TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
conditions required for induction of interferon by rotaviruses and for their sensitivity to its action.our investigations of interferon induction by rotaviruses showed that only when cells were pretreated with interferon, i.e., primed, could infectious rotaviruses induce significant quantities of interferon. as little as 0.5 u of interferon provided sufficient priming for this induction. uv-irradiated rotaviruses induced significant levels of interferon, and priming only marginally enhanced the yields. neither heat-inactivated virus nor serum-neutralized virus was able to induce interferon, even ...19826178689
rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection by direct detection of viral nucleic acid in silver-stained polyacrylamide gels.a rapid simple technique for the diagnosis of rotavirus has been developed based on the sensitive detection of rotavirus double-stranded rna genome segments separated in polyacrylamide gels. the method utilizes a recently described ultrasensitive silver stain for polypeptides, which can also detect subnanogram amounts of nucleic acid. the sensitivity of the technique is comparable with that of electron microscopy or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.19826182158
monoclonal igg to the inner capsid of human rotavirus.monoclonal igg to the inner capsid of human rotavirus was produced by mice immunized with hybrid cells derived from mouse myeloma and the spleens of mice immunized with rotavirus. this igg reacted with an antigenic determinant of mammalian rotaviruses that was not present on that of avian rotaviruses.19826180706
antigenic relationships between rotaviruses from different species as studied by neutralization and immunofluorescence.antigenic relationships between the wa, hochi, ito, hosokawa and nemoto strains of human rotavirus, the sa-11 strain of simian rotavirus, the lincoln strain of bovine rotavirus, the osu strain of porcine rotavirus and the r-2 strain of lapine rotavirus, which were all established in cell culture, were studied by neutralization (nt) and immunofluorescence (if) using guinea pig antisera against these strains. the strains could not be distinguished by indirect if staining of infected cells because ...19826181760
current concepts on etiology and pathogenesis of diarrhoea caused by viruses. 19826298950
solid-phase enzyme immunoassay for rotavirus antigen: faecal protease activity as a reason for false-negative results.rabbits and guinea pigs were immunized with purified bovine rotavirus. immunoglobulin g fractions of the resulting antisera were used in a standard four-layer solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (eia) for rotavirus antigen in human faecal specimens. samples negative for rotavirus in electron microscopy, when diluted in standard eia buffers, regularly gave absorbance values lower than those obtained with buffer blank only. by further diluting of the samples the resulting absorbance values were found t ...19826292250
molecular biology of rotaviruses. iv. molecular cloning of the bovine rotavirus genome.a new cloning strategy has been developed for cloning the genomes of double-stranded rna viruses by using bovine rotavirus as a test system. the major modification adopted was the use of denatured polyadenylated double-stranded rna as the template for reverse transcriptase. this allowed the two complementary strands of cdna to be synthesized in a single reaction and removed the need for s1 nuclease digestion to remove the 5' hairpin structure normally generated in cdna synthesis.19826294322
genetic heterogeneity within individual bovine rotavirus isolates.the genomic rna patterns of six different bovine rotavirus isolates were analyzed on high-percentage polyacrylamide gels (12.5, 13.6, and 17.5%). in contrast to the rna patterns exhibited by conventional gel systems, those on the high-percentage gels showed an improvement in segment resolution which consequently aided in the detection of extensive band splitting in these patterns. the ability to clone out various electrophoretically distinct virus subpopulations from each of the six isolates pro ...19826294331
association of viral particles and viral proteins with membranes in sa11-infected cells.electron microscopy after negative staining of sa11-infected cell homogenates revealed that most of the viral particles are associated with membrane-like material. many of the particles seemed to be fully enveloped in a membrane. this association could also be detected by the observed cosedimentation of viral proteins and cell membranes. pulse-chase experiments showed that viral glycoproteins rapidly associate with membranes, whereas most of the structural proteins appearing in the soluble fract ...19826294346
improved specificity of elisa for rotavirus. 19826295355
in vitro transcription of two human rotaviruses.the rna polymerase activities of a cultivatable (wa) and a noncultivatable (ds-1) strain of human rotavirus were studied. under optimal conditions, transcription of all of their rna segments occurred, as evidenced by the hybridization of labeled transcripts to genomic rna. cross-hybridization between the two viruses showed that none of their 11 genes were completely homologous. the transcription products could be translated in vitro, yielding proteins with an electrophoretic pattern resembling t ...19826292446
