PMID(sorted descending)
infection: preventing 5 million child deaths from diarrhea in the next 5 years. 201121725348
nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis in a canadian paediatric hospital: incidence, disease burden and patients affected.rotavirus is a well-recognised nosocomial pathogen in paediatric settings. although rotavirus gastroenteritis is a vaccine-preventable disease, there is currently no publicly funded programme in canada. the objective of this study was to inform rotavirus vaccination strategy by determining the incidence of nosocomial rotavirus gastroenteritis (nrvge), estimating the burden of disease and characterising the patients affected. we performed a retrospective cohort study of all nrvge cases over a per ...201121723643
use of the state immunization information system to assess rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in connecticut, 2006-2008.immunization information systems (iis) contain individual vaccination records and have potential use for evaluating post-licensure vaccine effectiveness (ve). a matched case-control study was performed by using the connecticut state iis to calculate rotavirus ve against hospitalization; results were compared with pre-licensure efficacy and with estimates previously obtained by traditional case-control methods using matched controls from medical sources and medical chart abstracted data. case-pat ...201121723356
effects of viscogens on rna transcription inside reovirus particles.the dsrna genome of mammalian reovirus (mrv), like the dsdna genomes of herpesviruses and many bacteriophages, is packed inside its icosahedral capsid in liquid-crystalline form, with concentrations near or more than 400 mg/ml. viscosity in such environments must be high, but the relevance of viscosity for the macromolecular processes occurring there remains poorly characterized. here, we describe the use of simple viscogens, glycerol and sucrose, to examine their effects on rna transcription in ...201121719697
circovirus and impact of temporary withdrawal of rotavirus vaccines in the beginning of 2010 dna fragments of a porcine circovirus 1 (pcv-1) were detected in the monovalent rotavirus vaccine, rotarix-« (glaxosmithkline), and later also of pcv-1 and pcv-2 in the rotateq-« (msd) vaccine. these viruses are frequently found in meat and other products for normal human consumption and have not been shown to cause disease in humans. although the world health organization (who) and the european medicines agency (ema) did not recommended discontinuation of vaccination ag ...201121715979
impact of early life exposures to geohelminth infections on the development of vaccine immunity, allergic sensitization, and allergic inflammatory diseases in children living in tropical ecuador: the ecuavida birth cohort study.geohelminth infections are highly prevalent infectious diseases of childhood in many regions of the tropics, and are associated with significant morbidity especially among pre-school and school-age children. there is growing concern that geohelminth infections, particularly exposures occurring during early life in utero through maternal infections or during infancy, may affect vaccine immunogenicity in populations among whom these infections are endemic. further, the low prevalence of allergic d ...201121714922
grazing management effects on sediment, phosphorus, and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures.erosion and runoff from pastures may lead to degradation of surface water. a 2-yr grazing study was conducted to quantify the effects of grazing management on sediment, phosphorus (p), and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures. six adjoining 12.1-ha pastures bisected by a stream in central iowa were divided into three treatments: continuous stocking with unrestricted stream access (csu), continuous stocking with restricted stream access (csr), and rotational stocking (rs). ra ...201121712600
intra-genotypic diversity of archival g4p[8] human rotaviruses from washington, a human rotaviruses (rvs) remain the most frequently detected viral agents associated with acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. despite their medical importance, relatively few complete genome sequences have been determined for commonly circulating g/p-type strains (i.e., g1p[8], g2p[4], g3p[8], g4p[8], and g9p[8]). in the current study, we sequenced the genomes of 11 g4p[8] isolates from stool specimens that were collected in washington, dc during the years of 1974-1991. w ...201121712102
iron oxide amended biosand filters for virus removal.laboratory studies were performed to determine if the addition of iron oxides throughout biosand filter (bsf) media would increase virus removal due to adsorption. the proposed mechanism is electrostatic adsorption of negatively charged virion particles to positively charged iron oxides formed during the corrosion of zerovalent iron. initial tests conducted using continuous flow, small-scale glass columns showed high ms2 bacteriophage removal in an iron-amended sand column (5log10) compared to a ...201121708394
experimental infection of pigs with group a rotavirus and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli in india: gross, histopathological and immunopathological study.the authors describe a detailed study conducted in assam, india, of gross, histopathological and immunopathological alterations in pigs experimentally infected with rotavirus and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) expressing k88 pili. a total of 30 caesarean derived piglets were infected experimentally with rotavirus alone or in combination with etec to study the gross and histopathological alterations and the distribution pattern of different b- and t cell subsets in the gut. villus atroph ...201121706463
direct and indirect effects of rotavirus vaccination upon childhood hospitalizations in 3 us counties, 2006-2009.routine rotavirus vaccination of us infants began in 2006. we conducted active, population-based surveillance for rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalizations in 3 us counties to assess vaccine impact.201121705316
