] strains ro1845 and hcr3a are examples of direct virion transmission of canine/feline rotaviruses to humans.rotaviruses, the major causative agents of infantile diarrhea worldwide, are, in general, highly species-specific. interspecies virus transmission is thought to be one of the important contributors involved in the evolution and diversity of rotaviruses in nature. human rotavirus (hrv) g3p[3] strains ro1845 and hcr3a have been reported to be closely related genetically to certain canine and feline rotaviruses (rvs). whole genome sequence and phylogenetic analyses of each of these 2 hrvs as well a ...200818789808
is there still space for the implementation of antisepsis and disinfection to prevent rotavirus and norovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks? 200818792534
a novel genomic constellation (g10p[3]) of group a rotavirus detected from buffalo calves in northern india.group a bovine rotaviruses cause gastroenteritis and calf mortality leading to significant economic losses to dairy farmers in india. due to segmented nature of the rna genome and wide host range, vast genetic and antigenic diversity exists among different isolates of rotavirus. molecular characterization of locally prevalent group a rotavirus strains in buffalo population in north india was undertaken. out of a total of 455 faecal samples, 21 samples (4.61%) were positive for bovine rota virus ...200818793686
molecular characterization of a novel adult diarrhoea rotavirus strain j19 isolated in china and its significance for the evolution and origin of group b rotaviruses.the complete genome of a novel adult diarrhoea rotavirus strain j19 was cloned and sequenced using an improved single-primer sequence-independent method. the complete genome is 17,961 bp and is au-rich (66.49 %). northern blot analysis and genomic sequence analysis indicated that segments 1-11 encode 11 viral proteins, respectively. protein alignments with the corresponding proteins of j19 with b219, and groups a, b and c rotaviruses, produced higher per cent sequence identities to b219. among g ...200818796732
two out of the 11 genes of an unusual human g6p[6] rotavirus isolate are of bovine origin.in 2003, we described the first human g6p[6] rotavirus strain (b1711). to investigate further the molecular origin of this strain and to determine the possible reassortments leading to this new gene constellation, the complete genome of strain b1711 was sequenced. simplot analyses were conducted to compare strain b1711 with other known rotavirus gene segments, and phylogenetic dendrograms were constructed to analyse the origin of the eleven genome segments of strain b1711. our analysis indicated ...200818796733
nuclear localization of cytoplasmic poly(a)-binding protein upon rotavirus infection involves the interaction of nsp3 with eif4g and roxan.rotavirus nonstructural protein nsp3 interacts specifically with the 3' end of viral mrnas, with the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eif4g, and with roxan, a cellular protein of yet-unknown function. by evicting cytoplasmic poly(a) binding protein (pabp-c1) from translation initiation complexes, nsp3 shuts off the translation of cellular polyadenylated mrnas. we show here that pabp-c1 evicted from eif4g by nsp3 accumulates in the nucleus of rotavirus-infected cells. through modeling of ...200818799579
[molecular characterization of calicivirus strains detected in outbreaks of gastroenteritis occurring in argentina during 2005 and 2006].in order to determine the incidence of calicivirus, rotavirus and astrovirus in outbreaks of gastroenteritis occurring in different regions of argentina during 2005 and 2006, fecal samples from seven nonbacterial outbreaks were analyzed. a commercial elisa was used for rotavirus detection, while rt-pcrs were used for calicivirus and astrovirus. of the 74 samples analyzed, 20 were calicivirus positive, 17 were rotavirus positive and one was astrovirus positive. no mixed infections were detected. ...200819213245
[molecular methods for the diagnosis of acute viral gastroenteritis].acute gastroenteritis (age) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. in europe, viruses are responsible for most episodes of gastroenteritis, and among these, rotaviruses are associated with most age in children under the age of 2 years, and noroviruses in older ages. classical methods for laboratory diagnosis leave between 60 and 70% of cases undiagnosed. most cases in which the etiology is unknown are probably caused by viruses. through the use of molecular methods (nucleic acid ...200819195451
[disease notification in diarrhea]. 200819189634
[nucleotide sequence analysis of the nsp4 gene from group a rotaviruses isolated in nizhni novgorod].the complete nucleotide sequences of the nsp4 gene from russian isolates of group a rotaviruses with different g[p] types obtained in nizhni novgorod have been first ascertained. they belong to their affiliation to three nsp4 (a, b, and c) of the 5 known genotypes. eleven strains had nsp4 genotype. phylogenetic analysis based on the complete nucleotide sequences of the nsp4 gene revealed the sequence homology of g1p[8] viruses with the strains circulating in scandinavia and that of the g3 type v ...200819172905
