TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
immunogenicity of a live-attenuated human rotavirus rix4414 vaccine with or without buffering agent.aim: the lyophilized form of the human rotavirus rix4414 vaccine (rotarix()) is usually reconstituted with a liquid calcium carbonate (caco(3)) buffer and administered orally. however, errors in the reconstitution could occur (e.g. reconstituted with water instead of caco(3) buffer) or the buffer might be temporarily unavailable in few instances. this study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity of the rix4414 vaccine if the vaccine was reconstituted with other agents (e.g., water) instead ...201020220306
impact of community-acquired paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis on family life: data from the reveal study.rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (age) and the most frequent cause of severe diarrhoea in children aged less than 5 years. although the epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) is well documented, there are few data on the impact of rvge on the families of affected children.201020230601
detection of human coronaviruses in children with acute gastroenteritis.human coronaviruses (hcovs) are known respiratory pathogens. moreover, coronavirus-like particles have been seen by electron microscope in stools, and sars-hcov has been isolated from intestinal tissue and detected in stool samples.201020233673
macrophages are targeted by rotavirus in experimental biliary atresia and induce neutrophil chemotaxis by mip2/cxcl2.biliary atresia is an obstructive cholangiopathy of unknown etiology. although the adaptive immune system has been shown to regulate the obstruction of bile ducts in a rotavirus-induced mouse model, little is known about the virus-induced inflammatory response. here, we hypothesized that cholangiocytes secrete chemoattractants in response to rotavirus. to test this hypothesis, we infected cholangiocyte and macrophage cell lines with rhesus rotavirus type a (rrv), quantified cytokines and chemoki ...201020234283
[a multicentric study of a lactose free formula supplemented with saccharomyces boulardii in children with acute diarrhea].in a double-blind, randomized, controlled, multicentric study, the study compared the efficacy of a specific adapted formula (lactose-free, high-mineral, low-osmolarity formula, containing rice and pectin fortified with saccharomyces boulardii) in the management of infants with acute diarrhea with a standard formula used to feed healthy infants from birth.201020236813
meeting report: a celebration of the work of professor tony hart, liverpool, united kingdom, 7 march 2009.over 300 delegates participated in this scientific meeting to celebrate the career of the late professor tony hart, who was head of department of medical microbiology, university of liverpool, from 1986 until his death in september 2007. the meeting, which was opened by professor james stewart (head, school of infection and host defence, university of liverpool) and closed by professor bernard brabin (head of the child health group, liverpool school of tropical medicine), captured some of the ma ...201020207719
modelling the seasonality of rotavirus disease and the impact of vaccination in england and wales.two rotavirus vaccines are currently recommended for inclusion in routine childhood immunization programmes. we developed a deterministic age-structured model of rotavirus transmission and disease to investigate the population-level effects of vaccination in england and wales. the model explicitly captures the natural history of infection and uses realistic population mixing patterns. the model accurately reproduces the strong seasonal pattern and age distribution of rotavirus disease observed i ...201020197142
rotavirus-associated diarrhoea in foals in greece.severe outbreaks of diarrhoeic syndrome occurred in young foals at the same stud farm during two consecutive breeding periods namely spring 2006 and 2007. rotavirus-like particles were detected by electron microscopy in the faeces of the affected foals and group a rotavirus infection was confirmed by reverse-transcription (rt)-pcr with selected sets of rotavirus-specific primers. sequence analysis of the genes encoding the outer capsid rotavirus proteins vp7 and vp4 enabled classification of the ...201020197218
estimated burden of rotavirus-associated diarrhea in ambulatory settings in the united states.two vaccines to prevent disease from rotavirus among young children were recently approved in the united states. although previous studies of the burden of rotaviral disease have focused on hospitalizations, the assessment of baseline disease burden in ambulatory settings is useful for evaluating the overall impact of the vaccine.201020100749
effectiveness of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in preventing gastroenteritis in the united clinical trials, the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) was efficacious in preventing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (rge) and related health care encounters. we assessed the vaccine effectiveness (ve) of rv5 among us infants during the first 2 rotavirus seasons after vaccine licensure.201020100757
ultrasonography findings and symptoms in acute rotavirus gastroenteritis.the aim of the present study was to better understand how clinical events in acute rotavirus gastroenteritis are depicted on ultrasonography.201020113420
sibling transmission of vaccine-derived rotavirus (rotateq) associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis.although rotavirus vaccines are known to be shed in stools, transmission of vaccine-derived virus to unvaccinated contacts resulting in symptomatic rotavirus gastroenteritis has not been reported to our knowledge. we document here the occurrence of vaccine-derived rotavirus (rotateq [merck and co, whitehouse station, nj]) transmission from a vaccinated infant to an older, unvaccinated sibling, resulting in symptomatic rotavirus gastroenteritis that required emergency department care. results of ...201020100758
rotavirus nsp5 orchestrates recruitment of viroplasmic proteins.rotavirus genome replication and the first steps of virus morphogenesis take place in cytoplasmic viral factories, called viroplasms, containing four structural (vp1, vp2, vp3 and vp6) and two non-structural (nsp2 and nsp5) proteins. nsp2 and nsp5 have been shown to be essential for viroplasm formation and, when co-expressed in uninfected cells, to form viroplasm-like structures (vls). in the present work, vls formation was shown upon co-expression of nsp5 with the core protein vp2 despite the a ...201020200190
