PMID(sorted descending)
rotavirus strain diversity in the centre coast of tunisia from 2000 through epidemiological survey investigating rotavirus infection in children was undertaken in the coastal region of tunisia from january 2000 through september 2003. a total of 309 fecal specimens were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and latex agglutination assay for the presence of group a rotavirus antigen. the detection rate was 26.2%. rotavirus outbreaks showed a temperature-dependant pattern (p = .026) but no significant association with rainfall. rotavirus strains isolated were a ...201020684712
the effect of high-dose vitamin a supplementation given with bacille calmette-guérin vaccine at birth on infant rotavirus infection and diarrhea: a randomized prospective study from guinea-bissau.prophylactic vitamin a supplementation (vas) reduces mortality and may reduce morbidity associated with diarrhea in children >6 months of age. rotavirus is the most common cause of acute dehydrating diarrhea among children worldwide.201020684711
rotavirus disease in guinea-bissau, west africa: a review of longitudinal community and hospital studies.rotavirus is one of the most common causes of childhood diarrheal disease and deaths in sub-saharan africa. this article reviews community- and hospital-based surveillance of rotavirus disease in bissau, guinea-bissau, west africa. here, rotavirus infections exhibit a seasonal pattern, with annual epidemics occurring during the relatively dry and cooler months, from january to april, and few cases registered from may to december. most children (74%) experience their first infection before the ag ...201020684710
the global spread of rotavirus g10 strains: detection in ghanaian children hospitalized with diarrhea.from october 2003 through september 2004, a total of 289 stool samples were collected from children <5 years of age who had severe diarrhea at admission to or when visiting the emergency department at the navrongo war memorial hospital in rural ghana during a study on rotavirus disease burden. rotavirus antigen was detected in 115 stool samples (39.8%) tested for rotavirus. four rotavirus-positive samples were found to bear g10p[6] specificity by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, ...201020684709
review of rotavirus studies in africa: 1976-2006.rotavirus is a common cause of severe diarrheal disease in children worldwide. ninety percent of the associated deaths occur in sub-saharan africa and south east asia. our aim was to review the prevalence of rotavirus infection in africa over the past 30 years.201020684708
antigenic and molecular characterization of unusual rotavirus strains in burkina faso in 1999.thirty-six of 37 rotavirus strains recovered from the diarrheal stools of 166 children <3 years of age in burkina faso were characterized at both the antigenic and molecular levels. the rotavirus strains were confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; 30 displayed predominantly short electropherotype patterns, and 6 had a long rna pattern. the strains were subgrouped by monoclonal antibody enzyme immunoassay for vp6 and were typed as subgroup i (29 of 30 short rotavirus strains) and subgro ...201020684707
molecular characterization and genotyping of human rotavirus strains in abidjan, cote d' this study, we characterized human rotavirus strains recovered from infants and young children with acute diarrhea in abidjan, cote d'ivoire, during 2000-2004. in total, 719 fecal specimens were collected from children aged 1-60 months with acute infantile gastroenteritis. examination with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed the presence of group a rotavirus antigen in 208 diarrheal specimens (28.9%). polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the rna extracted from rotavirus-pos ...201020684706
characterization of 2 human genotype g10 rotavirus strains, 3008cm and 1784/ci/1999, isolated in cameroon and cote d'ivoire during the 1999-2000 rotavirus season.during routine rotavirus surveillance projects in cameroon and cote d'ivoire, 2 fecal samples collected from 2 children <5 years of age who presented with symptoms of gastroenteritis were found to give anomalous g typing results. these specimens were strongly rotavirus positive by enzyme immunoassay, displayed vp6 subgroup ii specificity and long rna electropherotypes, and were typed as rotavirus serotype g2 with monoclonal antibodies. in addition, the strains were typed as rotavirus vp7 genotyp ...201020684705
rotavirus vp4 and vp7 genotypes circulating in cameroon: identification of unusual types.rotavirus remains a priority candidate for vaccine development, because it is the major cause of viral diarrhea in children worldwide. this study characterized rotavirus strains in 195 stool specimens collected from children <5 years of age with diarrhea, in the southwest province and western province of cameroon during 1999-2000. the predominant g type was g1 (detected in 44.9% of specimens) and the most predominant p type was p[8] (in 82.7%). the most common g-p combination detected was g1p[8] ...201020684704
diversity of rotavirus vp7 and vp4 genotypes in northwestern nigeria.nigeria has recently been ranked third among the 10 countries with the greatest number of rotavirus disease-associated deaths per year. estimates attribute up to 33,000 deaths annually to rotavirus disease in nigerian children <5 years old. although the introduction of the new oral, live attenuated rotavirus vaccines may not occur for another 4-6 years in developing countries, background data on burden of disease, cost of rotavirus disease, and characterization of circulating strains is required ...201020684703
characterization of human rotavirus recovered from children with acute diarrhea in kinshasa, democratic republic of congo.between july and october of 2003, 2004, and 2005, outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis occurred among children <5 years of age in kinshasa, democratic republic of the congo. stool specimens (67 in 2003, 108 in 2004, and 116 in 2005) were collected and screened for rotaviruses using either latex agglutination (diarlex laa; orion diagnostics) or enzyme immunoassay (ideia; dakocytomation). the molecular characteristics of the rotavirus strains were then determined. group a rotavirus was detected in 1 ...201020684702
