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determination of acute toxicity of the aqueous extract of potentilla erecta (tormentil) rhizomes in rats and mice.potentilla erecta, the tormentil, and its rhizome extracts have been known for a long time in traditional medicine as a remedy for the treatment of inflammations, wounds, and gastrointestinal disorders. tormentil rhizomes have also been used as part of alcoholic beverages in germany, the ukraine, and russia. acute toxicity of an aqueous p. erecta rhizome extract was evaluated with a single dose administered by the intragastric route to rats and mice in dosages of 2.5 g/kg and 6.8 g/kg of body we ...200919857087
reduction in rotavirus after vaccine introduction--united states, 2000-2009.worldwide, rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute diarrhea in children aged <5 years. in the united states, before introduction of a live, oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) in 2006, rotavirus caused an estimated 20 to 60 deaths, 55,000 to 70,000 hospitalizations, 205,000 to 272,000 emergency department visits, and 410,000 outpatient visits annually. before 2000, rotavirus had a predictable winter-spring seasonality and geographic pattern in the united states, with activity beginni ...200919847149
evolutionary dynamics of human rotaviruses: balancing reassortment with preferred genome constellations.group a human rotaviruses (rvs) are a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children. yet, aside from the genes encoding serotype antigens (vp7; g-type and vp4; p-type), little is known about the genetic make-up of emerging and endemic human rv strains. to gain insight into the diversity and evolution of rvs circulating at a single location over a period of time, we sequenced the eleven-segmented, double-stranded rna genomes of fifty-one g3p[8] strains collected from 1974 to ...200919851457
multicenter, hospital-based surveillance of rotavirus disease and strains among indian children aged <5 years.current, nationally representative data on rotavirus disease burden and rotavirus strains in india are needed to understand the potential health benefits of rotavirus vaccination.200919817593
multicenter prospective study on the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in turkey, 2005-2006: a hospital-based study.rotavirus is the main cause of gastroenteritis and dehydration requiring hospitalization among infants and children. despite the high diarrhea-related mortality rate, there are limited studies describing the prevalence of rotavirus in turkey. the disease burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in turkey was assessed by active, prospective surveillance conducted in accordance with a modified world health organization generic protocol from 1 june 2005 through 1 june 2006. a total of 411 children aged ...200919817603
emergence and characterization of human rotavirus g9 strains in tunisia.among human rotaviruses, g9 has emerged as the fifth most important genotype circulating globally. ongoing surveillance of rotavirus in tunisia during the past 10 years identified the first g9 strains in 2004. these strains exhibited the p[8] vp4 genotype and had a long rna electrophoretype. the g9 strains were characterized by phylogenetic analysis of the vp7 gene sequence and showed high identity with other human rotavirus g9 strains belonging to the rotavirus vp7 lineage group iii.200919817604
fifty years of australian pediatric gastroenterology.when the gastroenterological society of australia (gesa) began 50 years ago there were very few pediatric gastroenterologists in the world. the 'mother' of paediatric gastroenterology was australian charlotte ('charlo') anderson who established one of the world's first pediatric gastroenterology units in melbourne in the early 1960s. her earlier work in birmingham had identified gluten as the component of wheat responsible for celiac disease and helped separate maldigestion (cystic fibrosis) and ...200919799703
discovery of rotavirus: implications for child health.for centuries, acute diarrhea has been a major worldwide cause of death in young children, and until 1973, no infectious agents could be identified in about 80% of patients admitted to hospital with severe dehydrating diarrhea. in 1973 ruth bishop, geoffrey davidson, ian holmes, and brian ruck identified abundant particles of a 'new' virus (rotavirus) in the cytoplasm of mature epithelial cells lining duodenal villi and in feces, from such children admitted to the royal children's hospital, melb ...200919799704
enteric viruses in raw vegetables and groundwater used for irrigation in south korea.raw vegetables irrigated with groundwater that may contain enteric viruses can be associated with food-borne viral disease outbreaks. in this study, we performed reverse transcription-pcr (rt-pcr) and cell culture-pcr to monitor the occurrence of enteric viruses in groundwater samples and in raw vegetables that were cultivated using that groundwater in south korea. samples were collected 10 times from three farms located in gyeonggi province, south korea. rt-pcr and cell culture-pcr were perform ...200919854919
burden of severe rotavirus diarrhea in indonesia.globally, rotavirus is the leading cause of diarrhea-related hospitalizations and deaths among young children, but the burden of rotavirus disease in indonesia is poorly documented. from january through december 2006, we conducted prospective surveillance (inpatient and outpatient) among children aged <5 years at 6 hospitals in 6 provinces of indonesia, using standardized methodology. of 2240 enrolled children hospitalized for diarrhea, 1345 (60%) were rotavirus positive. of 176 children enrolle ...200919821711
rotavirus surveillance in europe, 2005-2008: web-enabled reporting and real-time analysis of genotyping and epidemiological data.the first european rotavirus surveillance network, eurorotanet, comprising 16 laboratories in 15 european countries, has been established.200919821712
