TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
negative staining and immune electron microscopy as techniques for rapid diagnosis of viral agents. 19836326645
experimental infection and cross protection tests in calves with cytopathic strains of bovine rotavirus.four cytopathic strains (81/32f, 81/36f, 81/40f, 82/80f) of bovine rotavirus were shown to be pathogenic for conventionally reared newborn calves. calves were infected orally, using 3 calves for each isolate. all became febrile, were depressed and diarrhoeic. two calves, one of which in the group of those infected with 81/36f isolate, and the other infected with strain 81/40f, were killed when moribund. a 3rd calf from the 81/36f infected group, died. at necropsy localized lesions of the small i ...19836323096
an outbreak of swine diarrhea of a new-type associated with coronavirus-like particles in japan. 19836323804
evaluation of a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit for rotavirus detection.a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit (rotazyme) was compared to electron microscopy for the detection of rotavirus in stool specimens collected during diarrhea outbreaks at day care centers in houston. eia was more sensitive than em and detected sa-11 rotavirus which titered 2.0 x 10(3) pfu/ml.19836325079
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for screening rotavirus in faeces. 19836325117
rotavirus excretion in suckling pigs followed under field circumstances.the enzootic behaviour of porcine rotavirus in swine breeding farms was investigated by determination of the rotavirus excretion pattern in faeces using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). three herds were followed for 23, 14 and 9 consecutive weeks respectively and faeces were collected once a week from suckling piglets, weaned pigs and sows. the piglets of nearly all litters were found to excrete rotavirus in faeces before the age of 5-6 weeks. weaned pigs rarely excreted rotavirus a ...19836329062
local immunity in rotaviral infections.after a short introduction into the mechanisms of nonspecific defence in the intestine, a brief review on specific, local intestinal immunity is given. results of experiments on local and humoral antibody production carried out in five caesarian-derived, colostrum-deprived calves are presented. in each of the calves, two jejunal fistulas were prepared, and samples from fistulas and faeces were taken for antigen and antibody determinations at intervals for up to 120 days post infection. antibodie ...19836329063
development of calf diarrhoea vaccines.rotavirus and enterotoxigenic e. coli were found to cause approximately three-quarters of the total number of outbreaks of diarrhoea in young calves. vaccinating pregnant cows with a combined vaccine of k99 antigen from e. coli and inactivated calf rotavirus stimulated secretion of specific antibodies in colostrum and milk. calves born to vaccinated cows were completely protected against experimental enterotoxigenic colibacillosis. the efficacy of the rotavirus component is being investigated in ...19836329064
viradel method for detection of rotavirus from seawater.this report describes the use of a virus adsorption-elution (viradel) technique for the concentration and detection of rotavirus from seawater. simian rotavirus sa-11 was used as a model virus because it can be readily propagated and plaqued in vitro. the virus adsorbed optimally to fiberglass epoxy filters when seawater was adjusted to ph 3.5 and aluminum chloride added to a concentration of 1.0 mm. adsorbed virus was eluted with 6% beef extract at ph 10.5 and was further concentrated to a smal ...19836330146
diarrhea associated with rotaviruses, enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, campylobacter, and other agents in costa rican children, 1976-1981.rotaviruses, enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, salmonella, shigella, and parasites were investigated in outpatient diarrheic children, and in hospitalized diarrheic and non-diarrheic children, between january 1976 and june 1979. in outpatient cases studied within 4 days of onset of symptoms, rotaviruses were the most common agents (45.3%); e. coli heat-stable enterotoxin ranked second (13.4%); shigella was third (8.1%); salmonella was fourth (7.3%). in 63.2%, one or more enteric agents were dete ...19836337517
[diagnostic results in rotavirus infections in cattle and swine]. 19836342561
effect of dietary regimen on rotavirus-escherichia coli weanling diarrhea of piglets.previously, we induced weanling diarrhea in piglets by infecting them with rotavirus followed by hemolytic enteropathogenic escherichia coli. we postulated that rotavirus, by damaging the epithelium of the small intestines, produced an enteroenvironment which favored the selection and growth of enteropathogenic e. coli. furthermore, diet might affect the enteroenvironment and influence the course of the disease. to test this, newly weaned 3-week-old piglets were assigned to one of four dietary r ...19836343425