incidence of intussusception in early infancy: a capture-recapture estimate for germany.background: rotavirus (rv) vaccination with the first generation vaccine (rotashield) has been associated with intussusception (is). reliable age specific baseline incidence data for children ôëñ6 months of age in particular is fundamental for further post marketing monitoring of potential effects of recently introduced new rv vaccines. methods: is incidence was estimated by a 2-source capture-recapture calculation (crc) based on esped (german paediatric surveillance unit) reports and on hospita ...201121698555
the rhesus rotavirus gene encoding vp4 is a major determinant in the pathogenesis of biliary atresia in newborn mice.biliary atresia (ba) is a devastating disease of childhood for which increasing evidence supports a viral component in pathogenesis. the murine model of ba is induced by perinatal infection with rhesus rotavirus (rrv) but not with other strains of rotavirus, such as tuch. to determine which rrv gene segment(s) is responsible for pathogenesis, we used the rrv and tuch strains to generate a complete set of single-gene reassortants. eleven single-gene "loss-of-function" reassortants in which a tuch ...201121697466
identification of an antibody binding epitope on the rotavirus non-structural protein nsp2 using phage display analysis.the nsp2 of rotavirus has important roles in rotavirus replication associated with rna binding, hydrolysis of ntps and rna, and helix destabilising properties. a cell culture assay using a nsp2 specific monoclonal antibody (mab) and polyclonal antiserum to block viral replication showed a 73% and a 96% reduction in the amount of virus produced during replication respectively. phage display technology was used to identify the antibody binding region on the nsp2 protein with the motif (244)t-(y/f) ...201121697352
biofilms in drinking water and their role as reservoir for pathogens.most microorganisms on earth live in various aggregates which are generally termed "biofilms". they are ubiquitous and represent the most successful form of life. they are the active agent in biofiltration and the carriers of the self-cleaning potential in soils, sediments and water. they are also common on surfaces in technical systems where they sometimes cause biofouling. in recent years it has become evident that biofilms in drinking water distribution networks can become transient or long-t ...201121697011
Noroviruses as a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in children in Finland, 2009-2010.Abstract Noroviruses are, after rotaviruses, the second most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children. In a prospective study conducted in 2009-2010 at the Tampere University Hospital, 195 stool specimens were collected from cases of acute gastroenteritis in children and examined for noroviruses, sapoviruses, and rotaviruses, using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Noroviruses were found in 49 (25%) of the cases and sapoviruses in 12 (6%). The norovirus g ...201121696253
characterization of human rotavirus subgroups and serotypes in children under five with acute gastroenteritis in a saudi hospital.rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in children. currently, there is no published data on the prevalence of subgroups and serotypes of rotavirus in the eastern province of saudi arabia. the objectives of the present study were to assess the rotavirus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis and to assess the subgroups and serotypes of rotavirus in the children and maternity hospital in dammam, eastern saudi arabia.201121694956
acute gastroenteritis: from guidelines to real life.acute gastroenteritis is a very common disease. it causes significant mortality in developing countries and significant economic burden to developed countries. viruses are responsible for approximately 70% of episodes of acute gastroenteritis in children and rotavirus is one of the best studied of these viruses. oral rehydration therapy is as effective as intravenous therapy in treating mild to moderate dehydration in acute gastroenteritis and is strongly recommended as the first line therapy. h ...201021694853
baseline estimates of diarrhea-associated mortality among united states children before rotavirus vaccine introduction.objectives:: deaths due to diarrhea among us children declined substantially from the 1960s through the 1980s, but have not been recently assessed. we examined diarrhea-associated mortality among young us children from 1992 to 2006 to establish baseline estimates through which the effect of rotavirus vaccines, introduced in 2006, can be assessed. methods:: national center for health statistics multiple cause-of-death mortality data were used to examine diarrhea-associated deaths and death rates ...201121691244
phylogenetic analysis of rotavirus a nsp2 gene sequences and evidence of intragenic recombination.the rotavirus non-structural protein nsp2 is one of the earliest and most abundant viral proteins produced during infection. this protein has multiple essential roles in the replication cycle involving rna binding, viroplasm formation, helicase and can hydrolyse the +¦-phosphate of rna and ntps acting as an rtpase and ntpase. in studying sequences from rotavirus strains isolated in australia between 1984 and 2009, the nsp2 gene was seen to be highly conserved and clustered with defined nsp2 geno ...201121689784
comparative evaluation of the potential impact of rotavirus versus hpv vaccination in gavi-eligible countries: a preliminary analysis focused on the relative disease burden.immunization policymakers at global and local levels need to establish priorities among new vaccines competing for limited resources. however, comparison of the potential impact of single vaccination programs is challenging, primarily due to the limited number of vaccine analyses as well as their differing analytic approaches and reporting formats. the purpose of this study is to provide early insight into how the comparative impact of different new vaccines could be assessed in resource-poor se ...201121679420