effect of tunicamycin on rotavirus assembly and infectivity.bovine rotavirus grown in the presence or absence of tunicamycin was analyzed with respect to yield of infectious virus, the ratio of complete to incomplete particles, and polypeptide composition. tunicamycin at a concentration of 1 microgram/ml reduced virus yields by 4 logs and completely prevented the incorporation of [3h]uridine into complete rotavirus particles, as determined by cesium chloride gradient analysis. concomitant with a reduction in complete particles, three rotavirus polypeptid ...19826292451
[experimental studies on the infection of an adult tree shrew (tupaia belangeri yunalis) with human rotavirus]. 19826293669
[intestinal rotavirus infections (hrv - human rotavirus)]. 19826302630
[infectious diarrhea of viral and bacterial etiology]. 19826302816
comparison of an enzyme immunoassay with electron microscopic procedures for detecting rotavirus.the sensitivity and specificity of an enzyme immunoassay (rotazyme), an ongrid immunoelectron microscopy procedure, and conventional negative stain electron microscopic techniques were compared. by using partially purified human rotavirus and simian rotavirus (sa-11) of known particle concentration, the enzyme immunoassay was essentially equivalent to the immunoelectron microscopic procedure and significantly more sensitive than conventional electron microscopic techniques. the level of sensitiv ...19826284793
electrophoretic analysis of rna segments of human rotaviruses cultivated in cell culture.human rotaviruses (hrvs) derived from stools were cultivated to high titres in an established cell line (ma-104) using the rotary culture system. analysis of the 11 double-stranded rna segments of the culture-adapted hrvs was carried out by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. tissue culture-adapted hrvs, uncloned or cloned, had the same rna gel patterns as those of the original hrvs from the individual stool specimens. the migrations of the rna segments from the culture-adapted hrvs were markedl ...19826284865
antibodies to gastroenteritis viruses in cystic fibrosis patients.infectivity of certain enteric viruses including rotavirus is profoundly affected by proteolytic enzymes. to test whether cystic fibrosis patients, possessing chronically decreased levels of pancreatic enzymes, show altered susceptibility to gastroenteritis viruses, we examined sera from patients and controls for antibodies to two major pathogens. in cystic fibrosis patients, normal rotavirus antibody levels were found and norwalk virus antibody prevalence was unchanged.19826284870
[detection of rotavirus in hospitalized and ambulatory infants with acute diarrhea in santiago de chile]. 19826284181
histocompatibility types and antiviral antibodies in a diverse group of individuals.a study was made of the possible relationship between histocompatibility (hla) antigens of the a and b loci and antibodies to cytomegalovirus, influenza a (victoria strain), measles, rotavirus, vaccinia, and varicella/zoster. a large and diverse group of unselected individuals was studied. a possible relationship was detected between the presence of the antigen b15 and a lack of circulating measles antibodies. the study group was divided into three sections: (a) healthy individuals, (b) "renal d ...19826288632
polymorphism of genomic rnas within rotavirus serotypes and subgroups.the genome of human rotaviruses is composed of 11 segments of double stranded rna. analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the genomic rna from a number of strains of the same serotype has demonstrated a significant polymorphism in the migration pattern. however, two strains differing from each other in serotype were found to have apparently identical rna migration patterns. it is concluded that serotype cannot be deduced from rna migration patterns. degrees of polymorphism have been o ...19826297431
colostral and milk antibody titers in cows vaccinated with a modified live-rotavirus-coronavirus vaccine.colostral and milk whey rotavirus (rv) and coronavirus (cv) antibody titers stimulated in 15 beef heifers by vaccination with a modified live-rv-cv vaccine were compared with titers in 15 nonvaccinated heifers. geometric mean antibody titers to rv in colostral and 3-day milk whey from vaccinated heifers were 2,807 and 92, respectively, and in control heifers were 1,613 and 71, respectively. geometric mean antibody titers to cv in colostral and 3-day milk whey of vaccinated heifers were 877 and 1 ...19826290437
a method for the purification of rotaviruses and adenoviruses from faeces.rotaviruses and non-cultivable enteric adenoviruses were purified from large volumes of faecal extracts using polyethylene glycol precipitation, centrifugation through 45% w/v sucrose and segregation by density in a cesium chloride density gradient. yields were high and the preparations were pure enough to use in the production of type-specific antisera and in viral polypeptide analysis. human rotavirus particles of density 1.38 g/ml were shown to be non-infectious for llc-mk2 tissue culture cel ...19826290520
