TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
probiotic, zinc and lactose free formula in children with rotavirus diarrhea: are they effective?background: this study aim to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc, probiotic bacteria, lactose-free formula and their different combinations in the treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in young children. methods: eight different treatment groups were formed: group 1: 60 patients receiving saccharomyces boulardii; group 2: 60 patients receiving zinc; group 3: 60 patients receiving lactose-free formula; group 4: 60 patients receiving s. boulardii plus zinc; group 5: 60 patients receiving s. boulardii pl ...201121261786
viral gastroenteritis in adults.viral gastroenteritis presents a major public health concern worldwide. it is mostly a disease of young children. however, acquired immunity may wane and symptomatic infection can also occur in adults. furthermore, asymptomatic adults may promote the spread of infections by shedding virus in their stools. this review covers the four most common causes of adult viral gastroenteritis, calicivirirdae (predominantly noroviruses), astroviruses, enteric adenoviruses and rotaviruses focussing on their ...201121210762
burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the middle eastern and north african pediatric population.rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide. objectives were to estimate the burden of rvge among children less than five years old in the middle east (bahrain, iran, iraq, israel, jordan, kuwait, oman, qatar, saudi arabia, syria, uae, yemen), north africa (algeria, egypt, libya, morocco, tunisia) and turkey.201121214934
[vaccination schedule of the spanish association of paediatrics: recommendations 2011].the advisory committee on vaccines of the spanish paediatric association updates annually the immunization schedule, taking into account epidemiological data as well as evidence of the effectiveness and efficiency of vaccines. this vaccination schedule includes grades of recommendation. the committee has graded as universal vaccines those that all children should receive, as recommended, those with a profile of universal vaccines of childhood and as are desirable those that all children may rece ...201121215719
immunology of gut mucosal vaccines.understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. in industrialized country populations, l ...201121198669
prime immunization with rotavirus vlp 2/6 followed by boosting with an adenovirus expressing vp6 induces protective immunization against rotavirus in mice.rotavirus (rv) is the main cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. an effective vaccination regime against rv can substantially reduce morbidity and mortality. previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of virus-like particles formed by rv vp2 and vp6 (vlp2/6), as well as that of recombinant adenovirus expressing rv vp6 (rad), in eliciting protective immunities against rv. however, the efficacy of such prime-boost strategy, which incorporates vlp and rad in inducing protective immuniti ...201121205330
[epidemiological aspects of gastrointestinal infections].the aim of this study was to investigate seasonal patterns and age-associated trends of the main bacterial, viral, and parasitic enteric pathogens in southwest germany.201121225552
a feline rotavirus g3p[9] carries traces of multiple reassortment events and resembles rare human g3p[9] rotaviruses.the full-length genome sequence of a feline g3p[9] rotavirus (rv) strain, ba222, identified from the intestinal content of an adult cat, was determined. strain ba222 possessed a g3-p[9]-i2-r2-c2-m2-a3-n1-t3-e2-h3 genomic constellation, differing substantially from other feline rvs. phylogenetic analyses of each genome segment revealed common origins with selected animal and zoonotic human rvs, notably with rare multi-reassortant human g3p[9] rvs (ita/pai58/96 and ita/pah136/96). altogether, the ...201121228122
whole genome characterization of new bovine rotavirus g21p[29] and g24p[33] strains provides evidence for interspecies transmission.we have reported a novel bovine rotavirus, the azuk-1 (g21p[29]) strain, isolated from an asymptomatic calf. we isolated another bovine rotavirus, the dai-10 strain, bearing new g24p[33] genotypes, assigned by the rotavirus classification working group (rcwg), from an asymptomatic cow in hyogo prefecture, japan in 2007. to gain an insight into the origins and evolution of these strains, we determined the complete orf sequences of all 11 genes of the two strains. the nsp3 genes of both strains we ...201121228131
rotavirus replication requires a functional proteasome for effective assembly of viroplasms.the ubiquitin-proteasome system has been shown to play an important role in the replication cycle of different viruses. in this study, we describe a strong impairment of rotavirus replication upon inhibition of proteasomal activity. the effect was evidenced at the level of accumulation of viral proteins, viral rna, and yield of infective particles. kinetic studies revealed that the early steps of the replicative cycle following attachment, entry, and uncoating were clearly more sensitive to prot ...201121228236
detection and molecular characterization of human group c rotavirus in brazil.objective: the aim of the present study was to characterize 24 isolates of group c rotavirus (rv-c) by analysis of dna sequences of the vp4, vp6, vp7 and nsp4 genes of several brazilian states. methods: all rv-c strains were confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and were characterized by sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the genes encoding nsp4, vp6, vp4, and vp7 proteins. results: analysis of the nsp4 gene from brazilian strains revealed that the isolates are more closely related ...201121228541
immunogenicity of a human rotavirus vaccine (rix4414) after storage at 37 °c for seven days.the lyophilized formulation of the human rotavirus vaccine, rix4414 (rotarixtm), is recommended to be stored at 2°c-8°c for optimal immunogenicity. in some settings with inadequate infrastructure for vaccine storage, unforeseen circumstances may cause cold chain breakage, resulting in the vaccine to be left at ambient temperatures. this study evaluated the heat stability of lyophilized rix4414 vaccine in terms of immunogenicity when stored at tropical room temperature (37 °c) for 7 days before r ...201121228629