genotype diversity of group a rotavirus strains in children with acute diarrhea in urban burkina faso, this study, the diversity of g and p genotypes of rotavirus strains in burkinabe children were examined. between november 2008 and february 2010, 447 stool samples were collected from children <5 years of age with acute diarrhea visiting hospital in ouagadougou. group a rotavirus was previously detected in 151/447 (33.8%) of the samples tested by an immunochromatographic test and these samples were now tested further for rotavirus g and p genotypes by rt-pcr. of these, the rotavirus type gene ...201121678452
rotavirus vaccination and intussusception--act two. 201121675894
intussusception risk and health benefits of rotavirus vaccination in mexico and brazil.because postlicensure surveillance determined that a previous rotavirus vaccine, rotashield, caused intussusception in 1 of every 10,000 recipients, we assessed the association of the new monovalent rotavirus vaccine (rv1) with intussusception after routine immunization of infants in mexico and brazil.201121675888
detection of mutations in antigenic regions of rotavirus viral proteins 4 and 7 in a child with chronic shedding of rotavirus vaccine-type strain. 201121673551
rotavirus infection in a tertiary hospital: laboratory diagnosis and impact of immunization on pediatric hospitalization.rotavirus (rv) is the main etiological agent of diarrhea in childhood; its laboratory diagnosis is crucial to guide the clinical management and prevention of its spread. rv immunization was introduced in brazilian 6-month-old children in 2006. the present study was aimed to evaluate three methodologies used for human rv detection in stool samples obtained from patients hospitalized due to gastroenteritis in a teaching hospital and report the impact of rv immunization in hospitalization by diarrh ...201121670920
rotavirus vaccines: safety, efficacy and public health impact.abstract.ôçé gray j (norfolk and norwich university hospital, norwich, uk). rotavirus vaccines: safety, efficacy and public health impact (foresight). j intern med 2011; 270: 206-214. rotaviruses are the cause of acute gastroenteritis, and disease is widespread amongst infants and young children throughout the world. also, rotavirus is associated with significant mortality in developing countries with more than 500ôçâ000 children dying each year as a result of the severe dehydration associated w ...201121668823
molecular characterization of noroviruses and rotaviruses involved in a large outbreak of gastroenteritis in northern italy.noroviruses and rotaviruses from a gastroenteritis outbreak affecting >300 people near garda lake (northern italy) in 2009 were investigated. characterization of viruses from 40 patient stool samples and 5 environmental samples identified three distinct rotavirus and five norovirus genotypes; two of the latter were detected in both patient and environmental samples.201121666024
high prevalence of enteric viruses in untreated individual drinking water sources and surface water in slovenia.waterborne infections have been shown to be important in outbreaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. although improved sanitary conditions are being progressively applied, fecal contaminations remain an emerging problem also in developed countries. the aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of fecal contaminated water sources in slovenia, including surface waters and groundwater sources throughout the country. in total, 152 water samples were investigated, of which 72 samples ...201121665537
first description of gastroenteritis viruses in lebanese children: a pilot study.human enteric viruses are important causes of acute gastroenteritis in infants and children. the role of rotaviruses, adenoviruses, human caliciviruses and astroviruses in the development of severe acute gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization of infants and young children in north lebanon was investigated. stool specimens collected between april and may 2010 from 79 lebanese infants and children hospitalized for severe acute gastroenteritis, were screened for enteric viruses by immunoassays a ...201121663874
cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in the netherlands; the results of a consensus model.each year rotavirus gastroenteritis results in thousands of paediatric hospitalisations and primary care visits in the netherlands. while two vaccines against rotavirus are registered, routine immunisation of infants has not yet been implemented. existing cost-effectiveness studies showed inconsistent results for these vaccines because of lack of consensus on the impact. we aimed to investigate which factors had a major impact on cost-effectiveness and were primarily responsible for the large di ...201121663620
intestinal and extra-intestinal pathogenicity of a bovine reassortant rotavirus in calves and piglets.despite the impact of bovine group a rotaviruses (garvs) as economically important and zoonotic pathogens, there is a scarcity of data on cross-species pathogenicity and extra-intestinal spread of bovine reassortant garvs. during the course of characterizing the genotypes of all 11 genomic segments of bovine garvs isolated from diarrheic calves in south korea, a unique g6p[7] reassortant garv strain (kj9-1) was isolated. the strain harbors five bovine-like gene segments (vp7: g6; vp6: i2; vp1: r ...201121658866
detection and full genomic analysis of g6p[9] human rotavirus in japan.a rare genotype g6p[9] was identified in two human group a rotavirus strains designated as kf14 and kf17, that were detected in stool specimens from children with diarrhea in japan. vp7 gene sequences of these two strains were identical and genetically closely related to g6 human rotavirus strains reported in european countries and the united states. to our knowledge, this is the first report of detection of a g6 human rotavirus in japan. for further genetic analysis to elucidate the origin of t ...201121656185