further observations on the ultrastructure of human rotavirus.the inner capsid layer of human rotavirus was found to preferentially break up into large ring-like morphological units. the outer capsid was found to be composed of capsomeres covered by a thin protein or glycoprotein covering. these capsomeres appeared to be broad headed and short stemmed, similar to the type of pin used to mark locations on a map (pushpin).19826290592
a sero-epizootiological survey on rotavirus infection in foals. 19826298495
pathogenic mechanisms and new perspectives in the treatment and prevention of enteric infections.enteric infections cause more than a billion episodes of diarrhoeal disease in humans each year killing many millions of people, especially young children, in developing countries. recent progress, reviewed in this article, has enabled that a specific pathogen now can be isolated in the majority of patients with acute diarrhoea, and has also elucidated fundamental pathogenic mechanisms and their pathophysiological effects for several of these agents. based on this understanding it now seems poss ...19826289485
viral diseases: infections of the gastrointestinal the 1970s investigations generated a remarkable amount of information on the viruses responsible for acute gastroenteritis. the two viruses responsible for most cases occur in epidemiologically distinct clinical forms. although occasionally epidemic, rotavirus infections are usually sporadic and primarily affect infants and young children. this illness is characterized by severe diarrhea commonly lasting five to eight days and frequently associated with upper respiratory tract symptoms, fever ...19826290133
acute viral enteritis and exacerbations of inflammatory bowel order to determine whether or not acute viral gastroenteritis predisposes to exacerbations of inflammatory bowel disease, patients with crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis were observed longitudinally. assessment of disease activity was correlated with evidence for viral infection by serology and stool antigen testing. disease exacerbations were rarely associated with rotavirus, norwalk agent, or adenovirus infection, primarily because these infection rates were very low. however, the few ...19826290307
variance in rotavirus infection rates in different urban population groups in south africa.rotavirus infection in black infants contrasts markedly with that of white infants in being much less common and showing no seasonal variation. in this multicentre study in johannesburg, the aetiology of winter infantile gastroenteritis in black, coloured, and white infants was investigated. stools were examined by electron microscopy and also by enzyme-immunoassay to detect subparticular antigen which may be missed by electron microscopy in patients presenting late in the course of the illness. ...19826296311
a follow-up study on bovine rotavirus dissemination among calves of a large dairy herd.rotaviruses had previously been involved in lethal diarrhoea of newborn calves as well as non-lethal diarrhoea in calves aged 6 to 7 weeks in a closed dairy herd comprising 220 heads of cattle. fifty calves born consecutively were thereafter tested at weekly intervals till 8 weeks old for diarrhoea by clinical judgement of their feces and for rotavirus excretion by elisa tests. serum antibodies against rotaviruses were sporadically determined by cf tests. rotavirus was shown to persist in this h ...19826296636
a general strategy for cloning double-stranded rna: nucleotide sequence of the simian-11 rotavirus gene 8.using simian-11 rotavirus rna, a strategy has been developed for the production of full length cloned copies of the genes of double-stranded (dsrna) viruses. genomic rna segments were polyadenylated and reverse transcribed to yield a mixture of full length cdna copies of both possible polarities. the cdnas were annealed, filled in to complete any partial copies, tailed and inserted into the psti site of pbr322 using dg/dc tailing. cloned rotavirus cdna gene copies were assigned to genomic rna se ...19826296764
[efficacy testing of inactivated rotavirus vaccine in a dairy cattle herd]. 19826291485
isolation and identification of swine rotavirus in taiwan.large numbers of viral particles resembling rotavirus were detected with negative stained electron microscopy in bacteria free fecal filtrate obtained from 10-day old diarrheal suckling piglets of a conventional pig farm in taiwan. the clinical signs of vomiting and diarrhea were reproduced in colostrum deprived piglets artificially infected with the fecal filtrates. rotavirus particles persisted in the fecal samples after two in vivo serial passages, and was not seen in the uninfected control a ...19826291876
pathogenesis of rotavirus infection in mice.three parameters of rotavirus infection, i.e., clinical disease, viral antigen in infected intestines, and infectious virus in feces, were assessed in infant mice nursed by mothers with or without preexisting rotavirus antibody. diarrhea was the only consistent sign of clinical disease, and its course followed that of infection by about 1 day. infected intestinal epithelial cells, except crypt cells, were observed by immunofluorescence microscopy in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon. infec ...19826292110