analysis of genetic diversity and molecular evolution of human group b rotaviruses based on whole genome b rotavirus (gbr) is a rare enteric pathogen that causes severe diarrhoea, primarily in adults. nearly full-length sequences of all 11 rna segments were determined for human gbrs detected recently in india (idh-084 in 2007, ic-008 in 2008), bangladesh (bang117 in 2003) and myanmar (mmr-b1 in 2007), and analysed phylogenetically with the sequence data of gbrs reported previously. all rna segments of gbr strains from india, bangladesh and myanmar showed >95 % nucleotide sequence identities. ...201020200192
rotavirus differentially infects and polyclonally stimulates human b cells depending on their differentiation state and tissue of origin.we have shown previously that rotavirus (rv) can infect murine intestinal b220(+) cells in vivo (m. fenaux, m. a. cuadras, n. feng, m. jaimes, and h. b. greenberg, j. virol. 80:5219-5232, 2006) and human blood b cells in vitro (m. c. mesa, l. s. rodriguez, m. a. franco, and j. angel, virology 366:174-184, 2007). however, the effect of rv on b cells, especially those present in the human intestine, the primary site of rv infection, is unknown. here, we compared the effects of the in vitro rv infe ...201020164228
circulating human group a rotavirus genotypes in malaysia.this study examined the temporal distribution of rotavirus genotypes in malaysia. rotaviruses from children with diarrhea admitted to hospitals in 1996 (n = 93) and 2007 (n = 12) in two different regions of peninsular (west) malaysia were analyzed for their g and p genotypes using a hemi-nested rt-pcr assay. in the 2007 samples, the dominant strain was g9p[8]. it was identified in 42% of the samples. different strains all possessing the g1 genotype were identified in the rest of the samples. in ...201020166178
identification of two sublineages of genotype g2 rotavirus among diarrheic children in parauapebas, southern pará state, brazil.on a world scale, group a human rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe acute gastroenteritis during infancy and childhood, including five (g1, g2, g3, g4, and g9) epidemiologically important genotypes. among these, g2 denotes a different genogroup which appears to have a cyclic pattern of occurrence and yet little information is available about its genetic variability. the aim of this report was to characterize the emergence of g2 genotype in paraupebas, southern pará state, brazil, som ...201020166186
multicenter prospective study analysing the role of rotavirus on acute gastroenteritis in spain.paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis is the most frequent cause of acute gastroenteritis (age) in children up to 5 years of age worldwide.201020096025
prevention and treatment of viral diarrhea in pediatrics.diarrhea is the second largest cause of mortality worldwide in children from the perinatal period to the age of 5 years. rotavirus has been the most commonly identified viral cause of diarrhea in children. norovirus is now recognized as the second most common viral pathogen. adenovirus, astrovirus and sapovirus are the other major viral causes of pediatric gastroenteritis. strategies for prevention include basic hygiene, optimization of nutrition and, ultimately, vaccination. two new vaccines ha ...201020109050
incidence of hospitalization due to community-acquired rotavirus infection: a 12-year study (1996-2008).the incidence of hospitalization for acute gastroenteritis (age) is a useful parameter to assess the utility of the new rotavirus vaccines in high-income countries. children hospitalized for age were identified by searching hospital discharge data and the records of the microbiology laboratory of hospital donostia. rotavirus antigen was investigated in 96.1% of the 1114 children aged 1 month to <5 years hospitalized for age in the study period. nearly 40% were rotavirus positive (44.9% of the 79 ...201020096147
is it cost-effective to introduce rotavirus vaccination in the dutch national immunization program?this study assessed whether the inclusion of two rotavirus (rv) vaccines in the dutch national immunization programme is cost-effective. costs and outcomes in unvaccinated and vaccinated populations are compared for a time period of 20 years. in the baseline, assuming competitive market forces in relation to vaccine costs, rotarix is more cost-effective than rotateq, resulting in a cost-utility ratio (cur) of euro 53,000 per daly (third payer perspective) and euro 49,000 per daly (societal persp ...201020109593
persistent rotavirus vaccine shedding in a new case of severe combined immunodeficiency: a reason to screen. 201020109754
an oral versus intranasal prime/boost regimen using attenuated human rotavirus or vp2 and vp6 virus-like particles with immunostimulating complexes influences protection and antibody-secreting cell responses to rotavirus in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model.we determined the impact of mucosal prime/boost regimens and vaccine type (attenuated wa human rotavirus [atthrv] or nonreplicating wa 2/6 rotavirus-like particles [vlp]) on protection and antibody-secreting cell (asc) responses to hrv in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig disease model. comparisons of delivery routes for atthrv and evaluation of nonreplicating vlp vaccines are important as alternative vaccine approaches to overcome risks associated with live oral vaccines. groups of neonatal gnotobioti ...201020107005
effect of human rotavirus vaccine on severe diarrhea in african infants.rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis among young children worldwide. data are needed to assess the efficacy of the rotavirus vaccine in african children.201020107214
effect of rotavirus vaccination on death from childhood diarrhea in mexico.a phased introduction of a monovalent rotavirus vaccine occurred in mexico from february 2006 through may 2007. we assessed the effect of vaccination on deaths from diarrhea in mexican children in 2008 and 2009.201020107215