characterization of human rotavirus strains from children with diarrhea in nairobi and kisumu, kenya, between 2000 and 2002.rotavirus infection is a major cause of diarrheal illness and hospitalization in children <5 years old in kenya and has been described in various settings and locations across the country and for different time points. in this study, we expand on the molecular characterization of rotavirus strains collected in nairobi and kisumu, kenya, between 2000 and 2002. rotavirus strains were typed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and characterized using vp6 monoclonal antibodies and rna ...201020684701
rotavirus genetic diversity, disease association, and temporal change in hospitalized rural kenyan children.the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines will be dependent on the immunity conferred against prevalent and emergent variants causing severe diarrheal disease. longitudinal surveillance of disease-causing strains is a prerequisite to intervention.201020684700
molecular characterization of rotavirus strains circulating among children with acute gastroenteritis in madagascar during 2004-2005.a survey was undertaken of the etiology of acute gastroenteritis in children <16 years of age in antananarivo, madagascar, from may 2004 through may 2005. with use of electron microscopy of fecal specimens, 104 (36%) of 285 children were found to be infected with rotavirus. rotavirus strain characterization was undertaken using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, electropherotyping, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction genotyping, and nucleotide sequencing. the predominant group a rota ...201020684699
epidemiology of rotavirus infection in children in blantyre, malawi, 1997-2007.acute gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among infants and young children in africa. from 1997 through 2007, we enrolled 3740 children <5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis who received hospital care at the queen elizabeth central hospital in blantyre, malawi. group a rotavirus was detected in fecal specimens by enzyme immunoassay. rotavirus strains were characterized for vp7 (g) and vp4 (p) types with use of reverse-transcription ...201020684698
characterization of rotavirus strains detected in windhoek, namibia during 1998-1999.namibia, located on the southwestern coast of southern africa, is characterized by vast deserts, limited fresh water, and low population density. mortality estimates among children <5 of age are 63 deaths per 1000 live-births, with diarrheal diseases contributing to 3% of these deaths. data on the burden of rotavirus disease and circulating serotypes in namibia are currently not available.201020684697
prevalence and diversity of rotavirus strains in children with acute diarrhea from rural communities in the limpopo province, south africa, from 1998 to regarding the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of rotavirus infection in rural areas of africa are limited. in this study the prevalence and genetic diversity of rotaviruses in a rural south african setting were investigated.201020684695
characterization and molecular epidemiology of rotavirus strains recovered in northern pretoria, south africa during 2003-2006.rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe dehydrating gastroenteritis in infants and young children and remains a significant clinical problem worldwide. the severity and the burden of rotavirus disease could be reduced through the implementation of an effective vaccine. the aim of this study was to characterize rotavirus strains circulating in the local community as part of an ongoing hospital burden of disease study when a g1p[8] rotavirus vaccine candidate was being evaluated in ...201020684694
prospective hospital-based surveillance to estimate rotavirus disease burden in the gauteng and north west province of south africa during 2003-2005.rotavirus is considered to be the most common cause of serious acute dehydrating diarrhea worldwide. however, there is a scarcity of information on rotavirus disease burden in sub-saharan africa.201020684693
hospital health care cost of diarrheal disease in northern ghana.diarrhea caused by rotaviruses is one of the most frequent causes of hospitalization among pediatric patients in rural communities of developing countries in sub-saharan africa and southeast asia, and it is a major cause of death in these communities. the complexity of diarrhea and the increasing cost of treatment puts additional burden on the health sector. to demonstrate the economic burden of diarrhea to policy makers, this study was conducted to estimate the treatment cost of diarrhea in chi ...201020684692
the epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in countries in the eastern mediterranean region.rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among children worldwide, killing approximately 600,000 children annually, including 64,800 in the eastern mediterranean region. safe, effective rotavirus vaccines will be available soon, and accurate disease burden data will be needed to assess the burden of rotavirus and the value of new vaccines and monitor vaccine program impact.201020684691
the economic burden of diarrheal disease in a tertiary level hospital, gauteng, south africa.diarrheal disease remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in young children in south africa. although a rotavirus vaccine will reduce rotavirus diarrheal morbidity and mortality, its introduction and sustainability will incur considerable costs. the aim of this study was to estimate the costs associated with diarrheal disease of all etiologies in children <5 years of age at dr george mukhari hospital, a tertiary level hospital in gauteng, south africa.201020684690
the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in malawi.rotarix (glaxosmithkline), a newly licensed rotavirus vaccine requiring 2 doses, may have the potential to save hundreds of thousands of lives in africa. nations such as malawi, where rotarix is currently under phase iii investigation, may nevertheless face difficult economic choices in considering vaccine adoption.201020684689
vp6: a candidate rotavirus vaccine.several nonliving rotavirus vaccine candidates have been evaluated in animal models. among them is the vp6 protein that comprises the intermediate layer of the rotavirus particle. this protein was expressed as a chimera with maltose binding protein (mbp::vp6) and was administered intranasally to mice. when later challenged with rotavirus, vaccinated mice were nearly 100% protected from fecal shedding of rotavirus, a result strictly dependent on coadministration of an effective adjuvant. protecti ...201020684688