[evaluation of laboratory diagnosis of the first norovirus outbreak in turkey in 2008].norovirus (nov) is one of the most prominent agents of gastroenteritis and water/food-borne outbreaks affecting all of the age groups in the world. as the identification of the etiologic agent is important during gastroenteritis outbreaks, it is recommended to combine two different methods for rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis of nov. although nov outbreaks have been observed in many different countries of the world, there was no report on "nov outbreak" in turkey till 2008 due to the abse ...200819149082
[expression and immunogenicity analysis of recombinant plasmid pw425et-vp7 of porcine rotavirus a in lactobacillus].we tested the antigenicity of porcine rotavirus vp7 gene expressed in lactobacillus.200819149168
group a rotavirus genotypes and the ongoing brazilian experience: a review.brazil was the first latin american country to introduce universal group a rotavirus (rv-a) vaccination in march 2006, resulting in a unique epidemiological scenario. since rv-a first identification in brazil, 2,691 rv-a-positive stool samples, collected between 1982- 2007, were typed by independent research groups throughout the country. in the pre-vaccination era, 2,492 rv-a-positive samples collected from 1982-2005 were successfully typed, while 199 samples were analyzed from 2006-2007. accor ...200819148411
new target tissue for food-borne virus detection in oysters.to evaluate the different tissues of naturally contaminated oyster for food-borne virus detection. methods and200819146529
rotavirus vaccine: a promise for the future. 200819069616
economic impact of a rotavirus vaccine in brazil.the study was done to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a national rotavirus vaccination programme in brazilian children from the healthcare system perspective. a hypothetical annual birth-cohort was followed for a five-year period. published and national administrative data were incorporated into a model to quantify the consequences of vaccination versus no vaccination. main outcome measures included the reduction in disease burden, lives saved, and disability-adjusted life-years (dalys) avert ...200819069617
an evaluation of the australian rotavirus surveillance program.the australian rotavirus serotyping program (arsp) serotypes rotavirus isolates obtained from stool samples sent from australian laboratories. in collaboration with arsp the australian government department of health and ageing evaluated the program for its utility and capacity to monitor effectiveness of the rotavirus vaccines recently introduced into the australian national immunisation program. the system was described using arsp annual reports and staff interviews. the attributes of the syst ...200819062768
adenovirus, calicivirus and astrovirus detection in fecal samples of hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis from campo grande, ms, brazil.we analyzed fecal samples from hospitalized children up to three years of age with acute gastroenteritis at campo grande, mato grosso do sul, brazil, from may 2000-january 2004. astrovirus and calicivirus were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and adenovirus was detected using the rotavirus and adenovirus combined immunoenzyme assay. astrovirus, adenovirus and calicivirus were detected at rates of 3.1%, 3.6% and 7.6%, respectively. these results re-emphasize the need fo ...200819057829
diversity of human rotavirus g and p genotypes in panama, costa rica, and the dominican republic.in this study 2,089 fecal samples from patients with gastroenteritis were analyzed from different hospitals in panama, costa rica, and the dominican republic during the period comprised between december 2002 and july 2003. one hundred samples per country from the positives to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) kit were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) to determine the g and p genotypes: in panama, costa rica, and dominican republic the combinations ...200819052306
rotateq: a three-dose oral pentavalent reassortant rotavirus vaccine.rotavirus (rv) is a leading cause of diarrhea worldwide, and will infect every child by their 5th birthday. the 3-dose oral pentavalent rv vaccine (rotateq), consisting of serotypes g1, g2, g3, g4 and p1a[8], was licensed in the usa in 2006. the first dose should be administered between the ages of 6 and 12 weeks and the third dose should be given before the age of 32 weeks (usa) or 26 weeks (europe). in a large clinical trial, the vaccine prevented 74% of cases of rv gastroenteritis, and 98% of ...200819053204
