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inflammation mediated down-regulation of hepatobiliary transporters contributes to intrahepatic cholestasis and liver damage in murine biliary atresia.to investigate the hypothesis that during the development of biliary atresia, early changes in hepatobiliary transport are mainly related to the inflammatory process and lead to intrahepatic cholestasis and subsequent liver injury, livers from mice with rhesus rotavirus-induced biliary atresia were analyzed for mrna expression of hepatobiliary transporters, nuclear receptors, and inflammatory cytokines. seven days after inoculation, despite high bile acid concentrations in the liver, gene expres ...200919581828
measuring public health officers' opinions on new vaccination programs by means of the who vaccine introduction guidelines.a group of public health officers and gynecologists were requested to express their opinion on whether immunization for: hpv in girls older than 12 years, varicella with combined mmrv vaccine and rotavirus (rv) should be included in the national immunization plan in italy. for each of the three immunization programs, a specific questions list was prepared following the eight steps of the who vaccine introduction guidelines flowchart. for each immunization strategy, a logistic regression model wa ...200919587539
the incidence and clinical presentation of infantile rotavirus diarrhoea in sierra leone.an effective vaccine is needed to protect against severe rotavirus disease, an important cause of gastroenteritis. since there are no data on the incidence and antigenic diversity of rotavirus infection in sierra leone, we studied its epidemiology to enable an effective vaccine strategy to be designed.200919588778
common causes of uncommon seizures.afebrile seizures associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis, respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis, influenza infection, asthma, blood transfusions, and intake of a number of drugs (including theophylline, cephalosporins, metronidazole, and acyclovir) with therapeutic drug levels are uncommonly encountered in clinical practice. reviewed here are the incidence, etiology, clinical presentation, types, diagnosis, associated electroencephalographic changes, and cranial magnetic resonance imaging ...200919589454
trends in healthcare utilization for diarrhea and rotavirus disease in privately insured us children <5 years of age, 2001-2006.to assess impact of the new us rotavirus immunization program initiated in 2006, robust baseline data on diarrhea and rotavirus disease burden are needed. while several studies have assessed burden in inpatient settings, few data are available for emergency department (ed) and outpatient settings.200919590460
a critical review on a globally-licensed, live, orally-administrable, monovalent human rotavirus vaccine: rotarix.rotavirus is the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in children worldwide, and two, live, orally-administrable vaccines are licensed globally. they are rotarix, a monovalent, human rotavirus-based vaccine (glaxosmithkline), and rotateq, a pentavalent, bovine-human reassortant vaccine (merck). the rix4414 strain, a g1p[8] virus, is contained in the rotarix vaccine. it grows efficiently in the human intestine, as evidenced by vaccine virus shedding into faeces. efficient multiplication of rix44 ...200919591630
molecular analysis of the vp7 gene of pheasant rotaviruses identifies a new genotype, designated g23.rotavirus-associated enteritis has been reported in pheasants, but there is no information on the genetic/antigenic features of pheasant rotaviruses. in this study, we sequenced the vp7-encoding genome segment of three pheasant rotavirus strains detected during 2008 in hungary. the full-length genome segment was 1,070 bp long, while the open reading frame was predicted to encode a 330-aa-long protein. the nucleotide sequence identities among the three pheasant rotavirus strains were high (> or = ...200919593592
soy isoflavones and virus infections.isoflavones and their related flavonoid compounds exert antiviral properties in vitro and in vivo against a wide range of viruses. genistein is, by far, the most studied soy isoflavone in this regard, and it has been shown to inhibit the infectivity of enveloped or nonenveloped viruses, as well as single-stranded or double-stranded rna or dna viruses. at concentrations ranging from physiological to supraphysiological (3.7-370 mum), flavonoids, including genistein, have been shown to reduce the i ...200919596314
diarrhoea in children: aetiology and clinical aspects.to determine the aetiology of diarrhoea in children younger than 5 years hospitalised for acute enteritis and to evidence the chief clinical aspects in correlation with different aetiological agents, a total of 402 children with acute diarrhoea were examined between february 2003 and december 2006 in the paediatric department of sondrio hospital. faecal samples were collected and processed by routine microbiological and biochemical tests. for all patients the clinical signs and symptoms on admis ...200919602922
rotavirus induces a biphasic enterotoxic and cytotoxic response in human-derived intestinal enterocytes, which is inhibited by human immunoglobulins.the mechanisms of diarrhea due to rotavirus infection in humans are not fully understood; no specific therapy is available, but orally administered human serum immunoglobulins are effective in blocking stool output. we aimed to investigate the effect of rotavirus on ion transport and the role of nsp4 in human-derived enterocytes, and to test the efficacy of human serum immunoglobulin in a model of rotavirus infection. soon after infection, rotavirus induces active chloride secretion in enterocyt ...200919604044
viral agents of acute gastroenteritis in hospitalized children in greece.a 6-year study of stool samples from 4604 children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis was conducted to investigate the role of enteric viruses as a cause of gastroenteritis in north-west greece. rotaviruses, noroviruses, adenoviruses and astroviruses were detected in 21.35%, 4%, 3.5% and 2.35%, respectively, by enzyme immunoassays and molecular techniques. molecular techniques enhanced overall diagnostic efficacy by 2.5%, and by c. 10% each for rotavirus and adenovirus. rotavirus was the lea ...200919604279
genetic heterogeneity in human g6p[14] rotavirus strains detected in hungary suggests independent zoonotic origin. 200919608281