rotavirus in africa: shifting the focus to disease prevention. 201020684687
the burden and cost of ambulatory cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis in central israel.while the burden of rotavirus infection with regard to hospitalizations has been extensively investigated, there are sparse data on the cost and impact of this infection on the ambulatory part of the health system in israel.201020684182
rotavirus vaccine contamination with pcv1--statement of iap committee on immunization. 201020683111
re: "age dependence of the risk of intussusception following tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus tetravalent vaccine: is it beyond doubt?". 201020682522
gastrointestinal and endocrine function during 'foal heat diarrhoea' in healthy foals.gastrointestinal function was assessed in normal foals before, during and after the onset of 'foal heat diarrhoea' by haematological, biochemical, microbiological and parasitological methods, and by a combined lactose tolerance-breath hydrogen excretion test. warmblood mares (n=11) and their foals were used. the foals were assessed according to a standard protocol after birth and at regular intervals thereafter. all except one of the foals suffered from diarrhoea that started between day 8 and d ...200020681188
molecular analysis of human group a rotavirus g10p[14] genotype in slovenia.rotavirus g10 genotype is one of the main rotaviruses circulating in cattle throughout the world but is also found in asymptomatic and symptomatic infections in children, and thought to be acquired through zoonotic transmission.201020675186
severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) and rotavirus vaccination: reports to the vaccine adverse events reporting system (vaers).rotavirus vaccines are the only live vaccines recommended for infants in the us. postmarketing reports have described severe gastroenteritis with vaccine viral shedding in infants who received rotavirus vaccine and were later diagnosed with scid. the us food and drug administration recently approved labeling changes for rotateq and rotarix contraindicating administration to individuals with a history of scid. we queried vaers to characterize reports of scid after rotavirus vaccination.201020674876
genomic analysis of codon, sequence and structural conservation with selective biochemical-structure mapping reveals highly conserved and dynamic structures in rotavirus rnas with potential cis-acting functions.rotaviruses are a major cause of acute, often fatal, gastroenteritis in infants and young children world-wide. virions contain an 11 segment double-stranded rna genome. little is known about the cis-acting sequences and structural elements of the viral rnas. using a database of 1621 full-length sequences of mammalian group a rotavirus rna segments, we evaluated the codon, sequence and rna structural conservation of the complete genome. codon conservation regions were found in eight orfs, suggest ...201020671030
noroviruses: the leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide.noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, and may soon eclipse rotaviruses as the most common cause of severe pediatric gastroenteritis, as the use of rotavirus vaccines becomes more widespread. genetic mutations and recombinations contribute to the broad heterogeneity of noroviruses and the emergence of new epidemic strains. although typically a self-limited disease, norovirus gastroenteritis can cause significant morbidity and mortality among children, the eld ...201020670600
intestinal epithelia activate anti-viral signaling via intracellular sensing of rotavirus structural components.rotavirus (rv), a leading cause of severe diarrhea, primarily infects intestinal epithelial cells (iecs) causing self-limiting illness. to better understand innate immunity to rv, we sought to define the extent to which iec activation of anti-viral responses required viral replication or could be recapitulated by inactivated rv or its components. using model human intestinal epithelia, we observed that rv-induced activation of signaling events and gene expression typically associated with viral ...201020664578
identification of a g2-like porcine rotavirus bearing a novel vp4 type, p[32].a porcine group a rotavirus (garv) strain, 61/07/ire, was isolated from a 4-5 week asymptomatic piglet, during an epidemiological survey of porcine herds in southern ireland, in 2007. the nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequence of the full-length vp4 protein of the porv strain 61/07/ire was determined. based on the entire vp4 open reading frame (nt), strain 61/07/ire displayed ≤76.5% identity to representatives of the established 31 p-types, a value far lower than the percentage identity cu ...201020663474
change in rotavirus epidemiology in northeast florida after the introduction of rotavirus vaccine.retrospective analysis done at a children's hospital showed significant decrease in infections and hospitalizations caused by rotavirus in northeast florida after the introduction of rotavirus vaccines in 2006. the rotavirus season was delayed in onset by 8 months and duration prolonged by 2-3 months in 2008, and no definite season occurred in 2009.201020661105
sustained decline in cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis presenting to the children's hospital of philadelphia in the new rotavirus vaccine era.a dramatic diminution in the number of rotavirus gastroenteritis cases during the 2007 to 2008 rotavirus season in the united states was likely attributable to the availability of an effective rotavirus vaccine for infants since february 2006. to exclude the possibility that factors other than vaccination accounted for the declining case frequency, we examined the 2008 to 2009 experience at the children's hospital of philadelphia (chop).201020661099
evaluation of antirotavirus activity of flavonoids.flavonoids are dietary components and the most ubiquitous phenolic compounds found in nature, showing a range of pharmacological activities including antiviral action. this study describes the antiviral screening of 60 different flavones and flavonols against human rotavirus (wa-1 strain) as well as their cytotoxicity in ma104 cells. cytotoxicity was investigated by cell morphology assessment and antirotavirus activity by cytopathic effect inhibition. results were expressed as cc(50) and ic(50), ...201020659535
