TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
comparative virulence of different bovine rotavirus isolates.intestinal loops, ligated in colostrum-deprived calves were used to compare the virulence of four isolates of bovine rotavirus. histopathological studies were carried out on infected and control loops and measurements of villous length, crypt depth, villus:crypt ratio and crypt mitotic index were recorded. pathological changes associated with the rotaviruses included villous atrophy, flattening of absorptive epithelium and reduced villus:crypt ratios. the changes were confined to infected intest ...19816268264
diarrhea in lambs: experimental infections with enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, rotavirus, and cryptosporidium sp.thirteen gnotobiotic lambs, aged from a few hours to 8 days, were inoculated orally with single infections of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) (four animals), lamb rotavirus (five animals), and cryptosporidium (four animals). six gnotobiotic and two specific-pathogen-free lambs were co-inoculated with either rotavirus and etec (four animals), rotavirus and cryptosporidium (two animals), or etec and cryptosporidium (two animals). lambs 4 days of age and older became only subclinically infe ...19816268543
effect of fractions of ethiopian and norwegian colostrum on rotavirus and escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.samples of colostrum from both ethiopian and norwegian women contained antirotavirus activities of immunoglobulin and non-immunoglobulin nature. no significant differences in rotavirus immunoglobulin a or in rotavirus-inhibiting activity were found between samples from the two countries. the non-immunoglobulin inhibitory activity was trypsin sensitive and heat stable (100 degrees c for 10 min). escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin antibodies were measured in the colostrum samples by enzyme-l ...19816268544
susceptibility of mice to rotavirus infection: effects of age and administration of corticosteroids.we examined susceptibility to the murine rotavirus, epizootic diarrhea of infant mice virus (edim), in normal suckling and weaned mice and in suckling mice treated with glucocorticoids. normal mice 1 to 40 days old were inoculated by gastrin intubation with high doses of edim and subsequently evaluated for rotavirus infection by solid-phase radioimmunoassay, by electron microscopy of intestinal tissue sections or by both. radioimmunoassay and electron microscopy showed a concordance of 89.5% in ...19816268547
immuno-electron microscopic study on the antigenicity of tubular structures associated with human rotavirus.tubular structures associated with human rotavirus were antigenically related to the single-capsid layered particles having only an inner capsid of the virus because they were agglutinated by heterologous bovine rotavirus antiserum.19816268548
the use of markers in immune electron microscopy.immune electron microscopy (iem) cannot be used successfully for structures that do not have recognisable morphology. however, at least some of these structures or components are related antigenically to recognisable antigens or viruses. we have therefore mixed unknown antigens with known markers and looked for the presence of mixed aggregates. the present study examined a low molecular weight subunit of rotavirus and a micellar form of hepatitis b surface antigen. in both cases mixed immune agg ...19816268650
comparison of immunosorbent electron microscopy, enzyme immunoassay and counterimmunoelectrophoresis for detection of human rotavirus in stools.the detection of human rotaviruses by routine electron microscopy examination of stool specimens has been compared with the sensitivity of detection obtainable by three different immunoassays. these assays are: 1) immunosorbent electron microscopy (isem), which consists of the serological trapping of viruses on electron microscopy grids coated with protein a and specific viral antiserum; 2) an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), in which the primary antibody is rabbit anti-rotavirus immun ...19816268652
acute diarrhea and rotavirus infection in newborn babies and children in yogyakarta, indonesia, from june 1978 to june 1979.a longitudinal study of acute diarrhea in children in yogyakarta, indonesia (june 1978 to june 1979), showed little variation throughout most months of the year in numbers of children admitted to hospital and in numbers infected with rotaviruses. both decreased during november and december coincidentally with seasonal change from dry to wet conditions. rotavirus particles were identified by electron microscopy in fecal specimens from 126 of 334 (38%) infants and children with acute diarrhea. nos ...19816268656
improved detection of viruses by electron microscopy after direct ultracentrifuge preparation of specimens.we have adapted the beckman airfuge air turbine ultracentrifuge and the new em-90 particle-counting rotor to improve detection by electron microscopy of viruses in clinical specimens. samples were clarified by centrifugation, pelleted in the em-90 rotor directly to formvar-coated copper grids, and strained with 1.5% sodium phosphotungstate. virus counts and endpoint titrations of serial dilutions of partially purified preparations of poliovirus, sa11 rotavirus, herpes simplex virus, and vaccinia ...19816268658