trends in the epidemiology of human g1p[8] rotaviruses: a hungarian study.epidemiological trends of the globally most common rotavirus genotype, g1p[8], were investigated in hungary during a 16-year period by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the surface antigens. antigen shift among epidemiologically major g1p[8] strains was observed in 6 seasons, as indicated by changes in the sublineages of the g1 vp7 and the p[8] vp4 genes. the temporal clustering of some rotavirus vp4 and vp7 gene sublineages and the periodic emergence and/or resurgence of previously unreco ...200919821713
rotavirus in red squirrels from scotland. 200919820262
sentinel hospital-based surveillance of rotavirus diarrhea in iran.rotavirus is the most common causes of severe, acute diarrhea during childhood and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. we established active hospital-based surveillance of childhood diarrhea to assess the scope of severe rotavirus disease in iran.200919821714
effect of prophylactic paracetamol administration at time of vaccination on febrile reactions and antibody responses in children: two open-label, randomised controlled trials.although fever is part of the normal inflammatory process after immunisation, prophylactic antipyretic drugs are sometimes recommended to allay concerns of high fever and febrile convulsion. we assessed the effect of prophylactic administration of paracetamol at vaccination on infant febrile reaction rates and vaccine responses.200919837254
uptake of rotavirus vaccine and national trends of acute gastroenteritis among children in nicaragua.in october 2006, a new rotavirus vaccine was introduced in nicaragua and was available free to all age-eligible children. we assessed vaccine uptake and trends in acute gastroenteritis (age) to assess vaccine impact.200919821709
retrospective surveillance for intussusception in children aged less than five years in a south indian tertiary-care hospital.to facilitate the assessment of the safety profile of rotavirus vaccines effectively, baseline data on intussusception are important for comparison with intussusception rates following the introduction of vaccine. the aim of the study was to describe epidemiological and clinical features of intussusception in children aged less than five years in an indian medical facility. hospital data on intussusception for children discharged during 1 january 2001-30 june 2004 from the christian medical coll ...200919902802
genetic characterization of g3 rotaviruses detected in italian children in the years 1993-2005.in recent years an apparent increase in the frequency of detection of g3p[8] rotaviruses has been observed worldwide. similarly, in italy g3p[8] strains have been detected sporadically and in a scattered fashion over 20 years, whereas in 2003 and 2005 g3p[8] rotavirus activity increased markedly. by analysis of the vp7, vp4, vp6, and nsp4 genes of a selection of g3p[8] rotaviruses detected between 1993 and 2005, a remarkable sequence conservation was observed in the vp7, vp4, and vp6 genes. by c ...200919856472
sentinel hospital surveillance for rotavirus in latin american and caribbean countries.the burden of rotavirus disease in the latin american region has been poorly understood despite the promise of effective vaccines. we describe here the implementation and results of a rotavirus surveillance network in the latin american and caribbean region. from 2005 through 2007, stool specimens and epidemiologic information were gathered from children <5 years of age who were hospitalized for acute diarrhea (3 looser-than-normal stools within <24 h) lasting <14 days with use of a standardized ...200919821710
age-related susceptibility to infection with diarrheagenic escherichia coli among infants from periurban areas in lima, peru.diarrheagenic escherichia coli strains are being recognized as important pediatric enteropathogens worldwide. however, it is unclear whether there are differences in age-related susceptibility to specific strains, especially among infants.200919857163
secular variation in united states rotavirus disease rates and serotypes: implications for assessing the rotavirus vaccination program.since 2006, we have conducted population-based surveillance for rotavirus disease in children seen in hospitals and emergency departments (eds) in monroe county, ny (rochester), hamilton county, oh (cincinnati), and davidson county, tn (nashville).200919859013
global advisory committee on vaccine safety, report of meeting held 17-18 june 2009. 200919860024
intussusception and rotavirus vaccination: a review of the available evidence.two live oral rotavirus vaccines (rotateq) and rotarix) have recently been recommended by the who for inclusion into the national immunization programs of countries worldwide. owing to the association of the withdrawn rotashield vaccine with intussusception, these two new rotavirus vaccines underwent large clinical trials of over 60,000 infants each to assess safety with regard to this medical condition. for these two new vaccines, clinical trials and available postmarketing safety monitoring da ...200919863248
genetic diversity and classification of the outer capsid glycoprotein vp7 of porcine group b rotaviruses.we determined the nucleotide sequences of the outer capsid glycoprotein (vp7) genes of 38 porcine group b rotaviruses (gbrs) from feces of pigs at 27 farms in japan between 2000 and 2007. substantial diversity among porcine gbr vp7 genes was observed, with up to 42.4% difference in nucleotides and 49.8% in amino acids. on comparison of vp7 genes, porcine gbrs were clearly distinct from the published corresponding genes from human, bovine and murine gbrs (53.7-70.8% identity in nucleotides and 45 ...200919821067
rotavirus-associated intussusception followed by spontaneous resolution.rotavirus was related to causing intussusception when the first generation rotavirus vaccine was introduced. however, the association between natural rotavirus infection and intussusception remains an area of concern and controversy. a few studies have found that rotavirus infection can cause intussusception. on the other hand, several studies were unable to find an association of intussusception with natural rotavirus infection. herein, we describe a patient who developed intussusception follow ...200919821204