vaccine-acquired rotavirus in infants with severe combined pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine is recommended in the united states for routine immunization of infants. we describe three infants, two with failure to thrive, who had dehydration and diarrhea within 1 month after their first or second rotavirus immunization and subsequently received a diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency. rotavirus was detected, by means of reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (rt-pcr) assay, in stool specimens obtained from all t ...201020107217
rotavirus vaccine--a powerful tool to combat deaths from diarrhea. 201020107222
detection of enteric viruses in sewage sludge and treated wastewater effluent.sewage sludge and treated wastewater when contaminated with enteric virus and discharged into the environment, could pose a human health risk. the aim of study was to verify the presence and viability of enteric viruses in sewage sludge and treated wastewater at a local sewage plant in florianopolis city, brazil. sewage sludge was concentrated by organic flocculation and polyethylene glycol precipitation and wastewater by electronegative membrane filtration and ultrafiltration by centriprep conc ...201020107281
spatiotemporal dynamics of rotavirus disease in europe: can climate or demographic variability explain the patterns observed.we found a south to north movement of rotavirus activity across europe. lower birth rates, higher winter temperatures, and higher winter rainfall were associated with variations in timing of rotavirus activity between european countries but not with temporal variations within countries. patterns of rotavirus activity are likely to be driven by a complex interaction of population, virus, and environmental factors.201020094004
global implementation of human papillomavirus (hpv) vaccine: lessons from hepatitis b vaccine.development of safe and effective vaccines against human papillomavirus (hpv)-the second vaccine against a major human cancer-is one of the most important medical and public health achievements of this century. as with all new vaccines, hpv is currently expensive and this cost precludes its use in the developing world, which has the greatest burden of disease from hpv-related cancers. hepatitis b (hb) virus vaccine, which prevents chronic hb infection and related cirrhosis and liver cancer, has ...201020129654
seasonal trend and serotype distribution of rotavirus infection in japan, 1981-2008.a total of 10,917 fecal specimens from infants and children with gastroenteritis in seven different regions of japan in the last 3 decades were examined for rotavirus. we observed that the rotavirus peak shifted gradually from january to april (winter to early spring) during 17 seasons and the g1p[8] combination was the most predominant genotype in the last 28 years in japan.201020135750
burden of childhood rotavirus disease on health systems in the united determine the burden of rotavirus disease before the introduction of rotavirus vaccines.201020135751
milk supplemented with immune colostrum: protection against rotavirus diarrhea and modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in calves experimentally challenged with bovine a bovine rotavirus (brv) is the major cause of neonatal calf diarrhea worldwide. as a preventive strategy, we evaluated the protection and immunomodulation in two groups of brv-inoculated calves. all calves received control colostrum (cc; vn=65,536; igg(1)=16,384) prior to gut closure followed by the milk supplemented with immune colostrum (vn=1,048,576; igg(1)=262,144), twice a day, for 14 days. calves received milk supplemented with 0.8% immune colostrum [(gp 1) vn=16,384; igg(1)=4096] o ...201020138373
identification of g8 rotavirus strains determined as g12 by rotavirus genotyping pcr: updating the current genotyping methods.rotaviruses are classified into g- and p-types, which are determined by the reactivity with antibodies to the outer viral proteins, vp7 and vp4, respectively, or sequence variation in the genes encoding these proteins. there are presently a number of different rotavirus strains co-circulating within the uk, with the common human strains g1p[8], g2p[4] and g9p[8] being the most prevalent. as part of strain surveillance for the european rotavirus network (eurorotanet) a cluster (n=29) of g8 strain ...201020138804
meeting of the international task force for disease eradication, october 2009. 201020151497
food-borne diseases - the challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge.the burden of diseases caused by food-borne pathogens remains largely unknown. importantly data indicating trends in food-borne infectious intestinal disease is limited to a few industrialised countries, and even fewer pathogens. it has been predicted that the importance of diarrhoeal disease, mainly due to contaminated food and water, as a cause of death will decline worldwide. evidence for such a downward trend is limited. this prediction presumes that improvements in the production and retail ...201020153070
prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of rotavirus genotypes in thailand between 2007 and 2009.rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe diarrhea among infants and young children worldwide, especially in developing countries. in thailand, rotavirus has presented a major public health problem causing severe diarrhea in infants and young children. it was responsible for about one-third of diarrheal diseases in hospitalized patients. in this study, we have analyzed the distribution and performed molecular characterization of rotaviruses circulating in infants and young children with di ...201020156600
full genomic analysis and possible origin of a porcine g12 rotavirus strain ru172.human group a rotavirus (gar) g12 strains are regarded as potentially important pathogens for acute gastroenteritis. on the other hand, to date, the only report of detection of g12 in animals was that of a porcine g12p[7] strain ru172. strain ru172 formed a separate g12 lineage, distinct from human g12 strains, and by analyses of deduced amino acid sequences, had a vp4, vp6, nsp4-5 of porcine origin. in the present study, we determined the full-length nucleotide sequences of vp1, vp3, and nsp1-3 ...201020157771
[two cases of infants with acute renal failure due to bilateral obstructive ureteral stones associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis].we report on 2 infants with acute renal failure caused by bilateral obstructive ureteral stones associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis. a 28-month boy and a 13-month boy with several days history of watery diarrhea and vomiting were referred to our hospital because of anuria. they were diagnosed acute post-renal failure due to obstructive bilateral ureteral stones based on the findings of ultrasound scan and computed tomography. immediately, percutaneous nephrostomy tubes were inserted for ur ...201020158076