twenty-five years of progress in understanding major infectious diseases of dairy cattle. 19816268673
a prospective study of rotavirus infection in infants and young children.diarrhea in neonates, followed as a cohort, and their families was studied prospectively. the families were followed for an average of 16.3 months. stool and serum specimens were obtained at least every three months. stool specimens were examined for viruses by electron microscopy and cultured for enteropathogens, and serum specimens were tested for antibodies to rotavirus and norwalk virus. during the study, 237 episodes of gastroenteritis were observed in 104 infants and their 62 siblings. rot ...19816268713
rotavirus infection in thai people: a preliminary study. 19816268729
molecular biology of rotaviruses. i. characterization of basic growth parameters and pattern of macromolecular synthesis.the united kingdom tissue-adapted bovine rotavirus growing in african green monkey kidney (bsc-1) cells was selected as a model system with which to study the detailed molecular virology of rotavirus replication. study of the kinetics of infectious virus production revealed a fairly rapid replication cycle, with maximum yield of virus after 10 to 12 h at 37 degrees c. progeny genome synthesis was first detected during the virus latent period at 2 to 3 h postinfection. study of the kinetics of vi ...19816268838
[ultrastructural characteristics of the rotavirus detected in swine with gastroenteritis]. 19816268949
[clinical aspects of epidemic rotavirus gastroenteritis in adults]. 19816269232
bovine rotavirus-cell interactions: effect of virus infection on cellular integrity and macromolecular synthesis. 19816269294
outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis among premature infants. 19816269687
distinctive ribonucleic acid patterns of human rotavirus subgroups 1 and 2.the ribonucleic acid migration patterns of 7 subgroup 1 and 16 subgroup 2 human rotaviruses recovered from four geographic areas were compared. the subgroup 1 ribonucleic acid patterns had strikingly slower-moving segments 10 and 11, suggesting a correlation between the ribonucleic acid pattern and the subgroup specificity.19816270002
a survey of virus particles in infantile gastroenteritis using the electron microscope. 19816270037
difference in antibody reactivity between complement fixation and immune adherence hemagglutination tests with virus antigens.complement-fixing (cf) immunoglobulin m antibody to infantile gastroenteritis virus (a rotavirus) did not show the reactivity of immune adherence hemagglutination (iaha). early immunoglobulin g cf antibody produced both in patients and in guinea pigs experimentally infected with japanese encephalitis virus (a flavivirus) had weak reactivity in iaha test. however, late antibody showed higher titers by iaha than by cf. these results suggested that early antibodies with lower affinity are inefficie ...19816270189
rapid, simple method of preparing rotaviral double-stranded ribonucleic acid for analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.a procedure for extracting rotaviral double-stranded ribonucleic acid (rna) directly from fecal and intestinal specimens collected from calves and pigs is described. this procedure provides a rapid, simple, reproducible method of obtaining rotaviral double-stranded rna preparations suitable for electrophoretic analysis in polyacrylamide-agarose composite gels. the rotaviral genome electrophoretic migration pattern produced by double-stranded rna extracted directly from a specimen by this procedu ...19816270190
virus diarrhoea associated with pale fatty faeces.steatorrhoea was a significant feature in an outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis which affected adults and infants in hospital. fat globules or fatty acid crystals were obvious by light microscopy (lm) in faeces from 14 of 25 patients examined. ten of the fatty stools and two of the remainder were very pale. by electron microscopy (em) a rotavirus was seen in 11 of the 14 fatty faeces and in only two of 11 specimens without visible fat. in a further study of pale or fatty faeces 20 such specim ...19816270209
evaluation of enzyme immunoassays for the detection of human rotavirus. 19816270217
isolation and characterization of feline rotavirus.feline rotavirus was detected by electron microscopy in the faecal samples of a cat, and was propagated in an established cell line of foetal rhesus monkey kidney, ma104, cell cultures. morphologically, feline rotavirus was indistinguishable from known rotaviruses. complete particles showed a characteristic "spoke-like' arrangement of inner capsomers surrounded by an outer layer. intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in different sizes and shapes were produced in infected ma104 cells. reproducible c ...19816270251
