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infection status of hospitalized diarrheal patients with gastrointestinal protozoa, bacteria, and viruses in the republic of korea.to understand protozoan, viral, and bacterial infections in diarrheal patients, we analyzed positivity and mixed-infection status with 3 protozoans, 4 viruses, and 10 bacteria in hospitalized diarrheal patients during 2004-2006 in the republic of korea. a total of 76,652 stool samples were collected from 96 hospitals across the nation. the positivity for protozoa, viruses, and bacteria was 129, 1,759, and 1,797 per 10,000 persons, respectively. especially, cryptosporidium parvum was highly mixed ...201020585526
reduction in gastroenteritis with the use of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in a primary practice.pentavalent rotavirus (rv) vaccine (rv5) was licensed in 2006 and recommended for routine childhood immunization. a significant decrease in the number of rv hospitalizations has been described. the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of rv5 on acute gastroenteritis (age) seen in a primary practice.201020587671
influence of zinc supplementation in acute diarrhea differs by the isolated organism.zinc supplementation is recommended in all acute diarrheas in children from developing countries. we aimed to assess whether zinc supplementation would be equally effective against all the common organisms associated with acute diarrheas. we used data on 801 children with acute diarrhea recruited in a randomized, double blind controlled trial (isrctn85071383) of zinc and copper supplementation. using prespecified subgroup analyses, multidimensionality reduction analyses, tests of heterogeneity, ...201020592753
rotavirus infections and vaccines: burden of illness and potential impact of vaccination.rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. by 5 years of age virtually every child worldwide will have experienced at least one rotavirus infection. this leads to an enormous disease burden, where every minute a child dies because of rotavirus infection and another four are hospitalized, at an annual societal cost in 2007 of $us2 billion. most of the annual 527 000 deaths are in malnourished infants living in rural regions of low and middle income countries. in ...201020593908
rotavirus vaccine could save millions of children worldwide. 201020595806
pectic polysaccharides from panax ginseng as the antirotavirus principals in ginseng.to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of ginseng, the active principals of ginseng were studied in vitro model of rotavirus infection, the leading cause of severe diarrhea. two pectic polysaccharides, named as gp50-dhr (56.0 kda) and gp50-ehr (77.0 kda), were purified from hot water extract of ginseng by bioassay-linked fractionation. both polysaccharides rescued cell viability from rotavirus infection dose-dependently (ic50 are 15 and 10 microg/ml, respectively). both polysaccharides had common ...201020597500
ab initio high-resolution single-particle 3d reconstructions: the symmetry adapted functions way.a protocol to attain high-resolution single-particle reconstructions is presented. the protocol is the concatenation of two procedures: one to obtain an ab initio low-resolution reconstruction, the other to determine a fixed point of the consecutive applications of fast projection matching and 3d reconstruction. it is a reciprocal space formulation where the fourier coefficients of the 3d scattering density are expressed in terms of symmetry adapted functions and the 2d particle images are repre ...201020599509
separation of rotavirus double-layered particles and triple-layered particles by capillary zone electrophoresis.cell culture derived rotavirus preparations contain a mixture of double-layered particles (dlps) and triple-layered particles (tlps). characterization of rotavirus vaccine products is important to demonstrate a consistent manufacturing process. a capillary zone electrophoresis (cze) method was developed to separate and quantitate rotavirus dlps and tlps in cell lysate samples and cscl-purified vaccine preparations of each of the five reassortant rotavirus vaccine strains (g1, g2, g3, g4 and p1) ...201020599561
effects of qwbzp on t-cell subsets and their cytokines in intestinal mucosa of hrv infection suckling mice.qiwei baizhu powder (qwbzp) is a traditional herbal prescription that has been used traditionally for the treatment of infantile diarrhea, including the infantile diarrhea caused by human rotavirus (hrv). in this study, we investigated the pharmacological activity of qwbzp extract.201020600774
a graphene oxide based immuno-biosensor for pathogen detection. 201020602383
molecular characterization of rotaviruses in a japanese raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides) and a masked palm civet (paguma larvata) in japan.group a rotaviruses infect and cause diarrhea in humans and a wide range of mammals. previous studies have suggested that some strains can cross the species barrier to infect humans (martella et al., 2010). however, there are few reports on infection and characterization of rotaviruses in wild animals. to estimate what types of rotaviruses infect wild animals, we investigated infection of rotaviruses in wild animals living in urban areas in japan between 2003 and 2008. of 145 fecal specimens obt ...201020605380
fda: benefits of rotavirus vaccination outweigh potential contamination risk. 201020606142
rotavirus genotypes in costa rica, nicaragua, honduras and the dominican republic.in this study, 574 stool samples from children with gastroenteritis were obtained from different hospitals in costa rica, honduras, nicaragua and the dominican republic during 2005-2006. diarrhea stool samples were analyzed for rotavirus by elisa and typed by the rt-pcr-based method. unusual strains were detected: g1p6, g2p8, g3p6, g9p4 and mixed infections. recent studies have indicated that unusual human rotavirus strains are emerging as global strains, which has important implications for eff ...201020606460