acute diarrhoea in a community cohort of children who received an oral rotavirus vaccine in northeast brazil.rotavirus is an important cause of childhood diarrhoea. a monovalent rotavirus vaccine (rotarix®) was introduced into the immunization program of brazil in 2006. in this study, we describe the incidence and burden of disease of rotavirus diarrhoea in two cohorts of children (vaccinated and unvaccinated). we followed two groups of 250 children under one year old, who were enrolled in december 2006 from a low-income residential area in northeast brazil. the children were monitored every two weeks ...201121655821
vaccines as a global imperative--a business perspective.during the past thirty years, vaccines have experienced a renaissance. advances in science, business, and distribution have transformed the field to the point where vaccines are recognized as a "best buy" in global health, a driver of pharmaceutical industry growth, and a key instrument of international development. with many new vaccines available and others on the horizon, the global community will need to explore new ways of ensuring access to vaccines in developing nations. so-called tiered ...201121653955
estimated economic benefits during the 'decade of vaccines' include treatment savings, gains in labor 2010 the bill & melinda gates foundation announced a $10 billion commitment over the next ten years to increase access to childhood vaccines in the world's poorest countries. the effort was labeled the "decade of vaccines." this study estimates both the short- and long-term economic benefits from the introduction and increased use of six vaccines in seventy-two of the world's poorest countries from 2011 to 2020. increased rates of vaccination against pneumococcal and haemophilus influenzae ty ...201121653952
egg yolk igy: protection against rotavirus induced diarrhea and modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in newborn calves.bovine rotavirus (brv) is an important cause of diarrhea in newborn calves. local passive immunity is the most efficient protective strategy to control the disease. igy technology (the use of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins) is an economic and practical alternative to prevent brv diarrhea in dairy calves. the aim of this study was to evaluate the protection and immunomodulation induced by the oral administration of egg yolk enriched in brv specific igy to experimentally brv infected calves. all ...201121652087
rotavirus diarrhea among children less than 5 years of age in urban ghana.we collected clinical and morphologic data from children with diarrhea attending 3 diverse hospitals/clinics in accra. stool samples were tested for rotavirus and cryptosporidium spp. in all, 58% of the children with diarrhea had rotavirus infections, 25% of which were of the g3 sero/genotype. the most common strains were g3p [6] (18.8%) and g2p [6] (12.5%). cryptosporidium spp. infections were uncommon (3/143, 2.0%).201121646938
rotavirus nsp4: cell type-dependent transport kinetics to the exofacial plasma membrane and release from intact infected cells.abstract: background: rotavirus nsp4 localizes to multiple intracellular sites and is multifunctional, contributing to rv morphogenesis, replication and pathogenesis. one function of nsp4 is the induction of early secretory diarrhea by binding surface receptors to initiate signaling events. the aims of this study were to determine the transport kinetics of nsp4 to the exofacial plasma membrane (pm), the subsequent release from intact infected cells, and rebinding to naive and/or neighboring cell ...201121645398
epidemiological and clinical characteristics of pediatric gastroenteritis associated with new viral agents.a 22-month study (2008-2009) was carried out on 273 patients (average age 40 months), admitted with gastroenteritis to the pediatric unit of l. sacco university hospital in milan, italy. fecal samples were investigated for rotavirus (hrv), norovirus (nov), adenovirus (adv), sapovirus (sav), enterovirus, astrovirus and bocavirus (hbov). a 38.3% incidence of infection was observed for hrv, followed by nov (16.2%), hbov (13.6%), adv (2.6%) and sav (0.6%). clinical evaluation of 109 gastroenteritis ...201121643788
a duplex real-time rt-pcr assay for the simultaneous genogroup-specific detection of noroviruses in both clinical and environmental specimens.norovirus (nov) is the major etiological agent causing foodborne and waterborne outbreaks worldwide. we developed a novel duplex real-time quantitative rt-pcr assay designed for the simultaneous detection of and discrimination between nov genogroups gi and gii, by targeting the short junction region between orf1 and orf2, with sensitivity and efficiency comparable to those of each simplex rt-pcr assay. this new duplex assay was evaluated against clinical stool (n = 82) and environmental (groundw ...201121643768
full genomic analyses of human rotavirus strains possessing the rare p[8]b vp4 subtype.rotaviruses with the p[8] vp4 genotype are a major cause of acute infantile diarrhea. the p[8] genotype is classified into two genetically distinct subtypes, p[8]a and p[8]b. most of the p[8] strains belong to subtype p[8]a, whilst p[8]b strains are rare. to date, the whole genomes of a few p[8]a strains have been analyzed, whilst there are no reports on full genomic analysis of the p[8]b strains. to determine the genetic makeup of the rare p[8]b strains and their overall genetic relatedness to ...201121640848
molecular characterization of genotype g6 human rotavirus strains detected in italy from 1986 to a human rotavirus (hrv) strains with a bovine-like (g6) major outer capsid protein vp7 were first detected in palermo, italy, in the late 1980s, and subsequently worldwide. during a 25-year rotavirus surveillance period, additional hrv g6 strains, associated with either a p[9] or p[14] vp4 genotype, have been detected sporadically, but repeatedly, in palermo. whether these g6 hrvs were transmitted to humans directly from an animal reservoir or could have circulated at low prevalence in sus ...201121640847
efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of rix4414 in japanese infants during the first two years of life.a phase iii, randomized, double-blind study evaluated the efficacy, reactogenicity, safety and immunogenicity of a human rotavirus vaccine, rix4414 in japanese infants aged 6-14 weeks when administered as two doses (0, 1-month schedule). efficacy against any and severe rotavirus gastroenteritis leading to medical intervention caused by circulating wild-type rotavirus from two weeks post-dose 2 until two years of age was 79.3%(95% ci: 60.5-89.8%) and 91.6%(95% ci: 62.4-99.1%), respectively. solic ...201121640780
detection of the first g6p[14] human rotavirus strain from a child with diarrhea in egypt.we report the first detection of a g6p[14] rotavirus strain in egypt from the stool of a child participating in a hospital-based diarrhea surveillance study conducted throughout the year 2004. rotavirus infection was initially detected using a rotavirus group a vp6 enzyme immunoassay; the p (vp4) and g (vp7) genotypes of the strain were identified by rt-pcr. we sequenced the vp7 gene and the vp8* portion of the vp4 gene and the strain displayed the strongest identity to the vp7 [>94% nucleotides ...201121640199
current level of consensus on probiotic science-report of an expert meeting- london, 23 november 2009.the present paper summarizes  the consensus views of a group of 9 european clinicians and scientists on the current state of scientific knowledge on probiotics, covering those areas where there is substantial evidence for beneficial effects and those  where the evidence base is poor or inconsistent. there was general agreement that probiotic effects were species and often strain specific. the experts agreed  that some probiotics were effective in reducing the incidence and duration of rotavirus ...201021637035
enteric pathogens associated with childhood diarrhea in tripoli-libya.abstract. stool samples from children < 5 years of age with diarrhea (n = 239) were examined for enteric pathogens using a combination of culture, enzyme-immunoassay, and polymerase chain reaction methods. pathogens were detected in 122 (51%) stool samples; single pathogens were detected in 37.2% and co-pathogens in 13.8% of samples. norovirus, rotavirus, and diarrheagenic escherichia coli (dec) were the most frequently detected pathogens (15.5%, 13.4%, and 11.2%, respectively); salmonella, aden ...201121633024
bug breakfast in the bulletin: rotavirus. 201121632006
cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in bolivia from the state perspective.background: in bolivia, the under-five mortality rate is 54 per 1000 live births. diarrhea causes 15% of these deaths, and 40% of pediatric diarrhea-related hospitalizations are caused by rotavirus illness (ri). rotavirus vaccination (rv), subsidized by international donors, is expected to reduce morbidity, mortality, and economic burden to the bolivian state. estimates of the illness and economic burden of ri and their reduction by rv are essential to the bolivian state's policies on rv program ...201121624421
symptomatic and asymptomatic infections of rotavirus, norovirus, and adenovirus among hospitalized children in xi'an, china.rotavirus (rv), norovirus (nov), and adenovirus (adv) have been reported as the common viral pathogens of acute gastroenteritis in children. to determine the prevalence of rv, nov, and adv infections among hospitalized children with and without symptoms of acute gastroenteritis, fecal specimens, and data on clinical symptoms were collected from 201 children with diarrhea and 53 children without diarrhea admitted to the xi'an children's hospital in xi'an, china between march 2009 and may 2010. rv ...201121618552
detection of group a rotavirus rna and antigens in serum and cerebrospinal fluid from two children with clinically mild encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion.we report on two children with mild encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion associated with group a rotavirus (garv) infection. we examined stool, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid samples to determine the presence of the garv vp7 gene and garv antigen by reverse-transcription pcr and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. garv antigen was detected in stool samples from both patients. the garv g genotype was g9 in one child and g3 in the other. garv antigens were also found in bo ...201121617303
genotypes of rotavirus strains circulating in amman, jordan, in 2006/07 and their significance for the potential effectiveness of future rotavirus vaccination.the prevalence, seasonality and genotypes of rotavirus circulating in jordan were determined to provide data useful for the implementation of a rotavirus vaccine in the national childhood vaccination program. during 2006/07, rotavirus was detected in 35% of hospitalized children, and 88% of the cases occurred in children aged between 6 and 23 months. rotavirus infection persisted throughout the year and peaked in winter. seven genotypes were identified by rt-pcr and sequencing: g1p[8], g9p[8], g ...201121614437
whole genomic analysis reveals the complex evolutionary dynamics of kenyan g2p[4] human rotavirus strains.although g2p[4] rotaviruses are common causes of acute childhood diarrhoea in africa, to date, there are no reports on whole genomic analysis of african g2p[4] strains. in this study, the nearly complete genome sequences of two kenyan g2p[4] strains, ak26 and d205, detected in 1982 and 1989, respectively, were analyzed. strain d205 exhibited a ds-1-like genotype constellation, whilst strain ak26 appeared to be an intergenogroup reassortant with a wa-like nsp2 genotype on the ds-1-like genotype c ...201121613446