isolation from chickens of a rotavirus lacking the rotavirus group antigen.a virus, designated 132 virus, was isolated from the faeces of chickens in chick embryo liver cell cultures. the morphology and morphogenesis of 132 virus were indistinguishable from that of rotaviruses. the nucleic acid of 132 virus had the nuclease resistance of double-stranded rna, and was separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into 11 segments with mol. wt. ranging from 2.07 x 10(6) to 0.20 x 10(6). spf chickens were susceptible to oral infection with 132 virus, which replicated in ...19816270272
proteolytic enhancement of rotavirus infectivity: molecular mechanisms.the polypeptide compositions of single-shelled and double-shelled simian rotavirus particles were modified by exposure to proteolytic enzymes. specifically, a major outer capsid polypeptide (vp3) having a molecular weight of 88,000 in double-shelled particles was cleaved by trypsin to yield two polypeptides, vp5* and vp8* (molecular weights, 60,000 and 28,000, respectively). the cleavage of vp3 by enzymes that enhanced infectivity (trypsin, elastase, and pancreatin) yielded different products co ...19816270356
in vitro transcription catalyzed by heat-treated human rotavirus.the in vitro characteristics of human rotavirus transcription have been examined. the virus has an associated rna polymerase activity which was activated after a heat shock treatment. the enzyme required the presence of the four ribonucleoside triphosphates and a divalent cation (mg2+), and it required an optimum ph of 8.5. the polymerase was activated by monovalent salts and inhibited by na ppi. the addition of actinomycin d, alpha-amanitin, or rifampin did not inhibit the polymerase activity. ...19816270365
rota-coronavirus vaccination of pregnant cows. 19816270525
[current theories on the etiology of crohn disease]. 19816270624
[morphogenesis of human rotavirus in a cell culture].morphogenesis of human rotavirus was studied by primary green monkey kidney cell culture by electron microscopy, at the levels of the 5th and 12th passage in the cell culture. the initial stages of rotavirus morphogenesis were shown to be associated with cytoplasmic inclusions. nucleoid or core particles formed in the periphery of the inclusions were transported by budding to endoplasmic reticulum cavities where the final stages of virion maturation occurred. the loss of the outer membrane seems ...19816270913
isolation of cytopathic porcine rotavirus in cell roller culture in the presence of trypsin.cytopathic porcine rotavirus was isolated in roller tube cultures of ma-104 cells. faeces of a piglet suffering from diarrhoea, were treated with trypsin which was also added to the maintenance medium. using stationary cultures, virus was not isolated from the same materials. the cytopathic effect was clearly observed after 8 serial passages and the virus titer at the 14th passage level was 10(7) median tissue culture infective doses per ml, or higher. at the 27th passage, rotavirus particles we ...19816271098
[persistence of transplacental antibodies against rotavirus in children less than 6 months of age].the persistence of antibodies against rotavirus was studied in the sera of 54 recently born infants up to six months of age; likewise, in the sera of their mothers. serum positivities were found to be similar in both, showing 96% for those with antibodies and 94.4% for the latter. the percentage of infants with antibodies dropped gradually to the 4th month of age and since then rises in the titre of antibodies began to appear in four infants, which indicated there had been rotavirus infections. ...19816271147
aetiology of viral gastroenteritis: a review.over the past seven to eight years, several virus groups have been shown to be associated with gastroenteritis. they are adenoviruses, astroviruses, caliciviruses, coronaviruses. norwalk-like viruses and rotaviruses. in infants and young children, rotaviruses are the single most important aetiological agents of acute gastroenteritis in terms of numbers of cases and also of patients requiring admission to hospital. in older children and adults, the aetiology is less clear, but the present state o ...19816272071
campylobacter as a cause of acute enteritis in children in south australia. i. a 12-month study with controls.during a 12-month period, we tested faecal samples from 386 children with acute enteritis and 332 controls by light and electron microscopy, and by bacterial and viral culture for pathogens, especially to assess the importance of campylobacter. campylobacter alone was responsible for the illness in 17 patients (5%), and was second to salmonella among the bacterial agents, which were predominant in summer. overall, rotavirus was the commonest identifiable cause of acute enteritis and was especial ...19816272073
campylobacter as a cause of acute enteritis in children in south australia. ii. clinical comparison with salmonella, rotavirus and non-specific enteritis.the clinical features of 17 children with campylobacter enteritis were compared with 17 age- and sex-matched children with enteritis due to salmonella, rotavirus or those in whom there was no identifiable pathogen. prominent clinical features of campylobacter enteritis included fever, diarrhoea, vomiting, blood in stools and periumbilical pain. dehydration was uncommon, compared to rotavirus and non-specific enteritis. the acute illness was self-limited, in spite of prolonged asymptomatic faeca ...19816272074