molecular characterization of rotavirus diarrhea among children in south korea: detection of an unusual g11 strain.among 312 rotavirus-positive samples collected from eight hospitals across south korea during 2008 and 2009, the most prevalent circulating g genotype was g1 (35.9%), followed by g3 (24.7%), g2 (17.0%), g4 (7.7%), and g9 (2.6%). notably, one unusual g11 lineage iii strain-the first hypoendemic infection case in the world-was found. of the p genotypes, p[8] (43.9%) was the most common, followed by p[6] (29.5%), p[4] (9.3%) and p[9] (0.6%). determining g- and p-type combinations showed that g1p[8] ...201121234769
immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of the human rotavirus vaccine rix4414 oral suspension (liquid formulation) in finnish infants.the lyophilized formulation of a human rotavirus vaccine, rotarix™ (rix4414) is highly immunogenic. in order to comply with the world health organization's (who) recommendation, a liquid formulation of the vaccine that does not require reconstitution was developed. the immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of the liquid formulation were compared with lyophilized formulation in two finnish studies. in study a infants aged 6-12 weeks received two doses of the lyophilized or liquid formulation ...201121238572
efficacy and tolerability of modified atkins diet in japanese children with medication-resistant epilepsy.ten japanese patients aged 1.5-17years with medication-resistant epilepsy were placed on the modified atkins diet (mad) for 3weeks during admission to our hospital. dietary carbohydrate was restricted to 10g per day. we studied the efficacy of the diet regarding the seizure frequency and tolerability of the diet at the end of the 3weeks on the diet. those who decided to continue the mad at the time of discharge were followed up in the out-patient clinic to observe the effect of the diet on the s ...201121239126
instability of human rotavirus g genotypes circulating in a rural area of bangladesh.a total of 280 fecal specimens from patients with acute gastroenteritis attending one rural hospital (dharmapasha health complex, sunamgonj) in bangladesh from august 2004 to may 2006 were tested for rotavirus by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). the diversity of rotavirus was investigated using electropherotyping and reverse transcription-pcr amplification of the vp7 and vp4 genes. the electrophoretic patterns of dsrna of rotavirus showed 9 different migrations (6 long and 3 short) by ...201121240155
recognition of the gm3 ganglioside glycan by rhesus rotavirus particles. 201121240883
projected health benefits and costs of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination in uganda.we determined impact and cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccination programs among children<5 years of age in uganda from the public health system perspective. disease-specific models compared the disease burden and cost with and without a vaccination program. if introduced, pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccine programs will save 10,796 and 5265 lives, respectively, prevent 94,071 streptococcus pneumoniae and 94,729 rotavirus cases in children<5 years, and save 3886 and 996 milli ...201121241733
decline in rotavirus hospitalisations following introduction of australia's national rotavirus immunisation determine the impact of rotavirus immunisation on rotavirus hospitalisations in young children. methods: annual hospitalisations for rotavirus gastroenteritis to the children's hospital at westmead, a tertiary care paediatric hospital in sydney, were recorded from 2001 for 6 years prior to and 2.5 years following the introduction of rotavirus vaccines to the national immunisation program. data on hospital-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis were collected prospectively.201121244557
one-year monthly survey of rotavirus, astrovirus and norovirus in three sewage treatment plants in beijing, china and associated health risk evaluate the presence and distribution of the three main viruses (rotavirus, astrovirus, and norovirus) responsible for human acute gastroenteritis in sewerage system an one-year study was carried out in beijing, china. a total of 96 samples of influent and effluents from three sewage treatment plants (stps) were collected from november 2006 to october 2007. silica was used to concentrate viral particles from water samples and a reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction (rt-neste ...201121245573
evaluation of potential medical and economic benefits of universal rotavirus vaccination in evaluate the potential benefits of introducing universal rotavirus (rv) vaccination in greece.201121223372
rotavirus enteric infection in children of northwest iran.this is a cross-sectional and analytical-descriptive study of 511 children less than 36 months of age who were admitted to tabriz children's hospital with acute gastroenteritis during a period of 2 years (from october 2007 to october 2009). rotavirus was found in stool specimens of 284 (55.6%) of 511 children with diarrhea. two-thirds of them were admitted during autumn and winter for a mean hospital stay of 3.1 ± 1.8 days.201121217537
the use of bovine serum albumin to improve the rt-qpcr detection of foodborne viruses rinsed from vegetable demonstrate that produce rinsates used for rt-qpcr detection of foodborne viruses may cause significant pcr inhibition and propose a means to reduce its impact on sensitivity.201121219370
impact of rotavirus vaccination on hospital-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis in show that after the implementation of routine rotavirus vaccination for infants in the united states, community-acquired (ca) rotavirus cases declined substantially in the 2007-2008 season. the impact of community-based rotavirus vaccination on the substantial burden of hospital-acquired (ha) rotavirus has not been documented.201121262887
development of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea this study, a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) was developed for detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (pedv). six primers were designed to amplify the nucleocapsid (n) gene of pedv. the optimization, sensitivity, and specificity of the rt-lamp were investigated. the results showed that the optimal reaction condition for rt-lamp amplifying pedv n gene was achieved at 63°c for 50 min. the rt-lamp assay was more sensitive than gel-based rt-pcr and en ...201121286798