three human rotavirus serotypes demonstrated by plaque neutralization of isolated strains.human rotaviruses were isolated directly from stool specimens of gastroenteritis patients in ma-104 cells in the presence of trypsin. for the plaque assay of the isolated strains, the optimal composition of overlay medium was determined. the antigenicity of the isolated strains was investigated by a plaque neutralization method, using antisera prepared against six strains having different electropherotypes of viral rna, and three different neutralization serotypes were demonstrated.19826292112
[frequency of enteropathogenic k99+ st+ escherichia coli and rotaviruses in neonatal diarrhea of calves. survey of a veterinarian's clientele in sarthe].a clinical and microbiological study was carried out on 21 diarrhoeic calves less than 20 days old, belonging to 20 different farms in the french department of sarthe. each diarrhoeic calf was compared with a clinically healthy calf of the same age, from the same farm. two visits were made : one during the acute phase of diarrhoea, the other 10 to 15 days later. of the 21 diarrhoeic calves, nine died. on the first visit, rotavirus was found in faeces of 11 diarrhoeic calves and e. coli k99+ st+ ...19826291442
identification of a neutralization-specific antigen of a calf rotavirus.monospecific polyclonal antisera were raised in guinea-pigs against the calf rotavirus polypeptides vp1, vp2, vp3 + 4, vp4.2, vp6, vp7.1, vp7.2 and vp10. all of the antisera gave a similar pattern of cytoplasmic immunofluorescence in rotavirus-infected cells, but spots of fluorescence of varying intensity with different sera were seen over the nucleus. immune precipitation, using staphylococcus aureus to collect immune complexes, showed that vp2 was precipitated by antiserum to vp2 (alpha-vp2) a ...19826292353
[infectious gastroenteritis in childhood (author's transl)].stool specimens from 126 children with acute gastroenteritis and from 42 controls were screened bacteriologically and virologically including electron-microscopy. rota viruses were found in 36.5% of the children with diarrhoea, enteropathogenic e. coli in 13.5% and candida in 7.1%. these pathogens were not found in the controls. enteroviruses were found in almost the same frequency in both groups (13.5% in children with gastroenteritis, 16.6% in the controls). the etiologic role of adenoviruses, ...19826287245
comparison of direct and indirect enzyme immunoassays with direct ultracentrifugation before electron microscopy for detection of rotaviruses.a direct and an indirect enzyme immunoassay (eia) were evaluated against a standard of electron microscopy after direct ultracentrifugation of the specimen for their performances in detecting rotaviruses. the indirect eia had variable background activity which influenced test specificity. the indirect eia control (test system without the detector antibody) plus a regression line (which reflected background noise) improved test specificity. however, the results of direct eia (rotazyme; abbott lab ...19826286720
purification and characterization of bovine rotavirus cores.using the chaotropic effect generated by a high concentration of cacl2, we converted calf rotavirus particles into cores of 40 nm in diameter. these cores were purified by rate zonal centrifugation in sucrose gradients and by isopycnic gradients. they had a sedimentation coefficient of 280s +/- 20s and a density of 1.44 g/ml in cscl. when analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, they contained three polypeptides (vp125, vp89, and vp78). the major internal polypeptide of the virion (vp39) ...19826292454
enteric viruses of nonhuman primates.the phylogenetic relationship of nonhuman primates to man implies that many of these animals could serve as surrogates for studies of diseases of man. many nonhuman primate species are susceptible not only to viruses of human origin but also to nonhuman primate viruses that are counterparts of viruses of man. all monkeys and great apes do not respond similarly to an antigenic stimulus. some agents are highly pathogenic for one species and completely innocuous for another. for example, poliovirus ...19826293149
serotyping and subgrouping of rotavirus strains by the elisa test.a method is described for the serotyping and subgrouping of rotaviruses by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (elisa). for the isolates tested "blind" under code in parallel the serotyping results obtained by elisa and serum neutralization of fluorescent focus formation were the same. after absorption of the typing antisera with purified heterotypic rotavirus, up to 128-fold differences in titres between isolates were observed in the elisa test. the results of serotyping and subgrouping, by elis ...19826293413
[acute gastroenteritis epidemic in adults caused by rotaviruses]. 19826287728
rotaviral antibodies in cow's the past, it has been reported that neonatal diets made from unheated cow's milk were superior to those made from heated cow's milk. it was observed that piglets were equally protected from rotaviral diarrhea when they were fed diets made from either unheated milk that came from a cow immunized against porcine rotavirus or from a cow that was not immunized. because of this observation, we examined four pools of "normal" cows' colostrum and 58 samples of "normal" cow's milk for the presence of ...19826293690