perturbations in cytokine gene expression after inoculation of c57bl/6 mice with pasteurella pneumotropica.pasteurella pneumotropica can cause inflammation and abscess formation in a variety of tissues. most commonly, p. pneumotropica produces clinical disease in immunodeficient mice or those concurrently infected with other pathogens. because clinical disease is infrequent in immunocompetent mice harboring p. pneumotropica, some scientists consider it an opportunistic pathogen with little clinical relevance to biomedical research. however, other infectious agents, including mouse parvoviruses, mouse ...201020158944
detection of equine rotavirus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp).reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) was applied to detection of equine rotavirus. because equine rotavirus of the single p genotype, p[12], is predominant in the equine population worldwide, an rt-lamp primer set was designed to target the genotype p[12] sequence and thus detect equine rotavirus. the detection limit of the rt-lamp assay was 10(3) copies of viral rna, whereas that of semi-nested rt-pcr for genotype p[12] was 10(5) copies. the rt-lamp assay speci ...201020160420
multiplex nested rt-pcr for the detection of porcine enteric viruses.porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (pedv), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), and porcine group a rotavirus (prv-a) are major viruses causing enteric diseases of piglets. a multiplex nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (multiplex nested rt-pcr) was developed for the detection of these viruses in field samples from piglets with diarrhea. a mixture of (1) three external pairs of primers, yielding in the amplification step two different amplicons with sizes of 950 bp and 31 ...201020170679
epidemiology and economic burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in hospitals and paediatric clinics in taiwan, 2005-2006.baseline estimates of rotavirus disease burden and epidemiology are useful for the evaluation of newly introduced rotavirus vaccination programs. prospective, cross-sectional surveillance for acute gastroenteritis (age) was conducted in hospitals and outpatient paediatric clinics in taiwan to assess the prevalence of rotavirus gastroenteritis and associated medical costs prior to rotavirus vaccine introduction. faecal specimens were collected from 1130 children <5 years of age from december 2004 ...201020171305
vomiting calls to nhs direct provide an early warning of norovirus outbreaks in hospitals.a wintertime peak of norovirus activity occurs each year, affecting institutions including schools and hospitals. traditional laboratory and outbreak surveillance systems for norovirus are too vulnerable to reporting delay to act as a timely signal of activity in the community. calls to the national health service (nhs) telephone service nhs direct have the potential to be an early warning tool for public health purposes. we investigated whether nhs direct vomiting calls can be used as a reliabl ...201020172625
x-ray crystal structure of the rotavirus inner capsid particle at 3.8 a resolution.the rotavirus inner capsid particle, known as the "double-layered particle" (dlp), is the "payload" delivered into a cell in the process of viral infection. its inner and outer protein layers, composed of viral protein (vp) 2 and vp6, respectively, package the 11 segments of the double-stranded rna (dsrna) of the viral genome, as well as about the same number of polymerase molecules (vp1) and capping-enzyme molecules (vp3). we have determined the crystal structure of the bovine rotavirus dlp. th ...201020122940
corrected 2007 rotavirus hospitalization rates. 201020190618
phylogenetic analysis of human p[8]g9 rotavirus strains circulating in brazil reveals the presence of a novel genetic a rotavirus (rv-a) genotype p[8]g9 has emerged as one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis in children worldwide and currently is recognized as one of the five most common genotypes detected in humans. high intragenotype diversity in g9 rv-a has been observed, and nowadays, based on the genetic variability of the vp7 gene, six different phylogenetic lineages and eleven sublineages were described.201020133185
cause of uric acid stones in rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis. 201020191366
viral load and genotypes of noroviruses in symptomatic and asymptomatic children in southeastern brazil.noroviruses (novs) are a major etiological agent of sporadic acute gastroenteritis worldwide.201020004146
rotavirus infection activates dendritic cells from peyer's patches in adult mice.this study used an in vivo mouse model to analyze the response of dendritic cells (dcs) in peyer's patches (pps) within the first 48 h of infection with the wild-type murine rotavirus edim (edim(wt)). after the infection, the absolute number of dcs was increased by 2-fold in the pps without a modification of their relative percentage of the total cell number. also, the dcs from pps of infected mice showed a time-dependent migration to the subepithelial dome (sed) and an increase of the surface a ...201020007263
a rotavirus spike protein conformational intermediate binds lipid bilayers.during rotavirus entry, a virion penetrates a host cell membrane, sheds its outer capsid proteins, and releases a transcriptionally active subviral particle into the cytoplasm. vp5, the rotavirus protein believed to interact with the membrane bilayer, is a tryptic cleavage product of the outer capsid spike protein, vp4. when a rotavirus particle uncoats, vp5 folds back, in a rearrangement that resembles the fusogenic conformational changes in enveloped-virus fusion proteins. we present direct ex ...201020007281
molecular characterization of human rotavirus vaccine strain cdc-9 during sequential passages in vero cells.we have developed several candidate human rotavirus vaccine strains with common serotypes via adaptation in vero cells, adhering to the good laboratory practice (glp) guidelines. we sequenced the entire genome of a g1p[8] strain cdc-9 in original stool and passaged materials from vero cells and examined its genetic relatedness to the prototype human rotavirus ku and other strains. with the exception of vp3 gene which was closely related to that of strain ds-1, the culture-adapted cdc-9 strain sh ...201020009519