comparative efficacy of immunological, molecular and culture assays for detection of group a rotavirus from faecal samples of buffalo (bubalus bubalis) calves.group a rotaviruses play an important role in causing gastroenteritis and mortality in buffalo (bubalus bubalis) calves. a number of assays like rna-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (rna-page), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and virus isolation have been employed for rotavirus diagnosis. we evaluated the comparative efficacy of different assays for detection of group a rotavirus in buffalo calves. a total of 455 faecal sample ...201020607400
progress and barriers for the control of diarrhoeal disease.discovery of intestinal sodium-glucose transport was the basis for development of oral rehydration solution, and was hailed as potentially the most important medical advance of the 20th century. before widespread use of oral rehydration solution, treatment for diarrhoea was restricted to intravenous fluid replacement, for which patients had to go to a health-care facility to access appropriate equipment. these facilities were usually neither available nor reasonable to use in the resource-poor s ...201020609988
[rotavirus and seizures. a well-defined uncommon association].rotavirus infection, besides gastrointestinal symptoms, may cause several neurological complications. among these, are benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (cwg). despite having well defined clinical features, its incidence is not well known.201020615771
breastfeeding protects against acute gastroenteritis due to rotavirus in infants.to assess whether breastfeeding protects against acute gastroenteritis (age) due to rotavirus (rv) infection compared to rv-negative age (rv-) in children age 0-12 months. data from a community-based study of children with age from 30 pediatric practices in germany, switzerland, and austria were evaluated. a case-control design was conducted with rv-positive age (rv+) cases and rv- age as controls. odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using log-linear regression models adjusti ...201020617343
current level of consensus on probiotic science-report of an expert meeting- london, 23 november 2009.the present paper summarizes  the consensus views of a group of 9 european clinicians and scientists on the current state of scientific knowledge on probiotics, covering those areas where there is substantial evidence for beneficial effects and those  where the evidence base is poor or inconsistent. there was general agreement that probiotic effects were species and often strain specific. the experts agreed  that some probiotics were effective in reducing the incidence and duration of rotavirus ...201021637035
small intestinal segment perfusion test in piglets: future applications in studying probiotics-gut crosstalk in infectious diarrhoea?worldwide infectious diarrhoea, mainly caused by rotavirus and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec), accounts for a large part of deaths in children. etec is also the main cause of traveller's diarrhoea. probiotics are promising for prevention and treatment of diarrhoea, but there is insufficient evidence to support the use of any specific probiotic or probiotics in general. because of the sensitivity of suckling and weaned piglets for etec, piglets are a good model for infectious diarrhoea i ...201021831782
evidence aid and the disaster response in pakistan and haiti.this editorial has also been recorded as a podcast; please click here to access.as if a natural disaster was not enough, vibrio cholerae emerged to make the situation worse in post-flood pakistan, and for the first time since the 1960s in post-earthquake haiti . how do we, as researchers, policy-makers and human beings, respond to such situations? in response to the tsunami on 26 december 2004, concerned reviewers within the cochrane collaboration established evidence aid - an initiative that po ...201021833937
australian rotavirus surveillance program: annual report, 2009/2010.the australian rotavirus surveillance program together with 15 collaborating laboratories australia-wide conducts a laboratory based rotavirus surveillance program. this report describes the genotypes of rotavirus strains responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 july 2009 to 30 june 2010, the 3rd year of surveillance following introduction of rotavirus vaccines into the national immunisation program. seven hundred and seventy-eight faecal sam ...201021413527
role of lipids on entry and exit of bluetongue virus, a complex non-enveloped virus.non-enveloped viruses such as members of picornaviridae and reoviridae are assembled in the cytoplasm and are generally released by cell lysis. however, recent evidence suggests that some non-enveloped viruses exit from infected cells without lysis, indicating that these viruses may also utilize alternate means for egress. moreover, it appears that complex, non-enveloped viruses such as bluetongue virus (btv) and rotavirus interact with lipids during their entry process as well as with lipid raf ...201021994677
[study on the ubiquitin ligase activity of rotavirus nsp1 protein].to confirm the activity of non structural protein 1 (nsp1) of rotavirus (rv) as e3 ubiquitin ligase by experiments and to provide some clues for nsp1 on the pathogenic mechanisms and replication of rv.201021604574
[rotavirus vaccination in europe in 2010].the important burden of rotavirus infections in infants largely justifies vaccine prevention. two attenuated oral vaccines were licensed in europe in 2006 and have proven effective against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants, yet few countries have implemented vaccination. this hesitation may be related to a very low risk of intussusception in vaccinees, but is mainly due to national differences in cost-effectiveness.201022046709
[gastroenteritis viruses in france and europe].rotaviruses and noroviruses are the main causes of acute gastroenteritis in young children and adults, respectively. prospective molecular surveillance of rotavirus genotypes in france and europe shows that circulating strains may vary with the season, locality or country. rotavirus ok? genotypes g1 and g9 are the most prevalent. most strains are associated with p[8], showing a certain genotypic stability of rotaviruses currently circulating in europe and suggesting that vaccination would be eff ...201022046707