[study on viral pathogens for infant diarrhea in chizhou, anhui].to understand the major viral pathogens for infant diarrhea in chizhou, anhui.200920108777
duration of growth depression and pathogen shedding in experimentally reproduced poult enteritis syndrome.an experimental study was conducted to determine the duration of growth depression and virus shedding in turkey poults after oral inoculation with intestinal contents from birds affected with poult enteritis syndrome (pes). poults at day 14 of age were divided into four groups (groups a, b, c, and d) of 40 poults each and inoculated orally with unfiltered supernatant, filtered supernatant, sediment suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (pbs), or pbs alone (control), respectively. the poults wer ...200920095151
acute gastrointestinal illness in new zealand: information from a survey of community and hospital laboratories.to describe and quantify laboratory testing of faecal samples for enteric pathogens as a component of the reporting pyramid of acute gastrointestinal illness (agi) in new zealand.200920148044
[application of a diagnostic method using reverse transcription-pcr elisa for the diagnosis of enteroviral infections].enteroviruses are known as major pathogen for aseptic meningitis. although rapid diagnosis for enteroviruses is very essential to exclude bacterial infections in patients with meningitis, classical diagnostic method based on virus isolation is not practicable for timely treatment of patients due to its laborious and time-consuming procedure. recently molecular methodologies as alternatives are routinely used for rapid and sensitive diagnosis for enteroviruses infections.200920046094
[phylogenetic analysis indicates human origin of rotavirus and hepatitis a virus strains found in the drinking water of western colombia].quibdó, the capital of chocó province, is one of the poorest cities in colombia. enteric viruses such as rotavirus and hepatitis a virus was found to occur commonly in city drinking water and indicated poor water quality and high risk of becoming infected. the source of these viruses was unknown, but humans and cattle were suspect sources.200920128346
[the effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in blastocystis hominis infection].the aim of this study was to investigate clinical findings and the effects of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (tmp-smx) in cases of blastocystosis. a total of 37 cases whose stool specimens were sent to the parasitology laboratory from the outpatient clinics of our hospital for various reasons were included in the study. only five or more blastocystis hominis were found during examination with direct wet mount using the 40x objective. the stool specimens were tested for other agents (salmonella sp ...200920101575
the epidemiology and burden of childhood rotavirus infection in a tertiary hospital in sabah, malaysia.we aimed to determine the epidemiology and burden of rotavirus (rv) gastroenteritis (ge) in children requiring hospital care in an urban setting in sabah, malaysia. a prospective study of all patients younger than 12 years of age admitted with acute ge to queen elizabeth hospital, sabah, over a six-month period (october 2005 to march 2006) was conducted. during the study period, a total of 167 children with acute ge who had stool samples examined for rv were studied. rv accounted for 16% of all ...200920058575
rotavirus vaccination one year on...the rotavirus vaccine was incorporated into the australian national immunisation program from 1 july 2007. to measure early impact of the vaccine on rotavirus disease and the burden of gastroenteritis in young children, we examined 2 surveillance data sources, rotavirus isolates from selected new south wales laboratories, and new south wales emergency department (ed) visits assigned a gastroenteritis-related diagnosis. between 2001 and 2008, weekly time series were prepared for 2 age groups repr ...200920043605
molecular biology of rotavirus entry and replication.rotavirus is a nonenveloped, double-stranded, rna virus belonging to the reoviridae family and is the major etiological agent of viral gastroenteritis in young children and young animals. remarkable progress in the understanding of the rotavirus cycle has been made in the last 10 years. the knowledge of viral replication thus far acquired is based on structural studies, the expression and coexpression of individual viral proteins, silencing of individual genes by sirnas, and the effects that the ...200920024520
rotavirus infection and intussusception in tunisian children: implications for use of attenuated rotavirus vaccines.a licensed rotavirus vaccine was withdrawn from use because of an increased risk of intussusception. the association of rotavirus vaccination with intussusception raised concerns about a potential link between natural rotavirus disease and intussusception. the objectives of the present study were to determine whether an epidemiological association with natural rotavirus infection existed.200919944222
[cloning and expression of rotavirus sa11 vp7 and preparation of igy antibodies against recombinant vp7].to prepare eukaryotic expression of rotavirus (rv) sa11 capsid protein vp7, and to generate and purify yolk immunoglobulin (igy) antibodies against the recombinant vp7 from roman hens.200919950723
development of a rotavirus vaccine: clinical safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, rotateq.initial approaches for rotavirus vaccines were based on the classical "jennerian" approach and utilized simian and bovine rotavirus strains, which provided cross-protection against human rotavirus strains but did not cause illness in infants and young children because of their species-specific tropism. the demonstrated efficacy of these vaccines was not consistent across studies. thus, human-animal reassortants containing an animal rotavirus backbone with human rotavirus surface g and/or p prote ...200920006144
[rotavirus as a cause of acute diarrhea]. 200919935540