detection of enteric viruses in rectal swabs from children with acute gastroenteritis attending the pediatric outpatient clinics in sapporo, japan.gastroenteritis is a world-wide disorder. numerous studies to identify causative viral agents have been reported for hospitalized patients but there are only a few for outpatients with mild symptoms who are usually managed in the outpatient clinics.200919608459
epidemiology. does viral diversity matter? 200919608903
demographic variability, vaccination, and the spatiotemporal dynamics of rotavirus epidemics.historically, annual rotavirus activity in the united states has started in the southwest in late fall and ended in the northeast 3 months later; this trend has diminished in recent years. traveling waves of infection or local environmental drivers cannot account for these patterns. a transmission model calibrated against epidemiological data shows that spatiotemporal variation in birth rate can explain the timing of rotavirus epidemics. the recent large-scale introduction of rotavirus vaccinati ...200919608910
[post vaccination rotavirus surveillance in hungary, in 2007].vaccination is the main strategy to control severe dehydrating gastroenteritis caused by rotaviruses in early childhood. the availability of new generation rotavirus vaccines has led to an intensification of strain surveillance worldwide, in part, to gauge the impact of the possible vaccine-driven immune selection of wild-type rotavirus strains. in the present study, authors describe the strain prevalence data obtained in 2007, with the involvement of different regions of hungary. genomic rna wa ...200919617180
rotavirus infections in galapagos sea lions.group a rotaviruses infect and cause diarrhea in the young of a broad range of terrestrial mammals, but it is unknown, to our knowledge, whether they infect marine mammals. during february and march of 2002 and 2003, we collected 125 serum samples and 18 rectal swab samples from galapagos sea lion pups (gsl, zalophus wollebaeki), and 22 serum samples from galapagos fur seal pups (gfs, arctocephalus galapagoensis) from nine islands of the galapagos archipelago, ecuador. sera were tested for antib ...200919617482
getting to the end of rna: structural analysis of protein recognition of 5' and 3' termini.the specific recognition by proteins of the 5' and 3' ends of rna molecules is an important facet of many cellular processes, including rna maturation, regulation of translation initiation and control of gene expression by degradation and rna interference. the aim of this review is to survey recent structural analyses of protein binding domains that specifically bind to the extreme 5' or 3' termini of rna. for reasons of space and because their interactions are also governed by catalytic conside ...200919619683
rotavirus vaccines for the developing world.the authors discuss the most relevant information in the field of rotavirus vaccines published from october 2007 to june 2009; new information on the virus, host response and disease burden that relate to our understanding of vaccine mechanisms and impact are discussed. the review will focus on the role of the vaccines for the developing world but this does not preclude the relevance of these vaccines for children living in the industrialized world.200919623063
prevalence of vp7 and vp4 genotypes of human group a rotavirus in infants and children with acute diarrhea in a northern city of bangladesh.the objective of this cross sectional prospective study was to determine rotavirus etiology and prevalence of the different rotavirus genotypes causing acute gastroenteritis in infants and children (</=5years) in mymensingh medical college hospital, bangladesh. the study was conducted during the period from january 2005 to june 2006. a total of 962 stool specimens from diarrheic children were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). rotavirus detection rate was 31.3% (301/962). amo ...200919623146
impact of physicochemical parameters on in vitro assembly and disassembly kinetics of recombinant triple-layered rotavirus-like particles.virus-like particles constitute potentially relevant vaccine candidates. nevertheless, their behavior in vitro and assembly process needs to be understood in order to improve their yield and quality. in this study we aimed at addressing these issues and for that purpose triple- and double-layered rotavirus-like particles (tlp 2/6/7 and dlp 2/6, respectively) size and zeta potential were measured using dynamic light scattering at different physicochemical conditions, namely ph, ionic strength, an ...200919623564
a dose-escalation safety and immunogenicity study of live attenuated oral rotavirus vaccine 116e in infants: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.rotavirus infections cause approximately 122,000 deaths among indian children annually.200919545211
hospital-based surveillance of enteric parasites in kolkata.diarrhoea is the second leading cause of illness and death in developing countries and the second commonest cause of death due to infectious diseases among children under five in such countries. parasites, as well as bacterial and viral pathogens, are important causes of diarrhoea. however, parasitic infections are sometimes overlooked, leading after a period of time to an uncertain aetiology. in this paper we report the prevalence of giardia lamblia, entamoeba histolytica and cryptosporidium sp ...200919545355
[first gastroenteritis outbreak caused by sapovirus (gi2) in hungary - part of an international epidemic?].sapovirus belonging to caliciviridae is one of the known pathogen of sporadic gastroenteritis infections in infants, children and rarely in elderly. since the beginning of molecular monitoring of caliciviruses (mid 1990's) sapovirus was described rarely, once in approx. 5 years, as source of an outbreak. circulation of caliciviruses has been monitored with molecular epidemiological methods by authors for 10 years in hungary. sapovirus has not been detected yet in the approximately 800 examined n ...200919546079
nitric oxide production in acute gastroenteritis in indian children.this study compared nitric oxide (no) levels in 110 children with, and 110 children without, infectious gastroenteritis. post-infection intestinal function was assessed in a subset. at least one pathogen was identified in 47.2% of cases. the most common diarrhoeal pathogens were rotavirus (22.7%) and norovirus genogroup ii (11.8%). the levels of no measured by median urinary nitrite:creatinine ratio were significantly higher in children with diarrhoea [23.6; interquartile range (iqr) 12.3-46.7] ...200919552932