[viral gastroenteritis in domestic animals and zoonoses].etiologic investigations of infectious diarrhea were long limited to bacteria and protozoa. the advent of electron microscopy and molecular biology showed that diarrhea could also be caused by viruses, both in humans and in other animals. in 1969, electron microcopy was used to show, for the first time, the responsibility of a virus in a case of calf diarrhea. this "reo-like virus "was subsequently identified as a rotavirus, and was shown only four years later to be responsible for severe diarrh ...201022046708
recommendations for the use of rotavirus vaccines in infants.rotavirus infection occurs in the majority of healthy children before five years of age, and is the most common diarrheal illness associated with hospitalization. the majority of children present with symptoms of vomiting, diarrhea and fever. as a result, rotavirus gastroenteritis is responsible for greater morbidity than other common childhood diarrheal illnesses. the highest risk of severe disease is in children younger than two years of age. it is estimated that one in 20 children will requir ...201021966238
[contribution of mathematical modeling to vaccination decision making. examples from varicella, rotavirus and papillomavirus vaccinations].the decision to add a new vaccine to the immunization schedule is a complex and multidisciplinary process based on the risk-benefit balance and, increasingly, on the cost- effectiveness ratio. such decisions now use mathematical models that can predict the indirect, and potentially detrimental, effects of mass vaccination on the epidemiology of the target disease. the adjunction of an economic component to the modeling process ensures that vaccination represents an efficient allocation of availa ...201022046716
toxin mediated diarrhea in the 21 century: the pathophysiology of intestinal ion transport in the course of etec, v. cholerae and rotavirus infection.an estimated 4 billion episodes of diarrhea occur each year. as a result, 2-3 million children and 0.5-1 million adults succumb to the consequences of this major healthcare concern. the majority of these deaths can be attributed to toxin mediated diarrhea by infectious agents, such as e. coli, v. cholerae or rotavirus. our understanding of the pathophysiological processes underlying these infectious diseases has notably improved over the last years. this review will focus on the cellular mechani ...201022069677
unexpected modulation of recall b and t cell responses after immunization with rotavirus-like particles in the presence of lt-r192g.lt-r192g, a mutant of the thermolabile enterotoxin of e. coli, is a potent adjuvant of immunization. immune responses are generally analyzed at the end of protocols including at least 2 administrations, but rarely after a prime. to investigate this point, we compared b and t cell responses in mice after one and two intrarectal immunizations with 2/6 rotavirus-like particles (2/6-vlp) and lt-r192g. after a boost, we found, an unexpected lower b cell expansion measured by flow cytometry, despite a ...201022069670
[epidemiology of viral gastroenteritis in france and europe].continuous surveillance of acute diarrhea in france has been conducted by inserm's sentinel network of general practitioners (gp) since 1991. similar gp-based studies have been performed in the netherlands, austria and the uk. the causes of most cases of acute diarrhea are unclear. in case-controlstudies designed to identify viruses in stools, 35 to 40% of cases and virtually none of the controls were positive for one of 4 major viruses (rotavirus, calicivirus, astrovirus and adenovirus). thus, ...201022046706
clinical profile and prevalence of rotavirus infection in children presented with acute diarrhea at tertiary care referral hospital at northern part of india.a prospective analysis of 90 clinically diagnosed cases with acute diarrhea over a period of one year was carried out to determine the prevalence of rotavirus infection in children between 2 months to 2 years of age. enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) were used for detection of rotavirus from stool sample. fourteen (15.6%) of them were found to be positive for group a rotavirus, 9 (23%) cases were between 6 months to 1 year of age. rotavirus e ...200922010485
a case of kawasaki disease with anasarca and concomitant rotavirus infection.we present the case of a child who initially presented with gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis complicated by hyponatraemic dehydration. appropriate intravenous fluid therapy was administered but the patient, still feverish, developed anasarca probably due to hyperpermeability of microvessels following massive inflammation. atypical kawasaki disease was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical findings and laboratory tests. an echocardiogram performed on the 1 ...200921897831
rotavirus antagonism of the innate immune response.rotavirus is a primary cause of severe dehydrating gastroenteritis in infants and young children. the virus is sensitive to the antiviral effects triggered by the interferon (ifn)-signaling pathway, an important component of the host cell innate immune response. to counteract these effects, rotavirus encodes a nonstructural protein (nsp1) that induces the degradation of proteins involved in regulating ifn expression, such as members of the ifn regulatory factor (irf) family. in some instances, n ...200921994581
rotavirus infection and epidermal necrolysis of the bowel in a patient with aids.a 44-year-old man with hiv, with a cd4+ count of 45/µl and a viral load of 88 000 copies/ml, who was completing therapy for pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, presented with severe bloody diarrhoea, fevers and abdominal pain. endoscopy revealed total epidermal necrolysis of the colon, and partial epidermal necrolysis of the duodenum, a histologic pattern most typically seen in severe graft versus host disease. computed tomography (ct) documented inflammation of the entire gastrointestinal tract dis ...200922125583
