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[acute liver damage caused by non-hepatotropic virus in 86 children]. 200919222956
presence and environmental circulation of enteric viruses in three different wastewater treatment plants.the aim of the work was to evaluate the circulation of the viruses and to determine a correlation between faecal indicators and viruses.200919226391
epidemiological study of bovine norovirus infection by rt-pcr and a vlp-based antibody elisa.noroviruses, belonging to the family caliciviridae, have been identified in human beings and in several animal species including cattle. the distribution of bovine norovirus infections was investigated by both rt-pcr to detect norovirus genomes and a virus-like particles-based elisa to detect genotype 2 bovine norovirus antibodies. during a 1-year systematic study, a virus prevalence of 7.5% (ci 95%: [3.7; 13.4%]) (10 out of 133 samples) was found in stool samples from diarrhoeic calves screened ...200919232845
rotaviruses and rotavirus vaccines.rotaviruses (rvs) are an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, resulting in more than 600 000 deaths per annum, mainly in developing countries. since the 1980s, there has been intensive research on the development of rv vaccine candidates, and since 2006 two vaccines have been licensed in many countries.200919233929
norovirus infection as a cause of diarrhea-associated benign infantile seizures.background: norovirus and rotavirus cause outbreaks of diarrheal disease worldwide. this prospective observational study was undertaken to investigate the clinical characteristics and complications, with a focus on convulsive disorders, of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus and rotavirus in hospitalized pediatric patients in northern taiwan. methods: children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in chang gung children's hospital from august 2004 through january 2007 were enrolled in the stud ...200919239351
preclinical and clinical development of a multi-envelope, dna-virus-protein (d-v-p) hiv-1 vaccine.the human immune system has evolved to recognize antigenic diversity, a strength that has been harnessed by vaccine developers to combat numerous pathogens (e.g., pneumococcus, influenza virus, rotavirus). in each case, vaccine cocktails were formulated to include antigenic variants of the target. to combat hiv-1 diversity, we assembled a cocktail vaccine comprising dozens of envelopes, delivered as recombinant dna, vaccinia virus, and protein for testing in a clinical trial. one vaccinee has no ...200919241253
rotavirus antagonizes cellular antiviral responses by inhibiting the nuclear accumulation of stat1, stat2, and nf-kappab.a vital arm of the innate immune response to viral infection is the induction and subsequent antiviral effects of interferon (ifn). rotavirus reduces type i ifn induction in infected cells by the degradation of ifn regulatory factors. here, we show that the monkey rotavirus rrv and human rotavirus wa also block gene expression induced by type i and ii ifns through a mechanism allowing signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (stat1) and stat2 activation but preventing their nuclear acc ...200919244315
relative cd4 lymphopenia and a skewed memory phenotype are the main immunologic abnormalities in a child with omenn syndrome due to homozygous rag1-c2633t hypomorphic mutation.we report a child with omenn syndrome (os) due to homozygous rag1-c2633t mutations who had an unusual clinical and immunological presentation. she had delayed onset of os-associated clinical features, had cleared a number of potentially fatal pathogens including respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza-3 virus and rotavirus, and was thriving at diagnosis. laboratory assessment showed normal t and b lymphocyte number and function. t-cell-receptor repertoire in the blood was relatively diverse a ...200919246248
phylogenetic analysis of novel g12 rotaviruses in the united states: a molecular search for the origin of a new strain.rotavirus serotype g12 was initially identified in the philippines in 1987 and was not described again until it reemerged more than 13 years later. g12 strains were first detected in the united states in 2002 and have recently assumed a worldwide distribution. the high similarity between the sequence of the major outer capsid vp7 gene of human g12 strains and the single porcine g12 isolate raised the prospect that human strains may have arisen through reassortment with porcine strains or, altern ...200919235867
[profile of paediatric admissions and emergencies during an epidemic period of rotavirus in valladolid [spain]. utility of a predictive model].the aim of this study was to determine the weeks of high rotavirus circulation in valladolid (spain) and to compare the characteristics of hospitalizations and emergencies in epidemic and nonepidemic periods.200919231725
[sentry surveillance study of rotavirus gastroenteritis in chile].a sentinel-based outpatient and inpatient surveillance for rotavirus infection has been implemented in chile.200919194610
prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis among infants and children: recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices (acip).rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. before initiation of the rotavirus vaccination program in the united states in 2006, approximately 80% of u.s. children had rotavirus gastroenteritis by age 5 years. each year during the 1990s and early 2000s, rotavirus resulted in approximately 410,000 physician visits, 205,000272,000 emergency department visits, and 55,00070,000 hospitalizations among u.s. infants and children, with total annu ...200919194371
predominance and circulation of enteric viruses in the region of greater cairo, egypt.the circulation of enteric viruses among the population of cairo, egypt, between march 2006 and february 2007 was studied. at least one virus was detected in 50% of fecal samples, 57.4% of which were positive for rotavirus, 26% for norovirus, 10.4% for adenovirus, and 1.7% for astrovirus. over 10% of infections were mixed infections. rotavirus typing showed that g1p[8] and g2p[4] were predominant but that the unusual g12p[4] and g12p[6] reassortants were also present. among the noroviruses, half ...200919193841