active, population-based surveillance for severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in children in the united states.routine vaccination of us infants against rotavirus was implemented in 2006, prompting the centers for disease control and prevention new vaccine surveillance network to begin population-based acute gastroenteritis surveillance among us children<3 years of age. this surveillance system establishes baseline estimates of rotavirus disease burden and allows for the prospective monitoring of rotavirus vaccination impact.200819047240
[infectional and molecular-genetical properties of cryopreserved strains of adeno- and rotaviruses].influence of cryopreservation and long-term storage in conditions of moderate-low temperatures on infectious activity and molecular-genetic properties of monkey rotavirus, human family rotavirus and human adenovirus of serotype 3 has been studied. preservation of initial antigenic structure and biological properties of the given viruses is necessary both in biotechnology for manufacture of means of specific preventive maintenance and diagnostics of human adeno- and rotavirus infection and for pr ...200819044012
[studies on simultaneous detection of four foodborneviruses by multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction].to establish a method for simultaneous detection of norovirus (nv), rotavirus (rv), astrovirus (av) and hepatitis a virus (hav) by multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr).200819040044
high frequency of rotavirus viremia in children with acute gastroenteritis: discordance of strains detected in stool and sera.recently, rotavirus antigenemia and viremia have been identified in patients with acute gastroenteritis. this study examined rotavirus viremia in children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis in order to establish its association with fecal shedding of rotavirus, infecting genotypes and antibody marker of acute infection. thirty-one pairs of stool-serum specimens were collected from november 2004 to february 2005 together with clinical information. all paired specimens were screened for rotavi ...200819040295
emerging viruses in transplantation: there is more to infection after transplant than cmv and ebv.transplant physicians and surgeons are familiar with the risks, clinical behavior, and management of cytomegalovirus in transplant recipients. donor-transmitted viral infections are uncommon but in recent years have brought to light the clinical manifestations of rabies, west nile virus, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in the early posttransplant period. later posttransplant, infection with viruses circulating in the community can occur with a number of pathogens, including some vaccine-p ...200819033999
defective rotavirus particle assembly in lovastatin-treated ma104 cells.rotavirus is a non-enveloped virus that depends on cellular lipids for cell entry and associates with lipid rafts during assembly. however, the effects of cellular lipids on rotavirus assembly are still not fully understood. the present study analyzes the effects of lovastatin, an inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis, during rotavirus infection in ma104 cells with regard to viral growth and particle assembly. following viral infection, a 2-log relative reduction of viral titers was observed in ...200819030953
[distribution signature analysis between intussusception and rotavirus diarrhea in young children].to investigate the annual incidence rate of intussusception over a 5-year period in suzhou and to determine whether there was a potential link between intussusception rotavirus diarrhea.200819031708
supplementing suckling rats with whey protein concentrate modulates the immune response and ameliorates rat rotavirus-induced diarrhea.group a rotaviruses (rv) are the most common causative agents of acute gastroenteritis in children <2 y. the present study was designed to establish the effect of a bovine whey protein concentrate (wpc) in a rv infection model in suckling rats. from d 3 of life, suckling lewis rats received daily supplements of wpc, wpc plus lactoferrin (lf), standard infant formula (sif), or water (rv-infected group and an untreated, uninfected reference group). on d 8 of life, heterologous simian rv sa-11 was ...200819022963
rotavirus surveillance--worldwide, 2001-2008.rotavirus infection is the leading cause of severe acute diarrhea among young children worldwide. an estimated 527,000 children aged <5 years die from rotavirus diarrhea each year, with >85% of these deaths occurring in low-income countries of africa and asia. two licensed rotavirus vaccines have shown efficacy of 85%-98% against severe rotavirus diarrhea in trials conducted in the americas and europe, and they have been introduced into routine immunization programs in 11 countries in these regi ...200819023263
retrospective study of bovine neonatal mortality: cases reported from inta balcarce, argentina.a retrospective study was performed on 169 beef and dairy calves aged from 1 to 7 days old submitted to the diagnostic laboratories at inta balcarce, argentina. bacterial culture was performed for aerobic and microaerophilic organisms. samples from spleen and lymph nodes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were also cultured for viral isolation on cell culture. bovine rotavirus was detected by direct-elisa. multiple tissue samples were fixed in 10% formalin, routinely processed and stained w ...200819024501