viroplasm matrix protein pns9 from rice gall dwarf virus forms an octameric cylindrical structure.the nonstructural pns9 protein of rice gall dwarf virus (rgdv) accumulates in viroplasm (vp) inclusions, which are structures that appear to play an important role in viral morphogenesis and are commonly found in host cells infected by viruses in the family reoviridae. immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy of rgdv-infected vector cells in monolayers (vcms), using antibodies against pns9 of rgdv and expression of pns9 in spodoptera frugiperda cells demonstrated that pns9 is the minimal ...201121613445
re: four cases of postrenal renal failure induced by renal stones associated with rotavirus infection. 201121612763
standardized positive controls for detection of norovirus by reverse transcription pcr.abstract: background: norovirus is one of the most common causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans. rapid spread by contaminated food and person-to-person transmission through the fecal-oral route are characteristics of norovirus and result in high morbidity in vulnerable patient populations. therefore, detection of norovirus is a major public health concern. currently, the most common method for detecting and differentiating among noroviruses in clinical and environmental samples is rev ...201121612660
babies and bearded dragons: sudden increase in reptile-associated salmonella enterica serovar tennessee infections, germany 2008.abstract introduction: in 2008 a marked increase in salmonella enterica serovar tennessee infections in infants occurred in germany. in march and april 2008, eight cases were notified compared to a median of 0-1 cases in 2001-2006. materials and methods: we carried out an investigation including a case-control study to identify the source of infection. a patient was a child <3 years of age with salmonella tennessee isolated from stool from september 1, 2007, through december 31, 2008, identified ...201121612527
scope for rotavirus vaccination in india: revisiting the scientific evidence.rotavirus vaccines have been developed to prevent deaths resulting from severe diarrhea of rotavirus origin. the use of vaccines as an intervention at scale to prevent and control the burden of rotavirus diarrhea is supported by the argument that prevailing public health measures such as hygiene and sanitation, breast feeding and use of ors have failed to prevent severe dehydration resulting from diarrhea. the article reviews the existing evidence on the rationale of using rotavirus vaccine as a ...201121611712
rotavirus rearranged genomic rna segments are preferentially packaged into viruses despite not conferring selective growth advantage to viruses.the rotavirus (rv) genome consists of 11 double-stranded rna segments. sometimes, partial sequence duplication of an rna segment leads to a rearranged rna segment. to specify the impact of rearrangement, the replication efficiencies of human rv with rearranged segments 7, 11 or both were compared to these of the homologous human wild-type rv (wt-rv) and of the bovine wt-rv strain rf. as judged by viral growth curves, rotaviruses with a rearranged genome (r-rv) had no selective growth advantage o ...201121611152
multiple reassortment and interspecies transmission events contribute to the diversity of feline, canine and feline/canine-like human group a rotavirus strains.rna-rna hybridization assays and complete genome sequence analyses have shown that feline rotavirus (frv) and canine rotavirus (crv) strains display at least two distinct genotype constellations (genogroups), represented by the frv strain rva/cat-tc/aus/cat97/1984/g3p[3] and the human rotavirus (hrv) strain rva/human-tc/jpn/au-1/1982/g3p3[9], respectively. g3p[3] and g3p[9] strains have been detected sporadically in humans. the complete genomes of two crv strains (rva/dog-tc/ita/rv198-95/1995/g3 ...201121609783
rotavirus surveillance worldwide – 2009. 201121608199
[study on the ubiquitin ligase activity of rotavirus nsp1 protein].to confirm the activity of non structural protein 1 (nsp1) of rotavirus (rv) as e3 ubiquitin ligase by experiments and to provide some clues for nsp1 on the pathogenic mechanisms and replication of rv.201021604574
determination of the whole-genome consensus sequence of the prototype ds-1 rotavirus using sequence-independent genome amplification and 454(®) pyrosequencing.the prototype ds-1 rotavirus strain, is characterised by a short electropherotype and g2p[4] serotype specificity. following sequence-independent genome amplification and 454(®) pyrosequencing of genomic cdna, differences between the newly determined consensus sequence and genbank sequences were observed in 10 of the 11 genome segments. only the consensus sequence of genome segment 1 was identical to sequences deposited in genbank. a novel isoleucine at position 397 in a hydrophobic region of vp ...201121600242
molecular and immunohistochemical detection of rotavirus in urinary sediment cells of children with rotavirus gastroenteritis.clin microbiol infect abstract: this is the first report showing that rotavirus infects the urinary sediment cells in immunocompetent children with rotavirus gastroenteritis. we found that inclusion-bearing cells were frequently detected in the urine samples of patients with rotavirus gastroenteritis. these cells were positive for cytokeratin, which was sometimes coexpressed with rotavirus antigen, in our immunohistochemical analysis. moreover, in nested rt-pcr experiments, we detected rotavirus ...201121599796
uniformity of rotavirus strain nomenclature proposed by the rotavirus classification working group (rcwg).in april 2008, a nucleotide-sequence-based, complete genome classification system was developed for group a rotaviruses (rvs). this system assigns a specific genotype to each of the 11 genome segments of a particular rv strain according to established nucleotide percent cutoff values. using this approach, the genome of individual rv strains are given the complete descriptor of gx-p[x]-ix-rx-cx-mx-ax-nx-tx-ex-hx. the rotavirus classification working group (rcwg) was formed by scientists in the fi ...201121597953