a model of exposure to rotavirus from nondietary ingestion iterated by simulated intermittent contacts.existing microbial risk assessment models rarely incorporate detailed descriptions of human interaction with fomites. we develop a stochastic-mechanistic model of exposure to rotavirus from nondietary ingestion iterated by simulated intermittent fomes-mouth, hand-mouth, and hand-fomes contacts typical of a child under six years of age. this exposure is subsequently translated to risk using a simple static dose-response relationship. through laboratory experiments, we quantified the mean rate of ...200919187484
cost-effectiveness of childhood rotavirus vaccination in taiwan.rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in children. two rotavirus vaccines (rotateq and rotarix) have been licensed in taiwan. we have investigated whether routine infant immunization with either vaccine could be cost-effective in taiwan.200919186200
global advisory committee on vaccine safety, 17-18 december 2008. 200919180768
diagnosing rotavirus a associated iid: using elisa to identify a cut-off for real time rt-pcr.the use of rt-pcr for diagnosis of group a rotaviruses is increasing, but up to 14% of healthy individuals may be positive by rt-pcr. if rt-pcr is not well correlated with disease, rotavirus a may not always be the cause of illness in rt-pcr positive patients with infectious intestinal disease (iid).200919179107
pathophysiology of diarrhea in calves.infectious diarrhea in calves is most commonly associated with enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, cryptosporidium parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, or some combination of these pathogens. each of these agents leads to diarrhea through either secretion or malabsorption/maldigestion, though the specific mechanisms and pathways may differ. specific pharmacologic control and treatment are dependent on gaining a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of these organisms.200919174281
whole genome sequencing of lamb rotavirus and comparative analysis with other mammalian rotaviruses.rotavirus (rv) epidemiological surveys with molecular analysis of various strains are required for gastroenteritis control and prevention. the lamb rotavirus strain nt, isolated from a diarrhea lamb in china, is considered as a promising vaccine strain. the whole genome of the lamb-nt strain was determined by sequence analysis. sequence identity and phylogenetic analysis defined the lamb-nt strain as group a, genotype g10p[15]/nsp4[a]/sg1 strain. comparative genomic analysis of the lamb-nt strai ...200919214729
genomic characterization of human rotavirus g8 strains from the african rotavirus network: relationship to animal rotaviruses.global rotavirus surveillance has led to the detection of many unusual human rotavirus (hrv) genotypes. during 1996-2004 surveillance within the african rotavirus network (arn), six p[8],g8 and two p[6],g8 human rotavirus strains were identified. gene fragments (rt-pcr amplicons) of all 11-gene segments of these g8 strains were sequenced in order to elucidate their genetic and evolutionary relationships. phylogenetic and sequence analyses of each gene segment revealed high similarities (88-100% ...200919319943
rota and pneumococcus vaccine success stories: pediatric emergency practitioners wonder "where have the kids gone?". 200919320052
two peculiar issues on pediatric enteric infections in taiwan: pseudomonas aeruginosa and polymicrobial infections. 200919326830
concomitant rotavirus and salmonella infections in children with acute diarrhea.the incidence of concomitant rotavirus and salmonella infection has been reported to be 1.3% to 7.4%. we designed this study to compare the clinical manifestations in children infected with rotavirus, salmonella, or both.200919326832
effect of osteopontin on diarrhea duration and innate immunity in suckling mice infected with a murine rotavirus.we studied the role of osteopontin (opn) in host responses against rotavirus (rv) infection. opn knockout (opn-ko) suckling mice were more susceptible to rv (strain ew) infection and showed prolonged diarrhea duration compared to wild-type (wt) suckling mice. opn in the small intestine of wt mice was expressed after 48 h post-infection. on day 2 postinfection, mrna levels of interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-15 in opn-ko mice were lower than in wt mice, although mrn ...200919327001
first molecular detection of group a rotaviruses in drinking water sources in beijing, china.the most prevalent group a rotavirus found in the diarrheic children was also determined in drinking water sources including raw water, treated water and tap water in beijing, and then the possible contamination contributions to tap water for human consumption were discussed in this study. a total of 26 raw water samples, 77 treated water samples and 143 tap water samples in beijing were collected for analysis of group a rotavirus from april 2006 to august 2007. according to the results, it was ...200919330275
prevention of rotavirus disease: updated guidelines for use of rotavirus vaccine.this statement updates and replaces the 2007 american academy of pediatrics statement for prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis. in february 2006, a live oral human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (rv5 [rotateq]) was licensed as a 3-dose series for use in infants in the united states. the american academy of pediatrics recommended routine use of rv5 in infants in the united states. in april 2008, a live, oral, human attenuated rotavirus vaccine (rv1 [rotarix]) was licensed as a 2-dose ser ...200919332437
rotavirus disease and prevention through vaccination.rotavirus is the most common cause of acute infectious gastroenteritis in children and is associated with substantial morbidity in the united states and morbidity and mortality in the developing world. two orally administered vaccines, a live bovine reassortant vaccine (rv5; licensed in 2006) and a live attenuated human vaccine (rv1; licensed in 2008), are now being used in a universal infant vaccination program in the united states. there is already ecologic evidence and data from post-licensur ...200919333083