[studies on an improved technic to increase the positive detection rate of rotavirus under electron microscope (author's transl)]. 19816273004
travelers' diarrhea in panamanian tourists in determine whether residents of developing countries are unlikely to acquire travelers' diarrhea, 64 panamanians of widely divergent socioeconomic strata were studied during a 15-day tour through mexico. twenty-three (36%) tourists experienced 27 episodes of travelers' diarrhea that were caused by seven different pathogens. the most commonly identified etiologic agents were rotavirus (26%), norwalk virus (15%), and campylobacter fetus (11%), whereas enterotoxigenic escherichia coli was not fre ...19816273474
nonenteric sources of rotavirus in acute diarrhea. 19816273477
composition and topography of structural polypeptides of bovine rotavirus.the composition and topography of the structural polypeptides of bovine rotavirus was studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of radioactively labelled virus grown in llc-mk2 cells and by lactoperoxidase-catalysed iodination of single- and double- capsid particles. bovine rotavirus was found to possess at least six structural polypeptides, three of them associated with the inner capsid (p102k, p91k and p45k) and the others with the outer capsid (p84k, p37k and p34k). the most abundant poly ...19816273501
lactose malabsorption following rotavirus infection in young children. 19816273520
comparison of three electron microscopy techniques for the detection of human rotaviruses.rotavirus detection by direct electron microscopy was compared with direct and indirect immune electron microscopy techniques. the latter two approaches permitted the enumeration of 25 and 103 times more rotaviruses respectively, than direct electron microscopy. also, 70% and 90% of the virus particles were aggregated by direct and indirect immune electron microscopy techniques respectively, thus facilitating their detection.19816273695
sequential passages of human rotavirus in ma-104 cells.starting with a small amount of diarrheal feces containing human rotavirus (hrv), we succeeded in propagation of the virus using the roller culture technique with ma-104 cells. furthermore, we made a successful adaptation of hrv to a stationary culture and developed a plaque assay for the cell culture-adapted viruses. the 3 culture-adapted virus isolates, ku, yo, and 44 produced plaques (about 0.5-1.0 mm in diameter) under the overlay medium consisting of 0.6% purified agar, 3 micrograms of acet ...19816273696
neutralizing patterns of anti-bovine rotavirus (lincoln) serum against cytopathic bovine rotaviruses isolated from calves in japan. 19816273700
[fast serologic diagnosis in virus diseases]. 19816273717
outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis among premature infants. 19816274475
comparisons of rotavirus polypeptides by limited proteolysis: close similarity of certain polypeptides of different strains.the polypeptides of sa11 rotavirus produced in virus-infected cells were analyzed by limited proteolysis, using staphylococcus aureus v8 protease. this clearly distinguished between all the known primary gene products of the virus and allowed relationships between other infected-cell proteins, and between infected-cell and virus structural proteins, to be ascertained. a comparison of the proteolysis cleavage patterns between sa11 rotavirus and the human rotavirus wa was also performed which demo ...19816275113
[rotavirus and acute diarrhea in infancy: comparison of hospitalized and outpatient cases (author's transl)]. 19816275480
an epidemic of rotavirus diarrhoea in manipur, india.recurrent epidemics of acute diarrhoeal disease in young children have occurred during the winter months in manipur (india) for many years. during november 1979, children admitted to hospital for acute diarrhoea were investigated and, in addition to pathogenic escherichia coli and shigella rotovirus was detected by elisa in a number of stool samples, especially of those less than one year old. the importance of this finding and the need for further study are discussed.19816275578
[electron microscopy of parvoviruses and rotaviruses in canine enteritis]. 19816275597
propagation of bovine rotavirus by dogs. 19816275602
[rotaviruses as a cause of an epidemic of acute gastroenteritis]. 19816275605
[relative effectiveness of disinfectants against rotaviruses (author's transl)]. 19816275633
[water-borne outbreaks of rotavirus infections].the clinico-epidemiological characteristics of group rotavirus infection observed in one settlement in march-april is presented. 173 cases of infection were registered in all age groups (children under 7 years constituted only 10.4% of the patients). in most of the apartments found to be the foci of infection only one patient was registered. the virological study of fecal samples from 24 patients showed the presence of human rotaviruses in the feces of 10 patients (41.7%). neutralizing antibodie ...19816275639