single-particle cryoem reconstructions: meeting the challenge. 200919553214
analysis of the kinetics of transcription and replication of the rotavirus genome by rna interference.rotaviruses have a genome composed of 11 segments of double-stranded rna (dsrna) surrounded by three protein layers. the virus contains an rna-dependent rna polymerase that synthesizes rna transcripts corresponding to all segments of the viral genome. these transcripts direct the synthesis of the viral proteins and also serve as templates for the synthesis of the complementary strand to form the dsrna genome. in this work, we analyzed the kinetics of transcription and replication of the viral ge ...200919553303
detection and genotyping of human rotavirus vp4 and vp7 genes by reverse transcriptase pcr and reverse hybridization.rotavirus infections can be diagnosed in stool samples by serological and molecular methods. we developed a novel reverse transcriptase pcr (rt-pcr) method for the amplification of rotavirus rna and a reverse hybridization assay on a strip to detect amplimers and identify the specific g and p genotypes present in human stool specimens. an additional aim was to permit specific identification of the rotavirus g1p[8] strain, used in the rotarix vaccine. novel broad-spectrum pcr primers were develop ...200919553575
cost of routine immunization of young children against rotavirus infection with rotarix versus rotateq.using a probabilistic model of the clinical and economic burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge), we estimated the expected impact of vaccinating a us birth cohort with rotarix in lieu of rotateq. assuming full vaccination of all children, use of rotarix - rather than rotateq - was estimated to reduce the total number of rvge events by 5% and associated costs by 8%. on an overall basis, rotarix would reduce costs by $77.2 million (95% ci $71.5-$86.5). similar reductions with rotarix were esti ...200919555715
estimating the incidence of symptomatic rotavirus infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis.we conducted for the first time a systematic review, including a meta-analysis, of the incidence of symptomatic rotavirus (rv) infections, because (1) it was shown to be an influential factor in estimating the cost-effectiveness of rv vaccination, (2) multiple community-based studies assessed it prospectively, (3) previous studies indicated, inconclusively, it might be similar around the world.200919557133
[rapid detection of rotavirus in water samples using immunomagnetic separation combined with real time pcr].a quantitative and rapid detection method for rotavirus in water samples was developed, by using immunomagnetic separation combined with reverse transcription and real time polymerase chain reaction (ims-rt-real time pcr). magnetic beads coated with antibodies directed against group a rotavirus were used to capture and purify the virus in water samples. the experimental results showed that ims was optimized when 1 ml samples were supplemented with 10 microl of immunomagnetic beads, 2.5 microl of ...200919558103
genotypification of bovine group a rotavirus in méxico.bovine scours, frequently provoked by rotavirus infection, causes significant economic losses. nevertheless, no information exists about the bovine rotavirus genotypes present in mexico. this information is necessary for designing efficient vaccines. in this work, 128 samples from diarrheic calves were collected between 2005 and 2006 in 26 dairy and/or beef cattle herds located in 10 regions of mexico, and analyzed for the presence of group a rotavirus. g and p genotypes were determined by pcr i ...200919559115
morbidity and ambulatory resource utilization for diarrheal diseases. 200919559284
a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of lactobacillus gg in infantile diarrhea.in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 229 infants hospitalized for acute diarrhea in rural india were given a 10-day course of lactobacillus rhammosus gg (minimum dose, 10 degrees bacteria) or placebo. there was no difference in groups in the duration of diarrhea or numbers of stool on days 3, 6, or 10 of treatment.200919559297
molecular analysis of g3 rotavirus among infants and children in dhaka city, bangladesh after 1993.between 2004 and 2005, 917 fecal specimens were collected from children below age 5 who presented to child health institute for treatment of diarrhoea in dhaka city, bangladesh. the specimens were screened by rt-pcr for the presence of group a rotavirus and positive stools genotyped. group a rotavirus was detected in 307 stools and serotype g3p[8] strains were detected in nine specimens. sequence analysis clustered the g3 strains into one distinct lineage (lineage i) with other asian g3 strains. ...200919560559
molecular and epidemiological trend of rotavirus infection among infants and children in japan.this study investigated the prevalence of group a, b, and c rotavirus (rav, rbv, rcv) and adenovirus (adv) infections in infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in japan from july 2006 to june 2007. a total of 628 fecal specimens collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in five different places (maizuru, tokyo, sapporo, saga and osaka) in japan during the period of july 2006-june 2007 were examined for rav, rbv, rcv and adv by rt-multiplex pcr. rav was further chara ...200919560560
prevalence and clinical characteristics of norovirus gastroenteritis among hospitalized children in spain.the importance of norovirus as a cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks is well documented, but the role of norovirus in sporadic acute severe gastroenteritis is not so well established. the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of norovirus gastroenteritis among hospitalized children.200919561424
hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia syndrome in a patient with severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy.we report a 2-year-old girl who had repeated febrile or afebrile seizures since infancy. prolonged left/right hemiconvulsions and myoclonus of the eyelids/extremities with generalization to tonic-clonic seizures, were refractory to antiepileptic agents. at age 1 year and 4 months, she contracted rotavirus infection, and developed status epilepticus with persistent right hemiclonic seizures. left unilateral brain edema with subsequent emergence of cortical laminar necrosis and white matter lesion ...200919563349