rotavirus disease burden, nicaragua 2001-2005: defining the potential impact of a rotavirus vaccination october 2006, a rotavirus vaccine was introduced in nicaragua for routine immunization of all children. we document the baseline diarrheal disease burden in nicaragua prior to the vaccine program to facilitate future studies to measure vaccine impact.201020022778
rotaviruses require basolateral molecules for efficient infection of polarized mdckii this work we evaluated the ability of rotavirus strains with different receptor requirements to infect the apical and basolateral surfaces of polarized mdckii cells. we used neuraminidase (na)-sensitive (rrv and tfr-1) and neuraminidase-resistant (wa and uk) viruses that differ in their use of integrins. regardless of their receptor requirements, all virus strains tested were found to efficiently infect cells from both membrane surface domains, with preference for the basolateral domain, sinc ...201019932141
detection and molecular characterization of enteric viruses from poult enteritis syndrome in turkeys.this study was conducted to detect and characterize enteric viruses [rotavirus, turkey astrovirus-2 (tastv-2), reovirus, and turkey coronavirus] from cases of poult enteritis syndrome (pes) in minnesota turkeys. of the intestinal contents collected from 43 pes cases, 25 were positive for rotavirus and 13 for small round viruses by electron microscopy (em). of the enteric virus-positive cases by em (n=27), 16 cases had rotavirus or small round viruses alone and the remaining 11 cases had both vir ...201020075272
surveillance and molecular characterization of rotavirus strains circulating in manipur, north-eastern india: increasing prevalence of emerging g12 determine the frequency and genotypes of rotavirus strains, samples were collected from children hospitalized with acute diarrhea at the regional institute of medical sciences, manipur. the globally common genotypes g1p[8] and g2p[4] constituted 58% of the total positive strains, while 3% and 8% strains were emerging genotypes, g9p[6] and g12p[6]. this is the first report of genotype g12 in manipur. the g12 strains clustered with lineage iii strains and had >98% identity with corresponding ro ...201020083233
effectiveness of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in a large urban population in the united states.the goal was to assess the effectiveness of complete (3-dose) or partial (1- or 2-dose) immunization with pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) against rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (age) in us clinical practice.201020083525
a mathematical model of the indirect effects of rotavirus vaccination.rotavirus (rv) infections progressively confer natural immunity against subsequent infection. similarly to natural infection, vaccination with a live attenuated vaccine potentially reduces rv transmission and induces herd protection. a mathematical transmission model was developed to project the impact of a vaccination programme on the incidence of rv infection and disease for five countries in the european union. with vaccination coverage rates of 70%, 90% and 95% the model predicted that, in a ...201020028612
sequestration of free tubulin molecules by the viral protein nsp2 induces microtubule depolymerization during rotavirus infection.microtubules, components of the cell cytoskeleton, play a central role in cellular trafficking. here we show that rotavirus infection leads to a remodeling of the microtubule network together with the formation of tubulin granules. while most microtubules surrounding the nucleus depolymerize, others appear packed at the cell periphery. in microtubule depolymerization areas, tubulin granules are observed; they colocalize with viroplasms, viral compartments formed by interactions between rotavirus ...201020032187
kawasaki disease patients with redness or crust formation at the bacille calmette-guérin inoculation site.a specific diagnostic test for kawasaki disease (kd) is currently unavailable. redness or crust formation at the bacille calmette-guérin (bcg) inoculation site is listed as a positive sign in the diagnostic guidelines of kd. the purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic features of kd patients with such changes at the bcg inoculation site and to evaluate the specificity of this sign in kd diagnosis.201020032807
evidence for molecular mimicry between human t cell epitopes in rotavirus and pancreatic islet type 1 diabetes, insulin-producing beta cells in the islets of the pancreas are destroyed by autoreactive t cells. rotavirus (rv) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. peptides in vp7, a major immunogenic protein of rv, have high sequence similarity to t cell epitope peptides in the islet autoantigens tyrosine phosphatase-like insulinoma ag 2 (ia2) and glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (gad65). we aimed to educe evidence for the hypothesis that molecular mimicry with rv pro ...201020083660
association of viral infection and appendicitis.what causes appendicitis is not known; however, studies have suggested a relationship between viral diseases and appendicitis. building on evidence of cyclic patterns of appendicitis with apparent outbreaks consistent with an infectious etiology, we hypothesized that there is a relationship between population rates of appendicitis and several infectious diseases.201020083756
analysis of rotavirus non-structural protein nsp5 by mass spectrometry reveals a complex phosphorylation pattern.genomic replication and partial assembly of rotavirus takes place in cytoplasmic viral structures called viroplasms. nsp5 is a viral phosphoprotein localized in viroplasms and its expression is imperative for viral cycle progress. during infection three isoforms of nsp5 can be observed by sds-page (26, 28 and 33-35kda) and previous reports suggested that they differ in their phosphorylation patterns. in this study we obtained nsp5 from infected cells and by mass spectrometry we were able to iden ...201020036292