[evaluation of two immunochromatography kits for rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infections].a prospective study was conducted to evaluate two immunochromatography (icg) commercial kits for diagnosis of rotavirus infection, vikia rota-adeno (biomérieux) and simple rota-adeno (operon). reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) with specific primers for the vp7 gene of group a rotavirus was used as the reference method. the sensitivity and specificity of the icg tests compared with those of the reference method were 98.4% and 84.8%, respectively, for simple rota-adeno ( ...200819024505
global networks for surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis, 2001-200. 200819024780
intranasal immunization of mice with vp2 dna of human rotavirus a induces cellular and humoral immunity.dna vaccination using a plasmid encoding human rotavirus a (hurv-a) inner capsid vp2 was examined in a mouse model. balb/c mice were immunized intranasally (i.n.) with a vp2 dna vaccine that induced cellular and humoral immune response to hurv-a. the increased levels of cytokines ifn-gamma and il-4 and the production of anti-vp2 igg antibodies were detected. in addition, splenocyte proliferation detected by mtt test was enhanced in the mice treated with the vaccine. these results may encourage t ...200819143478
[family impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children under two years].acute gastroenteritis (age) in infants has a significant impact on the quality of life of their parents.200819128763
[impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on hospital admissions for severe acute gastroenteritis at the children's hospital in panama city].to determine if infant rotavirus vaccination in panama has reduced the rate of hospital admission for gastroenteritis among children under 5 years of age.200819115546
coinfection of viral agents in korean children with acute watery diarrhea.currently, there are a few reports on viral coinfection that causes an acute watery diarrhea in korean children. so, to evaluate the features of coinfectious viral agents in children with acute watery diarrhea, we enrolled 155 children with acute watery diarrhea from july 2005 to june 2006. fecal samples were collected and evaluated for various viral infections such as rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus. the mean (+/-standard deviation) age of the children was 2.71+/-2.37 yr. the de ...200819119432
disability adjusted life years and minimal disease: application of a preference-based relevance criterion to rank enteric pathogens.abstract:200819114007
[rotavirus and other viruses causing acute childhood gastroenteritis].acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases, affecting children worldwide. viruses are recognized as a major cause of this disease, particularly in children. since the norwalk virus was identified as a cause of gastroenteritis, the number of viral agents associated with diarrheal disease in humans has progressively increased. rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in children under 5 years of age. human astroviruses, caliciviruses and enteric adenovirus are also impor ...200819100169
[the cases of rotaviral diarrhea from kielce and kielce district, hospitalized in kielce voivodeship children hospital in 2002-2006].the aim of the study was an analysis of rotavirus diarrhea incidence in children within two age ranges: between 0-4 years and between 5-9 years. into the analysis there were included children from the city of kielce and from the kielce administrative district suffering from diarrhea and admitted to the hospital, in the years 2002-2006. methods: the slidex rota-kit 2 tests were performed to confirm the rotavirus etiology of infection. results: throughout the 5 years period there were hospitalized ...200819108519
an epidemiological study of enteric viruses in sewage with molecular characterization by rt-pcr and sequence analysis.the aim of this study was to assess the presence and seasonal frequency of various enteric viruses in wastewater treatment. the detection of astrovirus, norovirus, enterovirus, hepatitis a virus (hav) and rotavirus was carried out by molecular analyses in concentrated water samples collected over 18 months at the entrance and exit of an activated sludge sewage treatment plant. the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) results were confirmed by sequencing, and comparative phylo ...200819108555
cohort study of an outbreak of viral gastroenteritis in a nursing home for elderly, majorca, spain, february 2008.an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred in a nursing home for elderly in majorca between 4 and 23 february 2008. to know its aetiology and mechanism of transmission a retrospective cohort study was conducted with a fixed cohort including 146 people (96 residents and 50 employees). the data were collected from clinical histories and through a survey by questionnaire. in total 71 cases were identified (53 residents, 18 employees), corresponding to an overall attack rate (ar) of 48.6%.200819094913