acute encephalopathy associated rotavirus gastroenteritis. 200921887204
gastroenteritis in children.acute gastroenteritis results from infection of the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly with a virus. it is characterised by rapid onset of diarrhoea with or without vomiting, nausea, fever, and abdominal pain. diarrhoea is defined as the frequent passage of unformed, liquid stools. regardless of the cause, the mainstay of management of acute gastroenteritis is provision of adequate fluids to prevent and treat dehydration. methods and outcomes: we conducted a systematic review and aimed to ans ...200921726481
history of rotavirus research in children in malawi: the pursuit of a killer.rotavirus gastroenteritis is a major health problem among malawian children. studies spanning 20 years have described the importance, epidemiology and viral characteristics of rotavirus infections in the country. despite a wide diversity of circulating rotavirus strains causing severe disease in young infants, a clinical trial of a human rotavirus vaccine clearly demonstrated the potential for rotavirus vaccination to greatly reduce the morbidity and mortality due to rotavirus diarrhoea in malaw ...200920345020
[a method of detect the virus which caused diarrhea].building a method which can examines virus pathogenic in gastroenteritis excrement specimen.200920387496
[frequency and severity of rotavirus acute gastroenteritis hospitalized in bucharest, romania. results of a case-control study].rotavirus gastroenteritis is an emergent condition of morbidity at global level; who is currently recommending integration of rotavirus vaccination into the regions and states where rotavirus infection is identified as a public health priority problem.200920524394
molecular characterization and epidemiology of rotavirus isolates obtained from children with diarrhoea in malaysia.this retrospective study examined the g/p type of rotavirus in rna samples that have previously been e-typed by rna-page in 1996. the results were then compared to 2007 samples to ascertain the extent of changes that may have occurred in this 11-years time interval. the g and p genotypes were determined by hemi-nested pcr and further analysed by phylogenetic study. in 1996, the g/p combination g1p[8], g(ut)p[8] and g1p(ut) prevalence rate were 81%, 9% and 7%, respectively. as expected, the g9 ge ...200920527266
[reverse genetics system for rotavirus and its potential for analyzing the pathogenesis]. 200921089520
the diagnosis of norovirus infections in hospitalized children and adolescents with acute gastroenteritis: a study from pilsen, czech republic.norovirus-associated sporadic gastroenteritis is an important cause of illness in western europe. however, at present, little information on the role of norovirus in sporadic gastroenteritis in central europe is available. our study aimed at providing an assessment of their significance in hospitalized children and adolescents with acute gastroenteritis using elisa test at the time of their introduction.200921110484
integrin alphavbeta6 and mediators of extracellular matrix deposition are up-regulated in experimental biliary atresia.biliary atresia (ba) is a progressive obliteration of the extrahepatic bile ducts resulting in hepatic fibrosis. the underlying mechanisms have not been defined. we used an animal model of ba to evaluate mediators of extracellular matrix (ecm) processing to determine which factors may be involved.200919084240
rotavirus vp7-gene selection during coinfections in caco-2 cells.a previous rotavirus epidemiological survey in córdoba, argentina, revealed an unusually high frequency of mixed g-type infections (41.5%). the genotype distribution of those mixed infections showed that the most prevalent g-type combinations were g1+g4 (65.0%), g1+g2 (12.5%), g2+g4 (3.1%) and g1+g9 (2.5%). in the present study we analyzed the competitive growth in caco-2 cell cultures of strains from the most frequent rotavirus g-type coinfections in order to explain some aspect of the dynamic ...200919084615
genotypic distribution of rotavirus strains causing severe gastroenteritis in gyeonggi province, south korea, from 2003 to 2005.rotavirus was present in 1,367 of 7,060 stool samples (19.4%) collected in gyeonggi province of south korea from 2003 through 2005. the predominant genotypes were confirmed as g4/p2a[6] (19.0%) followed by g3/p1a[8] (15.6%), g2/p1b[4] (9.3%), and g1/p1a[8] (6.5%). the predominant types of rotavirus by year were g3/p[8] in 2003, g4/p[6] in 2004, and g1/p[8] in 2005. the prevalent rotavirus genotypes changed constantly from 2003 to 2005.200919066711
nitazoxanide vs. probiotics for the treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhea in children: a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial in bolivian children.in previous studies, nitazoxanide has demonstrated a cytoprotective effect against rotavirus, reducing the duration of diarrhea in comparison to placebo. we designed a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial in order to assess the effectiveness of nitazoxanide and probiotics in comparison with a control group.200919070525
rotarix: a rotavirus vaccine for the world.single rotavirus infections have been reported to protect humans against subsequent illnesses caused by both homotypic and heterotypic rotaviruses. on the basis of these observations, a g1p[8] strain of human rotavirus named 89-12 was attenuated by multiple passages in cell culture and was developed into a vaccine candidate (herein referred to as the rix4414 vaccine). this vaccine is currently licensed in >100 countries worldwide, many of which have a universal recommendation for all infants. th ...200919072246