genetic analysis of the porcine group b rotavirus nsp2 gene from wild-type brazilian b rotaviruses (rv-b) were first identified in piglet feces, being later associated with diarrhea in humans, cattle, lambs, and rats. in human beings, the virus was only described in china, india, and bangladesh, especially infecting adults. only a few studies concerning molecular analysis of the rv-b nsp2 gene have been conducted, and porcine rv-b has not been characterized. in the present study, three porcine wild-type rv-b strains from piglet stool samples collected from brazilian pig he ...201020069262
detection and molecular characterization of human rotaviruses isolated in italy and albania.rotaviruses are one of the most important causes of gastroenteritis in children under 5 years old. analysis of g and p rotavirus genotypes in circulation is crucial in evaluating the appropriacy of mass vaccination of children worldwide. overall, 592 stool samples were collected in tirana (albania), the salento peninsula (south italy), and three different hospitals in rome (central italy). of the total samples, 31.3% were rotavirus positive in albania, 78.3% in the salento, and 40.3% in rome. th ...201020087942
mixed viral infections causing acute gastroenteritis in children in a waterborne outbreak.we examined stool specimens for viral pathogens from 50 children referred to hospital due to acute gastroenteritis (age) resulting from consuming drinking water contaminated with sewage in a finnish community using pcr methods. rotavirus was detected in 33 (66%), human calicivirus in 31 (62%), and both in 40% of cases. of the caliciviruses, 20/31 (65%) were noroviruses and 11 (35%) sapoviruses. furthermore, aichi virus was detected in 25 (50%), adenovirus in six (12%) and bocavirus in four (8%) ...201020092670
development of one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for rapid detection of porcine group c rotaviruses.although the widespread occurrence of porcine group c rotaviruses (gcrv) is assumed, precise prevalence remains largely unknown because of the absence of reliable, specific, and rapid diagnostic methods. to detect and quantify porcine gcrv, the authors evaluated and optimized sybr green and taqman real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assays and applied them to 108 piglet fecal samples. using serially diluted standard rna transcripts of porcine gcrv vp6 gene, both sy ...201020093687
effect of warming moxibustion on shenque acupoint for the treatment of acute diarrhea in children with infantile cerebral observe the effect of warming moxibustion on shenque acupoint (rn8) for the treatment of acute diarrhea in children with infantile cerebral palsy (icp).201020082252
healthcare-associated viral gastroenteritis among children in a large pediatric hospital, united kingdom.viruses are the major pathogens of community-acquired (ca) acute gastroenteritis (age) in children, but their role in healthcare-associated (ha) age is poorly understood. children with age hospitalized at alder hey children's hospital, liverpool, uk, were enrolled over a 2-year period. age was classified as ha if diarrhea developed > or =48 hours after admission. rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus 40/41, astrovirus, and sapovirus were detected by pcr. a total of 225 children with ha-age and 351 wi ...201020031043
identification of a rotavirus g12 strain, indonesia. 201020031072
a tgf-beta mediated regulatory mechanism modulates the t cell immune response to rotavirus in adults but not in children.children with acute rv-gastroenteritis (ge) had low or undetectable levels of circulating ifn-gamma(+), il-13(+), il-2(+), il-10(+) or il-17(+) rv-t cells. ifn-gamma(+) t cells and low frequencies of il-10(+) and il-2(+) cd4(+) t cells were found in adults with rv-ge during acute and convalescence phases, respectively. circulating single ifn-gamma(+)>double ifn-gamma(+)/il-2(+)>single il-2(+)rv-cd4(+)t cells were observed in healthy adults. in this group, frequencies of ifn-gamma(+) rv-t cells i ...201020096911
differential expression of hepatic fibrosis mediators in sick and spontaneously recovered mice with experimental biliary atresia.hepatic fibrosis leading to cirrhosis is the major morbidity in patients with biliary atresia (ba). this fibrosis is due to an imbalance in extracellular matrix (ecm) breakdown and deposition. we have previously demonstrated increased mrna expression for inhibitors of ecm breakdown without increased expression for mediators of ecm deposition in our animal model of ba by d 14. however, only a mild degree of hepatic fibrosis was seen at this time. we hypothesized that expression patterns for these ...201020097372
determination and analysis of the full-length chicken parvovirus genome.viral enteric disease in poultry is an ongoing problem in many parts of the world. many enteric viruses have been identified in turkeys and chickens, including avian astroviruses, rotaviruses, reoviruses, and coronaviruses. through the application of a molecular screening method targeting particle-associated nucleic acid (pan), we recently described the detection and partial characterization of a novel enteric parvovirus in chickens. subsequent surveys of intestinal homogenates from turkeys and ...201020097398
valuing the subsurface pathogen treatment barrier in water recycling via aquifers for drinking supplies.a quantitative microbial risk assessment (qmra) was performed at four managed aquifer recharge (mar) sites (australia, south africa, belgium, mexico) where reclaimed wastewater and stormwater is recycled via aquifers for drinking water supplies, using the same risk-based approach that is used for public water supplies. for each of the sites, the aquifer treatment barrier was assessed for its log(10) removal capacity much like for other water treatment technologies. this information was then inte ...201020042212
molecular characterization of group a human rotavirus among hospitalized children and adults in bangladesh: finding of emerging g12 strain.between july 2004 and june 2006, a total of 1438 fecal samples were collected from hospitalized children and adults with diarrhea at an infectious disease hospital (sk hospital) in mymensingh, bangladesh. the diversity of rotavirus strains were investigated using electropherotyping and reverse transcription-pcr amplification of the vp7 and vp4 genes. group a rotavirus was detected in 171 of 1438(11.9%) specimens: 13.3%(72/543) from children 6 months to </=15 years of age and 11.0%(99/895) from i ...201020046166