a rotavirus staphylococcal co-agglutination test.a simple and rapid staphylococcal co-agglutination (sa) test for detection of rotavirus in human faecal specimens is described. a suspension of protein a-containing staphylococci coated with a rabbit hyperimmune serum against the rotavirus strain of calf diarrhoeae virus was used as reagent. before the sa test, the faecal specimens were absorbed with a suspension of uncoated staphylococci. 34 of 36 rotavirus immune electron microscopy (iem) positive samples showed a positive sa test, whereas non ...19836349249
treatment of acute nonspecific gastroenteritis of infants and young children with erythromycin.a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of erythromycin ethylsuccinate was conducted in 65 infants and young children hospitalized with acute nonspecific gastroenteritis. etiologic agents included rotaviruses (29%), campylobacter jejuni (17%), "classical" enteropathogenic escherichia coli (12%), enterotoxigenic e. coli (11%), salmonella (9%), shigella (2%), and giardia lamblia (2%). no pathogens were obtained from 25 (38%) children. treatment with erythromycin had no effect on the course of the ...19836349401
[changing pattern of acute childhood diarrhea]. 19836349970
[kinetics of fecal excretion of escherichia coli k99+ by calves after experimental infection].complete kinetics of fecal excretion of k99+ e. coli in colibacillary diarrhoea of young calves is not known. six calves received two liters of colostrum as a first meal and uht sterilized milk later. they were kept in isolators. when one week old, they received orally 2.5 x 10(10) to 9.8 x 10(10) k99+ e. coli which are able to grow on adonitol. these bacteria numbered on a minimal medium with adonitol were excreted at a level between 10(5) to 10(8)/g of feces during about eight days. calves a f ...19836351710
[nosocomial dyspepsia in newborn and young infants. a 15-month prospective study with continuous rotavirus surveillance].a 15 months prospective study of gastroenteritis in hospitalized newborns and infants (n = 201) was combined with a rotavirus infection surveillance. stool specimens were investigated weekly (cft). from patients with gastroenteritis (n = 320) an infectious agent could be detected on average in 41% of each patient group: rotavirus n = 54, staph. aureus n = 22, toxin producing e. coli n = 4, other bacteria n = 25, candida albicans n = 17, echovirus 11 n = 1. with certain exceptions, the pathogens ...19836353207
prospective study of diarrheal illnesses in northeastern brazil: patterns of disease, nutritional impact, etiologies, and risk factors.diarrhea is a leading cause of death in tropical countries. one of the highest childhood mortalities is in northeastern brazil, where little is known about the morbidity, etiology, and risk factors of diarrhea. prospective village surveillance over 30 months revealed diarrhea attack rates of more than seven episodes per child-year at six to 11 months of age among the children of the poorest families. other risk factors included early weaning and the lack of toilets. diarrhea led to weight loss a ...19836361176
the clinical manifestation and pathogenesis of enteritis associated with rotavirus and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli infections in domestic animals.rotavirus and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) are enteropathogens each capable of inducing diarrhoea in some animal species and man. unstressed young animals develop an age-related resistance to infection with either rotavirus or etec which differs for each animal species. the effects of experimental infection of calves, lambs, foals and piglets with rotavirus and etec given either alone or in combination, have been examined. in general, dual infections tended to lengthen the period of a ...19836361857
rotavirus infection. 19836366496
the pathology of neonatal enteritis in calves with observations on e. coli, rotavirus and cryptosporidium.the mucosa of the small intestine of neonatal calves responds in a similar way to a variety of infectious agents. however, samples should be removed under general anaesthesia to avoid post-mortem artefacts. these include the separation of epithelium from the villous lamina propria and denudation of villous tips within a few minutes of death, and occur more rapidly in challenged animals. pathological changes consist of blunting and fusion of the villi with a reduction of the columnar epithelium t ...19836375526
dietary regimen, rotavirus, and hemolytic enteropathogenic escherichia coli in weanling diarrhea of pigs.previously, we induced weanling diarrhea in piglets by infecting them first with rotavirus followed by a hemolytic enteropathogenic escherichia coli. we postulated that rotavirus, by damaging the epithelium of the small intestines, produced an entero-environment which favored the selection and growth of the enteropathogenic e. coli. furthermore, diet might affect the entero-environment and influence the course of the disease. to test this, newly weaned 3-week-old piglets were assigned to one of ...19836375527