full genomic analysis of a human group a rotavirus g9p[6] strain from eastern india provides evidence for porcine-to-human interspecies transmission.deduced amino acid sequence and phylogenetic analyses of a group a rotavirus g9p[6] strain (designated as mcs/13-07), detected from a 3-year-old child in eastern india, revealed a vp8* closely related to porcine p[6] strains (p[6] sublineage 1d), and the vp7 clustered with g9 lineage-iii strains. to our knowledge, this is the first report of human p[6] strain clustering in sublineage id. thus, to further characterize the evolutionary diversity of strain mcs/13-07, all gene segments were analyzed ...200919333549
existing antiviral vaccines.the innovation of vaccines has allowed for one of the greatest advancements in the history of public health. the first of the vaccines have been the antiviral vaccines, in particular the smallpox vaccine that was first developed by edward jenner in 1796. this article will review vaccination for the following viral diseases: measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis a, hepatitis b, influenza, rotavirus, rabies, monkeypox, smallpox, japanese encephalitis, and yellow fever.200919335723
first detection of p[6],g9 rotaviruses in hungary--an imported strain from india?eurorotanet was launched to monitor rotavirus strain prevalence during and after introduction of rotavirus vaccines in europe. in early 2007, we detected p[6],g9 rotaviruses to appear in hungary, representing the first documented occurrence of this strain in our surveillance area. epidemiologic data suggested that this strain was introduced from india.200919335818
novel approach for detection of enteric viruses to enable syndrome surveillance of acute viral gastroenteritis.acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases worldwide, with viruses, particularly noroviruses, being the leading cause in developed countries. in the netherlands, systematic surveillance of gastroenteritis outbreaks of suspected viral etiology was established by the national institute for public health and the environment in 1994. since 2002, the total number of outbreaks reported has been increasing, and with that comes the need for sensitive assays that can be performed quickly. i ...200919339472
a longitudinal cohort study in calves evaluated for rotavirus infections from 1 to 12 months of age by sequential serological assays.using an immunocytochemical staining assay involving six different recombinant baculoviruses with each expressing one of the major bovine rotavirus vp7 (g6, g8 and g10) and vp4 (p6[1], p7[5] and p8[11]) serotypes, we analyzed igg antibody responses to individual proteins in archival serum samples collected from 31 calves monthly from 1 to 12 months of age during 1974-1975 in higley, arizona. seroresponses to vp7 and vp4, as determined by a fourfold or greater antibody response, were not always e ...200919343476
global etiology of travelers' diarrhea: systematic review from 1973 to the present.fifty-one published studies of travelers' diarrhea (td) were examined to look for regional differences in pathogens identified. enterotoxigenic e. coli was detected in 1,678/5,518 (30.4%) of td cases overall, with rates in latin america/caribbean (l. america), africa, south asia, and southeast asia of 1,109/3,302 (33.6%), 389/1,217 (31.2%), 153/499 (30.6%), and 36/500 (7.2%), respectively (p < 0.001). enteroaggregative e. coli was the second most common agent in l. america, found in 166/689 (24. ...200919346386
[acceptance and safety of vaccines].as a result of decreasing willingness to be vaccinated some diseases, which seemingly had been eradicated, may reappear. one example for this is the increase of measles cases in the united kingdom since the 1990s after a decrease of immunization rate in response to a subsequently discredited publication suggesting a link between the triple measles, mumps and rubella vaccine and autism. as the incidence of vaccine preventable diseases decreases, vaccine safety dominates personal risk-benefit anal ...200919353475
shared and group-specific features of the rotavirus rna polymerase reveal potential determinants of gene reassortment restriction.rotaviruses (rvs) are nonenveloped, 11-segmented, double-stranded rna viruses that are major pathogens associated with acute gastroenteritis. group a, b, and c rvs have been isolated from humans; however, intergroup gene reassortment does not occur for reasons that remain unclear. this restriction might reflect the failure of the viral rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp; vp1) to recognize and replicate the rna of a different group. to address this possibility, we contrasted the sequences, struct ...200919357162
integrin alphavbeta6 and mediators of extracellular matrix deposition are up-regulated in experimental biliary atresia.biliary atresia (ba) is a progressive obliteration of the extrahepatic bile ducts resulting in hepatic fibrosis. the underlying mechanisms have not been defined. we used an animal model of ba to evaluate mediators of extracellular matrix (ecm) processing to determine which factors may be involved.200919084240
rotavirus vp7-gene selection during coinfections in caco-2 cells.a previous rotavirus epidemiological survey in córdoba, argentina, revealed an unusually high frequency of mixed g-type infections (41.5%). the genotype distribution of those mixed infections showed that the most prevalent g-type combinations were g1+g4 (65.0%), g1+g2 (12.5%), g2+g4 (3.1%) and g1+g9 (2.5%). in the present study we analyzed the competitive growth in caco-2 cell cultures of strains from the most frequent rotavirus g-type coinfections in order to explain some aspect of the dynamic ...200919084615
nitazoxanide vs. probiotics for the treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhea in children: a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial in bolivian children.in previous studies, nitazoxanide has demonstrated a cytoprotective effect against rotavirus, reducing the duration of diarrhea in comparison to placebo. we designed a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial in order to assess the effectiveness of nitazoxanide and probiotics in comparison with a control group.200919070525
rotarix: a rotavirus vaccine for the world.single rotavirus infections have been reported to protect humans against subsequent illnesses caused by both homotypic and heterotypic rotaviruses. on the basis of these observations, a g1p[8] strain of human rotavirus named 89-12 was attenuated by multiple passages in cell culture and was developed into a vaccine candidate (herein referred to as the rix4414 vaccine). this vaccine is currently licensed in >100 countries worldwide, many of which have a universal recommendation for all infants. th ...200919072246