update on rotarix: an oral human rotavirus vaccine.worldwide, rotaviruses are the single most important agents of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children. globally, it is estimated that every year rotavirus gastroenteritis causes more than 125 million episodes of diarrhea and nearly 527,000 deaths, mainly in developing countries. the development of new effective and safe rotavirus vaccines was recognized as the most effective intervention strategy that could yield a significant impact on the burden of rotavirus disease. rotarix is a ...200919943758
rotavirus and adenovirus frequency among patients with acute gastroenteritis and their relationship to clinical parameters: a retrospective study in turkey.abstract: background: diarrhea is the third leading cause of death related to infectious diseases all over the world. the diseases related to viral gastroenteritis are gradually increasing, particularly in the developed countries. the purpose of our study was to determine the frequency and to investigate the clinical manifestations of acute rotavirus and adenovirus gatroenteritis and to assess the diagnostic value of the related clinical findings. methods: in 2007-2008 patients with diarrhea and ...200919943964
non-rotavirus infection causing apnea in a neonate.apnea in a premature infant is not always due to immaturity and caffeine is not always the answer. we report a case of apnea in a preterm infant who presented at two weeks of life with increase in frequency of apnea that did not respond to caffeine. family history was significant for diarrhea in a sibling. stool pcr was positive for norovirus genogroup ii. enteric isolation was instituted and the apnea resolved spontaneously with conservative management. re-emergence of apnea or persistent apnea ...200919907939
comparative study of enteric viruses, coliphages and indicator bacteria for evaluating water quality in a tropical high-altitude system.bacteria used as indicators for pathogenic microorganisms in water are not considered adequate as enteric virus indicators. surface water from a tropical high-altitude system located in mexico city that receives rainwater, treated and non-treated wastewater used for irrigation, and groundwater used for drinking, was studied.200919860917
the ins and outs of four-tunneled reoviridae rna-dependent rna polymerases.rna-dependent rna polymerases (rdrps) of the segmented double-stranded (ds) rna viruses of the reoviridae family exhibit distinguishing structural elements, enabling the enzymes to function within the confines of a proteinaceous core particle. these globular, cage-like polymerases are traversed by four well-defined tunnels, which not only allow template rnas, nucleotides, and divalent cations to access the interior catalytic site, but also provide two distinct exit conduits for rna templates and ...200919914820
rotac: a web-based tool for the complete genome classification of group a rotaviruses.group a rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe diarrhea in infants and children worldwide and continue to have a major global impact on childhood morbidity and mortality. in recent years, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the development of two new live, orally administered vaccines. although both vaccines have proven to confer a good protection against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, these vaccines will have to be screened and may have to be updated regularly to refl ...200919930627
rotavirus vaccines:an update. 200920034143
vaccine preventable diseases and vaccination policy for indigenous populations.there are many similarities regarding the health status of indigenous people in the 4 english-speaking developed countries of north america and the pacific (united states, canada, australia, new zealand), where they are all now minority populations. although vaccines have contributed to the reduction or elimination of disease disparities for many infections, indigenous people continue to have higher morbidity and mortality from many chronic and infectious diseases compared with the general popul ...200919962021
acute and persistent diarrhea.socially disadvantaged indigenous infants and children living in western industrialized countries experience high rates of infectious diarrhea, no more so than aboriginal children from remote and rural regions of northern australia. diarrheal disease, poor nutrition, and intestinal enteropathy reflect household crowding, inadequate water and poor sanitation and hygiene. acute episodes of watery diarrhea are often best managed by oral glucose-electrolyte solutions with continuation of breastfeedi ...200919962025
impact of rotavirus vaccination: the importance of monitoring strains. 200919995181
rotavirus disease and vaccination: impact on genotype diversity.temporal and spatial fluctuations in the genotype distribution of human rotaviruses are continuously observed in surveillance studies. new genotypes, such as g9 and g12, have emerged and spread worldwide in a very short time span. in addition, reassortment events have the potential to contribute substantially to genetic diversity among human and animal rotaviruses. with the recent introduction of the two rotavirus vaccines, rotateq and rotarix, in many countries, it appears that the total number ...200919995190
[nsp5/nsp6 of rotavirus strain tb-chen and preliminary genotyping analysis].strain tb-chen is a group a rotavirus (rv) isolated from a chinese infant suffering from gastroenteritis in hospital. the nsp5 and nsp6 of strain tb-chen are encoded by the 10th gene segment (816bp in whole length) of the viral genome. the results obtained in this study showed that the nsp5 was encoded in the first open-reading-frame (orf) of the gene segment (from 22bp to 624bp), and nsp6 was encoded in the second orf (from 80bp to 355bp). the nsp5 protein consisted of 200 amino acid residues w ...200919954111
recombinant porcine rotavirus vp4 and vp4-ltb expressed in lactobacillus casei induced mucosal and systemic antibody responses in mice.porcine rotavirus infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the swine industry necessitating the development of effective vaccines for the prevention of infection. immune responses associated with protection are primarily mucosal in nature and induction of mucosal immunity is important for preventing porcine rotavirus infection.200919958557