quantitative aspects of rotavirus excretion in childhood diarrhoea.the amount of rotavirus (antigen) in diarrhoeal stools was determined from serially diluted faecal specimens using a solid phase radioimmunoassay (ria) method. the acute stage ria titres for rotavirus antigen ranged from 1:200 to 1:200 000 with a mean titre of 1:2 936 in a group of 16 infants with age range 2 to 14 months and 1:4 703 in a group of 12 children aged 25 to 94 months. in the younger age-group the diarrhoea lasted longer (mean 7.8 days) than in the older children (mean 5.4 days) desp ...19816275655
new enteric viruses in the dog. 19816275684
viruses and bacteria in pediatric diarrhea in thailand: a study of multiple antibiotic-resistant enteric pathogens.children with diarrhea admitted to a rehydration ward of a children's hospital in bangkok were investigated to determine the prevalence of enteric pathogens, the extent of children's previous antibiotic therapy, and the frequency of plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance among infecting bacteria. rotavirus (36%), enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (18%), shigella (9%), salmonella (6%), campylobacter jejuni/coli (4%), and vibrio cholerae (2%) infections were among 105 children with diarrhea. antibi ...19816275727
lymphocytotoxic and microbial antibodies in crohn's disease and matched controls.patients with crohn's disease and age, sex and seasonally matched healthy controls were studied for cold lymphocytotoxic and a variety of microbial antibodies. lymphocytotoxic antibody titers were increased significantly in the crohn's patients compared to controls, but did not correlate with any of the microbial titers. antibodies to a pseudomonas-like bacterium and bacteroides vulgatus were also increased in the patients, but titers to chlamydia trachomatis, rotavirus and norwalk virus were no ...19816275790
etiology of childhood diarrhea and oral rehydration therapy in northeastern brazil.this study was conducted from january 1977 to june 1978 in fortaleza, brazil, to evaluate the oral rehydration treatment recommended by the world health organization for children admitted with acute diarrhea; admission peaked in january-march of both years and children treated came from the lowest socioeconomic strata of the popultion. initial treatment consisted of intravenous administration of normal saline or 5% glucose with saline solution; intravenous therapy was continued until objective ...19816275933
identification of rotavirus particle types.negative-contrast electron microscopy of purified rotavirus particles reveals two particle types: single-shelled and double-shelled particles. the relationship of these particle types, seen by negative staining, to the enveloped and various types of nonenveloped particles seen in thin sections of virus-infected cells was determined. thin-section and negative-contrast electron microscopic analyses were performed on cell lysates from simian rotavirus. sa11-infected cells and on highly purified dou ...19816276323
evaluation of a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test for rotavirus antigen in faeces.a new commercial test for the diagnosis of rotavirus gastroenteritis was assessed. with some modifications it compared favourably with electron microscopy and immunofluorescence.19816276444
development of serum and intestinal antibody response to rotavirus after naturally acquired rotavirus infection in man.the temporal characteristics of the response of rotavirus specific igm, igg, iga in serum and secretory antibody in feces to rotavirus were studied in 77 hospitalized patients with rotavirus induced gastroenteritis. the response in serum was characterized by the sequential appearance of rotavirus specific igm, igg, and iga antibody. the igm antibody appeared to be higher in the acute phase of the disease and was subsequently replaced by the igg and iga antibodies. however, the titers of igg rota ...19816276504
a survey of rotavirus infection in the topics.the age distribution of rotavirus antibody in the serum of inhabitants of laos and indonesia was studied by the neutralization test using antigenically related calf rotavirus (ncdv) as a substitute for non-cultivable human rotavirus. the results revealed that both the rate of antibody-positives and the modal titers of antibody distribution by each age group in these countries were higher than those in respective are groups of japanese, which suggest higher endemicity of rotavirus infection in th ...19816276600
light microscopy and ultrahistology of intestinal changes in pigs infected with epizootic diarrhoea virus (evd): comparison with transmissible gastroenteritis (tge) virus and porcine rotavirus infections. 19816277107
[rotavirus gastroenteritis]. 19816277112
viral gastroenteritis. 19816256628
molecular epidemiology of human rotaviruses in melbourne, australia, from 1973 to 1979, as determined by electrophoresis of genome ribonucleic acid.rotaviruses contain a double-stranded ribonucleic acid genome consisting of 11 segments. gel electrophoresis separates genome segments and allows identification of strain differences. this electrophoretic typing technique was applied to rotavirus specimens from 116 children and 72 newborn babies. between 1973 and 1979, 17 different electropherotypes of rotavirus were observed in children with acute gastroenteritis. these electropherotypes showed a sequential pattern of appearance, with a limited ...19816259200
rotavirus infection and respiratory symptoms. 19816259309