role of astrovirus in intussusception in nigerian infants.intussusception (is) is a form of intestinal obstruction in which a segment of the bowel prolapses into a more distal segment. viral infections, mostly adenovirus, enteroviruses, human herpesvirus and epstein-barr virus are reported in 20-50% of childhood cases of is. between january and july 2004, six stool specimens collected from infants 0- to 8-months old diagnosed and admitted for is were investigated for the presence of rotavirus, astrovirus and adenovirus antigens. astrovirus antigen was ...200919052076
toll-like receptor and innate cytokine responses induced by lactobacilli colonization and human rotavirus infection in gnotobiotic pigs.toll-like receptors (tlr) play an important role in the recognition of microbes by host sentinel cells that leads to the subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. in this study, we evaluated the patterns of tlr2-, tlr3- and tlr9-expressing antigen presenting cells (apcs) in spleen and blood of gnotobiotic (gn) pigs after colonization with a mixture of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (lab), lactobacillus acidophilus and lactobacillus reuteri or infection with the virulent human rotavir ...200919054578
seasonality of rotavirus disease in the tropics: a systematic review and meta-analysis.to date little conclusive evidence exists on the seasonality of rotavirus incidence in the tropics. we present a systematic review and meta-analysis on the seasonal epidemiology of rotavirus in the tropics, including 26 studies reporting continuous monthly rotavirus incidence for which corresponding climatological data was available.200919056806
molecular characterization of group c rotaviruses detected in children in italy.group c rotavirus (gcrv) infection has been described worldwide in children and adults either as sporadic cases or large outbreaks of gastroenteritis but gcrv epidemiology is still unclear.200919059000
tight junctions as targets of infectious agents.the epithelial barrier is a critical border that segregates luminal material from entering tissues. essential components of this epithelial fence are physical intercellular structures termed tight junctions. these junctions use a variety of transmembrane proteins coupled with cytoplasmic adaptors, and the actin cytoskeleton, to attach adjacent cells together thereby forming intercellular seals. breaching of this barrier has profound effects on human health and disease, as barrier deficiencies ha ...200919059200
genotypic distribution of rotavirus strains causing severe gastroenteritis in gyeonggi province, south korea, from 2003 to 2005.rotavirus was present in 1,367 of 7,060 stool samples (19.4%) collected in gyeonggi province of south korea from 2003 through 2005. the predominant genotypes were confirmed as g4/p2a[6] (19.0%) followed by g3/p1a[8] (15.6%), g2/p1b[4] (9.3%), and g1/p1a[8] (6.5%). the predominant types of rotavirus by year were g3/p[8] in 2003, g4/p[6] in 2004, and g1/p[8] in 2005. the prevalent rotavirus genotypes changed constantly from 2003 to 2005.200919066711
molecular epidemiology of rotavirus infections among children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis in shanghai, china, 2001 through 2005.rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in children in the world. knowing the prevalence and genotypes of these infections is important for implementing vaccination programs.200919010730
risk factors for nosocomial rotavirus infection in a paediatric hospital: the potential role for rotavirus vaccine use.to analyze the incidence and risk factors (rf) of nosocomial infection (ni) in a paediatric teaching hospital, a retrospective cohort study was conducted in salvador, brazil. the centres for disease control and prevention definitions were used. the detection of the rotavirus antigen in stool was performed using a rapid latex agglutination test. the study group comprised 2978 admissions that accounted for 32,924 patient-days. the incidence of ni was 8.3/1000 patient-days and 9.2/100 admissions. o ...200919014989
detection and characterization of waterborne gastroenteritis viruses in urban sewage and sewage-polluted river waters in caracas, venezuela.the detection and molecular characterization of pathogenic human viruses in urban sewage have been used extensively to derive information on circulating viruses in given populations throughout the world. in this study, a similar approach was applied to provide an overview of the epidemiology of waterborne gastroenteritis viruses circulating in urban areas of caracas, the capital city of venezuela in south america. dry season sampling was conducted in sewers and in a major river severely polluted ...200919028907
molecular characterization of vp4, vp6, vp7, nsp4, and nsp5/6 genes identifies an unusual g3p[10] human rotavirus strain.an unusual strain of human rotavirus g3p[10] (cmh079/05) was detected in a stool sample of a 2-year-old child admitted to the hospital with severe diarrhea in chiang mai, thailand. analysis of the vp7 gene sequence revealed highest identities with unusual human rotavirus g3 strain cmh222 at 98.7% on the nucleotide and 99.6% on the amino acid levels. phylogenetic analysis of the vp7 sequence confirmed that the cmh079/05 strain formed a cluster with g3 rotavirus reference strains and showed the cl ...200919031442
the detection and molecular characterization of human g12 genotypes in south africa.the last decade has seen an increase in the detection of rotavirus strains other than g1-g4 emerging or even predominating in some settings. the performance of the current rotavirus vaccines against unusual or rare circulating rotavirus serotypes cannot be predicted and continuous monitoring of wild type rotaviruses will remain a priority. routine molecular rotavirus surveillance conducted in the gauteng province, south africa during 2004, resulted in the detection of strains that could not type ...200919031449
nosocomial gastroenteritis in children with and without rotavirus infection. 200919034059