potential spectrum of etiological agents of viral enteritis in hospitalized infants.fecal specimens were obtained from 1,160 infants and young children with acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis over a period of 2 years. a total of 100 specimens were obtained from age-matched asymptomatic controls. the specimens were examined for the presence of viruses by electron microscopy. viruses or virus-like particles frequently associated with enteritis were detected in 27% (314 of 1,160) of the symptomatic patients. no viruses or virus-like particles were detected in the 100 control subje ...19836403578
intestinal changes associated with rotavirus and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli infection in calves.newborn calves inoculated with rotavirus, enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) serotype 020:k' x 106':k99:hnm, either alone or in combination, became depressed, anorectic, diarrhoeic and dehydrated. etec did not adhere to the intestine although there was extensive proliferation in the lumen. only slight mucosal changes were induced by etec and the activity of membrane bound lactase remained normal. more severe mucosal damage and a decrease in lactase activity were found in newborn calves inoc ...19836405539
clinical range of neonatal rotavirus gastroenteritis. 19836405956
diarrheal diseases control program: rotavirus diarrhea. 19836408377
rotavirus in the home and hospital nursery. 19836411227
lack of protection from rotavirus infection in children with congenital intestinal lactase deficiency. 19836418832
rotavirus gastroenteritis. 19836418921
pathogenic mechanisms of protracted diarrhea. 19836424419
[rotavirus gastroenteritis - the most frequent diarrheal disease of infants and toddlers]. 19836616690
[nosocomial rotavirus infections in adults].in february and march 1981, eight patients and two nurses in a women's ward (internal medicine) fell ill with gastroenteritis. because faecal samples were not available during the acute phase, the diagnosis was made by demonstrating complement-binding antibodies and rotavirus-specific igm, with 14 persons on the same ward without gastroenteritis serving as controls. the illness took a mild course. all patients had watery diarrhoea and abdominal pain, four had nausea or vomiting, but only one had ...19836617521
rotavirus outbreak in a newborn nursery: report of cases. 19836618920
epidemiology of rotaviruses in a cohort of 45 guatamalan mayan indian children observed from birth to the age of three years.a cohort of 45 children was observed from birth to three years of age in their natural ecosystem to determine patterns of infection, morbidity, and growth. data from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis for rotavirus of 5,891 extracts (kept frozen since 1964-1969) of weekly fecal specimens were compared against growth, morbidity, and specimen data files, permitting a retrospective description of the epidemiology of rotavirus infection in the cohort. rotavirus infections were uncommon in th ...19836619575
acute diarrhoea associated with rotavirus among children living in belém, brazil.between january 1979 and december 1980, rotaviruses were detected in faecal samples from 122 (33.1%) of 369 diarrhoeic children less than six years old, living in belém, brazil. in 55 (45.1%) of the 122 rotavirus-positive specimens, no bacteria or parasite associated with gastro-enteritis was found. salmonella typhimurium, shigella and escherichia coli were found in 92 (35%) of the 263 faecal specimens examined for bacterial pathogens. rotaviruses were readily detected throughout the year, which ...19836623597
rotavirus infection in brazilian children with acute enteritis: a seasonal variation study.enzyme immunoassay (eia) and electron microscopy (em) were utilized to investigate the presence of rotavirus in feces of 388 children with acute enteritis hospitalized at the hospital santa casa de misericórdia in porto alegre, brazil. the survey covered 12 months, beginning in july 1981. there were 162 rotavirus-positive cases (41.8%). during the period of the study rotavirus was detected throughout the year, but there was a striking seasonal variation (78.1% of cases) during january 1982.19836625073
inoculation of neonatal gnotobiotic dogs with a canine rotavirus.neonatal gnotobiotic dogs were inoculated orally with a rotavirus isolated from a pup with fatal diarrhea, and in the gnotobiotic dogs, diarrhea was observed between postinoculation hours (pih) 20 and 24. the diarrhea persisted through pih 154, and inoculated pups had clinical signs of dehydration after pih 24. negative-contrast electron microscopy of the feces from inoculated pups revealed rotavirus particles from pih 12 through 154. using an indirect-fluorescent antibody test, serum rotavirus ...19836625322
gross and light microscopic lesions in neonatal gnotobiotic dogs inoculated with a canine rotavirus.gross, light microscopic, and morphometric changes were observed in the small intestines of 11 neonatal gnotobiotic dogs after oral inoculation with a canine rotavirus. starting in pups killed at postinoculation hour (pih) 24, gross changes consisted of moderate dilatation and thinning of the walls of the small intestine, hyperemia, and a moderate amount of semiliquid-to-liquid greenish-yellow intestinal contents. in the jejunum and ileum of inoculated pups killed from pih 18 to 48, columnar vil ...19836625323