detection of human bocavirus 3 in china.since its first identification in 2005, four species of human bocavirus (hbov1-4) have been documented. hbov1 and hbov2 have been shown to be associated with respiratory tract illnesses, as well as with acute gastroenteritis (age), worldwide. however, reports on the prevalence, clinical significance, and molecular characteristics of the two most newly identified hbov species, hbov3 and hbov4, are very limited. to detect and characterize hbov3 and hbov4 infections in children with age in china, s ...201121286929
prevalence of norovirus gii-4 antibodies in finnish children.noroviruses (novs) are the second most common cause of viral gastroenteritis after rotavirus in children. nov genotype gii-4 has emerged as the major type not only in outbreaks of nov gastroenteritis but also endemic gastroenteritis among infants and young children worldwide. using baculovirus-insect cell system virus-like particles (vlps) of nov genotype gii-4 and an uncommon genotype gii-12 were produced. these vlps were used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) for detection of nov-s ...201121264875
sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the coding region of six common rotavirus strains: evidence for intragenogroup reassortment among co-circulating g1p[8] and g2p[4] strains from the united states.the segmented genome of rotaviruses provides an opportunity for rotavirus strains to generate a large genetic diversity through reassortment; however, this mechanism is considered to play little role in the generation of mosaic gene constellations between wa-like and ds-1-like strains in genes other than the neutralization antigens. a pilot study was undertaken to analyze these two epidemiologically important strains at the genomic level in order to (i) identify intergenogroup reassortment and ( ...201121264876
a first report on the characterization of rotavirus strains in sierra an effort to reduce the high mortalities associated with rotavirus infections, a number of african countries are considering introducing human rotavirus vaccines. the demonstrated safety and efficacy of the live-attenuate human rotavirus vaccines in several clinical trials worldwide has accelerated such initiatives. although the percentage-mortality rates for sierra leone are top of the list for rotavirus-associated deaths in africa, no study has reported the prevalent strains circulating wit ...201121264877
recognition of the gm3 ganglioside glycan by rhesus rotavirus particles. 201121268193
full genomic analyses of two human g2p[4] rotavirus strains detected in 2005: identification of a caprine-like vp3 gene.although g2p[4] rotaviruses are common causes of infantile diarrhoea, to date only the full genomes of the prototype (strain ds-1) and another old strain, tb-chen, have been analysed. we report here the full genomic analyses of two bangladeshi g2p[4] strains, mmc6 and mmc88, detected in 2005. both the strains exhibited a ds-1-like genotype constellation. excluding the vp4 and vp7 genes, and except for vp3 of mmc88, the mmc strains were genetically more closely related to the contemporary g2p[4] ...201121270285
monitoring and evaluation of infectious rotaviruses in various wastewater effluents and receiving waters revealed correlation and seasonal pattern of occurrences.sewage systems are important nodes to monitor enteric pathogens transmitted via water. the aim of this study was to assess the presence of rotaviruses in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (wwtps) and receiving streams in beijing, china, to evaluate the reductions of rotaviruses in wwtps and to provide viral fate and transport data for further epidemiological studies.201121276144
environmental survey to assess viral contamination of air and surfaces in hospital settings.the presence of pathogenic viruses in healthcare settings represents a serious risk for both staff and patients. direct viral detection in the environment poses significant technical problems and the indirect indicators currently in use suffer from serious limitations. the aim of this study was to monitor surfaces and air in hospital settings to reveal the presence of hepatitis c virus, human adenovirus, norovirus, human rotavirus and torque teno virus by nucleic acid assays, in parallel with me ...201121277649
complete genomic characterization of cell culture adapted human g12p[6] rotaviruses isolated from south korea.two unusual human rotavirus g12 strains, cau195 and cau214, were isolated from female pediatric diarrhea patients under 12 months of age in 2006 using a cell culture system and their full genome sequences were analyzed. the 11 gene segments of both korean g12 strains were classified as g12-p[6]-r1-c1-m1-i1-a1-n1-t1-e1-h1 genotypes. notably, the korean strains were of the same genotypes as previously reported strains isolated from bangladesh in 2003 (dhaka12-03), from the united states in 2005-20 ...201121279677
immune responses to rotavirus infection and vaccination and associated correlates of protection. 201121288818
projected impact and cost-effectiveness of a rotavirus vaccination program in india, assess the value of rotavirus vaccination in india, we determined the potential impact and cost-effectiveness of a national rotavirus vaccination program.201121288839
reaching mdg 4 in india: a role for rotavirus vaccine? 201121288840
case-control evaluation of the effectiveness of the g1p[8] human rotavirus vaccine during an outbreak of rotavirus g2p[4] infection in central australia.the human rotavirus vaccine was evaluated during an outbreak of rotavirus g2p[4] infection in central australia. no overall protective effect against hospitalization was demonstrated, raising concerns over the durability of vaccine protection against heterotypic strains.201121288843
economic impact of dengue illness in the americas.the growing burden of dengue in endemic countries and outbreaks in previously unaffected countries stress the need to assess the economic impact of this disease. this paper synthesizes existing studies to calculate the economic burden of dengue illness in the americas from a societal perspective. major data sources include national case reporting data from 2000 to 2007, prospective cost of illness studies, and analyses quantifying underreporting in national routine surveillance systems. dengue i ...201121292885