α-enolase autoantibodies cross-reactive to viral proteins in a mouse model of biliary atresia.biliary atresia (ba) is a neonatal cholangiopathy of unknown etiology. the bile duct injury that occurs in patients with ba might result from a hepatobiliary viral infection followed by an autoimmune response against the bile duct epithelia. we aimed to identify autoantigens recognized by serum antibodies in the rhesus rotavirus (rrv)-induced mouse model of ba; findings were correlated with ba in humans.201020659472
analysis of rotavirus nsp4 genotypes and age-dependent antibody response against nsp4 in shanghai, china.this study aimed to determine the genotypes of nsp4 in children with acute rotavirus diarrhea and evaluate serum antibody titers to nsp4 in different age groups in shanghai, china. a total of 171 stool specimens were collected from hospitalized patients < or =5 years of age who had acute rotavirus diarrhea between january 2003 and december 2006. serum samples were collected from healthy individuals, including 200 for 0-60 months of age and 30 for over 5 years of age. nsp4-b type was the single p ...201020657070
[detection of rotavirus infection in danish children].rotavirus (rv) is the most frequent causative agent of severe diarrhoea in infants and young children worldwide, also in denmark. however, the actual number of diagnosed rv cases among danish children is unknown. if a new rv-vaccine is to be introduced in denmark, updated data on rv disease burden is important and the validity of potential surveillance systems needs to be explored.201020654279
[expression and assembly of rotavirus-like particles in insect cells mediated by recombinant bombyx mori multibac].to construct recombinant baculoviruses co-expressing three structural genes vp2, vp6 and vp7 of rotavirus, and assemble rotavirus-like particles (vlps) in bmn cells.201020650749
epidemiological and clinical features of rotavirus among children younger than 5 years of age hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in northern italy.rotavirus is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis and severe dehydrating diarrhea in young children.201020649961
letter to the editor. 201020649863
recognition and prevention of hospital-associated enteric infections in the intensive care unit.the objectives of this article were to review the causes and extent of hospital-associated infectious diarrhea and associated risks in the general hospital ward and intensive care unit (icu), to compare microorganisms with similar symptoms to aid in recognition that will lead to timely and appropriate treatment and control measures, and to propose infection prevention protocols that could decrease human process errors in the icu. this literature review describes epidemiology, comparison of micro ...201020647790
inadequately treated wastewater as a source of human enteric viruses in the environment.human enteric viruses are causative agents in both developed and developing countries of many non-bacterial gastrointestinal tract infections, respiratory tract infections, conjunctivitis, hepatitis and other more serious infections with high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals such as meningitis, encephalitis and paralysis. human enteric viruses infect and replicate in the gastrointestinal tract of their hosts and are released in large quantities in the stools of infected i ...201020644692
acute renal failure due to obstructive urate stones associated with norovirus gastroenteritis. 201020640904
[outbreak of diarrhea by rotavirus in bom jesus city, piauí state].this study focused a diarrhea outbreak caused by rotavirus in a city of piauí state aiming to identify the etiology, protocol of assistance to cases. a case series was carried out with 22 children assisted for acute diarrhea in 2006 in health units of bom jesus city. the data were collected by means of interviews utilizing forms that were with the help of the children's parents and analysis of the appointment files was performed. most of the families (59.1%) had a monthly income inferior to the ...201020640260
use of an immunization information system to assess the effectiveness of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in us children.immunization information systems (iiss) are accessible sources of immunization data. we validated immunization information from a local iis against provider records and assessed the system's utility in evaluating vaccine effectiveness against rotavirus disease using a case-control study. among the 91% of case and control patients with immunization records, 49% were in the iis, and 97% had a provider record. good agreement was observed across record sources (k=0.65). vaccine effectiveness (ve) wa ...201020637764
oral administration of plant-based rotavirus vp6 induces antigen-specific igas, iggs and passive protection in mice.plant viruses show significant potential as expression vectors for producing foreign proteins in plants. in this study, codon-optimized vp6 gene (svp6) of human rotavirus was engineered as a replacement to the coat protein (cp) open reading frame of beet black scorch virus (bbsv). in vitro-generated rna transcripts corresponding to the engineered virus were infectious when inoculated onto the leaves of chenopodium amaranticolor. molecular analysis revealed that svp6 was efficiently expressed and ...201020637305
[benign infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis: clinical analysis of 40 cases].to investigate the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics and treatment of benign infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (bicg).201020637150
sustained protection from pentavalent rotavirus vaccination during the second year of life at a large, urban united states pediatric hospital.fecal specimens from children presenting to texas children's hospital with acute gastroenteritis were tested for the presence of rotavirus. children were grouped according to vaccination status, and pentavalent rotavirus vaccine effectiveness was calculated. pentavalent rotavirus vaccine effectiveness against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was sustained during the first 2 years of the vaccination program. overall 3-dose effectiveness was 83% to 86%; it was 92% to 93% among children 6 to 11 mon ...201020634776