[the role of rotaviruses in the etiology of acute gastroenteritis in children hospitalized at the pediatric teaching hospital in brno]. 19836627312
acute laryngitis associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis. 19836631034
rotavirus diarrhoea: an expanding clinical explore the clinical spectrum of rotavirus diarrhoea in bangladeshi children, we reviewed surveillance data from randomly selected diarrhoeal cases who were intensively studied at the international centre for diarrhoeal diseases research--bangladesh. twenty-seven (29%) of children aged less than or equal to 4 years excreted rotavirus; rotavirus was the only pathogen isolated from 13 cases. seven of these 13 cases displayed the typical features of rotavirus diarrhoea: occurrence in infancy, pr ...19836632033
rotavirus gastroenteritis in singapore children. 19836632809
symptomatic and asymptomatic rotavirus infections in hospitalized children.during one year, 871 infants and children admitted to a dutch paediatric ward were examined weekly for rotavirus. rotavirus was detected in the stools of 64/129 (49.6%) children with diarrhoea and in 283/742 (38.1%) controls. the incidence of asymptomatic rotavirus excretors increased from 14.5% in infants 0 to 6 months of age to 65.8% in children of 6 years and over, a feature not yet reported. possible explanations may be the methodology used, the age groups studied, the local hospital (and co ...19836637464
rotavirus-induced electrolyte losses in a patient with ileostomy. 19836637923
total serum ige levels in venezuelan schoolchildren.seventy-eight disease-free children were evaluated by prist for total serum ige in order to establish the normal range for this immunoglobulin and assess its utility, in tropical climates, such as venezuela, as a diagnostic tool for clinical allergy. seventy-eight normals were selected from a group of 1053 children, aged 7-12 years from fourteen schools in caracas. exclusion from the normal pool was based on nationality, and on historical, clinical, and/or laboratory evidence of atopic and/or in ...19836640887
rotavirus infection in a neonatal intensive care nursery. 19836643031
[incidence of rotavirus infection in children hospitalized for acute diarrhea]. 19836646091
[current treatment and prevention of juvenile gastroenteritis].the present knowledges about the damage mechanisms of germs in infectious diarrhea, on which are based the therapy procedures are reviewed. the management consist in oral rehydratation and precocius oral feeding as the main therapy. a scheme of treatment and the future perspectives in valladolid during the last 9 months (609 fecal cultures) is reported. the participation of isolated germs in the pathogenesis of diarrhea is discussed. since the acquisition of new methods to detect compylobacter, ...19836651011
natural history of rotavirus infection in the children of santa maría cauqué.a prospective observation of 45 cohort children from birth to three years of age permitted the collection of 5689 weekly stool specimens, along with frequent morbidity, dietary and growth data. specimens tested by the elisa showed that all children became infected with rotaviruses during the first three years of life, many repeatedly. the overall rotavirus incidence was 10.6 per 100 child-months (or 1.3 infections per child per year). rotaviruses exhibited a high pathogenic potential estimated i ...19836657978
pathogenesis of rotavirus infections.signs of clinical disease, viral antigen in infected intestines, and infectious virus excreted in feces were assessed in infant mice nursed by mothers with or without pre-existing rotavirus antibody. less viral antigen in intestinal tissue was observed and was cleared earlier, and less infectious virus was excreted and disappeared earlier, in infants nursed by mothers with pre-existing antibody. nevertheless, the course of diarrhea was the same in both groups. in another experiment, viral antige ...19836657979
bacteria, parasitic agents and rotaviruses associated with acute diarrhoea in hospital in-patient indonesian children.faeces from children (aged from one month to 12 years) with acute diarrhoea admitted to hospital in yogyakarta, indonesia, from june 1978 to june 1979, were examined for the presence of enteric pathogens. one or more recognized enteropathogens were identified in 56% of children. rotaviruses were identified in 38% of all children. toxigenic coliforms (predominantly escherichia coli) were isolated from 12% of children. salmonella sp. (6%), shigella sp. (4%) and enteropathogenic parasites (predomin ...19836659051
rotavirus infection in black and white newborns.rotavirus infection in asymptomatic black and white newborns in maternity hospitals was studied by electron microscopy of stools. none of the 37 white and 30 (49%) of the 61 black babies excreted rotavirus (p less than 0.0005). the high incidence of neonatal infection in blacks, who have a low incidence of rotavirus diarrhea in infancy, suggests that neonatal infection might result in immunity.19836662672