characterization of group a rotavirus infections in adolescents and adults from pune, india: 1993-1996 and 2004-2007.a total of 1,591 fecal specimens were collected in 1993-1996 and 2004-2007 from adolescents and adults with acute gastroenteritis in pune, india for detection and characterization of rotavirus. at the two time points, group a rotavirus was detected in 8.6% and 16.2% of the adolescents and 5.2% and 17.2% of the adults, respectively. reverse transcription-pcr with consensus primers followed by multiplex genotyping pcr detected common strains g1p[8], g2p[4], g3p[8], and g4p[8] in a total of 53.1% o ...201020087938
immune thrombocytopenic purpura in a 5-month-old female with rotavirus infection. 201020054872
prevention of biliary atresia in the experimental mouse model provides a new approach to elucidate its immune pathomechanism. 201020105622
effectiveness of monovalent rotavirus vaccine (rotarix) against severe diarrhea caused by serotypically unrelated g2p[4] strains in brazil.background. in a latin american trial, a monovalent g1p[8] rotavirus vaccine showed high efficacy against severe rotavirus diarrhea. protection was lower against serotypically unrelated g2p[4] strains, which circulated infrequently. this case-control study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of this monovalent g1p[8] rotavirus vaccine against g2p[4] strains in brazil. methods. case patients were children with severe g2p[4] rotavirus diarrhea who presented at a hospital in recife, brazil, ...201020047501
lactic acid bacteria efficiently protect human and animal intestinal epithelial and immune cells from enteric virus infection.this study aimed to examine the potential antiviral activity of lactic acid bacteria (lab) using animal and human intestinal and macrophage cell line models of non tumor origin. to this end, lab strains selected on the basis of previous in vitro trials were co-incubated with cell line monolayers, which were subsequently challenged with rotavirus (rv) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev). in order to elucidate the possible mechanism responsible for the antiviral activity, the induction ...201020106541
age distribution of paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis cases in europe: the reveal study.rotavirus is the most frequent cause of severe diarrhoea in children aged <5 y. a prospective, multicentre, observational study was conducted in europe during the 2004-2005 rotavirus season. the study was undertaken in areas of belgium, france, germany, italy, spain, sweden, and the uk, to estimate the incidence of community-acquired acute gastroenteritis (age) and rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) in children under 5 y of age seeking medical care in 3 settings: primary care, emergency department ...201019916900
rotavirus infections with multiple emerging genotypes in sri lanka.rotavirus diarrhea is an important cause of child mortality in developing countries, but studies on this diarrhea are scarce in sri lanka. a prospective study conducted in sri lanka on rotavirus infection among children in a hospital setting (n = 611) versus children residing in tsunami camps (n = 52) showed that prevalence of rotavirus infection was comparable, 21.9 and 20%, respectively. the hospital and camps were located in different districts. analysis of the genotypes of 122 rotaviruses fr ...201019921392
diversity of human parechoviruses isolated from stool samples collected from thai children with acute gastroenteritis.a total of 82 fecal specimens which were known to be negative for rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus and which were collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in chiang mai, thailand, from january to december 2005 were screened for human parechovirus (hpev). hpev was detected by reverse transcription-pcr with a primer pair that amplified the 5' untranslated region of its genome and was genotyped by sequencing of the vp1 region. hpev was detected in 12 ...201019864477
viral infections: new and emerging.viral gastrointestinal diseases are a leading cause of childhood death worldwide. recognition of specific causes as they pertain to epidemiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention is necessary for the clinician as scientific advances allow for greater understanding of the diseases. the present review summarizes these advances for commonly encountered causes of viral gastroenteritis.201019907323
real-time surveillance to assess risk of intussusception and other adverse events after pentavalent, bovine-derived rotavirus vaccine.a pentavalent, bovine-derived rotavirus vaccine (rotateq, merck) was licensed in 2006 for use in infants. a previously licensed rotavirus vaccine was withdrawn due to elevated risk of intussusception. we prospectively evaluated the risk of intussusception and other pre-specified adverse events among rotateq recipients in the vaccine safety datalink.201019907356
health-related quality of life lost to rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis in children and their parents: a canadian prospective study.we estimated the impact of rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis (rge) on health-related quality of life of children and parents as background for economic evaluation of rotavirus vaccines. a total of 186 new cases of rge in children <36 months old were recruited from physician and pediatric clinics and followed up for 2 weeks. our results show that rge impacts the health-related quality of life of children and parents adversely.201019907361
clinical and molecular epidemiology of rotavirus in children with community-acquired and hospital-acquired diarrhea in shanghai, china.a hospital-based investigation was conducted to understand the epidemiologic profile of rotavirus diarrhea due to community-acquired and hospital-acquired infection among children >28 days of age, between november 2006 and january 2008 in shanghai. rotavirus infection was related to 37.2% of clinic visit and 48.1% of ward admission attributable to community-acquired noninvasive bacterial diarrhea among shanghainese children. rotavirus was responsible for 54.8% of nosocomial diarrhea. g3p[8] (56. ...201019915511
universal mass vaccination against rotavirus gastroenteritis: impact on hospitalization rates in austrian children.since july 2007, rotavirus vaccinations have been subsidized in austria for all children from the seventh week up to the sixth month of life. vaccination coverage over the whole period was 72% with an increase to 87% in 2008.201019935446