norovirus and rotavirus--two major causative agents of sporadic viral gastroenteritis in hospitalized polish children.the aim of the study was to establish the main etiologic agents of acute viral gastroenteritis and to asses the severity of illness associated with the different viral agents of gastroenteritis in children hospitalized during spring/summer season 2008.200920022857
[molecular epidemiology of rotavirus among children under 5 years old hospitalized for diarrhea in china].to study molecular epidemiology of rotavirus among children under 5 years of age in china.200920104767
[clinical evaluation of a norovirus antigen detection test in pediatric patients and study targeting application to combat infection].typical causative viruses of viral gastroenteritis in childhood are norovirus(nv), rotavirus(rv), and adenovirus (av). it is difficult to specify the type of virus based on the clinical symptoms, necessitating a search for the causative virus. antigen testing is the mainstay for the definitive diagnosis of rv and av. molecular biology testing, however, is the mainstay for nv, and problems related to the rapidity and simplicity of the test have been a pending issue for many years. in this study, ...200920077816
acute pancreatitis associated with rotavirus infection.we report the first documented case of pancreatitis associated with rotavirus infection in an infant. estimation of amylase level is important in infants with severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, hyperamylasemia should alert one to the presence of overt pancreatitis which should be investigated by lipase estimation and/or imaging.200920061588
[infectious diarrhoea in children under five years].to determine the prevalence of rotavirus in acute diarrhea among children under 5 years and to describe the epidemiology, clinical trials of rotavirus diarrhea and compare them with those of other gastroenteritis.200920180381
[analysis on vp7 and vp4 genes of human rotavirus g9 identified from children with diarrhea in beijing, from 2007 to 2008.].to characterize the outer capsid protein vp7 and vp4 encoding genes of human rotavirus g9 strains detected in beijing, from 2007 to 2008.200920193591
management of neurologic complications of rotavirus. 200920118693
rotavirus: the challenges ahead. 200920165617
australian rotavirus surveillance program annual report, 2008/2009.the australian rotavirus surveillance program together with collaborating laboratories australia-wide, conducts a laboratory based rotavirus surveillance program. this report describes the genotypes of rotavirus strains responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 july 2008 to 30 june 2009, the second year of surveillance following introduction of rotavirus vaccine into the national immunisation program. five hundred and ninety-two faecal samples ...200920301967
annual report: surveillance of adverse events following immunisation in australia, 2008.this report summarises australian passive surveillance data for adverse events following immunisation (aefi) reported to the therapeutic goods administration (tga) for 2008, and describes reporting trends over the 9-year period 2000 to 2008. there were 1,542 aefi records for vaccines administered in 2008. this was an annual aefi reporting rate of 7.2 per 100,000 population, a 5% decrease compared with 2007. the majority of aefi reports described non-serious events while 10% (n = 152) were classi ...200920301966
[the viral gastroenteritis: a public health problem].acute gastroenteritis (ag), which may be caused by bacteria, parasites and enteropathogenic viruses, including rotaviruses, astroviruses, adenoviruses and caliciviruses, is an important health problem. the frequency of rotavirus as a cause of sporadic cases of ag ranges between 17.3% and 37.4%. although it has been suggested that common exposure is not an important factor in the diffusion of rotavirus, it is difficult to associate apparently sporadic cases, meaning that there are probably outbre ...200920111816
[emergence pathogens infections in ent department of children's hospital in 2005-2008].the development of medicine, in this the new techniques and antibiotic therapy enlarged the survivability of patients in hospital. applying antibiotics caused breakthrough in treatment stepping out in ill's group infections treated in hospital, however enlarging resistance is natural this effect, resulting from: the selection of resistant strains, the formation of new mechanisms of resistance, and/or the spreading of gene of resistance. multidrug-resistant strains were included to emergence-path ...200920198987
prevalence and etiology of nosocomial diarrhoea in children < 5 years in tikrit teaching hospital.a cross-sectional hospital-based study was carried out at tikrit teaching hospital, iraq, from october 2004 to september 2005, to identify the prevalence and etiology of nosocomial infectious diarrhoea among children under 5 years of age. of 259 children admitted to the paediatric ward for reasons other than diarrhoea and hospitalized for more than 3 days, clinical and laboratory analysis of stool samples showed nosocomial diarrhoea in 84 children (32.4%). the most common causative agents were e ...200920214124
history of rotavirus research in children in malawi: the pursuit of a killer.rotavirus gastroenteritis is a major health problem among malawian children. studies spanning 20 years have described the importance, epidemiology and viral characteristics of rotavirus infections in the country. despite a wide diversity of circulating rotavirus strains causing severe disease in young infants, a clinical trial of a human rotavirus vaccine clearly demonstrated the potential for rotavirus vaccination to greatly reduce the morbidity and mortality due to rotavirus diarrhoea in malaw ...200920345020
[a method of detect the virus which caused diarrhea].building a method which can examines virus pathogenic in gastroenteritis excrement specimen.200920387496