necrotizing enterocolitis associated with rotavirus infection.infection has been widely reported as one of the factors usually incriminated in the development of necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) in a previously ischemic bowel. gram-negative bacteria have previously been implicated as pathogens in this dangerous entity, for which neonates are at high risk. however, viral infections have rarely been reported in connection with nec. rotavirus was identified in the stools of two premature infants who developed the full-blown picture of nec in the neonatal inten ...19836662673
perspectives on acute gastroenteritis in black south african developing countries, gastroenteritis is the major cause of infant mortality; however, owing to inadequate laboratory facilities and personnel, little is known about the status of enteropathogenic agents, especially rotavirus. disease patterns differ between developed and developing communities, and rotavirus plays a markedly lesser role in the overall etiology of the disease in developing than in developed countries--where it is one of the major etiological agents. this may be due to extensi ...19836662674
necrotizing enterocolitis--a 5-year experience.with the increased survival of very-low-birth-weight neonates, necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) represents one of the most frequent life-threatening conditions for this population. nec was diagnosed on 24 occasions during a 5-year period (1977-81) at the neonatal intensive care unit, kaplan hospital, rehovot. these 24 nec cases, confirmed by radiological, surgical or pathological findings, were analyzed in a retrospective study. the mean weight was 1,450 g and the mean gestational age 32 weeks. o ...19836662689
[evidence of the viral (rotavirus) etiology of acute gastroenteritis in children]. 19836664730
whole-gut transit time and its relationship to absorption of macronutrients during diarrhoea and after recovery.whole gut transit time (tt) was measured in 68 children aged up to 5 years (29 cholera, 17 rotavirus, 13 enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, and 9 shigella) during acute stages of diarrhoea and 2 weeks after recovery. absorption of calories, fat, protein, and carbohydrates contained in a normal bangladeshi diet was studied for 72 h after the first appearance of a charcoal marker in the stool, both during acute diarrhoea and 2 weeks after recovery. mean tt varied from 5.5 to 7.3 h during the acute ...19836669929
[value of the detection of rotaviruses by an immunoenzymatic technic in the etiologic diagnosis of pediatric gastroenteritis]. 19836670819
[susceptibility of the dromedary (camelus dromedarius) to rotavirus infection]. 19836672882
human rotavirus infection in malaysia. iii. a one year survey on the prevalence of rotavirus enteritis in children.the prevalence of human rotavirus enteritis in children admitted to the gastroenteritis ward of the kuala lumpur general hospital was studied in 1982. human rotavirus in the stool of the patients was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the survey showed that rotavirus enteritis in children were observed throughout the year, with two broad peaks of rotavirus infection occurring around march and september. the lowest incidence was recorded in july, however, no prolonged period of low pr ...19836673122
[recent studies on the epidemiology of enterocolitis due to rotaviruses in infants and children]. 19836675850
rotavirus infections in calves.rotaviruses are now established as a major cause of neonatal enteritis and diarrhoea in calves. laboratory diagnosis is usually based on detection of the virus or virus antigens in faeces by direct electron microscopy or tests such as elisa and ieop. rotaviruses are resistant to inactivation and are normally present in large numbers in faeces, so that environmental contamination is both heavy and persistent. infection is transmitted primarily by faecal-oral contact. calves are usually protected ...19836677180
prevalence rate of porcine rotavirus in danish swine herds.the prevalence rate of rotavirus in swine herds in denmark was examined. 28 intensive breeding herds were tested and rotavirus was detected in 18 herds, i.e. 64.2%. of the 638 fecal samples examined, 221 were positive (34.6%). the age distribution showed that rotavirus occurred with highest frequency (approx. 60%) in four week-old piglets. rotavirus infection in neonatal piglets predominantly occurred in litters born by gilts. production systems had influence on the occurrence of rotavirus. in t ...19836677181
[therapy and prevention of rotavirus and coronavirus infections in calves]. 19836320792
method for recovery of enteric viruses from estuarine sediments with chaotropic evaluation was made of the ability of chaotropes, low-molecular-weight ionic compounds which enhance the solubilization of hydrophobic compounds in water, to improve the recovery of enteric viruses from highly organic estuarine sediments. chaotropic agents alone were poor eluents of polioviruses from sediment but were effective when combined with 3% beef extract. chaotropes of lower potency, nano3, nacl, and kcl, were more efficient eluents than the stronger chaotropes, guanidium hydrochlorid ...19836312884