burden of rotavirus infections in liguria, northern italy: hospitalisations and potential savings by vaccination.we evaluated the rates of gastroenteritis admissions to the emergency department and of rotavirus-related hospitalisations in children =5 years of age in 2006 at an italian paediatric hospital. we calculated the number of rotavirus cases avoidable through the universal vaccination of children. epidemiological data were extracted from the data elaboration centre. to calculate the hospitalisation rate due to rotavirus, the virus was sought in the faeces of children hospitalised for acute gastroent ...201121293899
paediatric hospital admissions for rotavirus gastroenteritis and infectious gastroenteritis of all causes in england: an analysis of correlation with deprivation.infectious intestinal diseases cause substantial morbidity and economic loss in the uk. rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge), a form of gastroenteritis, is the primary cause of severe diarrhoea in children. the primary objective of this study was to examine whether hospitalisation for gastroenteritis, and particularly rvge, is linked to social deprivation.201121294699
evaluation of the rida(®)quick immunochromatographic norovirus detection assay using specimens from australian gastroenteritis incidents.a range of laboratory methods is now available for the detection of norovirus, a major cause of gastroenteritis. recently, a commercial immunochromatographic assay for norovirus detection, the rida(®)quick assay, has become available, but there is still only limited information on its efficacy. this study examined the sensitivity and specificity of the rida(®)quick assay, using faecal material received for testing in a major diagnostic/reference laboratory in australia. the sensitivity of the as ...201121295607
modeling protein structure at near atomic resolutions with gorgon.electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-em) has played an increasingly important role in elucidating the structure and function of macromolecular assemblies in near native solution conditions. typically, however, only non-atomic resolution reconstructions have been obtained for these large complexes, necessitating computational tools for integrating and extracting structural details. with recent advances in cryo-em, maps at near-atomic resolutions have been achieved for several macromolecular assemblies ...201121296162
meeting of the global advisory committee on vaccine safety, december 2010. 201121299033
gavi takes steps to address funding woes. 201121300591
oral immunization of mice with lactococcus lactis expressing the rotavirus vp8* protein.the efficacy of recombinant lactococcus lactis as a delivery vehicle for a rotavirus antigen was evaluated in a mouse model. the rotavirus vp8* protein was expressed intracellularly and extracellularly in l. lactis wild type and in an alr mutant deficient in alanine racemase activity, necessary for the synthesis of the cell-wall component d: -alanine. when the mucosal immune response was evaluated by measuring vp8*-specific iga antibody in faeces, wild-type l. lactis triggered a low iga synthesi ...201121302132
dna hypomethylation causes bile duct defects in zebrafish and is a distinguishing feature of infantile biliary atresia.infantile cholestatic disorders arise in the context of progressively developing intrahepatic bile ducts. biliary atresia (ba), a progressive fibroinflammatory disorder of extra- and intrahepatic bile ducts, is the most common identifiable cause of infantile cholestasis and the leading indication for liver transplantation in children. the etiology of ba is unclear, and although there is some evidence for viral, toxic, and complex genetic causes, the exclusive occurrence of ba during a period of ...201121319190
herd immunity after two years of the universal mass vaccination program against rotavirus gastroenteritis in austria.austria was the first country in europe implementing a universal mass vaccination program against rotavirus gastroenteritis (rv-ge) for all infants nationwide. epidemiological data from a hospital based surveillance system show that incidence rates of children hospitalized with rv-ge decreased in 2009 compared to 2008 and compared to the prevaccination period 2001-2005. decreasing hospitalization-rates from rv-ge were observed in children of all age groups, even in those not eligible for vaccina ...201121320539
safety and reactogenicity of dtpa-hbv-ipv/hib and dtpa-ipv/i-hib vaccines in a post-marketing surveillance setting.combination vaccines have been shown to improve the timeliness of vaccination and vaccine coverage. safety and reactogenicity of combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus and haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (dtpa-ipv/hib, infanrix ipv+hib, glaxosmithkline biologicals) was assessed in two clinical studies. in study a, 2,590 subjects received dtpa-ipv/hib at 3, 4 and 5 months of age with a booster at 18 months. in study b, 702 subjects received the same schedule ...201121323176
human rotavirus genotypes detection among hospitalized children, a study in tehran, iran.human rotavirus genotypes g1-g4, g9, p[4] and p[8] are major worldwide causes of acute gastroenteritis in children. rotavirus genotype g1p[8] is predominant in many countries. in this study, the genotypic diversity of group a rotaviruses were detected in children <5 years of age who were treated for dehydration and diarrhea in tehran, iran from october 2004 to september 2008.201121194260
human bocavirus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis in japan and thailand.a total of 329 fecal specimens, which had been known to be negative for rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus, and which were collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in japan and thailand during 2005-2008 were screened for human bocavirus (hbov). hbov was detected by pcr with a primer pair that amplified the np1 region of its genome and was genotyped by sequencing of the vp1/vp2 region. of the 329 samples tested, 6 (1.8%) were positive for hbov. of th ...201121181924