molecular characterization and epidemiology of rotavirus isolates obtained from children with diarrhoea in malaysia.this retrospective study examined the g/p type of rotavirus in rna samples that have previously been e-typed by rna-page in 1996. the results were then compared to 2007 samples to ascertain the extent of changes that may have occurred in this 11-years time interval. the g and p genotypes were determined by hemi-nested pcr and further analysed by phylogenetic study. in 1996, the g/p combination g1p[8], g(ut)p[8] and g1p(ut) prevalence rate were 81%, 9% and 7%, respectively. as expected, the g9 ge ...200920527266
[frequency and severity of rotavirus acute gastroenteritis hospitalized in bucharest, romania. results of a case-control study].rotavirus gastroenteritis is an emergent condition of morbidity at global level; who is currently recommending integration of rotavirus vaccination into the regions and states where rotavirus infection is identified as a public health priority problem.200920524394
[reverse genetics system for rotavirus and its potential for analyzing the pathogenesis]. 200921089520
genetic diversity of the vp4 and vp7 genes affects the genotyping of rotaviruses: analysis of paraguayan strains.the introduction of different multiplex rt-pcr strategies for the characterization of field rotavirus strains has led to improvements of surveillance systems worldwide. nevertheless, the failure or incorrect characterization of rotavirus strains by these pcr strategies, mainly due to accumulation of point mutations in the vp4 and vp7 genes, has been reported. in this work, sequence analyses of the vp4 and vp7 genes from paraguayan g1p[8] and g4p[8] strains revealed that the high degree of simila ...200817913593
rotavirus vaccination for hong kong children: an economic evaluation from the hong kong government perspective.to perform an economic analysis of government-funded universal rotavirus vaccination in hong kong from the government's perspective.200817855438
production of rotavirus-like particles in spodoptera frugiperda larvae.a strategy for the production of virus-like particles (vlps) from simian rotavirus in larvae of the lepidopteran spodoptera frugiperda is described. vp2 and vp6 coding sequences were co-expressed in larvae co-infected with recombinant baculovirus and these structural proteins self-assembled into vlps that were secreted and accumulated in the haemolymph. under electron microscopy, vlps produced in larvae were indistinguishable from those produced in sf9 insect cell cultures. the results showed th ...200817945356
rotascore study: epidemiological observational study of acute gastroenteritis with or without rotavirus in greek children younger than 5 years old.we present the results of a prospective multi-center, community-based epidemiological observational study regarding the clinical burden of pediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis (prg) in greece.200817653571
phylogenetic analysis of porcine rotavirus in argentina: increasing diversity of g4 strains and evidence of interspecies transmission.group a rotaviruses are one of the most frequently detected viral agents associated with neonatal diarrhea in piglets. in order to characterize rotavirus (rv) strains circulating in argentinean swine, four porcine production farms located in buenos aires were studied. rv strains genotyped as p[6]g4, p[6]g8 and p[1]g6 were found in piglets under 30 days of age, without diarrhea. phylogenetic and sequence analysis of the vp7 gene from g4 strains available in databases, reveals five porcine new lin ...200817659850
rotavirus gastroenteritis: why to back up the development of new vaccines?rotaviruses (rvs) are the main aetiologic agent of severe acute diarrhoea in children under the age of 5, worldwide. given that the currently available preventive measures to fight against the transmission of rv disease are not sufficiently effective, vaccination likely represents the only efficacious adapted response to the massive impact of this infection. although the two current rv vaccines have shown good tolerance and significant efficacy to protect infant against severe rv disease, their ...200817698192
impact of porcine group a rotavirus co-infection on porcine epidemic diarrhea virus pathogenicity in piglets.porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (pedv) and porcine group a rotavirus (pgar) are the main causative agents of acute diarrhea in piglets. in south korea, pgar is prevalent in piglets naturally infected with pedv. piglets naturally co-infected with pedv and pgar appeared to have severe and prolonged diarrhea that was distinct from that commonly observed. the aim of this study was to determine the impact of pgar co-infection on pedv pathogenicity in piglets. thirty-six colostrum-deprived, one-day ol ...200817727905
rotavirus replication in intestinal cells differentially regulates integrin expression by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway, resulting in increased cell adhesion and virus yield.changes in the interactions between intestinal cells and their surrounding environment during virus infection have not been well documented. the growth and survival of intestinal epithelial cells, the main targets of rotavirus infection, are largely dependent on the interaction of cell surface integrins with the extracellular matrix. in this study, we detected alterations in cellular integrin expression following rotavirus infection, identified the signaling components required, and analyzed the ...200817942548
gastroenteritis by rotavirus in spanish children. analysis of the disease burden.rotavirus is one of the most common causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. with the commercialisation of effective rotavirus vaccines in europe in sight, it is necessary to provide studies which evaluate the disease burden. the aim of this study is two-fold, on one hand, to determine the burden of the rotavirus disease in spanish children under the age of five, and on the other, to estimate the economic cost of these hospitalizations. the study was undertaken during a 5 year period (2000-2004). th ...200817653572