the effects of relative humidity and temperature on the survival of human rotavirus in faeces.the effects of relative humidity and temperature on the survival of human rotavirus in a thin layer of faeces on an impervious surface and on absorbent material was investigated using the indirect immunofluorescence technique in llc-mk2 cells to titrate infectivity. rotavirus was found to be very stable at low and high relative humidities but not in the medium range of relative humidity. rotavirus infectivity was lost more rapidly under all humidities at 37 degrees c than at 4 degrees or 20 degr ...19826287970
[rotavirus infection in infants]. 19826288529
[toward a rotavirus vaccine]. 19826288530
detection of human rotavirus by reversed passive hemagglutination (rpha) using antibody against a cultivable human rotavirus as compared with electron microscopy (em) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). 19826294488
new agents in diarrhea. 19826294627
new opportunities for development of safe, effective live virus vaccines.effective vaccines are not available for most viral diseases. this situation may soon change when the full force of contemporary molecular biology is applied to immunoprophylaxis. in certain viral diseases, particularly those affecting the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, live attenuated vaccines are needed to confer effective protection. until now the major obstacle to success has been genetic instability. it may be possible to construct stable, satisfactorily attenuated mutants by clon ...19826295011
passive immunity in calf diarrhea: vaccination with k99 antigen of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli and rotavirus.twenty-four pregnant cows were vaccinated intramuscularly with k99 extract from enterotoxigenic escherichia coli and inactivated rotavirus as follows: six cows were injected with 2 ml of oil-adjuvanted vaccine; six cows were injected with 0.5 ml of oil-adjuvanted vaccine; six cows were injected with 4 ml of aluminum hydroxide-adjuvanted vaccine twice with a four-week interval; and six cows were unvaccinated as controls. calves born to these cows were challenged with enterotoxigenic e. coli at 6 ...19826288567
genetic relatedness among human rotaviruses as determined by rna hybridization.viral rnas from human rotaviruses were compared by gel electrophoresis and by hybridization to probes prepared by in vitro transcription of two well-characterized laboratory strains (wa and ds-1). also, the viral rnas were compared by hybridization to probes prepared from three of the test viruses. thirteen specimens (diarrheal stools) were obtained from infants and children 5 to 21 months old on a single day at the emergency ward of the caracas children's hospital, and an additional specimen wa ...19826288569
isolation of human rotaviruses in primary cultures of monkey kidney cells.we succeeded in isolating human rotaviruses from the feces of gastroenteritis patients by using roller cultures of primary cynomolgus monkey kidney cells with trypsin in the maintenance medium but without concentration and trypsin treatment of the inocula at each passage level. these cells were found to be more sensitive than ma-104 cells (derived from fetal rhesus monkey kidney) for the propagation of human rotaviruses. polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the genome rna revealed that there we ...19826288768
rotavirus and hemolytic enteropathogenic escherichia coli in weanling diarrhea of pigs.since the turn of the century, escherichia coli has been implicated in the etiology of weanling diarrhea (colibacillosis). however, rotavirus--a virus that destroys enterocytes--has been shown recently to be causally associated with weanling diarrhea of pigs. the role of both rotavirus and hemolytic enteropathogenic e. coli in weanling diarrhea was assessed in this study. pigs from a closed herd were farrowed and weaned by two markedly different systems: an "intensive care sanitary" system and a ...19826296193
detection of a rotavirus-like agent associated with diarrhea in an infant.a rotavirus-like agent was detected in the feces of a child with diarrhea. although morphologically indistinguishable from rotavirus, the agent was serologically distinct, and electrophoresis of its nucleic acid also showed that it was dissimilar.19826296194
isolation of human rotavirus subgroups 1 and 2 in cell strain of human rotavirus subgroup 1 (kun) and one strain of subgroup 2 (mo) were isolated with the ma104 cell line, a fetal rhesus monkey kidney cell line. their subgroup specificities and rna patterns were identical to those of rotaviruses present in stools before cultivation. distinct cytopathic effects consisting of obscure cell boundaries, cell fusion, cell rounding, cell detachment, and lytic foci were recognized at passage 3 of mo and passage 6 of kun. no differences in cytopathic cha ...19826296195
rotavirus antibodies in hanuman langurs (presbytis entellus).serum samples from wild hanuman langurs (presbytis entellus) from mysore state, india, were compared to samples from a laboratory colony from davis, calif., for antibodies to rotavirus, which is an important cause of gastroenteritis in mammals. animals from the laboratory colony had a higher frequency and higher levels of antibody than wild animals. it is likely that wild populations of langurs have a much lower incidence of rotaviral infection than laboratory populations, which are exposed to b ...19826288954
electron microscopy of the intestine of gnotobiotic piglets infected with porcine rotavirus. 19826296207