different rotavirus strains enter ma104 cells through different endocytic pathways: the role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.rotaviruses, the single most important agents of acute severe gastroenteritis in children, are nonenveloped viruses formed by a three-layered capsid that encloses a genome formed by 11 segments of double-stranded rna. the mechanism of entry of these viruses into the host cell is not well understood. the best-studied strain, rrv, which is sensitive to neuraminidase (na) treatment of the cells, uses integrins alpha2 beta1 and alphav beta3 and the heat shock protein hsc70 as receptors and enters ma ...201020631149
the genome segments of a group d rotavirus possess group a-like conserved termini but encode group-specific proteins.rotaviruses are a leading cause of viral acute gastroenteritis in humans and animals. they are grouped according to gene composition and antigenicity of vp6. whereas group a, b, and c rotaviruses are found in humans and animals, group d rotaviruses have been exclusively detected in birds. despite their broad distribution among chickens, no nucleotide sequence data exist so far. here, the first complete genome sequence of a group d rotavirus (strain 05v0049) is presented, which was amplified usin ...201020631147
protein kinase r is responsible for the phosphorylation of eif2alpha in rotavirus infection.the eukaryotic initiation translation factor 2 (eif2) represents a key point in the regulation of protein synthesis. this factor delivers the initiator met-trna to the ribosome, a process that is conserved in all eukaryotic cells. many types of stress reduce global translation by triggering the phosphorylation of the α subunit of eif2, which reduces the formation of the preinitiation translation complexes. early during rotavirus infection, eif2α becomes phosphorylated, and even under these condi ...201020631127
genogroup iib norovirus infections and association with enteric symptoms in a neonatal nursery in southern india.noroviruses (novs) are increasingly recognized as an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. however, there are limited data on the role of novs in neonatal infections and disease. the objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of novs in neonates with gastrointestinal disease using a case-control study design and to characterize the nov strains infecting neonates. a total of 309 fecal samples from 161 neonates with gastrointestinal symptoms and 148 ...201020631107
detecting food- and waterborne viruses by surface-enhanced raman and waterborne viruses pose serious health risks to humans and were associated with many outbreaks worldwide. rapid, accurate, and nondestructive methods for detection of viruses are of great importance to protect public health. in this study, surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy (sers) coupled with gold sers-active substrates was used to detect and discriminate 7 food- and waterborne viruses, including norovirus, adenovirus, parvovirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, paramyxovirus, and herpersvir ...201020629888
chemical and microbiological parameters as possible indicators for human enteric viruses in surface water.there are still conflicting results on the suitability of chemical and microbiological parameters as indicators for the viral contamination of surface waters. in this study, conducted over 20 months, the abundance of human adenovirus, human polyomavirus, enterovirus, group a rotavirus and norovirus was determined in ruhr and rhine rivers, germany. additionally, prevalence of different possible indicators such as somatic coliphages, e. coli, intestinal enterococci, and total coliforms was also co ...201020627679
genetic characterization of rotavirus in children in south korea from 2007 to 2009.rotavirus is the most important etiological agent in children with acute gastroenteritis (age). the recent implementation of a rotavirus vaccine in korea requires the monitoring of prevailing rotavirus strains in order to control the infection. one hundred thirty-nine rotavirus strains were detected in children hospitalized with age in seoul, korea from 2007 to 2009. the most frequent combination of genotypes was g9p[8] (32.1%), followed by g1p[8] (20.7%) and g3p[8] (11.7%). mixed g-types were d ...201020625775
oral vaccination with the porcine rotavirus vp4 outer capsid protein expressed by lactococcus lactis induces specific antibody production.the objective of this study to design a delivery system resistant to the gastrointestinal environment for oral vaccine against porcine rotavirus. lactococcus lactis nz9000 was transformed with segments of vp4 of the porcine rotavirus inserted into the pnz8112 surface-expression vector, and a recombinant l. lactis expressing vp4 protein was constructed. an approximately 27 kda vp4 protein was confirmed by sds-page , western blot and immunostaining analysis. balb/c mice were immunized orally with ...201020625406
performance of rotavirus vaccines in developed and developing countries.the world health organization estimates that rotavirus diarrhea results in approximately half a million deaths and approximately 2.4 million hospitalizations in developing countries each year. two live oral rotavirus vaccines, rotateq® (rv 5; merck) and rotarix® (rv 1; glaxosmithkline) with good efficacy against severe rotavirus disease and a reassuring safety profile could substantially impact the burden of rotavirus disease. in april 2009, who provided a recommendation for global introduction ...201020622508
the bovine lactophorin c-terminal fragment and pas6/7 were both potent in the inhibition of human rotavirus replication in cultured epithelial cells and the prevention of experimental gastroenteritis.rotaviruses are the leading cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea in children worldwide. we have found that high-m(r) glycoprotein fraction (f1) from cow's milk whey has potent inhibitory activity against human rotavirus (hrv) in cell culture. the present study was undertaken to identify and characterize the components responsible for this inhibitory activity. f1 was initially heated at 95 degrees c for 30 min, rendering milk antibodies inert, subjected to ammonium sulfate fractionation, and then ...201020622446