rotavirus vaccines.two live attenuated oral rotavirus vaccines were licensed in 2006 for prevention of severe acute gastroenteritis in children: rotarix (gsk), a human rotavirus vaccine with g1p[8] serotype characteristics and rotateq (merck), a bovine-human reassortant vaccine expressing human g1-4 and p[8] antigens. in prelicensure trials both vaccines showed high efficacy against severe rv gastroenteritis, low reactogenicity and no increased risk for intussusception (is) (ruiz-palacios et al., 2006; vesikari et ...200819086243
[rotavirus infections in children].rotaviruses are the most common cause of acute diarrhoea in children. the disease often leads to hospitalization; it is also a source of intrahospital infections. in the last 10 years in poland the incidence of rotavirus infections increased more than twofold in this study we analyse the etiopathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical course, diagnostic methods, treatment and prevention of rotavirus infections.200819418944
[epidemiological trend in rotavirus infections in children hospitalized in the department of paediatrics at warsaw bielany hospital; 2005-2007].defining the epidemiological trend in community acquired and nosocomial rotavirus infections in children hospitalized in the department of paediatrics of the warsaw bielany hospital; 2005-2007. assessment of the correlation with respect to age, sex and month of the year.200819418945
cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccination against rotavirus with rix4414 in france.it is estimated that annually 300 000 cases of rotavirus-induced gastroenteritis (rvge) occur in children aged up to 5 years in france. a two-dose vaccine against rotavirus infection (rix4414; rotarix, glaxosmithkline), has been shown to be highly effective against severe rvge.200819382820
demonstration of passive protection in neonatal calves against colibacillosis following immunization of pregnant heifers at 3 months of gestation.enterotoxigenic escherichia coli is one of the primary etiologic agents for diarrhea in neonatal calves. immunization of dams can provide passive protection in neonatal calves; antibodies transferred through colostrum block colonization of bacteria, thereby preventing disease. in this study, healthy pregnant heifers were vaccinated at approximately 3 months of gestation with either a polyvalent oil-adjuvanted vaccine containing inactivated coronavirus, rotavirus, e. coli k99 subunit antigen, and ...200819177333
annual report: surveillance of adverse events following immunisation in australia, 2007.this report summarises australian passive surveillance data for adverse events following immunisation (aefi) reported to the therapeutic goods administration for 2007, and describes reporting trends over the 8-year period 2000 to 2007. there were 1,538 aefi records for vaccines administered in 2007. this is an annual aefi reporting rate of 7.3 per 100,000 population, the highest since 2003 and an 85% increase compared with 2006 (835 aefi records; 4.0 records per 100,000 population). the increase ...200819374268
australian rotavirus surveillance program annual report, 2007/08.the national rotavirus reference centre together with collaborating laboratories australia-wide conducts a laboratory based rotavirus surveillance program. this report describes the types of rotavirus strains responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 july 2007 to 30 june 2008, the first complete year of surveillance following introduction of rotavirus into the national immunisation program. six hundred faecal samples from across australia were ...200819374270
[epidemiological and clinical study of diarrhea by rotavirus in children <5 years of age attended in medical centers of the miranda state, venezuela].to have a better knowledge of the epidemiological and clinical aspects of rotavirus (rv) infection treated at out-patient clinics, we carried out a study in five centers (one hospital type i, and four out-patient clinics) of miranda state, between february 2006 and january 2007. we evaluated 194 children <5 years old with acute diarrhea and analyzed the following characteristics: gender, age, socioeconomic condition, breastfeeding, nutritional status, clinical characteristics, rotavirus diagnosi ...200819245168
burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis and potential benefits of a pentavalent rotavirus vaccination in belgium.objective and methods: a decision analytic model was built to assess the paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) burden and potential benefits associated with the introduction of rotateq (pentavalent rotavirus vaccine) in belgium. results: in the absence of a rotavirus (rv) immunisation programme, paediatric rvge was estimated to account for about 5,860 hospitalisations, 1,720 cases of nosocomial infections, 9,410 cases treated by general practitioners/paediatricians (gp/p) and 10,790 cases ...200819450097