use of fluoroscopy to study in vivo motility in mouse pups.objectives:: few methods exist to noninvasively study in vivo gastrointestinal motility in animal models of enteric infections. none have been used on mouse pups, which often display more severe symptoms during enteric infections than adult mice. this study sought to determine whether digital fluoroscopy could be used to evaluate gastrointestinal motility in mouse pups as well as adult mice. materials and methods:: fluoroscopic imaging studies were performed on normal 6- to 8-week-old adult mice ...201121593642
immune mediators of rotavirus antigenemia clearance in mice.the immunological mediators that clear rotavirus antigenemia or viremia remain undefined. immunodeficient mice and antibody-transfer were used to test whether lymphocytes or rotavirus-specific serum antibodies are essential for resolving antigenemia. clearance of antigenemia required lymphocytes but neither t or b lymphocytes was absolutely required. transfer of convalescent or non-neutralizing rotavirus-specific serum antibodies to the systemic compartment of severe combined immunodeficient (sc ...201121593155
reassortment among bovine, porcine and human rotavirus strains results in g8p[7] and g6p[7] strains isolated from cattle in south a rotaviruses (garvs) cause severe acute gastroenteritis in children and young animals. although zoonotic infections with bovine-like g6 and g8 garvs have been reported in many countries, there is little evidence for reassortment between bovine garvs and garvs from heterologous species. the finding of bovine garvs with the g6 and g8 genotypes in combination with the typical porcine p[7] prompted us to characterize all 11 genes of 30 bovine garvs isolated from clinically infected calves. by ...201121592683
a community outbreak of rotavirus diarrhea associated with exposures in a hospital outpatient department in south china.introduction:: between october 1 and december 10, 2006, bao'an, china had a 5-fold increase in acute rotavirus gastroenteritis (arge) cases compared with the same time in 2005. to identify the risk factors for arge during this outbreak, we conducted a case-control study among children ≤24 months old from the most heavily affected area. methods:: we defined an arge case as diarrhea, with group a rotavirus antigen detected from fecal samples by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. in the ca ...201121587095
lactobacilli producing bispecific llama-derived anti-rotavirus proteins in vivo for rotavirus-induced diarrhea.aims: using genetically engineered lactobacilli, producing high avidity llama vhh domains (referred to as anti-rotavirus proteins; arps), to test the effect of multimeric antibody fragments as prophylaxis and therapy against rotavirus infection. methods: two arps, arp1 and arp3, shown to bind to different epitopes and act synergistically against rotavirus, were displayed on the surface of lactobacillus paracasei as monovalent or bivalent proteins (mono- or bi-specific). results: although a nonsi ...201121585264
rotavirus-coded deaths in children, united states, 1999-2007.the introduction of specific international classification of diseases-10th revision code for rotavirus in 1999 prompted us to examine the us mortality data for 1999-2007 to validate rotavirus-coded deaths. of 38 rotavirus-coded deaths identified in the national multiple cause-of-death database, results of laboratory testing could be obtained for 21 deaths, all of which had confirmation of rotavirus by either microbiologic or histopathologic testing.201121577173
direct and indirect impact on rotavirus positive and all-cause gastroenteritis hospitalisations in south australian children following the introduction of rotavirus vaccination.rotavirus vaccine for infants was introduced into the national immunisation program in australia in july 2007. to determine the impact of rotavirus vaccination on gastroenteritis hospitalisations amongst children less than six years of age in south australia, we conducted a retrospective analysis of hospital admissions over two time periods: 1 may 2005-30 april 2007 (prior to rotavirus vaccination introduction) and 1 may 2008-30 april 2010 (post rotavirus vaccination introduction). the introduct ...201121575665
incidence of rotavirus infection in children with gastroenteritis attending jos university teaching hospital, nigeria.abstract: this study was conducted to determine the incidence of rotavirus infection in children with gastroenteritis attending jos university teaching hospital, plateau state. a total of 160 children with acute diarrhea were selected by random sampling. stool samples were obtained and assayed for rotavirus antigens by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique using standard diagnostic bioline rotavirus kit. demographic data of parents were also recorded. rotavirus were detected in faeces of 2 ...201121575246
impact of rotavirus vaccination on laboratory confirmed cases in belgium.rotavirus vaccines were introduced in belgium in 2006 and recommended in the universal schedule in january 2007. we measured the impact of rotavirus vaccination through an active laboratory-based surveillance system. in 2008, the number of laboratory confirmed rotavirus cases declined by 61.4% (95% ci 60.2-62.6%) compared to the 2005-2006 pre-vaccination period, with the highest decline in children <1 year (80.1%; 95% ci 78.7-81.4%). the rotavirus season was delayed compared to pre-vaccination s ...201121571023
integrated microfluidic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for rapid detection of food- or waterborne pathogenic rotavirus.the development of microfluidic tools for nucleic acid analysis has become a burgeoning area of research during the postgenome era. here we have developed a microfluidic device that integrates reverse transcription (rt) and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) with online fluorescence detection to realize a rapid detection system for performing both genetic amplification and product analysis. the microfluidic device mainly comprises a grooved copper heating block for rt and a heated cylinder for ampl ...201121570946