urox 2.0: an interactive tool for fitting atomic models into electron-microscopy reconstructions.electron microscopy of a macromolecular structure can lead to three-dimensional reconstructions with resolutions that are typically in the 30-10 a range and sometimes even beyond 10 a. fitting atomic models of the individual components of the macromolecular structure (e.g. those obtained by x-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance) into an electron-microscopy map allows the interpretation of the latter at near-atomic resolution, providing insight into the interactions between the comp ...200919564685
rotavirus and the indigenous children of the australian outback: monovalent vaccine effective in a high-burden setting.indigenous children living in arid central australia experience frequent outbreaks of rotavirus gastroenteritis. a widespread outbreak of g9 rotavirus infection occurred several months after introduction of the rix4414 rotavirus vaccine. we performed a retrospective case-control study to determine vaccine efficacy during the outbreak. two doses provided an estimated vaccine efficacy of 77.7% (95% confidence interval, 40.2%-91.7%) against hospitalization for gastroenteritis. vaccine efficacy was ...200919566443
acute gastroenteritis in a pediatric hospital in rio de janeiro in pre- and post-rotavirus vaccination settings.a 4(1/2)-year hospital-based survey was conducted in rio de janeiro to determine baseline rates of gastroenteritis-related cases, hospitalizations, and deaths; to examine the prevalence of rotavirus strains causing admissions; and to assess the immediate impact of the nationwide rotavirus immunization program launched in march 2006. from august 2002 to may 2007, 14,473 (10.4%) of the 139,747 consultations had age as primary diagnosis, 491 (3.4%) children required hospitalization and two (0.4%) d ...200919572054
characterization of full-length vp4 genes of op354-like p[8] human rotavirus strains detected in bangladesh representing a novel p[8] subtype.the g1 and g9 rotavirus strains mmc71 and mmc38 (subgroup ii, nsp4 genogroup b), respectively, isolated from children in bangladesh, were analyzed genetically. full-length vp4 genes of these strains had 98.9% identity to each other and showed 83.9-89.4% identity to those of the p[4] and p[8] rotaviruses. phylogenetic analysis of vp4 nucleotide sequences revealed that strains mmc38 and mmc71 were located in a lineage of p[8] strains. however, the cluster was highly divergent from the previously e ...200919572186
diagnosis and treatment of acute or persistent diarrhea.studies of microbial pathogens and the toxins they produce are important for determining the mechanisms by which they cause disease and spread throughout a population. some bacteria produce secretory enterotoxins (such as cholera toxin or the heat-labile or stable enterotoxins produced by escherichia coli) that invade cells directly. others invade cells or produce cytotoxins (such as those produced by shigella, enteroinvasive e coli, or clostridium difficile) that damage cells or trigger host re ...200919457416
rotaviruses: from pathogenesis to vaccination.rotaviruses cause life-threatening gastroenteritis in children worldwide; the enormous disease burden has focused efforts to develop vaccines and led to the discovery of novel mechanisms of gastrointestinal virus pathogenesis and host responses to infection. two live-attenuated vaccines for gastroenteritis (rotateq [merck] and rotarix) have been licensed in many countries. this review summarizes the latest data on these vaccines, their effectiveness, and challenges to global vaccination. recent ...200919457420
clinical laboratory practices for the detection of rotavirus in england and wales: can surveillance based on routine laboratory testing data be used to evaluate the impact of vaccination?two rotavirus vaccines have recently been licensed in europe. rotavirus surveillance data in many european countries are based on reports of laboratory-confirmed rotavirus infections. if surveillance data based on routine laboratory testing data are to be used to evaluate the impact of vaccination programmes, it is important to determine how the data are influenced by differences in testing practices, and how these practices are likely to affect the ability of the surveillance data to represent ...200919460285
molecular epidemiology of rotaviruses among healthy calves in japan: isolation of a novel bovine rotavirus bearing new p and g genotypes.a total of 171 fecal specimens collected from healthy calves on a beef farm in gifu prefecture, japan in 2006-2007 were examined for group a rotaviruses by rt-semi-nested pcr targeting the coding region for vp8*. nine specimens were positive for rotavirus. g and p genotyping indicated that one strain was g10p[11]-like and six strains were considered to be the same unknown g and p genotypes. among these six untypeable strains, one strain, azuk-1, was adapted to cell culture and analyzed. sequence ...200919464329
multiplex pcr and multiplex rt-pcr for inclusive detection of major swine dna and rna viruses in pigs with multiple infections.multiplex pcr and multiplex rt-pcr were developed to identify nine viruses in pigs with multiple infections. these viruses are: porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), suid herpesvirus 1, porcine parvovirus (ppv), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), japanese encephalitis virus, porcine rotavirus a (porv-a), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (pedv), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), and getah virus. these methods were shown to be high specificity and sensitivity. in the ...200919467264
preliminary study for evaluation of avian influenza virus inactivation in contaminated poultry products using electron beam irradiation.spread of avian influenza is associated with movement of infected poultry and poultry products, and, as a result, strict international trade restrictions are in place. in addition, the possibility of transmission of avian influenza virus (aiv) strains to mammalian species by the consumption or handling of infected poultry, although a rare occurrence, is an important trade concern. traditional methods for poultry product decontamination, such as thermal processing, are effective in inactivating a ...200919468943