a possible role for clostridium difficile in the etiology of calf enteritis.clostridium difficile was investigated as a possible cause of enteritis in calves. the organism and its toxins (tcda and tcdb), respectively, were found in 25.3% and 22.9% of stool samples from diarrheic calves. culture positive samples were more likely than culture negative samples to be toxin positive. however, toxin positive stools were more common among nondiarrheic calves, but diarrheic calves were nearly twice as likely to be culture positive. ribotype 078 was dominant among isolates. salm ...200817964088
rotavirus infections and climate variability in dhaka, bangladesh: a time-series analysis.attempts to explain the clear seasonality of rotavirus infections have been made by relating disease incidence to climate factors; however, few studies have disentangled the effects of weather from other factors that might cause seasonality. we investigated the relationships between hospital visits for rotavirus diarrhoea and temperature, humidity and river level, in dhaka, bangladesh, using time-series analysis adjusting for other confounding seasonal factors. there was strong evidence for an i ...200817988426
molecular detection and characterization of gastroenteritis viruses occurring naturally in the stream waters of manaus, central amazonia, brazil.to assess the presence of the four main viruses responsible for human acute gastroenteritis in a hydrographic network impacted by a disordered urbanization process, a 1-year study was performed involving water sample collection from streams in the hydrographic basin surrounding the city of manaus, amazonas, brazil. thirteen surface water sample collection sites, including different areas of human settlement characterized as urban, rural, and primary forest, located in the tarumã-açu, são raimund ...200818065620
prevention of lipopolysaccharide-induced intussusception in mice by the cox2 inhibitor rofecoxib.intussusception (is), an invagination of a portion of the intestine into itself, has recently attracted considerable interest after the withdrawal of a rotavirus vaccine because of reports on increased risk of is shortly after vaccination. the present study was designed to shed further light on the mechanism of is formation and its prevention. intussusception was induced in adult mice by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (lps; 8 mg/kg) from salmonella typhimurium. the presence of i ...200817985132
rotaviral rna found on various surfaces in a hospital laundry.the aim of this investigative study was to determine the presence of rotaviral rna at various control points (cp) of a hospital laundry. one of the possible sources of hospital infections is inappropriately laundered and disinfected hospital textiles. rt-pcr and nested pcr for gene amplification using specific primers following rna isolation were used to determine the presence of rotaviral rna on swabs. in addition, rotavirus suspensions were inoculated on marked surfaces as positive controls fo ...200818061282
influence of probiotic lactobacilli colonization on neonatal b cell responses in a gnotobiotic pig model of human rotavirus infection and disease.the goal of this study was to define the impact of colonization of gnotobiotic (gn) pigs with lactic acid bacteria (lab) on development of intestinal and systemic b cell responses to human rotavirus (hrv). the lab-specific and total b cell responses were also assessed. gn pigs were inoculated with lab (lactobacillus acidophilus and l. reuteri) and virulent wa strain hrv (lab+hrv+), hrv only (lab-hrv+), lab only (lab+hrv-) or mock (lab-hrv-). the hrv infection induced similar hrv-specific intesti ...200818023882
rotavirus infection induces the phosphorylation of eif2alpha but prevents the formation of stress granules.early during the infection process, rotavirus causes the shutoff of cell protein synthesis, with the nonstructural viral protein nsp3 playing a vital role in the phenomenon. in this work, we have found that the translation initiation factor 2alpha (eif2alpha) in infected cells becomes phosphorylated early after virus infection and remains in this state throughout the virus replication cycle, leading to a further inhibition of cell protein synthesis. under these restrictive conditions, however, t ...200818032499
lactic acid bacterial colonization and human rotavirus infection influence distribution and frequencies of monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells in neonatal gnotobiotic pigs.despite accumulating knowledge of porcine macrophages and dendritic cells (dcs) from in vitro studies, information regarding monocytes/macrophages and dcs in lymphoid tissues of enteric pathogen-infected neonatal animals in vivo is limited. in this study we evaluated the influence of commensal bacterial [two strains of lactic acid bacteria (lab), lactobacillus acidophilus and l. reuteri] colonization and rotavirus infection on distribution and frequencies of monocytes/macrophages and conventiona ...200818006076
astrovirus detection in sporadic cases of diarrhea among hospitalized and non-hospitalized children in rio de janeiro, brazil, from 1998 to 2004.we analyzed 379 stool samples collected from january 1998 through december 2004, from hospitalized and non-hospitalized children with diarrhea in rio de janeiro, brazil. these samples had prior negative results for other enteric viruses and bacterial pathogens. the specimens were analyzed for hastv detection by rt-pcr. hastv genotypes were determined by sequence analysis of the rt-pcr products. twenty (5.3%) out of 379 samples were positive for astrovirus. astrovirus was equally common among inp ...200818041001
detection of unusual rotavirus genotypes g8p[8] and g12p[6] in south korea.five hundred four fecal specimens, collected between 2004 and 2006 from young children with acute diarrhea, were screened for rotavirus by elisa with vp6-specific antibody. of these samples, 394 (78.2%) were confirmed as group a rotavirus and they underwent g- and p typing using a combination of elisa, rt-pcr, and sequence analysis methods. the dominant circulating g serotype was g1 (35.6%) followed by g3 (26.4%), g4 (14.7%), and g2 (11.9%). there was a low prevalence of g9 (1.0%) and of unusual ...200818041003