molecular characterization of rotaviruses, noroviruses, sapovirus, and adenoviruses in patients with acute gastroenteritis in thailand.outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis occur worldwide including thailand. unfortunately, there is limited information since etiologic agents have not been identified in several outbreaks of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. the genotype of enteric viruses causing acute gastroenteritis in thailand was determined using reverse transcription-multiplex polymerase chain reaction and dna sequencing. from january 2006 to february 2007, stool samples were collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis of a ...200919107961
characterization of genotype p[9]g12 rotavirus strains from argentina: high similarity with japanese and korean g12 strains.the circulation of the unusual p[9]g12 strains was previously reported in suburban buenos aires, argentina and in far eastern asian countries. to examine genetic relationships of these strains the genes coding vp7, vp4, and nsp1 from two argentine, one japanese and one korean p[9]g12 isolates were sequenced and their overall genome relatedness was determined by liquid hybridization. in addition, liquid hybridization was used to compare this group of strains to the previous g12 isolates l26 and s ...200919107963
phylogenetic analysis of rotaviruses with predominant g3 and emerging g9 genotypes from adults and children in wuhan, china.prevalence and phylogenetic relatedness of rotaviruses causing diarrheal diseases in children and adults were analyzed in wuhan, china. during a period between june 2006 and february 2008, group a rotavirus was identified in 24.9% (280/1126) and 7.6% (83/1088) of specimens taken from children and adults, respectively. g3p[8] was the most frequent genotype in both children (66.3%) and adults (62.7%), followed by g1p[8] (20.3% and 26.2%, respectively). g9 was detected in specimens from six childre ...200919107964
genetic diversity and zoonotic potential of human rotavirus strains, 2003-2006, hungary.rotavirus strain surveillance is being conducted in many countries before and after introduction of newly licensed vaccines to assess the impact of the vaccines on rotavirus strains. here we describe a strain surveillance study in the budapest area of hungary (2003-2006) based on rna profile analysis, genotyping by multiplex pcr and nucleotide sequencing. among 1,983 g-typed rotaviruses we identified g1 (22%), g2 (4.8%), g3 (3.5%), g4 (18.5%), g6 (1.1%), g8 (<0.1%, n = 1), g9 (42%), and g12 (3.4 ...200919107981
nosocomial gastroenteritis in children with and without rotavirus infection. 200919034059
rotavirus architecture at subnanometer resolution.rotavirus, a nonturreted member of the reoviridae, is the causative agent of severe infantile diarrhea. the double-stranded rna genome encodes six structural proteins that make up the triple-layer particle. x-ray crystallography has elucidated the structure of one of these capsid proteins, vp6, and two domains from vp4, the spike protein. complementing this work, electron cryomicroscopy (cryoem) has provided relatively low-resolution structures for the triple-layer capsid in several biochemical ...200919036817
early-life rotavirus and norovirus infections in relation to development of atopic manifestation in infants.the increase in incidence of atopic diseases (ads) in the developed world over the past decades has been associated with reduced exposure of childhood infections.200919032360
cholangiocytes as immune modulators in rotavirus-induced murine biliary atresia.biliary atresia (ba) is a progressive disease characterized by bile duct inflammation and fibrosis. the aetiology is unknown and may be due to a virus-induced, autoimmune-mediated injury of cholangiocytes. cholangiocytes are not only targets of injury but may also modulate hepatic inflammation. the aim of this study was to determine the immune profile of murine cholangiocytes and the ability to function as antigen-presenting cells (apcs) in culture with rhesus rotavirus (rrv), poly i:c (viral mi ...200919040538
characterization of vp7 and vp4 genes of rotavirus strains: 1990-1994 and 2000-2002.a total of 90 rotavirus-positive faecal specimens collected from patients hospitalized with diarrhoea in 1990-1994 (n=77) and 2000-2002 (n=13) were investigated for vp7 and vp4 genotypes. the specimens included 21 typable and 69 non-reactive or multireactive rotavirus strains as monitored by monoclonal antibody-based serotyping elisa. genotyping was carried out by multiplex pcr/sequencing using primers specific for both vp7 and vp4 genes. the contribution of common genotypes (g1p[8], g2p[4], g3p ...200919046475
acute gastroenteritis caused by multiple enteric pathogens in children.of 303 children hospitalized with acute non-bloody, non-mucoid diarrhoea, 69 (22.8%) had polymicrobial infection, including 52 (17.2%) multiple viral infection and 17 (5.6%) viral and bacterial co-infection. rotavirus had the most important role in both categories; thus the control of rotavirus infection is crucial for maintaining children's health in taiwan.200919046476
role of astrovirus in intussusception in nigerian infants.intussusception (is) is a form of intestinal obstruction in which a segment of the bowel prolapses into a more distal segment. viral infections, mostly adenovirus, enteroviruses, human herpesvirus and epstein-barr virus are reported in 20-50% of childhood cases of is. between january and july 2004, six stool specimens collected from infants 0- to 8-months old diagnosed and admitted for is were investigated for the presence of rotavirus, astrovirus and adenovirus antigens. astrovirus antigen was ...200919052076
toll-like receptor and innate cytokine responses induced by lactobacilli colonization and human rotavirus infection in gnotobiotic pigs.toll-like receptors (tlr) play an important role in the recognition of microbes by host sentinel cells that leads to the subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. in this study, we evaluated the patterns of tlr2-, tlr3- and tlr9-expressing antigen presenting cells (apcs) in spleen and blood of gnotobiotic (gn) pigs after colonization with a mixture of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (lab), lactobacillus acidophilus and lactobacillus reuteri or infection with the virulent human rotavir ...200919054578