re: re: use of polymerase chain reaction for the differentiation of group a bovine rotavirus g6 , g8 , and g10 genotypes in the north island of new zealand. 200919471332
[use of the recombinant baculovirus bacvp6c for the construction of an internal positive control of rotavirus c.]aims: unlike group a, a few studies have interested other groups of the rotavirus, especially in tunisia. the role of rotavirus c (rvc) infection is underestimated because of its sporadic nature. the aim of our study was to develop rapid diagnostic procedures of rvc by using an internal positive control of reverse transcription pcr (rt-pcr). methods: the internal positive control (386pb) was designed from the recombinant baculovirus bacvp6c containing the full length cdna of the cowden strain ge ...200919473784
relationship between electropherotypes and vp7/vp4 genotypes of group a rotaviruses detected between 2000 and 2007 in tunisian children.background: rotaviruses are the most frequent agents associated with diarrhoea in children worldwide. analysis of mobility of the 11 segments of genomic rna by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) yields a pattern which is characteristic for a particular rotavirus isolate. the group a rotaviruses can be further characterized by analysis of vp7 and vp4 genes specificities, responsible for rotavirus classification into g and p genotypes, respectively. the aim of the present study was to detec ...200919481882
septicemia complicating rotavirus gastroenteritis in 5-year-old child. 200919483530
reviewing the cost effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination: the importance of uncertainty in the choice of data sources.published health economic evaluations of rotavirus vaccination up until july 2008 were reviewed. we assess whether differences in the results and conclusions of the various studies are due to differences in methodological and modelling choices, and/or the way parameter uncertainty was taken into account, or whether these are merely the result of genuine country/region-specific differences. no unambiguous single answer emerged as to whether universal rotavirus vaccination is or is not cost effect ...200919485425
molecular interactions in rotavirus assembly and uncoating seen by high-resolution cryo-em.rotaviruses, major causes of childhood gastroenteritis, are nonenveloped, icosahedral particles with double-strand rna genomes. by the use of electron cryomicroscopy and single-particle reconstruction, we have visualized a rotavirus particle comprising the inner capsid coated with the trimeric outer-layer protein, vp7, at a resolution (4 a) comparable with that of x-ray crystallography. we have traced the vp7 polypeptide chain, including parts not seen in its x-ray crystal structure. the 3 well- ...200919487668
budget impact and cost-effectiveness of including a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in the new zealand childhood immunization schedule.to estimate: 1) rotavirus disease burden in new zealand children aged under 5 years, and 2) health benefits, budget impact, and cost-effectiveness of incorporating a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (prv) into the national immunization schedule.200919490550
association between pentavalent rotavirus vaccine and severe rotavirus diarrhea among children in nicaragua.pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5), a live, oral attenuated vaccine, prevented 98% of severe rotavirus diarrhea in a trial conducted mainly in finland and the united states. nicaragua introduced rv5 in 2006, providing the first opportunity to assess the association between vaccination and rotavirus disease in a developing country.200919491186
energy forest irrigated with wastewater: a comparative microbial risk assessment.in this study, risks for human infection associated with irrigation of municipal wastewater on short rotation willow coppice (salix) were evaluated in three countries. the aim was also to determine the reduction of indicator organisms and pathogens in the treatment plants. two of the field sites were chosen for further evaluation by qmra (quantitative microbial risk assessment) applied to three scenarios: accidental ingestions of wastewater, exposure to aerosols and ingestion of groundwater. the ...200919491493
recombinant s-layer proteins of lactobacillus brevis mediating antibody adhesion to calf intestine alleviated neonatal diarrhea syndrome.a chimeric gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) and a s-layer protein from lactobacillus brevis kctc3102, and/or two copies of the fc-binding z-domain, a synthetic analog of the b-domain of protein a, was constructed and expressed in escherichia coli bl21(de3). the s-layer fusion proteins produced in a 500-l fermentor were likely to be stable in the range of ph 5 to 8 and 0 degree to 40 degrees . their adhesive property enabled an easy and rapid immobilization of enzymes or an ...200919494700
meeting of the immunization strategic advisory group of experts, april 2009--conclusions and recommendations. 200919499606
donor breastmilk saved infant lives during an outbreak of rotavirus in south africa. 200919500060
mechanism of the antiviral effect of hydroxytyrosol on influenza virus appears to involve morphological change of the virus.hydroxytyrosol (ht), a small-molecule phenolic compound, inactivated influenza a viruses including h1n1, h3n2, h5n1, and h9n2 subtypes. ht also inactivated newcastle disease virus but not bovine rotavirus, and fowl adenovirus, suggesting that the mechanism of the antiviral effect of ht might require the presence of a viral envelope. pretreatment of mdck cells with ht did not affect the propagation of h9n2 virus subsequently inoculated onto the cells, implying that ht targets the virus but not th ...200919501255
uv inactivation and resistance of rotavirus evaluated by integrated cell culture and real-time rt-pcr assay.rotaviruses are double-stranded rna viruses which are among the most resistant waterborne enteric viruses to uv disinfection. an integrated cell culture and real-time rt-pcr (icc real-time rt-pcr) assay was developed to detect the infectivity of rotaviruses in water, which uses real-time rt-pcr to detect rna produced by infectious rotaviruses during replication in host cells. detection of rotaviral rna in host cells provides direct evidence of the presence of infectious rotavirus rather than jus ...200919501383