inactivation of a rotavirus by disinfectants.rotavirus sa 11, clarified and in human faeces, was exposed to eight commonly used hospital and laboratory disinfectants for periods between 15 seconds and two hours. of the three hard disinfectants tested, 0.95 by volume (95% v/v) ethanol and 0.05 by volume (5% v/v) biogram were more effective in inactivating sa 11 than 4% (w/v) or 10% (w/v) formaldehyde, with 0.95 by volume ethanol being the most effective of all of the disinfectants tested. none of the skin disinfectants tested, betadine, hex ...19816259500
rotavirus infection in an obstetric unit. 19816257322
loperamide in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in early childhood. report of a two centre, double-blind, controlled clinical trial.loperamide at a dose of 0 . 2 mg/kg/day was compared with placebo in the treatment of acute infantile gastro-enteritis in hospital-based double-blind clinical trials carried out in parallel in liverpool, england and benghazi, libya. fifty patients aged one month to four years entered the study in each centre. rotavirus was the predominant pathogen isolated in both centres. pathogenic escherichia coli was cultured from five children in the liverpool study only. no statistically significant differ ...19816185060
rotavirus infection in children hospitalized for diarrhoea in epidemiological survey was undertaken to establish the importance of rotavirus as a cause of admission of children to hospital in buenos aires, argentina. between august 1978 and january 1980 rotavirus infection was detected in 62 (34%) of 180 infants and children admitted to hospital with acute gastro-enteritis. in identification of the virus, electron microscopy (em) was found to be as sensitive as counterimmunoelectrophoresis (cie). there was agreement between em and cie diagnosis in 90.5% ...19816185065
interferon activity in rotavirus infected newborn calves.a viral inhibitor displaying the main properties of a type 1 (alpha or beta) interferon was found in intestine and serum of diarrheic newborn calves following oral administration of bovine rotavirus. other internal organs examined 24 hours after infection all contained appreciable amounts of interferon. a kinetic study performed in ileum and serum of a one day-old calf showed a good time correspondence between peak levels of virus multiplication in the gut, intestinal interferon, and systemic in ...19816177275
antigenic characterization of human and animal rotaviruses by immune adherence hemagglutination assay (iaha): evidence for distinctness of iaha and neutralization immune adherence hemagglutination assay (iaha) and a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antigenic characterization of human rotaviruses were developed. the designations of type 1 and type 2 were identical to those established previously by specific complement fixation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immune electron microscopy. by iaha (and modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) certain animal rotaviruses were found to be closely related to human rotavirus type 1. the ...19816168588
antigenic and biological relationships between human coronavirus oc43 and neonatal calf diarrhoea coronavirus.monospecific antisera were prepared in mice to human coronavirus oc43 and neonatal calf diarrhoea coronavirus (ncdcv) which had been previously adapted to growth in suckling mouse brain. brain suspension from infected suckling mice was used as immunogen. the antigenic relationship between oc43 and ncdcv was studied by the indirect immunoperoxidase antibody technique, by the haemagglutination-inhibition (hi) test and a new infectious centre-reduction neutralization test. in mouse immune sera, a t ...19816169790
trypsin enhancement of rotavirus infectivity: mechanism of enhancement.the infectivity of most rotaviruses is enhanced by treatment with trypsin. we studied the mechanism of enhancement of examining the effect of trypsin on rotavirus infectivity, aggregation, early interactions with host cells, and structure. the results indicated that trypsin does not increase levels of infectious virus by dispersion of aggregates or affect the efficiency or rate of attachment of virus to cells. a fraction of virus that was not infections without trypsin treatment was found to att ...19816169841
rapid detection of human viruses in faeces by a simple and routine immune electron microscopy technique. 19816170725
isolation of human rotavirus in cell cultures: brief report. 19816171239
susceptibility of bovine rotavirus to interferon. brief report.using the plaque assay or the cpe test (cytopathogenic effect), we investigated the action of human, simian (rhesus), bovine and murine interferons on bovine rotavirus adapted to grow on established rhesus monkey kidney cell line (ma 104) or georgia bovine kidney cell line (gbk). except for the murine interferon we used, which had no antiviral effect at all, the different interferons tested were clearly active.19816173029