estimating utility scores in young children with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in the uk.to estimate utility scores for different severities of acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in children aged<5 years in the uk.200819450099
measuring the impact of rotavirus acute gastroenteritis episodes (mirage): a prospective community-based study.background: current assessments of the burden of rotavirus (rv)-related gastroenteritis are needed to evaluate the potential benefits of rv immunization interventions. the objective of the present study was to characterize the burden of rv gastroenteritis among children presenting in outpatient settings with gastroenteritis. methods: between january and june 2005, 395 children younger than three years of age presenting with gastroenteritis symptoms (at least three watery or looser-than-normal st ...200819436568
rotarix packaging: labelling and packaging change. more improvement needed. confusing oral syringe still available. 200819537308
electropherotypes and subgroups of group a rotaviruses circulating among diarrhoeic children in kano, nigeria.it is estimated that about 600,000 children die annually as a result of severe dehydrating diarrhea caused by rotaviruses. the virus is a double stranded rna (dsrna) virus with 11 segments. group a rotaviruses show a characteristic 4-2-3-2 pattern following electrophoresis. the vp6 subgroups, i and ii exist. this work was carried out to study the prevalence of rotavirus infection among children 0-5 years with diarrhea in kano, and to determine the circulating subgroups and electropherotypes and ...200819623917
epidemiology of rotavirus and astrovirus infections in children in northwestern nigeria.recent estimates attribute 527,000 deaths in children less than five years of age to rotavirus diarrhea annually, with 145,000 occurring in sub-saharan africa. human astroviruses have been identified as one of the most frequent causes of infantile diarrhea, second in incidence only to rotavirus. this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of rotavirus and astrovirus and also to establish the circulating strains of rotavirus in a community in nigeria where most diarrheic patients do not ...200819623918
[benign infantile convulsions associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis: clinical analysis of 18 cases]. 200819102844
[improved expression of human rotavirus g1vp7 and g3vp7 antigens in the recombinant adenoviruses by codon optimization].to increase the recombinant adenovirus vector mediated human rotavirus g1vp7 and g3vp7 gene expression through coden optimization.200819544638
viral gastroenteritis and diversity of rotavirus strains in colombian children: a systematic review.to determine the epidemiological profile of viruses associated with acute gastroenteritis in children younger than 5 years of age and the distribution of rotavirus genotypes circulating in colombia.200819738332
rotavirus gastroenteritis: epidemiological data from a regional hospital in belgium.the belgian institute of public health registered from 2000 to 2005 a yearly average of 6,790 hospital admissions for rotavirus gastroenteritis in children less than 5 years of age. very efficacious rotavirus vaccines are available nowadays. the surveillance of hospitalisation due to rotavirus gastroenteritis is a good target for the follow-up of vaccine-related prevention. in a large regional belgian hospital, rotavirus is associated with 12% to 21% of all hospitalisation days among children le ...200817294214
structured surveillance of infantile gastroenteritis in east anglia, uk: incidence of infection with common viral gastroenteric pathogens.the aim of this study was to investigate the burden of disease associated with gastroenteric viruses (rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus and enteric adenovirus) using structured surveillance of children aged <6 years in the community. faecal samples were collected between 2000 and 2003 from 685 children with symptoms of gastroenteritis. the children comprised three groups; 223 in the structured surveillance cohort, 203 in a community cohort and 259 in a cohort of hospitalized children. ...200817313697
infantile gastroenteritis in the community: a cost-of-illness study.rotavirus infections are the main cause of gastroenteritis in infants and children and it is expected that by the age of 5 years, nearly every child will have experienced at least one episode of rotavirus gastroenteritis. while severe cases are hospitalized, milder disease is either treated at home or by the gp, and as such the true prevalence of rotavirus infection in the community, and the burden of disease, is unknown. this paper reports the results of a cost-of-illness study which was conduc ...200817338837