development of a panel of multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for simultaneous detection of major agents causing calf diarrhea in feces.calf diarrhea is a major economic burden to the bovine industry. since multiple infectious agents can be involved in calf diarrhea, and the detection of each of the causative agents by traditional methods is laborious and expensive, a panel of 2 multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays was developed for rapid and simultaneous detection of the 5 major bovine enteric pathogens (i.e., bovine coronavirus [bcov; formally known as betacoronavirus 1], group a bovine rotavirus [brv], s ...201020622219
presence of enteric viruses in source waters for drinking water production in the netherlands.the quality of drinking water in the netherlands has to comply with the dutch drinking water directive: less than one infection in 10,000 persons per year may occur due to consumption of unboiled drinking water. since virus concentrations in drinking waters may be below the detection limit but entail a public health risk, the infection risk from drinking water consumption requires the assessment of the virus concentrations in source waters and of the removal efficiency of treatment processes. in ...201020622124
infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis: a retrospective study of 25 patients.the aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiologic, clinical, and evolutional characteristics in patients who presented convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (cwg) to facilitate the diagnosis in daily clinical practice.201120618844
breastfeeding protects against acute gastroenteritis due to rotavirus in assess whether breastfeeding protects against acute gastroenteritis (age) due to rotavirus (rv) infection compared to rv-negative age (rv-) in children age 0-12 months. data from a community-based study of children with age from 30 pediatric practices in germany, switzerland, and austria were evaluated. a case-control design was conducted with rv-positive age (rv+) cases and rv- age as controls. odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using log-linear regression models adjusti ...201020617343
[rotavirus and seizures. a well-defined uncommon association].rotavirus infection, besides gastrointestinal symptoms, may cause several neurological complications. among these, are benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (cwg). despite having well defined clinical features, its incidence is not well known.201020615771
progress and barriers for the control of diarrhoeal disease.discovery of intestinal sodium-glucose transport was the basis for development of oral rehydration solution, and was hailed as potentially the most important medical advance of the 20th century. before widespread use of oral rehydration solution, treatment for diarrhoea was restricted to intravenous fluid replacement, for which patients had to go to a health-care facility to access appropriate equipment. these facilities were usually neither available nor reasonable to use in the resource-poor s ...201020609988
comparative efficacy of immunological, molecular and culture assays for detection of group a rotavirus from faecal samples of buffalo (bubalus bubalis) a rotaviruses play an important role in causing gastroenteritis and mortality in buffalo (bubalus bubalis) calves. a number of assays like rna-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (rna-page), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and virus isolation have been employed for rotavirus diagnosis. we evaluated the comparative efficacy of different assays for detection of group a rotavirus in buffalo calves. a total of 455 faecal sample ...201020607400
rotavirus genotypes in costa rica, nicaragua, honduras and the dominican this study, 574 stool samples from children with gastroenteritis were obtained from different hospitals in costa rica, honduras, nicaragua and the dominican republic during 2005-2006. diarrhea stool samples were analyzed for rotavirus by elisa and typed by the rt-pcr-based method. unusual strains were detected: g1p6, g2p8, g3p6, g9p4 and mixed infections. recent studies have indicated that unusual human rotavirus strains are emerging as global strains, which has important implications for eff ...201020606460
fda: benefits of rotavirus vaccination outweigh potential contamination risk. 201020606142
molecular characterization of rotaviruses in a japanese raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides) and a masked palm civet (paguma larvata) in a rotaviruses infect and cause diarrhea in humans and a wide range of mammals. previous studies have suggested that some strains can cross the species barrier to infect humans (martella et al., 2010). however, there are few reports on infection and characterization of rotaviruses in wild animals. to estimate what types of rotaviruses infect wild animals, we investigated infection of rotaviruses in wild animals living in urban areas in japan between 2003 and 2008. of 145 fecal specimens obt ...201020605380
a graphene oxide based immuno-biosensor for pathogen detection. 201020602383
effects of qwbzp on t-cell subsets and their cytokines in intestinal mucosa of hrv infection suckling mice.qiwei baizhu powder (qwbzp) is a traditional herbal prescription that has been used traditionally for the treatment of infantile diarrhea, including the infantile diarrhea caused by human rotavirus (hrv). in this study, we investigated the pharmacological activity of qwbzp extract.201020600774
separation of rotavirus double-layered particles and triple-layered particles by capillary zone electrophoresis.cell culture derived rotavirus preparations contain a mixture of double-layered particles (dlps) and triple-layered particles (tlps). characterization of rotavirus vaccine products is important to demonstrate a consistent manufacturing process. a capillary zone electrophoresis (cze) method was developed to separate and quantitate rotavirus dlps and tlps in cell lysate samples and cscl-purified vaccine preparations of each of the five reassortant rotavirus vaccine strains (g1, g2, g3, g4 and p1) ...201020599561