seasonality of rotavirus disease in the tropics: a systematic review and meta-analysis.to date little conclusive evidence exists on the seasonality of rotavirus incidence in the tropics. we present a systematic review and meta-analysis on the seasonal epidemiology of rotavirus in the tropics, including 26 studies reporting continuous monthly rotavirus incidence for which corresponding climatological data was available.200919056806
molecular characterization of group c rotaviruses detected in children in italy.group c rotavirus (gcrv) infection has been described worldwide in children and adults either as sporadic cases or large outbreaks of gastroenteritis but gcrv epidemiology is still unclear.200919059000
tight junctions as targets of infectious agents.the epithelial barrier is a critical border that segregates luminal material from entering tissues. essential components of this epithelial fence are physical intercellular structures termed tight junctions. these junctions use a variety of transmembrane proteins coupled with cytoplasmic adaptors, and the actin cytoskeleton, to attach adjacent cells together thereby forming intercellular seals. breaching of this barrier has profound effects on human health and disease, as barrier deficiencies ha ...200919059200
sialic acid dependence in rotavirus host cell invasion.we used nmr spectroscopy, molecular modeling and infectivity competition assays to investigate the key interactions between the spike protein (vp8(*)) from 'sialidase-insensitive' human wa and 'sialidase-sensitive' porcine crw-8 rotaviruses and the glycans of gangliosides g(m1) and g(d1a). our data provide strong evidence that n-acetylneuraminic acid is a key determinant for binding of these rotaviruses. this is in contrast to the widely accepted paradigm that sialic acids are irrelevant in host ...200919109595
novel human rotavirus genotype g5p[7] from child with diarrhea, cameroon.we report characterization of a genotype g5p[7] human rotavirus (hrv) from a child in cameroon who had diarrhea. sequencing of all 11 gene segments showed similarities to > or =5 genes each from porcine and human rotaviruses. this g5p[7] strain exemplifies the importance of heterologous animal rotaviruses in generating hrv genetic diversity through reassortment.200919116059
serotype g12 rotaviruses, lilongwe, malawi.to assess diversity of rotavirus strains in lilongwe, malawi, we conducted a cross-sectional study of children with acute gastroenteritis, july 2005-june 2007. serotype g12 was identified in 30 (5%) of 546 rotavirus-positive fecal specimens. the g12 strain possessed multiple electropherotypes and p-types, but their viral protein 7 sequences were closely related, indicating that reassortment has occurred.200919116060
g2 strain of rotavirus among infants and children, bangladesh.to determine g and p genotypes, we performed nested pcr on 307 rotavirus specimens collected in dhaka, bangladesh, during 2004-2005. g2 (43.3%) was detected at the highest frequency, followed by g4 (19.5%), g9 (13.7%), g1 (12.7%), and g3 (2.6%). p[8] was the most predominant genotype (53.2%), followed by p[4] (42.9%).200919116061
rotavirus genotype distribution after vaccine introduction, rio de janeiro, brazil.brazil introduced rotavirus vaccination in march 2006. we studied 133 rotavirus-positive fecal samples collected from february 2005 through december 2007. genotype g2p[4] was found in 1.4% of samples in 2005, in 44% in 2006, and in 96% in 2007. rotavirus detection rate decreased from 38% in 2005 to 24% in 2007 (p = 0.012).200919116062
new advisory committee on immunization practices guidelines for rotavirus vaccine allow more children to receive vaccine. 200919117843
characterization of novel vp7, vp4, and vp6 genotypes of a previously untypeable group a rotavirus.rotavirus is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis among infants and young children throughout the world, but rotavirus cases in developing countries account for nearly all of the approximately 600,000 annual deaths. we studied the epidemiology of rotavirus in 22 rural communities in northern coastal ecuador over a five-year period. from 250 rotavirus positive stool specimens, the percentage that could not be rt-pcr genotyped for vp4 and vp7 was 77% and 63%, respectively. the possibilit ...200919131083
detection, genetic characterization, and quantification of norovirus rna from sera of children with gastroenteritis.norovirus (nov) infection is thought to be confined to the intestines, whereas many reports suggest antigenemia and viremia occur during rotavirus gastroenteritis.200919131272
viral etiology and incidence associated with acute gastroenteritis in a 5-year survey in gyeonggi province, south korea.acute gastroenteritis caused by viruses is one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity.200919131274
estimated mortality and hospital admission due to rotavirus infection in the who european region.in 2006 two rotavirus vaccines were licensed for use in young children in europe. this study aimed to estimate the mortality and hospital admissions due to rotavirus in children aged <5 years in the who european region using data from routine sources and published literature. we grouped 49/52 countries in the region by their world bank gross national income (gni) per capita. we obtained for children aged <5 years: populations, hospital discharges for diarrhoeal disease, estimated mortality rates ...200919134232
is rotavirus contributing to an increase of diarrhoea in a region of spain?diarrhoeal illnesses are the most frequent of notifiable diseases in aragon. physicians notify diarrhoea cases with presumed infectious origin on a weekly basis. following an increase in 2005-2006, we aimed to identify the responsible organism(s) in order to inform control measures. we described seasonality of diarrhoea notifications for 1998-2004 and 2005-2006. we calculated correlations between diarrhoea notifications and enteric pathogens diagnosed in two aragonese laboratories, and applied l ...200919134236