exploring the cost effectiveness of an immunization programme for rotavirus gastroenteritis in the united kingdom.rotavirus is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in children aged <5 years old, two new vaccines have recently been developed which can prevent associated morbidity and mortality. while apparently safe and efficacious, it is also important to establish whether rotavirus immunization is cost effective. a decision analytical model which employs data from a review of published evidence is used to determine the cost effectiveness of a rotavirus vaccine. the results suggest that some of the heal ...200817335631
an estimation of indirect costs caused by acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in a galician area, spain. 200817364172
climatic factors associated with hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age.this study compares the seasonality of rotavirus diarrhoeal hospital admissions and its relationship to climatic factors across three australian cities. weekly admission of rotavirus diarrhoea (1993-2003) in children aged <5 years and weekly average temperature and relative humidity for each city were modelled using a log-linear model with a cubic trend and season. interactions were included to test for differences in the effect of temperature and humidity between seasons and between cities. adm ...200817352836
polymerase chain reaction in the detection of an 'outbreak' of asymptomatic viral infections in a community birth cohort in south india.asymptomatic enteric infections are important where sequelae or protection from subsequent illness is an outcome measure. the use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) to identify asymptomatic enteric infections in a birth cohort followed for rotaviral infections in a south indian urban slum is reported. of 1191 non-diarrhoeal samples from 371 children collected in may-june 2003, 22 (1.9%) were positive by elisa. a total of 147 (40.6%) of 362 samples tested by vp6 rt-pcr we ...200817521476
unsaturated fluoro-ketopyranosyl nucleosides: synthesis and biological evaluation of 3-fluoro-4-keto-beta-d-glucopyranosyl derivatives of n(4)-benzoyl cytosine and n(6)-benzoyl adenine.the protected beta-nucleosides 1-(2,4,6-tri-o-acetyl-3-deoxy-3-fluoro-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-n(4)-benzoyl cytosine (2a) and 9-(2,4,6-tri-o-acetyl-3-deoxy-3-fluoro-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-n(6)-benzoyl adenine (2b), were synthesized by the coupling of peracetylated 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-d-glucopyranose (1) with silylated n(4)-benzoyl cytosine and n(6)-benzoyl adenine, respectively. the nucleosides were deacetylated and several subsequent protection and deprotection steps afforded the partially acetylate ...200817548129
reversible eeg changes during rotavirus gastroenteritis.rotavirus can cause seizures and encephalopathy in infants and young children. we report reversible eeg abnormalities in a 2 year and 7 month old boy who had a single seizure during rotavirus gastroenteritis. his eeg showed bilateral independent temporoparietal sharp waves. the eeg was normal 10 days after the first eeg and the patient has been followed with no neurological sequelae. the eeg literature in children developing seizures secondary to rotavirus infection including ours suggest the in ...200817573218
phylogenetic analysis of porcine rotavirus in argentina: increasing diversity of g4 strains and evidence of interspecies transmission.group a rotaviruses are one of the most frequently detected viral agents associated with neonatal diarrhea in piglets. in order to characterize rotavirus (rv) strains circulating in argentinean swine, four porcine production farms located in buenos aires were studied. rv strains genotyped as p[6]g4, p[6]g8 and p[1]g6 were found in piglets under 30 days of age, without diarrhea. phylogenetic and sequence analysis of the vp7 gene from g4 strains available in databases, reveals five porcine new lin ...200817659850
rotascore study: epidemiological observational study of acute gastroenteritis with or without rotavirus in greek children younger than 5 years old.we present the results of a prospective multi-center, community-based epidemiological observational study regarding the clinical burden of pediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis (prg) in greece.200817653571
gastroenteritis by rotavirus in spanish children. analysis of the disease burden.rotavirus is one of the most common causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. with the commercialisation of effective rotavirus vaccines in europe in sight, it is necessary to provide studies which evaluate the disease burden. the aim of this study is two-fold, on one hand, to determine the burden of the rotavirus disease in spanish children under the age of five, and on the other, to estimate the economic cost of these hospitalizations. the study was undertaken during a 5 year period (2000-2004). th ...200817653572