ab initio high-resolution single-particle 3d reconstructions: the symmetry adapted functions way.a protocol to attain high-resolution single-particle reconstructions is presented. the protocol is the concatenation of two procedures: one to obtain an ab initio low-resolution reconstruction, the other to determine a fixed point of the consecutive applications of fast projection matching and 3d reconstruction. it is a reciprocal space formulation where the fourier coefficients of the 3d scattering density are expressed in terms of symmetry adapted functions and the 2d particle images are repre ...201020599509
pectic polysaccharides from panax ginseng as the antirotavirus principals in evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of ginseng, the active principals of ginseng were studied in vitro model of rotavirus infection, the leading cause of severe diarrhea. two pectic polysaccharides, named as gp50-dhr (56.0 kda) and gp50-ehr (77.0 kda), were purified from hot water extract of ginseng by bioassay-linked fractionation. both polysaccharides rescued cell viability from rotavirus infection dose-dependently (ic50 are 15 and 10 microg/ml, respectively). both polysaccharides had common ...201020597500
rotavirus vaccine could save millions of children worldwide. 201020595806
rotavirus infections and vaccines: burden of illness and potential impact of vaccination.rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. by 5 years of age virtually every child worldwide will have experienced at least one rotavirus infection. this leads to an enormous disease burden, where every minute a child dies because of rotavirus infection and another four are hospitalized, at an annual societal cost in 2007 of $us2 billion. most of the annual 527 000 deaths are in malnourished infants living in rural regions of low and middle income countries. in ...201020593908
influence of zinc supplementation in acute diarrhea differs by the isolated organism.zinc supplementation is recommended in all acute diarrheas in children from developing countries. we aimed to assess whether zinc supplementation would be equally effective against all the common organisms associated with acute diarrheas. we used data on 801 children with acute diarrhea recruited in a randomized, double blind controlled trial (isrctn85071383) of zinc and copper supplementation. using prespecified subgroup analyses, multidimensionality reduction analyses, tests of heterogeneity, ...201020592753
reduction in gastroenteritis with the use of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in a primary practice.pentavalent rotavirus (rv) vaccine (rv5) was licensed in 2006 and recommended for routine childhood immunization. a significant decrease in the number of rv hospitalizations has been described. the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of rv5 on acute gastroenteritis (age) seen in a primary practice.201020587671
infection status of hospitalized diarrheal patients with gastrointestinal protozoa, bacteria, and viruses in the republic of understand protozoan, viral, and bacterial infections in diarrheal patients, we analyzed positivity and mixed-infection status with 3 protozoans, 4 viruses, and 10 bacteria in hospitalized diarrheal patients during 2004-2006 in the republic of korea. a total of 76,652 stool samples were collected from 96 hospitals across the nation. the positivity for protozoa, viruses, and bacteria was 129, 1,759, and 1,797 per 10,000 persons, respectively. especially, cryptosporidium parvum was highly mixed ...201020585526
prospective characterization of norovirus compared with rotavirus acute diarrhea episodes in chilean children.rotavirus and more recently noroviruses are recognized as main causes of moderate to severe acute diarrhea episodes (ade) in children < or =5 years of age. comparing epidemiologic and clinical features of norovirus to rotavirus ade will aid in the decision-making process required to develop norovirus vaccines.201020581736
complete genome sequence analysis of candidate human rotavirus vaccine strains rv3 and 116e.rotaviruses (rvs) cause severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children; yet, several strains have been isolated from newborns showing no signs of clinical illness. two of these neonatal strains, rv3 (g3p[6]) and 116e (g9p[11]), are currently being developed as live-attenuated vaccines. in this study, we sequenced the eleven-segmented double-stranded rna genomes of cell culture-adapted rv3 and 116e and compared their genes and protein products to those of other rvs. using amino acid alignme ...201020580391
molecular characterization of human group a rotavirus from stool samples in young children with diarrhea in indonesia.detection and genotyping of group a rotavirus strains from stool samples in young children with diarrhea in indonesia were examined using reverse transcription-nested multiplex pcr. of 421 stool specimens, 257 samples was rotavirus positive. g1 type was the most common g-type (54%), followed by g2 (6%) and g9 (3%). p[8] was the most common p-type (39%), followed by p[6] (19%), p[4] (10%) and p[11] 1%. eighteen percent of the samples had mixed g genotype infection and 5% had mixed p genotype infe ...201020578517
cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination as part of the national immunization program for thai children.rotavirus infection is a common cause of gastroenteritis in infants and thus, presents an economic burden. currently, there are effective vaccines against rotavirus licensed for use in thailand. we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination as part of the national immunization program for thai children based on information derived from studies of disease burden of rotavirus infection, vaccine effectiveness, expenditure for care according to the who choice; average gnp per capita p ...201020578490
who policy development processes for a new vaccine: case study of malaria vaccines.recommendations from the world health organization (who) are crucial to inform developing country decisions to use, or not, a new intervention. this article analysed the who policy development process to predict its course for a malaria vaccine.201020576114
concentration of acrylamide in a polyacrylamide gel affects vp4 gene coding assignment of group a equine rotavirus strains with p[12] is universally acknowledged that genome segment 4 of group a rotavirus, the major etiologic agent of severe diarrhea in infants and neonatal farm animals, encodes outer capsid neutralization and protective antigen vp4.201020573245