preparation and characterization of antisera to electrophoretically purified sa11 virus polypeptides.antisera to sa11 virus proteins were prepared by immunizing rabbits with individual polypeptides separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing or nonreducing conditions; the resulting antisera were characterized by four immunological methods. results of complement fixation tests with double-shelled rotavirus particles and sera raised against reduced or unreduced proteins of the outer shell of the virus suggested the presence of common antigenic determinants in the outer capsid l ...19816174448
detection of rotavirus in sewage.for detection of rotavirus, domestic sewage was concentrated by two different methods: (i) adsorption to and elution from positively charged seitz filters, followed by ultracentrifugation, and (ii) chemical precipitation. the concentrated fluids were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and electron microscopy. in 6 of 24 (25%) samples, rotavirus was detectable after the combined filtration and ultracentrifugation technique with both an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and electron mi ...198116345746
pathology of rotavirus infection in suckling mice: a study by conventional histology, immunofluorescence, ultrathin sections, and scanning electron microscopy.pathologic changes induced in the small intestine of suckling mice by rotavirus infection were studied by conventional histology, immunofluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microscopy of ultrathin sections. infection could be detected within 24 hours in a few mice, but after 2 days it was well established. swollen, often vacuolated infected cells were found on the sides and tips of villi from which they rapidly became detached; microvilli showed variable irregularity. immatur ...198116830450
porcine neonatal coccidiosis in quebec.intestinal coccidiosis was diagnosed in 110 diarrheic piglets originating from 66 farrowing operations. these piglets had been submitted alive for necropsy early after the beginning of diarrhea, and the diagnosis of coccidiosis was based on the demonstration of coccidial forms in their jejunum by histopathological examination. enteropathogenic strains of escherichia coli were demonstrated in only nine of the 110 piglets while the transmissible gastroenteritis virus and rotavirus were each presen ...198217422160
epidemiology of human rotavirus diarrhoea: a review.human rotavirus has been held to be responsible in as many as 60-80% of acute diarrheas between 6-24 months of age in india, especially during winter season. antibodies against human rotavirus have been demonstrated in more than 90% of children aged 5 years indicating a previous infection. vomiting, diarrhea, mild temperature with mild to severe dehydration have been observed to be the common features of human rotavirus diarrhea. the management consists of rehydration therapy by fluids and el ...198212264634
utilization of nutrients during and after of studies examining the interaction between malnutrition and diarrheal infection with reference to several factors: appetite recovery after diarrhea, comparison of nutrient absorption by etiology, and feeding program during diarrhea. diarrhea has been found to have the greatest impact on food intake in children--a 40% reduction compared to normal children. on the question of absorption efficiency of ingested food, it was suggested that transit time through the gut was not by itself a ...198212311585
characterization of an antigenically distinct porcine rotavirus.a porcine virus with rotavirus morphology, which was antigenically unrelated to previously described rotaviruses, is described. particles with an outer capsid layer measured 75 nm and those lacking the outer layer were 63 nm in diameter. particles which resembled cores were also identified. the virus was shown to be antigenically distinct from other rotaviruses as judged by immunofluorescence and immune electron microscopy, and it failed to protect piglets from challenge with porcine rotavirus. ...19826175575
isolation of an adenovirus antigenically distinct from equine adenovirus type 1 from diarrheic foal feces.adenovirus was isolated in equine fetal kidney cell cultures from the feces of 2 foals with diarrhea that also had large numbers (greater than 10(6)/g) of rotavirus particles in their feces. unlike equine adenovirus type 1 (eadv1), the fecal eadv did not hemagglutinate human o, rhesus macaque, or equine rbc. by serum neutralization, the fecal viruses were identical with each other, but showed no relationship to eadv1. antiserum prepared against the fecal viruses did not contain hemagglutination- ...19826176153
enteric viruses of nonhuman primates.the phylogenetic relationship of nonhuman primates to man implies that many of these animals could serve as surrogates for studies of diseases of man. many nonhuman primate species are susceptible not only to viruses of human origin but also to nonhuman primate viruses that are counterparts of viruses of man. all monkeys and great apes do not respond similarly to an antigenic stimulus. some agents are highly pathogenic for one species and completely innocuous for another. for example, poliovirus ...19826153011