rotavirus architecture at subnanometer resolution.rotavirus, a nonturreted member of the reoviridae, is the causative agent of severe infantile diarrhea. the double-stranded rna genome encodes six structural proteins that make up the triple-layer particle. x-ray crystallography has elucidated the structure of one of these capsid proteins, vp6, and two domains from vp4, the spike protein. complementing this work, electron cryomicroscopy (cryoem) has provided relatively low-resolution structures for the triple-layer capsid in several biochemical ...200919036817
early-life rotavirus and norovirus infections in relation to development of atopic manifestation in infants.the increase in incidence of atopic diseases (ads) in the developed world over the past decades has been associated with reduced exposure of childhood infections.200919032360
characterization of vp7 and vp4 genes of rotavirus strains: 1990-1994 and 2000-2002.a total of 90 rotavirus-positive faecal specimens collected from patients hospitalized with diarrhoea in 1990-1994 (n=77) and 2000-2002 (n=13) were investigated for vp7 and vp4 genotypes. the specimens included 21 typable and 69 non-reactive or multireactive rotavirus strains as monitored by monoclonal antibody-based serotyping elisa. genotyping was carried out by multiplex pcr/sequencing using primers specific for both vp7 and vp4 genes. the contribution of common genotypes (g1p[8], g2p[4], g3p ...200919046475
acute gastroenteritis caused by multiple enteric pathogens in children.of 303 children hospitalized with acute non-bloody, non-mucoid diarrhoea, 69 (22.8%) had polymicrobial infection, including 52 (17.2%) multiple viral infection and 17 (5.6%) viral and bacterial co-infection. rotavirus had the most important role in both categories; thus the control of rotavirus infection is crucial for maintaining children's health in taiwan.200919046476
unexpected substitution of dominant rotavirus g genotypes in french hospitalized children over five consecutive seasons.the study was designed to evaluate the circulation of group a rotaviruses in french hospitalized children, and to detect unusual strains. this prospective study was conducted from 2001 to 2006 in children consulting for acute diarrhea at the pediatric emergency department in three french university hospitals. the rotaviruses were detected by rapid test and genotyped by rt-pcr on the basis of their outer capsid proteins vp4 (p-type) and vp7 (g-type). the stools from 757 children were analyzed. g1 ...200918855026
monitoring the rate of hospitalization before rotavirus immunization in italy utilizing icd9-cm regional databases.recently, two rotavirus (rv) vaccines were licensed in italy, rendering rv illness a vaccine preventable disease. to assess the rv hospitalization rate in italy, a study focused on the regional hospital discharge forms (hdd) databases was carried out.200918802404
cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination: exploring caregiver(s) and "no medical care'' disease impact in belgium.to estimate the cost-effectiveness of universal childhood rotavirus vaccination in belgium, taking into account the impact of caregiver burden and the burden of sick children for whom no medical care is sought ("no medical care'' ).200918948433
rotavirus infection increases the risk of bacteremia in children with nontyphoid salmonella gastroenteritis.to evaluate whether there is any impact of rotavirus infection on nontyphoid salmonella (nts) gastroenteritis, a total of 207 diarrheal children who had positive stool culture for nts and also a stool examination for the rotavirus antigen were retrospectively analyzed. according to the positivity of the stool rotavirus antigen, patients were divided into two groups and compared with regard to demographic data, clinical features, laboratory findings, and complications. the results showed that the ...200918949496
broadly reactive taqman assay for real-time rt-pcr detection of rotavirus in clinical and environmental samples. jin2@cdc.gov.rotaviruses are enteric pathogens responsible for a significant burden of disease, especially in children, through person-to-person transmission and exposure to contaminated food and water. in the present study, a taqman probe-based real-time reverse transcriptase (rt) polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay was developed and validated for sensitive and specific detection and quantification of rotavirus for the routine screening of clinical and environmental samples. the assay primers and probes w ...200918951923
brucella spp. lumazine synthase as a bovine rotavirus antigen delivery system.brucella spp. lumazine synthase (bls) is a highly immunogenic decameric protein. it has been previously evaluated as a carrier to increase the immunogenicity of peptides fused to its n-termini. vp8 is a sialic acid binding domain of rotavirus external capsid protein vp4, which is involved in virus adhesion to host cells. in this work, the c486 bovine rotavirus (brv) vp8 core protein (vp8d) was fused to the structure of bls with the aim to produce an enhancement of the immune response against brv ...200918973781
effects on sialic acid recognition of amino acid mutations in the carbohydrate-binding cleft of the rotavirus spike protein.the rotavirus spike protein vp4 mediates attachment to host cells and subsequent membrane penetration. the vp8(*) domain of vp4 forms the spike tips and is proposed to recognize host-cell surface glycans. for sialidase-sensitive rotaviruses such as rhesus (rrv), this recognition involves terminal sialic acids. we show here that the rrv vp8(*)(64-224) protein competes with rrv infection of host cells, demonstrating its relevance to infection. in addition, we observe that the amino acids revealed ...200918974199
phylogeny of g9 rotavirus genotype: a possible explanation of its origin and evolution.g9 rotavirus genotype was isolated in the 1980s and re-emerged without a clear explanation in the mid-1990s as one of the most frequently occurring genotypes with distinct genetic and molecular characteristics.200918977689
contemporary prevalence of infectious agents in laboratory mice and rats.periodic health screening of rodents used in research is necessary due to the consequences of unwanted infections. one determinant of the risk of infection for any given agent is its prevalence; other factors being equal, a prevalent agent is more likely than a rare one to be introduced to a research facility and result in infection. as an indicator of contemporary prevalence in laboratory populations of rats and mice, the rate of positive results in the samples received at a major commercial ro ...200919015179