[studies on the etiology of autumnal acute gastroenteritis in kunming. ii. determination of rotavirus by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay]. 19826303614
sudden infant death syndrome associated with rotavirus infection.rotavirus was detected in the stools of five children stricken with sudden infant death syndrome (sids) over a three-week period. while none of the children had acute gastroenteritis, four of the five had acute upper respiratory infections. rotavirus was also identified in tracheal aspirates from two of the infants. extensive investigations failed to reveal the presence of any other viruses or toxins in specimens obtained from the five children with sids. rotavirus was not found in the stool spe ...19826298360
[rotavirus in belem, parà, brazil (pilot study)]. 19826300982
immunity to rotavirus in conventional neonatal calves.the local and systemic humoral immune responses to rotavirus were studied in six conventional neonatal calves. attenuated bovine rotavirus was administered either orally or directly into an isolated intestinal loop. the parameters monitored were neutralizing rotavirus antibody in serum, immunofluorescent and neutralizing rotavirus antibody in intestinal loop washings, and rotavirus antibody-producing cells in intestinal mucosa. an antibody response was observed in the serum and intestinal secret ...19826296197
rotavirus: a cause of nosocomial infection in the nursery. 19826284903
comparison between viral rna electrophoresis, elisa and complement fixation techniques with electronic microscopy to demonstrate rotavirus. 19826289766
[detection of human rota virus by elisa using glass beads as solid phase]. 19826306921
localization of rotavirus antigens in infected cells by ultrastructural immunocytochemistry.virus structural antigens were localized within a line of monkey kidney (ma104) cells infected with the simian rotavirus sa11 using electron microscopic immunoperoxidase techniques. when hyperimmune guinea-pig anti-sa11 serum was used, virus particles, membranes of virus-associated endoplasmic reticulum, and viroplasmic inclusions were most heavily labelled. a general cytoplasmic reaction (ribosomes, intracytoplasmic membranes, etc.) with anti-sa11 serum was also observed, but nuclei were unstai ...19826296288
[studies on the etiology of automnal acute gastroenteritis in kunming. i. a preliminary report on the detection of rotavirus]. 19826303613
[detection of rotavirus in healthy malagasian children]. 19826312908
heterogeneity in the structural glycoprotein (vp7) of simian rotavirus sa11. 19826291238
sequence relationships between the genome segments of human and animal rotavirus strains.the sequence relationships of a range of cultivable and noncultivable human and animal rotaviruses were investigated by hybridization of rotavirus cdna probes to genomic rnas immobilized on diazobenzyloxymethyl paper. under conditions of low stringency (34% base mismatch tolerated) most genome segments exhibited partial homology except for genes 4 and 5. in contrast, under more stringent conditions of hybridization in which no more than 8% base mismatch was tolerated, few segments exhibited homo ...19826287022
sequence diversity of human rotavirus strains investigated by northern blot hybridization analysis.rotavirus genomic rnas, derived from a series of human isolates that exhibit variability in the pattern of migration of the double-stranded rna on polyacrylamide gels, were transferred to diazobenzyloxymethyl paper, and their sequence diversity was investigated. hybridization of cdna probes prepared from the 11 segments of rotavirus rna indicated that considerable sequence diversity exists among these viruses. under conditions of both low and high stringency, hybridization analysis of virus coll ...19826287021
identification, synthesis, and modifications of simian rotavirus sa11 polypeptides in infected cells.the synthesis and processing of simian rotavirus sa11 polypeptides was investigated after infection of ma104 cells. [35s]methionine- or 3h-amino acid-labeled cell extracts were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. viral protein synthesis was maximal 3 to 5 h postinfection, and 12 major viral polypeptides were detected. immunoprecipitation and peptide mapping experiments, demonstrated five viral structural proteins (125,000 daltons [125k], 94k, 88k, 41k, and 38k) ...19826284998
investigation of genetic interaction between simian rotavirus sa11 and reovirus.rotavirus and reovirus are physically and genetically very similar. their genetic interaction would have important implications for understanding both the epidemiology of rotavirus and the biological basis of rotavirus pathogenicity. a permissive line of rhesus macaque kidney cells, ma104, was infected with the simian rotavirus sa11 and various temperature sensitive mutants of reovirus (type 3 groups a, b, c, d, g, type 1 m79, and type 2 122). the mixed cell infections were carried out at permis ...19826289051
interaction of rotavirus and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli in conventionally-reared dairy calves.a study was made of the effects of rotavirus and/or enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) on dairy calves born and suckled on the farm and subsequently reared in isolation. calves were orally inoculated at 6 days old with either rotavirus (5), etec (7), rotavirus and etec (5) or remained uninoculated controls (4), and their reactions were recorded by clinical, microbiological, and pathological observations. rotavirus infection consistently produced diarrhoea, while etec inoculated alone did no ...19826285586