rapid and reliable method for diagnostic electron microscopy of faeces.four methods are described for examining viruses in faeces by electron microscopy using negative staining. faeces samples from a total of 180 patients with diarrhoea illnesses were processed for electron microscopy by the direct staining technique, pseudoreplica technique, microsolute concentration technique and by ultracentrifugation. virus particles (including rotaviruses and adenoviruses) were found in fifty-five (31%) samples when the results of all methods were combined. bacteriophages were ...19826177861
a randomised trial of oral gammaglobulin in low-birth-weight infants infected with rotavirus.oral human gammaglobulin or placebo was given with each feed during the first week of life to 75 low-birth-weight babies. all were in a nursery where rotavirus was known to be endemic, 25 of the babies excreted rotavirus during the first 2 weeks of life. this group was regarded as the "challenge" group. gammaglobulin administration was associated with delayed excretion of rotavirus and with milder symptoms of infection. rotavirus-associated diarrhoea necessitating low-lactose feeds developed in ...19826177981
conditions required for induction of interferon by rotaviruses and for their sensitivity to its action.our investigations of interferon induction by rotaviruses showed that only when cells were pretreated with interferon, i.e., primed, could infectious rotaviruses induce significant quantities of interferon. as little as 0.5 u of interferon provided sufficient priming for this induction. uv-irradiated rotaviruses induced significant levels of interferon, and priming only marginally enhanced the yields. neither heat-inactivated virus nor serum-neutralized virus was able to induce interferon, even ...19826178689
isolation and characterization of a canine rotavirus.canine rotavirus particles were visualized by direct electron microscopy in the feces from a clinically normal dog. the virus was subsequently propagated in cell cultures; it was characterized and compared with rotaviruses from other species. replication of the virus in cell culture was found to be less dependent upon trypsin than that of human, bovine and porcine rotaviruses. reproducible, sharp-edged plaques of various sizes were produced by the canine rotavirus in an established cell line of ...19826179502
monoclonal igg to the inner capsid of human rotavirus.monoclonal igg to the inner capsid of human rotavirus was produced by mice immunized with hybrid cells derived from mouse myeloma and the spleens of mice immunized with rotavirus. this igg reacted with an antigenic determinant of mammalian rotaviruses that was not present on that of avian rotaviruses.19826180706
enteric viruses in hospital-acquired infection. 19826181126
antigenic relationships between rotaviruses from different species as studied by neutralization and immunofluorescence.antigenic relationships between the wa, hochi, ito, hosokawa and nemoto strains of human rotavirus, the sa-11 strain of simian rotavirus, the lincoln strain of bovine rotavirus, the osu strain of porcine rotavirus and the r-2 strain of lapine rotavirus, which were all established in cell culture, were studied by neutralization (nt) and immunofluorescence (if) using guinea pig antisera against these strains. the strains could not be distinguished by indirect if staining of infected cells because ...19826181760
rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection by direct detection of viral nucleic acid in silver-stained polyacrylamide gels.a rapid simple technique for the diagnosis of rotavirus has been developed based on the sensitive detection of rotavirus double-stranded rna genome segments separated in polyacrylamide gels. the method utilizes a recently described ultrasensitive silver stain for polypeptides, which can also detect subnanogram amounts of nucleic acid. the sensitivity of the technique is comparable with that of electron microscopy or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.19826182158
mechanism of release of the avian rotavirus trnatrp primer molecule from viral dna by ribonuclease h during reverse transcription.employing enzymatic reactions containing reverse transcriptase and appropriately defined substrates, we have demonstrated that the trnatrp primer molecule required for the initiation of dna synthesis is cleaved from viral dna by an enzymatic activity associated with the reverse transcriptase molecule. since the alpha subunit of reverse transcriptase facilitates release of the trnatrp primer from viral dna and this activity is inhibited by a known inhibitor of reverse-transcriptase-associated rna ...19826183006
[relationship between negative staining technic and virus ultrastructure]. 19826183015
[viral diarrhea]. 19826191463
gastroenteritis in a regional hospital in kuwait: some aspects of the disease.a review of the clinical course of gastroenteritis in 274 hospitalized children revealed a severe form of the disease. eight-eight per cent were aged 12 months or under and 20% had severe associated malnutrition. the commonest clinical manifestations were diarrhoea (100%), dehydration (98.9%), vomiting (81.4%) and fever (77.7%). pathogens were isolated from 75.2% of cases (rotavirus 24.5%, escherichia coli 20.8%, salmonellae 20%, shigellae 6.2%, campylobacter 2.2% and yersinia enterocolitica in ...19826191627
viral gastroenteritis in infants. 19826216241
Displaying items 701 - 800 of 10398