structured surveillance of infectious intestinal disease in pre-school children in the community: 'the nappy study'.the incidence and causes of infectious intestinal disease (iid) in children aged <5 years presenting to general practitioners (gps) were estimated. during a 12-month period, soiled nappies were collected from children presenting with symptoms suggestive of iid in a network of 65 gps located across england. molecular methods were used to detect a range of enteric pathogens including viruses, bacteria and parasites. genotyping was performed on rotavirus and norovirus isolates. a total of 583 nappi ...200919017426
concentrating rotaviruses from water samples using monolithic chromatographic supports.rotaviruses are the leading cause of diarrhoea in infants around the globe and, under certain conditions they can be present in drinking water sources and systems. ingestion of 10-100 viral particles is enough to cause disease, emphasizing the need for sensitive diagnostic methods. in this study we have optimized the concentration of rotavirus particles using methacrylate monolithic chromatographic supports. different surface chemistries and mobile phases were tested. a strong anion exchanger an ...200919019382
the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children presenting to a paediatric hospital.the aim of this study was to determine the burden, management and outcomes of rotavirus infection in young children presenting to a tertiary paediatric hospital in sydney, australia. all laboratory-confirmed cases of rotavirus in children aged <5 years were identified and medical records reviewed. in 2004, 80 children aged <5 years presented to the hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis confirmed by stool testing. infants aged <24 months comprised 75% of cases, with more males than females affe ...200919021924
the studies on the aetiology of diarrhoea in neonatal calves and determination of virulence gene markers of escherichia coli strains by multiplex pcr.the purpose of this study was to determine aetiological agents of diarrhoea in neonatal calves and to investigate virulence gene markers of escherichia coli strains isolated from calves by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr). eighty-two diarrhoeic calves and 18 healthy calves were used as subjects. faeces were taken from the rectums of all the calves and were subjected to bacterial culture. antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was performed to detect rotavirus, coronavirus and ...200918771515
evaluation of rapid assays for the detection of bovine coronavirus, rotavirus a and cryptosporidium parvum in faecal samples of calves.rapid immunochromatographic assays for detecting infections with bovine coronavirus (bcv), rotavirus a and cryptosporidium parvum in calf faeces were evaluated using as gold standards a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (bcv and rotavirus) and a sedimentation-flotation technique (c. parvum). rapid tests for the detection of bcv and rotavirus showed a high specificity (96.4% and 95.3%, respectively), but a relatively low sensitivity (60.0% and 71.9%, respectively). sensitivity and s ...200918778958
prospective study of etiologic agents of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in child care centers.to investigate the etiology of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis (age) in children attending childcare centers (cccs) in north carolina between october 2005 and march 2007.200918783794
efficacy of high-dose lactobacillus rhamnosus gg in controlling acute watery diarrhea in indian children: a randomized controlled trial.to evaluate the effective dose of lactobacillus rhamnosus gg (lgg) as probiotic in acute watery diarrhea (awd) in indian children.200918813028
[sensitivity and specificity of the vikia rota-adeno immuno-chromatographic test (biomérieux) and the elisa ideia rotavirus kit (dako) compared to genotyping].the performances of two diagnostic tests for rotavirus infection in stool samples were evaluated during a prospective study in children of less than 36 months in child-care centers of lyon from november 2004 to may 2005. the vikia rota-adeno immuno-chromatographic test (biomérieux) and the elisa ideia rotavirus kit (dako) were compared with a referral method, the genotyping. fifty-seven stool samples were collected and analyzed by rt-pcr. the virus genome was detected in 29 samples. the most fre ...200918838230
rotavirus vaccines: opportunities and challenges.each year rotavirus gastroenteritis episodes in young children cause more than 500,000 deaths and 2.4 million hospital admissions worldwide. vaccine development became a priority when improved personal hygiene and living standards failed to significantly reduce this disease burden. rotavirus vaccines were developed mimicking natural immunity by protecting against severe gastroenteritis in young children, which would otherwise lead to health-care attendance, hospitalization or even death. license ...200918838873
rotavirus diarrhea in bovines and other domestic animals.rotavirus diarrhea is the major cause of death of millions of children in developing countries besides causing economically significant malady in neonates of many domestic animals. in neonates, the infection is non-viremic, have very short incubation period, and manifests profuse diarrhea and severe dehydration. concurrent infection with secondary pathogens may augment the disease severity. diarrhea occurs due to virus-mediated destruction of absorption efficient enterocytes, activation of enter ...200918622713
rotavirus infection in small bowel transplant: a histologic comparison with acute cellular rejection.pediatric small bowel transplant recipients are susceptible to diarrhea due to rejection or infectious enteritis, particularly of viral etiology. the most common causes of viral enteritis in this setting are rotavirus, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, and epstein-barr virus. this study is the first to compare the histologic findings of rotavirus infection with acute cellular rejection in small bowel transplant biopsies. three patients with small bowel transplants had rapid stool antigen test-proven ...200918684006