the effect of ongoing exposure dynamics in dose response relationships.characterizing infectivity as a function of pathogen dose is integral to microbial risk assessment. dose-response experiments usually administer doses to subjects at one time. phenomenological models of the resulting data, such as the exponential and the beta-poisson models, ignore dose timing and assume independent risks from each pathogen. real world exposure to pathogens, however, is a sequence of discrete events where concurrent or prior pathogen arrival affects the capacity of immune effect ...200919503605
whole genome characterization of reassortant g10p[11] strain (n155) from a neonate with symptomatic rotavirus infection: identification of genes of human and animal rotavirus origin.rotavirus g10p[11] strains have long been associated with asymptomatic neonatal infections in some parts of india. we have previously reported g10p[11] strains associated with both asymptomatic infections and severe gastrointestinal disease in neonates from vellore in southern india, with >90% partial nucleotide and amino acid identity to the vp4, vp6, vp7 and nsp4 genes of the exclusively asymptomatic g10p[11] strain i321.200919505846
resource utilization and costs of treating severe rotavirus diarrhea in young mexican children from the health care provider perspective.rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in infants. the economic costs of treating severe rotavirus can be quite significant and are important to include in any evaluation of prevention programs. the aim of this study was to determine utilization of health care resources and costs incurred due to severe diarrhea associated with rotavirus infection in mexican children < 5 years of age.200919507471
the immune status of bovine somatic clones.agronomical applications of cloned livestock produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (scnt) have been authorized in the united states and the european food safety authority published that there was no evidence of risks associated with the use of cloned animal in the breeding industry. both assessments, however, underlined that complementary data are needed to update their conclusions. scnt is associated with a high incidence of perinatal losses. after birth, cloned cattle appear to possibly pr ...200919508113
[norovirus infection in general hospitals for adults].to determine the role of noroviruses in the rise of hospital outbreaks of acute intestinal infections (aii), to study clinical and epidemiological aspects of hospital noroviral infection.200919514424
structure of rotavirus outer-layer protein vp7 bound with a neutralizing fab.rotavirus outer-layer protein vp7 is a principal target of protective antibodies. removal of free calcium ions (ca2+) dissociates vp7 trimers into monomers, releasing vp7 from the virion, and initiates penetration-inducing conformational changes in the other outer-layer protein, vp4. we report the crystal structure at 3.4 angstrom resolution of vp7 bound with the fab fragment of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody. the fab binds across the outer surface of the intersubunit contact, which contains ...200919520960
concurrent infections and socioeconomic determinants of geohelminth infection: a community study of schoolchildren in periurban guinea-bissau.we explored the association between subclinical intestinal helminth infections and other gastrointestinal pathogens in 706 schoolchildren from a poor semirural area while adjusting for socioeconomic risk factors. the study was carried out in two neighbouring areas in the capital of guinea-bissau in west africa. children aged 4-12 years were visited and one child per mother was invited to participate in the study. among the 706 children included in the study, helminths were detected in 44.2%, ent ...200919524992
[impact of vaccination against rotavirus on hospitalization for acute severe gastroenteritis]. 200919531327
molecular screening and risk factors of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli and salmonella spp. in diarrheic neonatal calves in egypt.the aim of the present study was to carry out molecular epidemiological investigation on enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) k99 and salmonella spp. in diarrheic neonatal calves. fecal samples were obtained from 220 diarrheic calves at 9 farms related to four governorates in central and northern egypt. e. coli and salmonella spp. isolates were examined for e. coli k99 and salmonella spp. using pcr. etec k99 was recovered from 20 (10.36 %) out of 193 isolates, whereas salmonella spp. was reco ...200919419742
variation in antagonism of the interferon response to rotavirus nsp1 results in differential infectivity in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.rotavirus nsp1 has been shown to function as an e3 ubiquitin ligase that mediates proteasome-dependent degradation of interferon (ifn) regulatory factors (irf), including irf3, -5, and -7, and suppresses the cellular type i ifn response. however, the effect of rotavirus nsp1 on viral replication is not well defined. prior studies used genetic analysis of selected reassortants to link nsp1 with host range restriction in the mouse, suggesting that homologous and heterologous rotaviruses might use ...200919420080
[gastroenteritis due to rotavirus in two year old infants: impact on the family]. 200919427279
conclusion on cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination highly dependent on assumptions. 200919428858
broadening the age restriction for initiating rotavirus vaccination in regions with high rotavirus mortality: benefits of mortality reduction versus risk of fatal intussusception.recently developed rotavirus vaccines have the potential to reduce diarrhea mortality in children in developing countries. available data to date do not indicate risk of intussusception with these new vaccines. to avoid a potential unanticipated risk post-licensure, it is recommended that rotavirus immunization be initiated before 12 weeks of age when background intussusception rates are low. this policy could exclude a substantial number of children from vaccination, especially in developing co ...200919428901