use of transcription probes for genotyping rotavirus reassortants. 19826289518
isolation and genetic characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants of simian rotavirus sa11. 19826285605
isolation of lapine rotavirus in cell cultures. brief report.two cytopathic rotavirus strains were isolated in ma 104 cells from diarrheal rabbits. the isolates showed marked cross reactions with strain lincoln of bovine rotavirus in immunofluorescence, but no cross reaction in neutralization.19826285861
[rotavirus and prolonged diarrhea syndrome of infants]. 19826285941
rescue and serotypic characterization of noncultivable human rotavirus by gene reassortment.thirty-three of 50 noncultivable human rotavirus strains from a variety of locations were successfully rescued by gene reassortment. the serotype of each of the 33 strains was investigated by a qualitative cytopathic effect neutralization assay. nineteen strains resembled the previously characterized human rotavirus serotype wa, whereas three strains were serologically related to the ds-1 strain. eleven strains appeared to be serotypically distinct from the wa and ds-1 strains and thus apparentl ...19826286486
antigenic relationships among some animal rotaviruses: virus neutralization in vitro and cross-protection in piglets.the serotype, rna electropherotype, and cross-protection properties of rotaviruses isolated from canine, simian, porcine, and human species were compared. the bovine strain b:usa:78:1a and the canine strain c:usa:81:2 were adapted to cell culture and cloned in this study. the other viruses, i.e., simian strain s:usa:79:2, porcine ohio state university strain p:usa:77:1, and human strain wa, were already cell culture adapted, although they were further cloned for this work. the serum neutralizati ...19826290530
comparison of rotazyme and direct electron microscopy for detection of rotavirus in human stools.a total of 115 stools were examined for rotavirus, using direct electron microscopy (em) and rotazyme. the overall agreement was 88.7%. of the negative results, there was 91.95% agreement. rotazyme reactions of three-plus or more gave a 100% agreement with em. the rotazyme test is a useful diagnostic aid in laboratories not capable of performing em.19826290532
incidence of rotavirus infection in different age groups of pediatric patients with enzyme immunoassay was used to detect rotavirus in the stools of 176 pediatric patients presenting with gastroenteritis. the highest incidence of rotavirus infection was found among patients less than 1 year of age. in contrast to previously reported studies, 23% of neonates with gastroenteritis had rotavirus in their stools. this relatively easy and rapid method was helpful in the management of pediatric patients with gastroenteritis.19826290533
definition of human rotavirus serotypes by plaque reduction assay.twenty different human rotavirus reassortants were characterized serologically by a plaque reduction assay as belonging to one of three distinct serotypes. fourteen were similar if not identical to our prototype wa strain; two were like the prototype ds-1 strain, and four belonged to a third serotype for which a prototype has not yet been selected. hyperimmune sera raised against the three serotypes were required to distinguish among them, since postinfection sera had lower titers and were more ...19826286487
detection of anti-rotavirus antibody-producing cells in paraffin-embedded tissue assay to detect anti-rotavirus antibody-producing cells was developed in rabbits. sections of alcohol-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues were used to make an immunofluorescent "sandwich" consisting of specific antibody-producing cells, a concentrated suspension of bovine rotavirus, and rhodamine-conjugated anti-rotavirus serum. rhodamine-stained, anti-rotavirus antibody-producing cells could be simultaneously stained by a fluorescein-conjugated antiserum reactive to rabbit immunoglobulin.19826283961
[isolation of a cytopathogenic rotavirus from calves].a cytopathic rotavirus was isolated from calves with symptoms of diarrhea and underwent 15 passages in bovine embryo kidney cell culture. the specificity of the isolate was confirmed by the neutralization test, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy. the cpe of the isolated in bovine embryo kidney cells was similar to that of the reference strain.19826280392
rotavirus infection in nigerian infants and young children with a study conducted over a 5-month period (september 1979 to january 1980), rotaviruses were detected by counterimmunoelectrophoresis in the feces of 16 (13.8%) of 116 infants and young children between 1 and 48 months old with acute, sporadic gastroenteritis, at ife, nigeria. the highest frequency of rotavirus infection was found in th 7- to 12-month age-group (18.9%). males constituted 61% of the sample and excreted rotavirus at a significantly higher rate than did females (p less than 0.01). ...19826280506