[shrna against nsp4 gene inhibits the proliferation of bovine rotavirus in vitro].based on the nsp4 sequence of bovine rotavirus (brv), the shrna was designed and synthesized, and a shrna recombinant lenti-virus vector rnai-h1-89 was constructed. the recombinant rnai-h1-89 lenti-virus was packaged by transfecting the 293t cell with the recombinant vector rnai-h1-89 and two helper plasmids using lipofectamine, and then used to infect ma104 cells. the ma104 cells were further infected with brv strain g6 24h post-infection, with the lacz shrna recombinant lenti-virus as control. ...201020572348
surveillance of norovirus infections in the state of rio de janeiro, brazil 2005-2008.a 4-year (2005-2008) norovirus (nov) surveillance study was conducted in the state of rio janeiro, brazil, to demonstrate the role of these viruses in outbreaks and sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis. a cohort of 1,687 fecal samples was obtained from patients with gastroenteritis; 324 were rotavirus-positive. of the remainder 1,363 rotavirus-negative samples, 1,087 samples were tested for nov rna in this study. the study enrolled 267 outpatients from municipal public health centers and 820 ...201020572088
modeling seasonal variation in rotavirus hospitalizations for use in evaluating the effect of rotavirus vaccine.every year rotavirus epidemic repeats in cooler months of the year in temperate countries, but the size of the epidemic may often vary. such seasonal variation needs to be considered when the effect of rotavirus vaccine is predicted before vaccine introduction or it is evaluated after vaccine introduction. a computer program based on a stochastic decision tree model was developed to produce stochastic variation, which was used as a proxy for seasonal variation, in the number of rotavirus hospita ...201020572073
[infantile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis: epidemiological and clinical characteristics and outcome].to analyse the epidemiological, clinical and developmental characteristics of a group of children with seizures associated with mild gastroenteritis in order to facilitate the diagnostic suspicion of the condition in daily clinical practice.201020568063
viral gastroenteritis in charleston, west virginia, in 2007: from birth to 99 years of describe factors associated with a rectal swab or stool sample positive for norovirus, rotavirus, or adenovirus.201020565260
clinical characteristics of viral intestinal infection in preterm and term neonates.the clinical presentation of the viral enteric pathogens in newborn infants has not been adequately examined. the aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of viral intestinal infections in newborn infants. clinical data of all term and preterm infants admitted to our tertiary neonatal intensive care unit from 1998 to 2007 with clinical signs of gastroenteritis (ge) or necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) were retrospectively reviewed and compared between infants with different v ...201020563830
gastroenteric virus detection in fecal samples from women in goiânia, state of goiás, brazil.this was a prospective study that included women seen in the obstetrics and gynecology sector of hospital das clínicas, federal university of goiás, in goiânia, state of goiás, with the aim of detecting rotaviruses, adenoviruses, caliciviruses and astroviruses. eighty-four women participated in the study and from these, 314 fecal samples were collected. out of all of the women, 29 were seropositive for hiv and 55 were seronegative, and 45 and 39 were pregnant and non-pregnant, respectively.201020563488
sociodemographic and dietary risk factors for natural infant intussusception in the united 1999, a us case-control study demonstrated a strong association between intussusception and a rotavirus vaccine (rotashield). however, because most (87%) cases were not temporally associated with vaccination, we reanalyzed these data to assess risk factors for intussusception cases unrelated to rotashield.201020562726
efficacy of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, rotateq®, in finnish infants up to 3 years of age: the finnish extension study.rotavirus efficacy and safety trial (rest) enrolled nearly 70,000 infants, of whom more than 23,000 were from finland. rest determined the efficacy of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) against rotavirus-related hospitalisations and emergency department (ed) visits in the first year after vaccination. finnish infants initially in rest transitioned into the finnish extension study (fes), where they were followed for rotavirus-related hospitalisations and ed visits through their second year o ...201020559656
inactivated rotavirus vaccine induces protective immunity in gnotobiotic oral rotavirus vaccines that are effective in middle and high income countries have been much less immunogenic and effective among infants in resource-limited settings. several hypotheses might explain this difference, including neutralization of the vaccine by high levels of maternal antibody in serum and breast milk, severe malnutrition, and interference by other flora and viruses in the gut. we have pursued development of an alternative parenteral rotavirus vaccine with the goal of induc ...201020558244
direct costs associated with a hospital-acquired outbreak of rotaviral gastroenteritis infection in a long term care january 2008, 63 patients were infected during an outbreak of rotaviral gastroenteritis in a long term care facility for elderly patients. the aim of this study was to evaluate the direct financial costs of this outbreak to the hospital. data on costs were gathered from both medical records and the hospital finance department. the total hospital cost of the outbreak was euro17,959, or euro285.1 per case, comprising: euro4,948 for medical investigation and treatment costs, euro4,400 for isolat ...201020557977
chemical and microbiological parameters as possible indicators for human enteric viruses in surface water.there are still conflicting results on the suitability of chemical and microbiological parameters as indicators for the viral contamination of surface waters. in this study, conducted over 20 months, the abundance of human adenovirus, human polyomavirus, enterovirus, group a rotavirus and norovirus was determined in ruhr and rhine rivers, germany. additionally, prevalence of different possible indicators such as somatic coliphages, e. coli, intestinal enterococci, and total coliforms was also co ...201020556879
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