detection of group c rotavirus in juvenile ferrets (mustela putorius furo) with diarrhea by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction: sequencing and analysis of the complete coding region of the vp6 gene.nine juvenile ferrets (mustela putorius furo) with a history of diarrhea were severely dehydrated and had distended abdomens and thin-walled small intestines that contained gas and fluid. histologically, small intestines exhibited acute superficial atrophic enteritis. transmission electron microscopy of the small intestine showed rotavirus-like particles within apical vacuoles. reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) was negative for group a rotavirus. a group c rotavirus-specif ...200919429992
immunomodulators released during rotavirus infection of polarized caco-2 cells.rotavirus preferentially replicates in enterocytes and "danger signals" released by these cells are likely to modulate viral immunity. as a model of these events, we studied selected immunomodulators released during rotavirus infection of polarized caco-2 cells grown in transwell cultures (tw). at early time points post-infection the virus was detected mainly in the apical side of the tws, but this tendency was progressively lost concomitantly with disruption of the cell monolayer and cell death ...200919435412
a naturally processed epitope on rotavirus vp7 glycoprotein recognized by hla-a2.1-restricted cytotoxic cd8+ t cells.previous studies in mice have shown that cd8(+) t cells can mediate clearance of rotavirus (rv) infection and provide protection from reinfection. moreover, it has been demonstrated that vp7 can induce a cross-reactive and vigorous specific cytotoxic t-lymphocyte (ctl) response. in this study, a panel of the potential human leukocyte antigen (hla)-a2.1-restricted ctl epitopes derived from the human rv wa strain vp7 glycoprotein were screened and assessed using reverse immunogenetics. the specifi ...200919435415
[probiotics. a review].probiotics are defined viable microorganisms which in sufficient amount reach the intestine in an active state, to be able to exert positive health benefit on the host. thus far, they have shown particular promise on prevention or treatment of various pathologic conditions. our aim has been to report the most recent articles (until october 2008), resulting from randomized, double controlled trials, according to the conventional and molecular methods. in this review we have taken into considerati ...200919445282
comparison of the efficacy of rotavirus vlp vaccines to a live homologous rotavirus vaccine in a pig model of rotavirus disease.rotavirus-like particles (vlps) have shown promise as rotavirus vaccine candidates in mice, rabbits and pigs. in pigs, vlp vaccines reduced rotavirus shedding and disease but only when used in conjunction with live attenuated human rotavirus. using a porcine rotavirus pig model, rotavirus antigen shedding was reduced by up to 40% after vaccination with vlps including the neutralizing antigens vp7 and vp8* when used in combination with the adjuvant polyphosphazene poly[di(carbozylatophenoxy)phosh ...200919446192
cost-effectiveness of infant vaccination with rix4414 (rotarix) in the uk.this study estimated the cost-effectiveness of infant rotavirus vaccination with rotarix in the uk, taking into account community rotavirus infections that do not present to the healthcare system. a markov model compared the costs and outcomes of vaccination versus no vaccination in a hypothetical birth cohort of children followed over a lifetime, from a societal perspective and the perspective of the national health service (nhs). the model estimated costs and quality-adjusted life-years (qalys ...200919446594
[research and development strategies, examples among new vaccines].classical methods are still providing new vaccines, but molecular biology and genetic engineering have enabled new approaches to development. changes in vaccinology have involved the isolation, presentation and administration of vaccinal antigens or attenuated vaccinal strains. new methods of vaccine delivery other than injection will be used (e.g. mucosal administration) and new vectors or adjuvants will be added to vaccines in order to stimulate specific responses. new vaccines can also be obt ...200919446670
[vaccines for the future].the field of vaccines and vaccinology has seen remarkable progress during the past 20 years. many vaccines, however, still need to be improved, either because the protection they provide is relatively short-lived and would greatly benefit from the development of booster formulations (as is the case for tuberculosis), or because they only cover part of the many serotypes of the pathogen that causes the disease (rotaviruses, papillomaviruses, or streptococcus pneumoniae). in addition, still many d ...200919446671
an economic analysis of rotavirus vaccination in italy.we have evaluated health and economic benefits of a universal infant vaccination with two rotavirus vaccines registered in italy, on the bases of the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) in a birth cohort of 520,000 italian infants followed until 5 years of age. estimates from published and unpublished sources of disease burden, costs, vaccine coverage, efficacy trials of both vaccines, and price were used to estimate cost-effectiveness from the perspectives of the italian national health ...200919446934
experimental reproduction of poult enteritis syndrome: clinical findings, growth response, and microbiology.poult enteritis syndrome (pes) is an infectious disease of turkey poults characterized by diarrhea, dullness, and depression. five experiments were conducted to reproduce the disease in turkey poults using intestinal contents of pes-affected birds. in all experiments, poults at 14 d of age were divided into 4 groups and were orally given 2 ml of unfiltered supernatant, filtered supernatant, sediment dissolved in pbs, or pbs alone. inocula in experiments 1, 3, and 5 consisted of intestinal conten ...200919359682
detection of human viruses in rivers of a densly-populated area in germany using a virus adsorption elution method optimized for pcr analyses.transmission of viruses via surface water is a major public health concern. to determine the viral concentration in rivers of a densely-populated area in germany, the virus adsorption elution (viradel) method was optimized for downstream pcr applications. using a high-salt alkaline phosphate buffer for elution, the median recovery efficiency from spiked 1l water samples ranged from 21.3% to 100% for jc polyomavirus, human adenovirus type 5, echovirus 11, and norovirus genogroup i. analyses of 41 ...200919361832