role of escherichia coli in acute diarrhoea in tribal preschool children of central india.five hundred and eighty preschool children belonging to tribal areas of madhya pradesh were followed up daily for the presence of diarrhoea for a period of 1 year. in all, 1236 episodes of diarrhoea were recorded with an average of 2.13 episodes per child per year. stool samples were collected during 780 episodes. they were cultured to isolate escherichia coli as well as non-e. coli enteropathogens. ten different genes were detected to identify all diarrhoeagenic e. coli using multiplex polymera ...200818173783
prevalence, types, and rna concentrations of human parechoviruses, including a sixth parechovirus type, in stool samples from patients with acute enteritis.parechovirus epidemiology and disease association are not fully understood. real-time reverse transcriptase pcr (rt-pcr) for all human parechoviruses (hpev) was applied on stool samples from two groups of patients. both groups contained patients with acute enteritis of all age groups, seen during one full year. patients with norovirus, adenovirus, enterovirus, astrovirus, or rotavirus infections were excluded. in 118 patients from outbreak and hospital settings, no hpev was detected. in a prospe ...200818057123
development of a microtiter plate hybridization-based pcr-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for identification of clinically relevant human group a rotavirus g and p genotypes.a microtiter plate hybridization-based pcr-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (pcr-elisa) has been used for the detection and identification of a variety of microorganisms. here, we report the development of a pcr-elisa for the identification of clinically relevant human rotavirus vp7 (g1 to g6, g8 to g10, and g12) and vp4 (p[4], p[6], p[8], p[9], and p[14]) genotypes. the g and p types of reference human and animal rotavirus strains for which specific probes were available were correctly identif ...200818057127
rare au-1-like g3p[9] human rotaviruses with a kun-like nsp4 gene detected in children with diarrhea in italy.three g3p[9] rotaviruses, detected in children hospitalized with gastroenteritis in palermo, italy, were found to be genetically related to strains of either human or feline origin in the vp7, vp4, and vp6 genes. in contrast, in the nsp4 gene the viruses resembled g2p[4] human strains, suggesting a reassortment between au-1-like and kun-like strains.200818063802
[an oral vaccine against rotavirus-caused gastroenteritis]. 200818081080
probiotics, immunomodulation, and health benefits.probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amount, confer a health benefit on the host. amongst the many benefits associated with the consumption of probiotics, modulation of the immune system has received the most attention. several animal and human studies have provided unequivocal evidence that specific strains of probiotics are able to stimulate as well as regulate several aspects of natural and acquired immune responses. there is also evidence that int ...200818183940
identical rearrangement of nsp3 genes found in three independently isolated virus clones derived from mixed infection and multiple passages of rotaviruses.three rotavirus variants with a rearranged rna segment derived from the nsp3 gene were isolated in three independent experiments of coinfection and multiple passages of simian rotavirus strain sa11 and single-vp7-gene- or nsp1-gene-substitution reassortants having genetic background of sa11. sequence analysis indicated that the three rearranged nsp3 genes had almost identical sequences and genomic structures organized by partial duplication of the open reading frame in a head-to-tail orientation ...200818092125
acute gastroenteritis cases associated with noroviruses infection in the state of rio de janeiro.in march 2005, the epidemiological surveillance service of resende, municipality of the middle paraiba valley, state of rio de janeiro, reported a sudden spontaneous occurrence of acute gastroenteritis cases in children in a public day care center. further, between may and june 2005, gastroenteritis outbreaks or sporadic cases of gastroenteritis were reported in two other municipalities, piraí and rio claro, also located in the middle paraiba valley. from march to june 2005, 50 fecal samples wer ...200818098155
infection control in paediatrics.infection control has a particularly important role in paediatric hospitals and must take into account the specificity of the needs and environment of the paediatric patient. children are susceptible to infections that are prevented in older patients by vaccination or previous natural exposure. consequently, the nosocomial pathogens and most common health-care-associated infection sites in children differ from those observed among adults. the immunological naivety of young children, especially n ...200818156087
arginine activates intestinal p70(s6k) and protein synthesis in piglet rotavirus enteritis.we previously showed that phosphorylation of p70 s6 kinase (p70(s6k)) in the intestine is increased during viral enteritis. in this study, we hypothesized that during rotavirus infection, oral arg, which stimulates p70(s6k) activation, will further stimulate intestinal protein synthesis and mucosal recovery, whereas the p70(s6k) inhibitor rapamycin (rapa) will inhibit mucosal recovery. newborn piglets were fed a standard milk replacer diet supplemented with arg (0.4 g x kg(-1) x d(-1), twice dai ...200818156399
synthesis and molecular modelling of unsaturated exomethylene pyranonucleoside analogues with antitumor and antiviral activities.this report describes the total and facile synthesis of the unsaturated keto and exomethylene pyranonucleoside analogues, 1-(2,3,4-trideoxy-4-methylene-6-o-trityl-alpha-d-glycero-hex-2-enopyranosyl)uracil (10), 1-(2,3-dideoxy-alpha-d-glycero-hex-2-enopyranosyl-4-ulose)uracil (17) and 1-(2,3,4-trideoxy-4-methylene-alpha-d-glycero-hex-2-enopyranosyl)uracil (18). commercially available 1,2,3,4,6-penta-o-acetyl-alpha-d-mannopyranose (1) was condensed with silylated uracil, deacetylated and acetalate ...200818037195
cost and cost-effectiveness of childhood vaccination against rotavirus in france.to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of routine childhood vaccination by new vaccines against rotavirus in france.200818166250
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