detection of human parechovirus in stool samples collected from children with acute gastroenteritis in japan during 2007-2008.of 477 stool specimens, which had been screened for rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus, sapovirus and astrovirus, collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in pediatric clinics encompassing five localities (sapporo, tokyo, maizuru, osaka, and saga) in japan from july 2007 to june 2008, 247 negative samples (51.7%) were subjected to screening for human parechovirus. human parechovirus (hpev) was detected by rt-pcr using a primer pair to amplify 5'utr region of its genome and wa ...201121181931
genetic characterization of bulgarian rotavirus isolates and detection of rotavirus variants: challenges for the rotavirus vaccine program?annually 20-70% of all hospital admissions and 20% of fatal diarrhea cases among children less than 5 years of age occur due to severe rotavirus diarrhea. universal immunization is the major strategy aimed at controlling rotavirus infection. the main objective of the present study was to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of the most common rotavirus strains co-circulating in bulgaria. the sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed strain diversity and circulation of different rotavirus v ...201121181933
vp7 gene of human rotavirus a genotype g5: phylogenetic analysis reveals the existence of three different lineages a rotavirus (rv-a) genotype g5, which is common in pigs, was also detected in children with severe diarrhea in brazil, argentina, paraguay, cameroon, china, thailand, and vietnam. to evaluate the evolutionary relationship among rv-a g5 strains, the vp7 and vp4 genes of 28 brazilian rv-a g5 human strains, sampled between 1986 and 2005, were sequenced and compared with other rv-a g5 strains currently circulating worldwide in animals and humans. the phylogenetic analysis of rv-a g5 vp7 gene s ...201121181934
full genomic analysis of a g8p[1] rotavirus strain isolated from an asymptomatic infant in kenya provides evidence for an artiodactyl-to-human interspecies transmission a rotavirus (gar) g8p[1] strains, found sometimes in cattle, have been reported rarely from humans. therefore, analysis of the full genomes of human g8p[1] strains are of significance in the context of studies on interspecies transmission of rotaviruses. however, to date, only partial-length nucleotide sequences are available for the 11 genes of a single human g8p[1] strain, while the partial sequences of two other strains have been reported. the present study reports the first complete ge ...201121181935
genotyping rotavirus rna from archived rotavirus-positive rapid test strips.genotyping circulating rotaviruses before and after introduction of rotavirus vaccine is useful for evaluating vaccine-associated changes in genotype distribution. we determined frequency of rotavirus genotypes among 61 rotavirus-positive children hospitalized in israel during the 2005-06 rotavirus season. accurate molecular epidemiologic data were recovered from affinity-concentrated rotavirus immobilized in rotavirus-positive bands from air-dried, diagnostic rotavirus rapid test strips (dipsti ...201121192853
real-world impact of rotavirus vaccination. 201121183833
impact of rotavirus vaccination on diarrhea-related hospitalizations among children < 5 years of age in mexico.single-strain rotavirus vaccine was added to the national immunization program in mexico in may 2007. we assessed the impact of vaccination on the number of diarrhea-related hospitalizations in mexican children in 2008 and 2009.201121183834
reduction of diarrhea-associated hospitalizations among children aged < 5 years in panama following the introduction of rotavirus march 2006, rotavirus vaccine (rotarix, rv1) was introduced into the panamanian national immunization program. we assessed the effect of vaccine on diarrhea-associated hospitalizations among young panamanian children.201121183835
rotavirus vaccines in belgium: policy and impact.: the current belgian experience with rotavirus vaccination provides a unique perspective to look at the effect of vaccination. shortly after introduction, a nation-wide recommendation was issued and despite the fact that both rotavirus vaccines are offered through partial reimbursement, vaccine uptake has already reached a high level (at least 90%).201121183836
reduction in rotavirus-associated acute gastroenteritis following introduction of rotavirus vaccine into australia's national childhood vaccine schedule.: rotavirus vaccines were introduced into the funded australian national immunization program (nip) in july 2007. due to purchasing arrangements, individual states and territories chose either a 2-dose rv1 (rotarix, gsk) regimen or 3-dose rv5 (rotateq, merck/csl) regimen. this allowed comparison of both vaccines in similar populations with high infant vaccination coverage.201121183837
sustained decline in rotavirus detections in the united states following the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in 2006.following implementation of the rotavirus vaccination program in 2006, rotavirus activity in the united states declined dramatically in 2007-2008 but increased slightly in 2008-2009, despite greater vaccine uptake. to further evaluate impact of the vaccine program, we assessed trends in rotavirus testing and detection during 2009-2010.201121183838
united states rotavirus strain surveillance from 2005 to 2008: genotype prevalence before and after vaccine introduction.a live, attenuated rotavirus vaccine, rotateq®, was approved in 2006 for immunization of infants in the united states. to monitor the distribution of rotavirus genotypes before and after vaccine introduction, the centers for disease control and prevention conducted strain surveillance with the national rotavirus strain surveillance system.201121183839
distribution of rotavirus genotypes after introduction of rotavirus vaccines, rotarix® and rotateq®, into the national immunization program of australia.rotavirus vaccines, rotateq and rotarix, were introduced into the australian national immunization program on july 1, 2007. the simultaneous introduction in different australian states and territories provides a unique opportunity to compare the affect of each vaccine on the types of circulating rotavirus strains. this report describes the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalization of children during the first 2-year period after vaccine introduction.201121183840