survival of enteric viruses adsorbed on electropositive filters.three viruses (poliovirus type 1, rotavirus sa-11, and bacteriophage f2) adsorbed on electropositive microporous filters survived at least 5 weeks at 4 degrees c. poliovirus type 1 and bacteriophage f2 also survived at least 6 weeks at -20 degrees c. rotavirus sa-11 was not recovered after 1 week at -20 degrees c. the stability of viruses adsorbed on electropositive filters may enable extensive monitoring of viruses in water.19836312886
[frequency of antibodies to rotavirus in inhabitants of the city of são paulo 1980-82]. 19836320329
[viral gastroenteritis]. 19836320551
rotaviruses code for two types of glycoprotein precursors.rotaviruses are nonenveloped viruses that code for two glycoproteins: a structural glycoprotein (vp7) and a nonstructural glycoprotein (ns29). the precursor to vp7 (37k) was shown to contain a 1.5k cleavable signal sequence. the 37k precursor was authentically processed (signal sequence cleaved and the polypeptide "core" glycosylated) when synthesized in a cell-free system supplemented with dog pancreatic microsomes. similar experiments were performed with the nonstructural glycoprotein precurso ...19836321526
necrotizing enterocolitis in full-term newborns.during a 17-month period, 19 full-term newborn infants were hospitalized for necrotizing enterocolitis (nec). 10 of these infants had no apparent risk factors. only 7 suffered acute fetal distress. 16 of the 19 infants were born in the same hospital. toxicological and bacteriological investigations of possible cause revealed no specific agent. virological analysis of 8 stool samples revealed the presence of corona virus in 5 of the 8.19836313080
a study of cytopathic rotavirus strains isolated from calves with acute enteritis.nine cytopathic bovine rotavirus strains were isolated in ma-104 cell cultures from fecal specimens of dairy calves suffering from diarrhea. isolation of the virus was accomplished from three outbreaks which occurred on dairy farms located in central and southern italy. fecal suspensions were treated with a high concentration (1000 micrograms/ml) of trypsin, and inoculated into ma-104 cell cultures grown out in eagle's minimum essential medium (mem) containing 5 micrograms/ml of the enzyme. cyto ...19836313289
rotaviruses: a review. 19836313296
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of human rotavirus in stools.a simple method for the detection of human rotavirus in stools is described, using a double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. polysterene microtitre plates were used as solid phase. four capture antibodies were tried, bovine, egg-derived, guinea pig and monoclonal antibody to rotavirus. both bovine and egg-derived antirotavirus labelled with horseradish peroxidase were used as the detecting antibodies. the results obtained were compared with a commercially available elisa, rot ...19836313726
molecular cloning of a human rotavirus genome.the genes of a field isolate of human rotavirus were cloned into pbr322. the strategy used involved polyadenylation of denatured double-stranded (ds) genomic rna, followed by cdna synthesis using reverse transcriptase. oligo(dc) tails were added to the 3' end of the single-stranded cdna and then separated by alkaline agarose electrophoresis. sized cdna of both polarities were allowed to hybridize and inserted into the psti site of pbr322. transformations done with sized cdna always resulted in t ...19836319550
spread of rotavirus within families: a community based study.the spread of rotavirus infection was studied over four weeks in a sample of 28 families exposed to a child with rotavirus infection. the results showed a high incidence of intrafamilial infection, with 46% of members of these families developing rotavirus infections compared with none in another series of 18 families. children in the families with an index case were more frequently affected than adults: 75% of the children developed rotavirus infection but only 33% of the adults. children tende ...19836309316
rotavirus screening in adult cancer patients. 19836298949
effects of tunicamycin on rotavirus morphogenesis and infectivity.the functions of the two rotavirus glycoproteins were investigated by using tunicamycin and a variant of sa11 rotavirus having nonglycosylated vp7. results showed that glycosylation of vp7 is not required for normal viral morphogenesis and infectivity and suggested that the nonstructural glycoprotein is involved in assembly of the outer capsid.19836298460
gene mapping of rotavirus double-stranded rna segments by northern blot hybridization: application to segments 7, 8, and 9.cloned dna copies of double-stranded rna segments 7, 8, and 9 of uk bovine rotavirus were nick-translated with [alpha-(32)p]atp and hybridized to double-stranded rna of various rotavirus strains which had been separated on long polyacrylamide gels and then transferred to o-aminophenylthioether paper. specific hybridization of the uk calf clones to the separated rna segments allowed the corresponding genes of four different rotaviruses to be rapidly determined.19836298465
epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in the highlands of papua, new guinea, in 1979, as revealed by electrophoresis of genome rna.results of gel electrophoresis of rotavirus genome rna from feces of children in two provinces in papua, new guinea, suggest that the epidemiology of rotavirus infection in small communities with a total population of 3,000 may differ from that in urban or closely settled rural areas.19836298273
production of coproantibodies and immune complexes in piglets infected with rotavirus.the local immune response of newborn piglets to experimental infection with rotavirus was analyzed by means of coproantibodies, immune complexes, and the detection of rotavirus. immune complexes appeared in the feces on day 4 after inoculation when the production of rotavirus began to decrease; they reached a peak when no rotavirus could be detected in the feces. the presence of free iga and igm antibodies to rotavirus could be demonstrated on day 7 when the immune complexes had already reached ...19836298316
induction of cross-reactive serum neutralizing antibody to human rotavirus in calves after in utero administration of bovine rotavirus.sera from calves infected in utero or postnatally with bovine rotavirus ncdv or postnatally with human rotavirus d (serotype 1) were tested by plaque reduction neutralization assay for antibody to bovine rotavirus and to three serotypes of human rotavirus. homologous antibody developed in all animals, but antibody to heterologous rotaviruses developed mainly in animals exposed in utero to bovine rotavirus. the development of heterologous antibody may explain the immunological implications for cr ...19836313744
isolation and characterization of an equine rotavirus.a rotavirus, designated as the h-1 strain, was isolated from a diarrheic foal in primary african green monkey kidney cells and ma104 cells. this cell culture-adapted strain hemagglutinated erythrocytes of human group o, rhesus monkeys, guinea pigs, and sheep. it was found to be similar, if not identical, to porcine rotaviruses (strains osu, ee, and a-580) by plaque reduction neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition tests, and, in addition, it was found to belong to subgroup 1. this equine ...19836313746
rotavirus as a cause of severe gastroenteritis in adults.rotavirus was identified as the only etiological agent in 5% of adults (28 of 526) with diarrhea who were admitted to bamrasnaradura hospital in nonthaburi, thailand, during a 1-year period. infection was determined by detection of rotavirus in diarrheal stools by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay accompanied by a greater than fourfold rise in serum complement fixation and radioimmunoassay antibody titers to rotavirus. adults with clinical rotavirus infections were as severely ill as patients wi ...19836313748
avidin-biotin radioimmunoassay for human rotavirus.rias have a number of advantages which make them ideally suited for use in diagnostic microbiology. these advantages include sensitivity, objectivity, and versatility. however, the widespread application of rias has been limited by the instability of the reagents required for the performance of available solid-phase rias. the relatively short half-life of gamma-emitting isotopes is particularly a problem in cases where multiple antigens must be assayed, since distinct radioactively labeled reage ...19836313823
how contagious is necrotizing enterocolitis? 19836314289
[antibodies against rotaviruses and their immunologic strain, in children less than a year old]. 19836314561
inactivation of hepatitis a virus and indicator organisms in water by free chlorine residuals.hepatitis a virus (hav) and selected indicator organisms were mixed together in chlorine-demand-free buffers at ph 6, 8, or 10 and exposed to free chlorine residuals, and the survival kinetics of individual organisms were compared. hav was enumerated by a most-probable-number dilution assay, using plc/prf/5 liver cells for propagation of the virus and radioimmunoassay for its detection. at all ph levels, hav was more sensitive than mycobacterium fortuitum, coliphage v1 (representing a type of ph ...19836314894
survival and detection of rotaviruses on environmental surfaces in day care centers.previously, we demonstrated that children in day care centers commonly experience diarrhea due to rotavirus, giardia, and bacterial pathogens. multiple agents frequently coexist, and the environment is heavily contaminated with enteric bacteria during outbreaks. a study of environmental surface contamination with rotavirus was performed during three non-outbreak periods. of 25 samples collected from environmental surfaces and teachers hands at a day care center, 4 (16%) were positive for rotavir ...19836314896