rotavirus-associated encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion.the case is reported of a 2-year-old boy with a rotavirus-induced mild encephalopathy that presented as transient intensified signal on the splenium of the corpus callosum. the boy also experienced persistent diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and sudden disturbance of consciousness. although cerebrospinal fluid analysis did not manifest pleocytosis, electroencephalography demonstrated global diffuse slow waves and cranial magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated intensified signal on the splenium of the ...200919135631
giardia duodenalis assemblages associated with diarrhea in children in south india identified by pcr-rflp.giardial diarrhea in a birth cohort of 452 children in an urban slum in south india was characterized. of the 155 episodes that occurred in 99 children, 73% were acute diarrhea. children with better educated mothers and a toilet at home had lower odds of acquiring giardial diarrhea, whereas low socioeconomic status and drinking municipal water were associated with greater risk. children with co-infections tended to have a slightly longer duration of diarrhea (p = 0.061) and showed significantly ...200919141832
probiotics as prevention and treatment for diarrhea.to critically appraise evidence on probiotic use for prevention and treatment of diarrhea in children and adults.200919114770
rotavirus vaccines and pathogenesis: 2008.rotaviruses cause life-threatening gastroenteritis in children throughout the world. the burden of disease has resulted in the development of two live, attenuated vaccines that are now licensed in many countries. this review summarizes new data on these vaccines, their effectiveness, and remaining challenges including new data on the rotavirus enterotoxin, a potential antiviral target.200919114772
eukaryotic viruses in wastewater samples from the united states.human fecal matter contains a large number of viruses, and current bacterial indicators used for monitoring water quality do not correlate with the presence of pathogenic viruses. adenoviruses and enteroviruses have often been used to identify fecal pollution in the environment; however, other viruses shed in fecal matter may more accurately detect fecal pollution. the purpose of this study was to develop a baseline understanding of the types of viruses found in raw sewage. pcr was used to detec ...200919124584
rotavirus vaccine rix4414 (rotarix): a review of its use in the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis.rotavirus vaccine rix4414 is an oral vaccine composed of a monovalent, live, attenuated, human rotavirus strain of g1p[8] type. rix4414 vaccination in infants aged 6-17 weeks at enrolment provided protection against rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) of any severity and high-level protection against severe rvge requiring hospitalization in large, randomized clinical trials conducted in a wide range of geographic regions. protective efficacy was evident over the period (2 months) between the first ...200919127963
season of birth and risk of rotavirus diarrhoea in children aged <5 years.this study investigates whether a child's risk of rotavirus diarrhoea is associated with season of birth in england and wales, countries where rotavirus infections are highly seasonal. poisson regression models were fitted to weekly counts of laboratory-confirmed rotavirus infections from children aged <5 years born between 1998 and 2007. in the first year of life, the risk of a laboratory-confirmed rotavirus infection was significantly higher for children born in summer compared with winter [re ...200919144248
norovirus in a dutch tertiary care hospital (2002-2007): frequent nosocomial transmission and dominance of giib strains in young children.we report a retrospective analysis of norovirus (nov) infections occurring in patients of a tertiary care hospital during five winter seasons (2002/03 to 2006/07). data were compared with national surveillance data and with corresponding data for rotavirus. between july 2002 and june 2007, faecal specimens from 221 (9.0%) of 2458 hospital patients with diarrhoea tested positive for nov. the incidence in children varied from 2.52 per 1000 admissions in 2004/05 (when testing began to be performed ...200919147255
'sialidase sensitivity' of rotaviruses revisited. 200919148170
[clinical characteristics of children with rotavirus infection presenting with vomiting as main manifestation]. 200919149929
[research advance in the association between rotavirus infection and cytokines]. 200919149931
severity and age of rotavirus diarrhea, but not socioeconomic conditions, are associated with rotavirus seasonality in venezuela.rotavirus (rv) epidemiology presents differences between developing and developed countries among which are seasonality, age at first infection, variability of strain in circulation and severity of disease. since, in venezuela, we have distinct seasonal patterns of rv occurrence, we examined the epidemiological profile of rv disease associated to these differences by analyzing data from previous studies conducted in venezuela. data were collected from children <5 years of age with diarrhea seen ...200919152395
seasonal shifts of group a rotavirus strains as a possible mechanism of persistence in the human population.this article demonstrates how the seasonal predominance of a new rotavirus strain in asuncion, paraguay is correlated with a wide spectrum of age groups of children infected in that given season. therefore, this study provides new evidence to support the idea that seasonal shift of rotavirus strains is a possible mechanism used by the virus to evade herd immunity (acquired by the population due to previous infections) and, thus, ultimately persist in that population.200919152398
are human p[14] rotavirus strains the result of interspecies transmissions from sheep or other ungulates that belong to the mammalian order artiodactyla?a limited number of human g6p[14] rotavirus strains that cause gastroenteritis in humans have been isolated in europe and australia. the complete genome sequences were determined for five of these human strains--b10925-97 (isolated in belgium in 1997), 111/05-27 (italy, 2005), pa169 (italy, 1987), mg6 (australia, 1993), and hun5 (hungary, 1997)--and their genetic relatedness to animal rotavirus strains was evaluated by sequencing the complete genome of the sheep rotavirus ovr762 (g8p[14]; spain, ...200919153225