incidence of hepatotropic viruses in biliary atresia.biliary atresia (ba) is the most frequent indication for paediatric liver transplantation. we tested the hypothesis of a viral aetiology of this disease by screening liver samples of a large number of ba patients for the common human hepatotropic viruses. moreover, we correlated our findings to the expression of mx protein, which has been shown to be significantly up-regulated during viral infections. seventy-four liver biopsies (taken during kasai portoenterostomy) were tested by polymerase cha ...200918560888
formulation, characterization and evaluation of rotavirus encapsulated pla and plga particles for oral vaccination.polylactide (pla) and polylactide-co-glycolide (plga) particles entrapping rotavirus (strain sa11) were formulated using a solvent evaporation technique. to minimize denaturation of viral antigen during the emulsification process, serum albumin was used as a stabilizer. use of nahco(3) and sucrose during the primary emulsification step resulted in uniform stabilized particles entrapping rotavirus. sonication during the primary emulsion and homogenization during the secondary emulsion process res ...200918608800
effect of lactoferrin on enteric pathogens.much has been learned in recent years about the mechanisms by which breastfeeding improves child health and survival. however, there has been little progress in using these insights to improve pediatric care. factors that are important for protecting the breast fed infant might be expected to decrease the adverse effects of weaning on diarrhea, growth, and development. lactoferrin, an iron-binding protein with multiple physiological functions (anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulat ...200918472012
low cytotoxicity effect of dendrosome as an efficient carrier for rotavirus vp2 gene transferring into a human lung cell line : dendrosome, as a novel intranasally gene porter.the efficiency of dendrosome (a gene porter) was assessed in transferring recombinant human rotavirus vp2 cdna into a549, a human lung cell line. after gene transferring, transmission electron microscopy showed core-like particles (clps) formation in the transfected cells both with dendrosome and lipofectamine porters. in addition, western blotting analysis showed that the expression of vp2 gene was almost equal in the dendrosome and lipofectamine-transfected cells. also, the cytotoxicity studie ...200917922251
clinical profile and prevalence of rotavirus infection in children presented with acute diarrhea at tertiary care referral hospital at northern part of india.a prospective analysis of 90 clinically diagnosed cases with acute diarrhea over a period of one year was carried out to determine the prevalence of rotavirus infection in children between 2 months to 2 years of age. enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) were used for detection of rotavirus from stool sample. fourteen (15.6%) of them were found to be positive for group a rotavirus, 9 (23%) cases were between 6 months to 1 year of age. rotavirus e ...200922010485
a case of kawasaki disease with anasarca and concomitant rotavirus infection.we present the case of a child who initially presented with gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis complicated by hyponatraemic dehydration. appropriate intravenous fluid therapy was administered but the patient, still feverish, developed anasarca probably due to hyperpermeability of microvessels following massive inflammation. atypical kawasaki disease was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical findings and laboratory tests. an echocardiogram performed on the 1 ...200921897831
rotavirus antagonism of the innate immune response.rotavirus is a primary cause of severe dehydrating gastroenteritis in infants and young children. the virus is sensitive to the antiviral effects triggered by the interferon (ifn)-signaling pathway, an important component of the host cell innate immune response. to counteract these effects, rotavirus encodes a nonstructural protein (nsp1) that induces the degradation of proteins involved in regulating ifn expression, such as members of the ifn regulatory factor (irf) family. in some instances, n ...200921994581
gastroenteritis in children.acute gastroenteritis results from infection of the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly with a virus. it is characterised by rapid onset of diarrhoea with or without vomiting, nausea, fever, and abdominal pain. diarrhoea is defined as the frequent passage of unformed, liquid stools. regardless of the cause, the mainstay of management of acute gastroenteritis is provision of adequate fluids to prevent and treat dehydration. methods and outcomes: we conducted a systematic review and aimed to ans ...200921726481
rotavirus infection and epidermal necrolysis of the bowel in a patient with aids.a 44-year-old man with hiv, with a cd4+ count of 45/µl and a viral load of 88 000 copies/ml, who was completing therapy for pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, presented with severe bloody diarrhoea, fevers and abdominal pain. endoscopy revealed total epidermal necrolysis of the colon, and partial epidermal necrolysis of the duodenum, a histologic pattern most typically seen in severe graft versus host disease. computed tomography (ct) documented inflammation of the entire gastrointestinal tract dis ...200922125583
acute encephalopathy associated rotavirus gastroenteritis. 200921887204
vaccine preventable diseases and vaccination policy for indigenous populations.there are many similarities regarding the health status of indigenous people in the 4 english-speaking developed countries of north america and the pacific (united states, canada, australia, new zealand), where they are all now minority populations. although vaccines have contributed to the reduction or elimination of disease disparities for many infections, indigenous people continue to have higher morbidity and mortality from many chronic and infectious diseases compared with the general popul ...200919962021
acute and persistent diarrhea.socially disadvantaged indigenous infants and children living in western industrialized countries experience high rates of infectious diarrhea, no more so than aboriginal children from remote and rural regions of northern australia. diarrheal disease, poor nutrition, and intestinal enteropathy reflect household crowding, inadequate water and poor sanitation and hygiene. acute episodes of watery diarrhea are often best managed by oral glucose-electrolyte solutions with continuation of breastfeedi ...200919962025