[rotavirus infections in a neonatal pathology unit].from february to june 1981, 38 newborn babies admitted to a special care unit were examined to determine the incidence of rotavirus infections. fecal specimens were collected from all babies on the fifth day after birth and thereafter weekly. the stool samples were examined with an immunoenzymatic test. serum was collected from the newborn babies and from their mothers three days after delivery. thereafter more serum was collected from the babies at intervals. serum was also collected from the h ...19836315031
infectious diarrhea: an update. 19836315297
monoclonal antibodies to subgroup 1 rotavirus.subgroup 1-specific monoclones were analyzed and used successfully in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to recognize certain subgroup 1 rotaviruses.19836315588
detection and control of rotavirus infections in zoo animals.fecal specimens from 15 exotic animal species, with and without diarrhea, were examined for the presence of rotavirus, bacterial enteropathogens, and intestinal parasites. a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect antigens of rotavirus. rotavirus was detected in the feces of 20 (57%) of 35 of the animals, which included addax (addax nasomaculatus), nyala (tragelaphus angasi), saiga (saiga tatarica), white-tailed gnu (connochaetus gnou), greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsice ...19836315660
comparison of solid-phase immune electron microscopy by use of protein a with direct electron microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of rotavirus in stool.a total of 525 stool specimens collected during 1 year were examined for the presence of rotavirus by direct electron microscopy (em), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), and a solid-phase immune electron microscope method (spiem) utilizing protein a-coated grids for anchoring of specific viral antisera. rotavirus was seen in 187 specimens; spiem detected 183 (97.8%), whereas direct em and elisa detected 161 (86%) and 166 (88.7%), respectively. no false-positive reactions were seen by eli ...19836315772
evaluation of a new latex agglutination test for detecting human rotavirus in faeces.four methods for detecting rotaviruses (latex agglutination, electron microscopy, immunofluorescence and elisa) have been compared on 57 faecal samples from children with acute diarrhoea. complete agreement among the four techniques was found in 38 samples. one sample was positive by elisa and latex agglutination but negative by the other two. for all the other samples there was agreement among three of the techniques only. in a blocking elisa test, samples positive by elisa only, turned out to ...19836315827
prevalence of bovine herpesvirus-1, parainfluenza-3, bovine rotavirus, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine adenovirus-7, bovine leukemia virus and bluetongue virus antibodies in cattle in mexico. 19836316006
detection of antibody to epizootic diarrhea of infant mice (edim) virus.cultured mouse liver cells containing either eipzootic diarrhea of infant mice viral antigen or nebraska calf diarrhea vaccine virus antigen were equally effective for detecting serum antibody to epizootic diarrhea of infant mice virus by immunofluorescence. the presence of rotavirus in infant mouse intestinal suspensions used as cell culture inocula was confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the double-stranded rna viral genome. when the immunofluorescence assay was tested in a limi ...19836316027
cytokine-stimulated human natural killer cytotoxicity: response to rotavirus-infected cells.the ability of rotavirus-infected cells to stimulate leukocytes to release a cytokine which enhanced the subsequent leukocyte cytotoxicity to a second set of [51cr] labeled rotavirus-infected cells was analyzed. human interferon increased leukocyte cytotoxicity to simian rotavirus (sa-11)-infected target cells. similarly, 11 of 12 supernates of sa-11-stimulated peripheral blood leukocyte cultures increased the killing of sa-11-infected cells (p less than 0.005). this resulted in a calculated cyt ...19836316244
[rotavirus infection in infants with acute diarrhea. clinical and epidemiologic aspects]. 19836316454
canine viral enteritis.canine viral enteritis should be suspected in dogs with an acute onset of vomiting and diarrhea, especially in puppies and where several animals are affected simultaneously. definitive diagnosis requires laboratory confirmation, most often detection of viral particles in the stool. no diagnostic test is entirely specific or absolutely sensitive, however, and laboratory findings should be weighed accordingly. immunization is the key to successful control. effective vaccines for canine parvovirus ...19836316616
longitudinal survey of rotavirus infection in calves.a longitudinal survey of rotavirus infection in heifer calves was carried out on a closed friesian dairy herd over two successive calving seasons. rotavirus was detected by electron microscopy in the faeces of 45 of 57 (79 per cent) calves examined. on average the virus was first detected at 6.1 days of age. clinically the disease associated with rotavirus infection was of mild to moderate severity. only one infected calf required intravenous fluid therapy. diarrhoea or excretion of abnormal fae ...19836316619
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