hospitalizations for nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis in a tertiary pediatric center: a 4-year prospective study.although rotavirus is the most common cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, data regarding nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis (nrvge) are limited. our objectives were to study the rates, seasonality, epidemiology, and clinical features of nrvge.200919155098
drug approvals: '08 in review. rotavirus vaccine, live, oral (rotarix). 200919155881
decline in cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis presenting to the children's hospital of philadelphia after introduction of a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine.a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine for infants became available in the united states in february 2006. by 2007, vaccination rates nationwide were estimated to be approximately 50%. we studied the effectiveness of the vaccine in a real-world setting outside of a clinical trial. all children presenting to the children's hospital of philadelphia with acute gastroenteritis have been monitored for the presence of rotavirus antigen in the stool by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa [followed by gen ...200919158283
cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in vietnam.rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea leading to hospitalization or disease-specific death among young children. new rotavirus vaccines have recently been approved. some previous studies have provided broad qualitative insights into the health and economic consequences of introducing the vaccines into low-income countries, representing several features of rotavirus infection, such as varying degrees of severity and age-dependency of clinical manifestation, in their model-based an ...200919159483
successful co-administration of a human rotavirus and oral poliovirus vaccines in bangladeshi infants in a 2-dose schedule at 12 and 16 weeks of age.co-administration of oral live-attenuated human rotavirus vaccine rix4414 (rotarix) and oral polio vaccine (opv) was assessed. healthy infants were randomised to receive 2-doses of either: rix4414 or placebo co-administered with opv (12 and 16 weeks of age); or rix4414 or placebo given 15 days after opv. after vaccination, 56.5-66.7% of rix4414 and 18.6% of placebo recipients had seroconverted for rotavirus iga. no significant differences between rix4414 groups with or without opv co-administrat ...200919162114
meeting of the diarrhoeal and enteric vaccines advisory committee, october 2008--executive summary. 200919165967
from fossil to fetus: nonhemorrhagic germinal matrix echodensity caused by mineralizing vasculitis--hypothesis of fossilizing germinolysis and gliosis.subventricular echodensities medioventral to the caudate nucleus near the caudothalamic groove are regular ultrasonographic findings in preterm infants with germinal matrix hemorrhages. the transformation into pseudocysts is termed germinolysis. interestingly, identical ultrasonographic findings are rarely even reported for near-term infants. we examined 5 cases of near-term infants presenting with various localized subventricular echodensities after various noncerebral infections (intra-amnioti ...200919168817
clinical characteristics of benign convulsions with rotavirus gastroenteritis.convulsions sometimes occur in infants and toddlers with mild gastroenteritis. we retrospectively investigated the hospital records of 106 patients admitted to our hospital who had rotavirus gastroenteritis from february 2002 to april 2008. there were 23 patients with convulsions, including 13 with benign convulsions, 9 with febrile seizures, and 1 with epilepsy. gastroenteritis in patients with benign convulsions was mild from the viewpoint of body weights and serum creatinine concentrations on ...200919168832
evaluation of rapid assays for the detection of bovine coronavirus, rotavirus a and cryptosporidium parvum in faecal samples of calves.rapid immunochromatographic assays for detecting infections with bovine coronavirus (bcv), rotavirus a and cryptosporidium parvum in calf faeces were evaluated using as gold standards a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (bcv and rotavirus) and a sedimentation-flotation technique (c. parvum). rapid tests for the detection of bcv and rotavirus showed a high specificity (96.4% and 95.3%, respectively), but a relatively low sensitivity (60.0% and 71.9%, respectively). sensitivity and s ...200918778958
monitoring the rate of hospitalization before rotavirus immunization in italy utilizing icd9-cm regional databases.recently, two rotavirus (rv) vaccines were licensed in italy, rendering rv illness a vaccine preventable disease. to assess the rv hospitalization rate in italy, a study focused on the regional hospital discharge forms (hdd) databases was carried out.200918802404
efficacy of high-dose lactobacillus rhamnosus gg in controlling acute watery diarrhea in indian children: a randomized controlled trial.to evaluate the effective dose of lactobacillus rhamnosus gg (lgg) as probiotic in acute watery diarrhea (awd) in indian children.200918813028
[sensitivity and specificity of the vikia rota-adeno immuno-chromatographic test (biomérieux) and the elisa ideia rotavirus kit (dako) compared to genotyping].the performances of two diagnostic tests for rotavirus infection in stool samples were evaluated during a prospective study in children of less than 36 months in child-care centers of lyon from november 2004 to may 2005. the vikia rota-adeno immuno-chromatographic test (biomérieux) and the elisa ideia rotavirus kit (dako) were compared with a referral method, the genotyping. fifty-seven stool samples were collected and analyzed by rt-pcr. the virus genome was detected in 29 samples. the most fre ...200918838230
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