detection and molecular characterization of porcine group c rotaviruses in south korea.group c rotaviruses (gcrvs) cause acute diarrhea in humans and animals worldwide and the evidence for a possible zoonotic role of gcrvs has been recently provided. however, there is little evidence of porcine gcrv infections or of their genetic diversity in south korea. we examined 137 diarrheic fecal specimens from 55 farms collected from six provinces. rt-pcr utilizing primer pairs specific for the gcrv vp6 gene detected gcrv-positive reactions in 36 (26.2%) diarrheic fecal samples. of these, ...200919362434
population-based incidence and burden of childhood intussusception in jeonbuk province, south korea.the aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of childhood intussusception and to estimate the incidence rate of intussusception before the introduction of rotavirus vaccines in korea.200919362503
[astrovirus rna detection using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction].the taqman-based real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay we developed is sensitive and detects seven (1-7) human astrovirus (hastv) serotypes. we chose conserved regions at the 5' end of the open reading frame2 (orf2) was chosen at the assay targets for designing new primers and the taqman mgb probe that detects all hastv serotypes. real-time rt-pcr reactivity was confirmed with hastv serotype 1 through 7 control plasmids and efficiency ranged from 3 ...200919364039
a study on the possibility of zoonotic infection in rotaviral diarrhoea among calves and buffalo calves in and around kolkata, india.group a and group b rotaviruses are important diarrhea causing agents among calves and buffalo calves. epidemiological studies in indian calves revealed the predominance of group a rotavirus strains with g6, g8, and g10 specificity and group b rotaviruses. a total of 95 fecal samples were collected from calves and buffalo calves affected with diarrhea from an unorganized cattle farm and two cattle markets in and around kolkata, in the state of west bengal of eastern india. rotaviruses were detec ...200919364081
emergence of unusual human rotavirus strains in salento, italy, during 2006-2007.in recent years, rotavirus genotyping by rt-pcr has provided valuable information about the diversity of rotaviruses (rv) circulating throughout the world.the purpose of the present study was to monitor the prevalence of the different g and p genotypes of rotaviruses circulating in salento and detect any uncommon or novel types.200919368717
experience of pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine among healthy infants in taiwan.rotavirus infection is the most common etiology of acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. the first rotavirus vaccine was licensed by the united states food and drug administration in 1998 but was suspended soon after in 1999 because of the possibility of induced intussusception. this study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a newly developed pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in taiwanese children.200919369174
cell-culture-based immunochromatography for rapid detection of group a human rotaviruses in aquatic environments.in an effort to detect rapidly and conveniently the infectious waterborne group a human rotaviruses that cause diarrhea in infants and children, the authors developed the first-ever cell-culture-based immunochromatography method. an immunochromatography kit interacted only with the human rotaviruses vp6 antigen, and the cell-culture-based immunochromatography detected group a human rotaviruses with a sensitivity as low as 1.99 tcid50 ml(-1). this detection sensitivity was similar to that of the ...200919213464
whole genome sequencing of lamb rotavirus and comparative analysis with other mammalian rotaviruses.rotavirus (rv) epidemiological surveys with molecular analysis of various strains are required for gastroenteritis control and prevention. the lamb rotavirus strain nt, isolated from a diarrhea lamb in china, is considered as a promising vaccine strain. the whole genome of the lamb-nt strain was determined by sequence analysis. sequence identity and phylogenetic analysis defined the lamb-nt strain as group a, genotype g10p[15]/nsp4[a]/sg1 strain. comparative genomic analysis of the lamb-nt strai ...200919214729
potential impact and cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination of children in israel.rotavirus is a common cause of acute gastroenteritis in children under 5 years of age. two effective vaccines against rotavirus gastroenteritis were recently licensed in many countries throughout the world. the study aimed to investigate the cost effectiveness of vaccinating an israeli birth cohort of 143 500 children.200919221026
[acute liver damage caused by non-hepatotropic virus in 86 children]. 200919222956
presence and environmental circulation of enteric viruses in three different wastewater treatment plants.the aim of the work was to evaluate the circulation of the viruses and to determine a correlation between faecal indicators and viruses.200919226391
[profile of paediatric admissions and emergencies during an epidemic period of rotavirus in valladolid [spain]. utility of a predictive model].the aim of this study was to determine the weeks of high rotavirus circulation in valladolid (spain) and to compare the characteristics of hospitalizations and emergencies in epidemic and nonepidemic periods.200919231725
epidemiological study of bovine norovirus infection by rt-pcr and a vlp-based antibody elisa.noroviruses, belonging to the family caliciviridae, have been identified in human beings and in several animal species including cattle. the distribution of bovine norovirus infections was investigated by both rt-pcr to detect norovirus genomes and a virus-like particles-based elisa to detect genotype 2 bovine norovirus antibodies. during a 1-year systematic study, a virus prevalence of 7.5% (ci 95%: [3.7; 13.4%]) (10 out of 133 samples) was found in stool samples from diarrhoeic calves screened ...200919232845
rotaviruses and rotavirus vaccines.rotaviruses (rvs) are an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, resulting in more than 600 000 deaths per annum, mainly in developing countries. since the 1980s, there has been intensive research on the development of rv vaccine candidates, and since 2006 two vaccines have been licensed in many countries.200919233929
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