molecular characterization of the vp1, vp2, vp4, vp6, nsp1 and nsp2 genes of bovine group b rotaviruses: identification of a novel vp4 genotype.studies on bovine group b rotaviruses (gbrs) are limited. to date, only the vp6 gene of a single bovine gbr strain and the vp7 and nsp5 genes of a few bovine gbr strains have been sequenced and analyzed. in the present study, using a single-primer amplification method, we have determined the full-length nucleotide sequences of the vp1, vp2, vp4, vp6, nsp1 and nsp2 genes of three bovine gbr strains from eastern india. in all six of these genes, the bovine gbr strains shared high genetic relatedne ...201019936611
[survey about the perception of the gastroenteritis and the infection due to rotavirus by the mothers in france].to describe the perception of the acute gastroenteritis (age) and the interest for the vaccination of the age due to rotavirus.201019939583
temperature-dependent transmission of rotavirus in great britain and the europe, rotavirus gastroenteritis peaks in late winter or early spring suggesting a role for weather factors in transmission of the virus. in this study, multivariate regression models adapted for time-series data were used to investigate effects of temperature, humidity and rainfall on reported rotavirus infections and the infection-rate parameter, a derived measure of infection transmission that takes into account population immunity, in england, wales, scotland and the netherlands. delayed ...201019939844
simian rotaviruses possess divergent gene constellations that originated from interspecies transmission and reassortment.although few simian rotaviruses (rvs) have been isolated, such strains have been important for basic research and vaccine development. to explore the origins of simian rvs, the complete genome sequences of strains ptrv (g8p[1]), rrv (g3p[3]), and tuch (g3p[24]) were determined. these data allowed the genotype constellations of each virus to be determined and the phylogenetic relationships of the simian strains with each other and with nonsimian rvs to be elucidated. the results indicate that ptr ...201019939934
characterisation of g8 human rotaviruses in australian children with gastroenteritis.this study describes the characterisation of g8 rotavirus strains isolated from humans with acute gastroenteritis. six g8 strains were detected in australia between 2002 and 2008. four were g8p[14] strains, one was g8p[8]+[14] and one was g8 p non-typeable. by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and enzyme immunoassay analysis, four g8 strains with visible rna exhibited a long electropherotype and five g8 strains displayed subgroup i specificity. sequence analysis of the vp7 gene indicated that t ...201019948195
efficacy and safety of pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine when administered with greater than 10 weeks between doses.the pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine is indicated as a 3-dose series with first dose administered orally at 6 to 12 weeks with subsequent doses at 4 to 10 week intervals. in pre-licensure phase iii trials, the majority followed this schedule, but there were 2956 instances where infants received a dose of pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine/placebo >10 weeks after the previous dose. among this subset, the efficacy against any severity of disease, the reduc ...201019949360
a long-term survey on the distribution of the human rotavirus g type in thailand.the distribution of the g type of human rotavirus was surveyed in thailand between july 1993 and june 2007. a significant yearly change in the distribution of the g type distribution was found. from 1993-1994 to 1998-1999, the g1 type was the most dominant. in 1999-2000, g9 began to appear at a high frequency. in 2000-2001, 2001-2002, and 2002-2003, g9 was very common. in 2003-2004, g1 became the most prevalent type again, and since then it has been detected at the highest frequency. g12 strains ...201019950228
high prevalence of species d human adenoviruses in fecal specimens from urban kenyan children with diarrhea.human adenoviruses (hadvs) cause a wide range of clinical syndromes and are classified in seven species, a-g, comprising 52 serotypes. hadv-a31, -f40, and -f41 have been associated with diarrhea in infants and young children. in developing countries gastroenteritis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children and, in comparison to rotaviruses, there are no data on the hadvs associated with diarrhea in pediatric patients in kenya. this study investigates the prevalence and genotypes of ...201019950234
detection of gii-4/2006b variant and recombinant noroviruses in children with acute gastroenteritis, south korea.norovirus (nov), a single-stranded, positive rna virus, is an important etiologic agent of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. in this study, a total of 434 fecal samples collected from 434 children with acute gastroenteritis in seoul, between september 2007 and july 2008 were tested to determine the molecular epidemiology of novs and characterize recombinant strains by using rt-pcr followed by sequencing. of the 434 specimens, nov, rotavirus, and adenovirus were detected in 155 (35.8%) ...201019950237
aichi virus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis in finland.aichi virus has been proposed as a novel causative agent of acute gastroenteritis. in addition to several asian countries, south america and africa, aichi virus has also recently been found in europe. our objective was to study the causative role of aichi virus in children with acute gastroenteritis in finland. we analysed 595 stool specimens from infants in an efficacy trial of rotavirus vaccine and 468 stool specimens from children in a hospital-based epidemiological and aetiological study of ...201019961643
surveillance and risk factors of norovirus gastroenteritis among children in a southern city of china in the fall-winter seasons of 2003-2006.noroviruses (novs) are an important cause of acute gastroenteritis but knowledge on the disease burden and epidemiology in children in the developing countries remains limited. in this study, we performed a surveillance of nov gastroenteritis in children of china to address some of the questions.201019943862
[study on the ubiquitin ligase activity of rotavirus nsp1 protein].to confirm the activity of non structural protein 1 (nsp1) of rotavirus (rv) as e3 ubiquitin ligase by experiments and to provide some clues for nsp1 on the pathogenic mechanisms and replication of rv.201021604574
Displaying items 1001 - 1100 of 10398