an outbreak of gastroenteritis in a holiday resort in italy: epidemiological survey, implementation and application of preventive measures.a major gastroenteritis outbreak was reported in a vacation resort in central italy in 2003. a total of 183 cases were identified. the case-control study identified a statistically significant correlation between the disease and sea bathing, use of sanitary facilities in bungalows and of common showers. stool samples taken from people affected were found positive for norovirus (68%, 13 of 19 samples), rotavirus (38%, 1 of 14 samples) and campylobacter (7%, 3 of 8 samples). environmental investig ...200820405445
identification of rotavirus vp6-specific cd4+ t cell epitopes in a g1p[8] human rotavirus-infected rhesus macaque.a non-human primate model was used to evaluate its potential for identification of rotavirus viral protein 6 (vp6) cd4+ t cell epitopes. four juvenile rhesus macaques were inoculated with a mixed inoculum (g1p[8] and g9p[8]) of human rotaviruses. infection accompanied by g1p[8] shedding was achieved in the two macaques that had no rotavirus immunoglobulin a (iga) in plasma. to measure the interferon gamma (ifn-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor (tnf) anti-viral cytokines produced by peripheral cd4 ...200820401320
does daily intake of bovine lactoferrin-containing products ameliorate rotaviral gastroenteritis? 200717655624
bioinformatic prediction of polymerase elements in the rotavirus vp1 protein.rotaviruses are the major cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants world-wide. the genome consists of eleven double stranded rna segments. the major segment encodes the structural protein vp1, the viral rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp), which is a minor component of the viral inner core. this study is a detailed bioinformatic assessment of the vp1 sequence. using various methods we have identified canonical motifs within the vp1 sequence which correspond to motifs previously identified withi ...200717657346
characterization of the nsp6 protein product of rotavirus gene 11.the 12kda non-structural protein 6 (nsp6) is the least studied of the rotavirus proteins. in an attempt to further characterize this protein mono-specific antisera was generated using purified protein expressed in e. coli. pulse/chase radio-labeling of virus infected cells was used to show that it is expressed at a steady but low rate throughout the virus replication cycle. in contrast to the other rotavirus non-structural proteins, nsp6 was found to have a high rate of turnover, being completel ...200717658646
acute infectious pediatric gastroenteritis: beyond oral rehydration therapy.worldwide diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. improvements in gastroenteritis management have reduced the annual number of pediatric deaths attributable to gastroenteritis from 5 million in 1982 to 2 million over 20 years. recent advances are likely to contribute further to a reduction in morbidity and mortality secondary to acute infectious gastroenteritis. a new generation of vaccines against rotavirus is entering into routine use. research into antisec ...200717685883
rotavirus and celiac disease. 200717686081
mapk signaling contributes to rotaviral-induced cholangiocyte injury and viral replication.biliary atresia is a disease of newborns that results in obliteration of the biliary tree. infection of mice with rhesus rotavirus (rrv) results in a cholangiopathy mirroring human disease. the mitogen associated protein kinase (mapk) signaling pathway can be activated by viral binding to cell-surface receptors. we hypothesized that rrv infection of cholangiocytes results in activation of mapk signaling.200717689685
rotavirus vaccines. 200717691162
clinical update: rotavirus gastroenteritis and its prevention. 200717662867
intussusception trends in hong kong children.to assess trends in intussusception and to validate the coding in hong kong's computerised discharge information system.200717664532
rotavirus infections and development of type 1 diabetes: an evasive conundrum.type 1 diabetes (t1d) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease caused by altered immune tolerance to specific proteins leading to a selective destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in genetically predisposed individuals. t1d is likely to be triggered by environmental factors, including virus infections in genetically predisposed individuals. rotaviruses are the main cause of severe diarrhea among children worldwide, but they seem to have a role also in t1d induction. epidemiological data may ...200717667707
molecular characterization of the largest and smallest genome segments, s1 and s12, of rice gall dwarf virus.the nucleotide sequences of segments s1 and s12 of a chinese isolate of rice gall dwarf virus (rgdv) were determined. this provides the first complete sequences of these segments. the complete sequence of s1, the largest genome segment of rgdv, was 4,505 nucleotides in length and was predicted to encode a large protein of 1,458 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of nearly 166.2 kda. the protein was related to that encoded by s1 of rice dwarf virus (rdv; 50% identity and 67% similarity) ...200717674177
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