impact of rotavirus vaccination: the importance of monitoring strains. 200919995181
rotavirus disease and vaccination: impact on genotype diversity.temporal and spatial fluctuations in the genotype distribution of human rotaviruses are continuously observed in surveillance studies. new genotypes, such as g9 and g12, have emerged and spread worldwide in a very short time span. in addition, reassortment events have the potential to contribute substantially to genetic diversity among human and animal rotaviruses. with the recent introduction of the two rotavirus vaccines, rotateq and rotarix, in many countries, it appears that the total number ...200919995190
rotavirus and adenovirus frequency among patients with acute gastroenteritis and their relationship to clinical parameters: a retrospective study in turkey.abstract: background: diarrhea is the third leading cause of death related to infectious diseases all over the world. the diseases related to viral gastroenteritis are gradually increasing, particularly in the developed countries. the purpose of our study was to determine the frequency and to investigate the clinical manifestations of acute rotavirus and adenovirus gatroenteritis and to assess the diagnostic value of the related clinical findings. methods: in 2007-2008 patients with diarrhea and ...200919943964
rotavirus infection and intussusception in tunisian children: implications for use of attenuated rotavirus vaccines.a licensed rotavirus vaccine was withdrawn from use because of an increased risk of intussusception. the association of rotavirus vaccination with intussusception raised concerns about a potential link between natural rotavirus disease and intussusception. the objectives of the present study were to determine whether an epidemiological association with natural rotavirus infection existed.200919944222
[rotavirus as a cause of acute diarrhea]. 200919935540
[cloning and expression of rotavirus sa11 vp7 and preparation of igy antibodies against recombinant vp7].to prepare eukaryotic expression of rotavirus (rv) sa11 capsid protein vp7, and to generate and purify yolk immunoglobulin (igy) antibodies against the recombinant vp7 from roman hens.200919950723
[nsp5/nsp6 of rotavirus strain tb-chen and preliminary genotyping analysis].strain tb-chen is a group a rotavirus (rv) isolated from a chinese infant suffering from gastroenteritis in hospital. the nsp5 and nsp6 of strain tb-chen are encoded by the 10th gene segment (816bp in whole length) of the viral genome. the results obtained in this study showed that the nsp5 was encoded in the first open-reading-frame (orf) of the gene segment (from 22bp to 624bp), and nsp6 was encoded in the second orf (from 80bp to 355bp). the nsp5 protein consisted of 200 amino acid residues w ...200919954111
recombinant porcine rotavirus vp4 and vp4-ltb expressed in lactobacillus casei induced mucosal and systemic antibody responses in mice.porcine rotavirus infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the swine industry necessitating the development of effective vaccines for the prevention of infection. immune responses associated with protection are primarily mucosal in nature and induction of mucosal immunity is important for preventing porcine rotavirus infection.200919958557
update on rotarix: an oral human rotavirus vaccine.worldwide, rotaviruses are the single most important agents of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children. globally, it is estimated that every year rotavirus gastroenteritis causes more than 125 million episodes of diarrhea and nearly 527,000 deaths, mainly in developing countries. the development of new effective and safe rotavirus vaccines was recognized as the most effective intervention strategy that could yield a significant impact on the burden of rotavirus disease. rotarix is a ...200919943758
vaccines for enteric diseases: update on recent developments.the 5th international conference on vaccines for enteric diseases (ved) attracted more than 250 delegates, mainly from industrialized countries. a total of 56 papers were presented and 46 posters were displayed to update recent developments in the field of enteric diseases and vaccine development. this 3-day event enabled academic research institutions, pharmaceutical and biotech companies, and international donors to get a sense of what has been going on since the last ved conference in 2007. t ...200919943760
booster vaccinations: can immunologic memory outpace disease pathogenesis?almost all current vaccines work by the induction of antibodies in serum or on the mucosa to block adherence of pathogens to epithelial cells or interfere with microbial invasion of the bloodstream. however, antibody levels usually decline after vaccination to undetectable amounts if further vaccination does not occur. persistence of vaccine-induced antibodies usually goes well beyond the time when they should have decayed to undetectable levels because of ongoing "natural" boosting or other imm ...200919933727
molecular characterization of a human group c rotavirus detected first in turkey.the present study was done to find out the prevalence of group b and c rotavirus infections in children with diarrhea presented at two major hospitals in ankara, turkey. group b rotavirus was not found in any samples. one of 122 samples was positive for group c rotavirus. phylogenetic analysis of genes for nonstructural protein nsp4, and structural proteins vp4, vp6, and vp7 confirmed the human origin of this strain. similar to other human group c rotaviruses, one n-glycosylation site was predic ...200919916043
non-rotavirus infection causing apnea in a neonate.apnea in a premature infant is not always due to immaturity and caffeine is not always the answer. we report a case of apnea in a preterm infant who presented at two weeks of life with increase in frequency of apnea that did not respond to caffeine. family history was significant for diarrhea in a sibling. stool pcr was positive for norovirus genogroup ii. enteric isolation was instituted and the apnea resolved spontaneously with conservative management. re-emergence of apnea or persistent apnea ...200919907939
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