remarkable postvaccination spatiotemporal changes in united states rotavirus activity.analyses of us laboratory surveillance data during 1991 to 2004 established annual peak rotavirus activity occurred first in the southwest and last in the northeast. we compared spatiotemporal patterns during the 2 years preceding vaccine introduction in 2006 with the first 2 years following introduction. the postvaccine introduction years failed to demonstrate the typical southwest to northeast spread of rotavirus activity.201121183841
uptake, impact, and effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in the united states: review of the first 3 years of postlicensure data.rotavirus vaccine was recommended for routine use in us infants in 2006. before the introduction of vaccine, rotavirus was the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age in the united states.201121183842
progress in the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in latin america and the caribbean: four years of accumulated experience.two effective and safe rotavirus vaccines became available in 2006 and have been recommended for use in all countries by the world health organization. this article provides an update on the use of rotavirus vaccine in latin american and caribbean (lac) countries.201121183843
[first detection of human astrovirus in gastroenteritis outbreak in hungary].human astroviruses are one of the known pathogens of gastroenteritis in infants, children and rarely in elderly. it causes 4.2-7.3% of the sporadic gastroenteritis cases with diarrhea and vomiting in children. the etiological role of astrovirus has not been confirmed yet in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in hungary.201121177230
norovirus: a possible cause of pneumatosis intestinalis.pneumatosis intestinalis (pi) in children is associated with immunosuppression, mucosal disruption from trauma, obstructive pulmonary disease, congenital heart disease, and gastrointestinal infections. our study is the first report of norovirus infection-associated pi.201121150655
effectiveness of the monovalent g1p[8] human rotavirus vaccine against hospitalization for severe g2p[4] rotavirus gastroenteritis in belém, brazil.brazil initiated universal immunization of infants with the g1p[8] human rotavirus (rv) vaccine in march 2006. this study evaluated vaccine effectiveness (ve) against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) hospitalizations.201121150692
frequency, clinical characteristics, and genotype distribution of rotavirus gastroenteritis in greece (2007-2008).rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis among young children worldwide. a prospective multi-center study was conducted (2007-2008) in five pediatric hospitals to determine the prevalence, the clinical characteristics, and genotype distribution of rotavirus infection in greece. faecal samples were examined for the presence of group a rotavirus antigen by immunochromatography. rotavirus strains were subjected to g and p genotyping by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction ...201121108355
changes in childhood diarrhea incidence in nicaragua following 3 years of universal infant rotavirus immunization.although the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine was highly efficacious against rotavirus diarrhea in clinical trials, the effectiveness of vaccine under field conditions in the developing world is unclear. in october 2006, nicaragua became the first developing nation to implement universal infant immunization with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine. to assess the effect of the immunization program, we examined the incidence of diarrhea episodes between 2003 and 2009 among children in the state of león ...201120881511
rotaviruses.rotaviruses can be detected easily, and methods have been developed to visualise their characteristic morphology, to detect rotavirus proteins through immunological methods or the virus genome, either directly by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or after reverse transcription of the viral rna and amplification by pcr. the abundance of virus particles found in clinical samples during an acute infection makes the detection of rotavirus proteins, mainly vp6, the method of choice for virus detecti ...201121116809
Detection and molecular characterization of noroviruses and sapoviruses in children admitted to hospital with acute gastroenteritis in Vietnam.Noroviruses (NoV) and sapoviruses (SaV) are recognized as important causes of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. In this study, the prevalence and genetic variability of NoV and SaV were determined in hospitalized children <5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis in Hanoi, Vietnam. A total of 501 fecal specimens collected between November-2007 and October-2008, that previously had been tested for rotavirus (RV), were tested for NoV and SaV by realtime RT-PCR. Positive samples were ge ...201222170550
Rotavirus in adults requiring hospitalization.To determine the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of rotavirus among adults admitted to the hospital with diarrhea that have bacterial stool cultures sent.201221939687
Methods suitable for high-throughput screening of siRNAs and other chemical compounds with the potential to inhibit rotavirus replication.Rotaviruses are an important cause of severe gastroenteritis in children under two years of age. Two vaccines have become recently available, however, there are no specific pharmacological interventions of rotavirus disease. Recently, libraries of siRNAs or libraries of chemical compounds that can be tested for their ability to inhibit biological processes have been developed. To search these libraries for drugs or siRNAs that may prevent rotavirus replication it is necessary to have methods for ...201222115788