porcine pararotavirus: detection, differentiation from rotavirus, and pathogenesis in gnotobiotic pigs.some characteristics of a newly recognized porcine enteric virus are described. tentatively, the virus was referred to as porcine pararotavirus (parv) because it resembled rotaviruses in respect to size, morphology, and tropism for villous enterocytes of the small intestine. however, it was antigenically distinct from porcine, human, and bovine rotaviruses and reoviruses 1, 2, and 3, and the electrophoretic migration pattern of parv double-stranded rna was distinct from the electrophoretic migra ...19826279693
acquisition of serum antibody to norwalk virus and rotavirus and relation to diarrhea in a longitudinal study of young children in rural bangladesh.serum antibodies to norwalk virus and to rotavirus were measured during longitudinal studies of infectious diseases and nutrition in rural bangladesh. initially, the prevalence of antibody to norwalk virus was 7% in children younger than six months and increased to 80% in children two to five years of age. the incidence of titer increases was highest in one- and two-year-olds and in children who had low or undetectable levels of antibody. some norwalk virus infections appeared to result in diarr ...19826279734
incidence of rotavirus in artificially reared pigs and some effects of diarrhoea on the physiology and histology of the gastrointestinal tract.pigs reared on a milk substitute from two days old often developed diarrhoea, but suckled littermates remained healthy. only in a few pigs was diarrhoea associated with the presence of rotavirus. rotavirus was also present in some healthy pigs, and was associated with a reduction in villus length. pigs with diarrhoea usually had an increased amount of digesta in the stomach and a reduction in lactase activity in the small intestine but villus length was unchanged. there was no evidence of lactos ...19826283612
diarrhoea in dairy calves reduced by feeding colostrum from cows vaccinated with rotavirus.forty-two dairy calves remained with their dams for two days after birth, and then were removed to a calf rearing shed. calves were allocated to three groups for the next 14 days, and received twice daily either whole milk, whole milk with a 10 per cent supplement of pooled normal bovine colostrum or whole milk with 10 per cent supplement of colostrum from cows vaccinated with rotavirus. a natural outbreak of diarrhoea occurred, affecting 28 of the 42 calves. feeding immune colostrum delayed the ...19826283613
[rotavirus gastroenteritis (clinical course and diagnosis)]. 19826280328
occurrence of viruses in human stools in the ahaggar (alberia).from october 1977 to may 1980, 243 stools collected in sedentary and semi-nomadic populations of the ahaggar (algerian sahara) were examined using immunoelectronmicroscopy and tissue culture inoculation. immunoelectronmicroscopy revealed the presence of rotaviruses in 8, coronaviruses in 26, adenoviruses in 5 and small round viruses in 4. enteroviruses were isolated in tissue culture from 24 stools. rotaviruses were present in the ahaggar but were associated with little acute enteric disease. th ...19826284837
human rotavirus rna prepared from stool samples by a simple procedure suitable for the determination of electropherotypes. 19826281287
the differentiation of calf rotaviruses by plaque morphology and serum neutralization. 19826281378
multiple sclerosis. electrofocused "bands" of oligoclonal csf igg do not carry antibody activity against measles, varicella-zoster or rotaviruses.electrofocused serum and cerebrospinal fluid (csf) specimens from patients with multiple sclerosis (ms) were analysed for immunoglobulins (ig) and for antibodies to measles, varicella-zoster and rotaviruses by an imprint immunofixation method. patterns of intrathecally synthesized antibodies to the 3 viruses differed from patterns of oligoclonal igg in the csf. a variable proportion of virus antibody bands (average 19% for measles antibodies, 8% for varicella-zoster antibodies, 31% for rotavirus ...19826281394
rna of rotavirus: comparison of rnas of human and animal rotaviruses.single-stranded rna (ssrna) was transcribed in vitro from inner-shell particles of human rotavirus strain wa (hrv-wa) and a bovine rotavirus (neonatal calf diarrhea virus [ncdv]) by virion-associated rna polymerase activity. the ssrna product consisted of 11 rna segments which were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. in vitro-transcribed 32p-labeled ssrna was used to study the genetic relatedness between rotaviruses by annealing with genomic double-stranded rna (dsrna) of homologous ...19826281481
rotavirus (sa11) antibody in nonhuman primates. 19826285080
viral gastroenteritis. 19826281591
radioimmunoassay in diagnostic virology. 19826281600
rotavirus infection in new zealand.rotavirus infection is commonly found in young infants admitted to hospital with gastroenteritis. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for virus diagnosis is described and the results of testing stool specimens from 497 children with gastroenteritis, 192 neonates and 247 asymptomatic six month old infants are presented. rotavirus infection was found in 45 percent of all children with gastroenteritis but only in 4.7 percent of neonates and 2 percent of asymptomatic infants. these results ...19826281699
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