The management of acute diarrhea in children in developed and developing areas: from evidence base to clinical practice.Introduction: Acute diarrhea remains a major problem in children and is associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and costs. While vaccination against rotavirus could reduce the burden of the disease, the persistent impact of intestinal infections requires effective treatment in adjunct to oral rehydration solutions, to reduce the severity and duration of diarrhea. Several therapeutic options have been proposed for acute diarrhea, but proof of efficacy is available for few of them, inclu ...201222106840
Contribution of enteric infection, altered intestinal barrier function, and maternal malnutrition to infant malnutrition in bangladesh.Background. Malnourished children are at increased risk for death due to diarrhea. Our goal was to determine the contribution of specific enteric infections to malnutrition-associated diarrhea and to determine the role of enteric infections in the development of malnutrition. Methods. Children from an urban slum in Bangladesh were followed for the first year of life by every-other-day home visits. Enteropathogens were identified in diarrheal and monthly surveillance stools; intestinal barrier fu ...201222109945
a new pentameric structure of rotavirus nsp4 revealed by molecular replacement.the region spanning residues 95-146 of the rotavirus nonstructural protein nsp4 from the asymptomatic human strain st3 has been purified and crystallized and diffraction data have been collected to a resolution of 2.6 å. several attempts to solve the structure by the molecular-replacement method using the available tetrameric structures of this domain were unsuccessful despite a sequence identity of 73% to the already known structures. a more systematic approach with a dimer as the search model ...201222194333
Acute arthritis associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis: an unusual extraintestinal manifestation of a common enteric pathogen. 201222157276
crystallographic analysis reveals octamerization of viroplasm matrix protein p9-1 of rice black streaked dwarf virus.the p9-1 protein of rice black streaked dwarf virus accumulates in viroplasm inclusions, which are structures that appear to play an important role in viral morphogenesis and are commonly found in viruses in the family reoviridae. crystallographic analysis of p9-1 revealed structural features that allow the protein to form dimers via hydrophobic interactions. each dimer has carboxy-terminal regions, resembling arms, that extend to neighboring dimers, thereby uniting sets of four dimers via later ...201222072761
Rotavirus cerebellitis: new aspects to an old foe?Rotavirus infection is a significant cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although infection primarily causes gastroenteritis and dehydration, systemic signs and neurologic manifestations in rotavirus infection are widely recognized. The pathophysiologic origins of neurologic signs in rotavirus infection remain incompletely understood. We present a 4-year-old girl with clinical features of severe cerebellitis in association with abnormalities detected on magnetic resonance imagi ...201222196493
Impact of rotavirus vaccination on epidemiological dynamics in England and Wales.Rotavirus infection causes severe gastroenteritis (RVGE) in children worldwide. Its disease burden has been reduced in countries where mass vaccination programs have been introduced. However, England and Wales have not yet implemented such a mass vaccination program. This paper uses a dynamic model to predict the effect of a mass vaccination program in England and Wales beginning in the fall of 2011. The dynamic model is parameterized with country-specific data for the introduction of a rotaviru ...201222133508
Development of cystic periventricular leukomalacia in newborn infants after rotavirus infection.We describe 5 preterm and 3 term infants who presented with seizures during rotavirus infection within 6 weeks after birth. Six of these infants developed late-onset cystic periventricular leukomalacia. Four of the preterm infants had neurodevelopmental delay, and 4 (near) term infants had normal early outcome.201221982304
human myeloid dendritic cells treated with supernatants of rotavirus infected caco-2 cells induce a poor th1 response.we have previously shown that human myeloid dendritic cells treated with purified rotavirus induce an allogenic th1 response. to determine if rotavirus in the context of an intestinal microenvironment modulates the function of dendritic cells, we treated these cells with supernatants from non-infected or infected caco-2 cells and studied their capacity to promote th1 or th2 responses. dendritic cells treated with supernatants from rotavirus-infected caco-2 cells promoted a significantly lower th ...201222082567
rotavirus and biliary atresia: can causation be proven?new knowledge on rotavirus infection in children and well established mouse models has renewed interest in whether rotavirus could cause biliary atresia, an idiopathic, obliterative infantile disease of bile ducts that is the primary indication for liver transplant in children.201222123643
sequence and phylogenetic analyses of nonstructural protein 2 genes of species b porcine rotaviruses detected in japan during 2001-2009.porcine rotavirus b (rvb) has been often detected in diarrhea of suckling and weaned pigs. because it is difficult to serially cultivate rvbs in cell culture, the number of available sequence data for rna segments other than vp7 and nsp1 in especially porcine rvbs is still limited. we performed genetic analysis focusing on nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) using several porcine rvb strains, which were detected in diarrheic feces collected around japan during 2001-2009. comparison of nsp2 nucleotide ...201222248642
efficacy of a pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine against rotavirus gastroenteritis among american indian children.background:: before the widespread use of rotavirus vaccines, rotavirus was a leading cause of gastroenteritis among children. navajo and white mountain apache children suffer a disproportionate burden of severe rotavirus disease compared with the general us population. methods:: we enrolled navajo and white mountain apache infants in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (prv). subjects received 3 doses of vaccine or plac ...201222252206
safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of the human rotavirus vaccine in pre-term european infants: a randomized phase iiib study.background: rotavirus disease is more severe in pre-term infants than in full-term infants. this study assessed the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a human rotavirus vaccine, rix4414 in european pre-term infants. methods: 1009 pre-term infants were randomized (2:1; vaccine: placebo) and stratified into two groups: 20% of early [27-30 weeks; group 1] and 80% of late [31-36 weeks; group 2] gestational age pre-term infants in each group. two doses of rix4414/placebo were administered t ...201222228231
genomic characterization of a cell-culture-adapted korean human g9p[8] rotavirus, cau05-202.the human rotavirus g9 strain is the fifth most common rotavirus worldwide. a human rotavirus g9p[8] strain cau05-202 was isolated from a young child with diarrhea using a cell culture system, and its major gene sequences were determined. phylogenetic analysis of the vp7 gene revealed that cau05-202 clustered into genetic lineage iii-d and was most closely related to g9 rotaviruses from turkey (strain guh13) and sri lanka (strain 05slc056 and 05slc057). vp4 and nsp4 gene analysis showed that cau ...201222274623
bifidobacterium lactis bb12 enhances intestinal antibody response in formula-fed infants: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.background: addition of probiotics to infant formula may positively affect immune function in nonexclusively breastfed infants. this study aimed to investigate the effect of infant starter formula containing the probiotic bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis (bb12) on intestinal immunity and inflammation. methods: six-week-old healthy, full-term infants (n = 172) were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial with 2 groups studied in parallel to a breas ...201222237870
structural insights into the coupling of virion assembly and rotavirus replication.viral replication is rapid and robust, but it is far from a chaotic process. instead, successful production of infectious progeny requires that events occur in the correct place and at the correct time. rotaviruses (segmented double-stranded rna viruses of the reoviridae family) seem to govern their replication through ordered disassembly and assembly of a triple-layered icosahedral capsid. in recent years, high-resolution structural data have provided unprecedented insight into these events. in ...201222266782
evaluation of a multiplex real time reverse transcription pcr assay for the detection and quantitation of the most common human rotavirus a rotaviruses (rvs) are important pathogens that cause acute, dehydrating gastroenteritis in infants and young children. in this study, a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction protocol using primers and taqman(®) probes specific for viral vp4 and vp7 genes was evaluated. this assay offers simultaneous genotyping and quantification of the most common rv genotypes g1p[8], g2p[4], g3p[8], g4p[8], and g9p[8]. it was compared to the molecular typing results provided by conventional pcr. ...201222245180
Clinical characteristics of obstructive uropathy associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis in Japan.Aims: Rotavirus gastroenteritis is severe and often results in dehydration and pre-renal azotemia. However, we have encountered four children with acute obstructive uropathy associated with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis, and several similar cases have been reported. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the epidemiology and clinical features of acute obstructive uropathy associated with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in Japanese children. Patients and methods: We sent questio ...201222185968
enteric viral pathogens in children with inflammatory bowel disease.the causes of exacerbations of inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) are unknown. the presence of rna of an enterovirus, norovirus gi, norovirus gii, rotavirus, astrovirus, and sapovirus was sought in stool samples of 50 children (median age 12.9 years) undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopies for ibd or its exclusion (crohn's disease n = 18, ulcerative colitis n = 13, indeterminate colitis n = 2, non-ibd n = 17). viral rna was found in three fecal samples (norovirus gii n = 2, sapovirus n = 1), all i ...201222170557
clinical and molecular epidemiology of norovirus infection in childhood diarrhea in china.a prospective investigation was carried out among pediatric outpatients and inpatients with acute non-dysenteric diarrhea between august, 2008 and july, 2009 in shanghai, hangzhou, chongqing, and tianjin, china. one step real-time rt-pcr was used for detection of norovirus (nov) genogroups i and ii (gi, gii). the nov genotypes were classified based on partial capsid sequences. rotavirus (rv) was detected in parallel. among 4,123 fecal samples from outpatients, 1,067 (25.9%) were nov-positive, of ...201222028199
Use of PCR-based assays for the detection of the adventitious agent porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) in vaccines, and for confirming the identity of cell substrates and viruses used in vaccine production.Safety and quality are important issues for vaccines. Whereas reversion to virulence poses a safety risk with live attenuated vaccines, the potential for the presence of adventitious agents is also an issue of vaccine quality. The recent detection or porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) in human vaccines has further highlighted the importance of quality control in vaccine production. The purpose of this study was to use a novel conventional PCR to detect PCV1, and subsequently screen materials used ...201222079617
Effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines in preventing cases and hospitalizations due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in Navarre, Spain.Two rotavirus vaccines have been available since 2006. This study evaluates the effectiveness of these vaccines using a test-negative case-control design in Navarre, Spain. We included children 3-59 months of age who sought medical care for gastroenteritis and for whom stool samples were taken between January 2008 and June 2011. About 9% had received the pentavalent vaccine (RotaTeq) and another 8% received the monovalent vaccine (Rotarix). Cases were the 756 children with confirmed rotavirus an ...201222122860
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