gastroenteritis outbreak due to g2p[4] rotavirus and gii norovirus at two correctional facilities in brazil, 2010. 201121570903
molecular and infectivity studies of porcine circovirus in vaccines.this report describes fda's laboratory response to the 2010 reports that porcine circovirus type 1 (pcv-1) dna was present in u.s.-licensed rotavirus vaccines and in cells used to produce inactivated poliovirus vaccines. in the present study, rotarix(®) (glaxosmithkline, rixenxart, belgium) was found to contain full-length pcv-1 genomes that are particle-associated, and cell culture assays in swine testis (st) and pcv-free porcine kidney (pk-15) cells confirmed that pcv-1 sequences in this vacci ...201121569811
molecular and process design for rotavirus-like particle production in saccharomyces cerevisiae.abstract: background: virus-like particles (vlp) have an increasing range of applications including vaccination, drug delivery, diagnostics, gene therapy and nanotechnology. these developments require large quantities of particles that need to be obtained in efficient and economic processes. production of vlp in yeast is attractive, as it is a low-cost protein producer able to assemble viral structural proteins into vlp. however, to date only single-layered vlp with simple architecture have been ...201121569612
results from evaluations of models and cost-effectiveness tools to support introduction decisions for new vaccines need critical appraisal.abstract: the world health organization (who) recommends that the cost-effectiveness (ce) of introducing new vaccines be considered before such a programme is implemented. however, in low- and middle-income countries (lmics), it is often challenging to perform and interpret the results of model-based economic appraisals of vaccines that benefit from locally relevant data. as a result, who embarked on a series of consultations to assess economic analytical tools to support vaccine introduction de ...201121569407
detection of g3p[3] and g3p[9] rotavirus strains in american indian children with evidence of gene reassortment between human and animal rotaviruses.the distribution and evolution of human rotavirus strains is important for vaccine development and effectiveness. in settings where rotavirus vaccine coverage is high, vaccine pressure could select for replacement of common strains (similar to those included in rotavirus vaccines) with uncommon strains, some of which could be generated by reassortment between human and animal rotaviruses. between 2002 and 2004, a phase-iii rotavirus vaccine clinical trial was conducted among american indian chil ...201121567432
diverse origin of p[19] rotaviruses in children with acute diarrhea in taiwan: detection of novel lineages of the g3, g5, and g9 vp7 genes.we previously reported the detection of genotype p[19] rotavirus strains from children hospitalized with acute dehydrating diarrhea during a 5-year surveillance period in taiwan. the characterization of five p[19] strains (0.4% of all typed), including three g3p[19], a novel g5p[19], and a unique g9p[19] genotype is described in this study. phylogenetic analysis of the vp4, vp7, vp6, and nsp4 genes was performed, which demonstrated novel lineages for respective genotypes of the vp4 and the vp7 g ...201121567431
molecular characterization and analysis of equine rotavirus circulating in japan from 2003 to 2008.using a total of 2018 fecal samples collected between 2003 and 2008 from foals with diarrhea, the molecular epidemiology of group a equine rotaviruses circulating in japan was investigated by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) typing and sequence analysis of the vp4 (p type) and vp7 (g type) genes. a total of 1149 samples showed positive reactions with rt-pcr, of which 462 samples (40.2%) were positive for g3 type, 502 samples (43.7%) were positive for g14 type, and 185 ...201121565456
molecular epidemiology of norovirus gastroenteritis in children in jiangmen, china, 2005-2007.human noroviruses (novs) are an important cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis. their role in sporadic cases, however, is less clear. in this study, we performed a two-year surveillance (september 2005 to august 2007) of nov gastroenteritis in outpatient clinics in a southern city of china, jiangmen city. novs were detected in 115 patients (115/881, 13.1%) with 30 (26.1%) co-infections with rotaviruses. sequence analysis showed that all 115 novs belonged to genogroup ii, with gii.4 being the ...201121562879
[epidemiology of community-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis in fuenlabrada (madrid).]introduction: rotavirus is the main aetiological agent of severe acute gastroenteritis in childhood. material and methods: a prospective study on the incidence and cost of acute gastroenteritis in children under 5 years. results: rotavirus was the most frequent aetiological agent. the cumulative incidence of hospitalisation decreased over the study period. conclusions: rotavirus is the most common cause of acute community acquired gastroenteritis requiring hospital admission in the area of fuenl ...201121561688
characterization of in vivo anti-rotavirus activities of saponin extracts from quillaja saponaria molina.rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea disease in newborns and young children worldwide with approximately 300,000 pre-adolescent deaths each year. quillaja saponins are a natural aqueous extract obtained from the chilean soapbark tree. the extract is approved for use in humans by the fda for use in beverages as a food addictive. we have demonstrated that quillaja extracts have strong antiviral activities in vitro against six different viruses. in this study, we evaluated the in vivo ...201121549151
rotavirus infection: optimal treatment and prevention.which fluids should you avoid when treating patients' gastroenteritis? should nursing mothers continue to breastfeed? and what about the timing of the 2 vaccines and their administration with other vaccines? read on.201121544269
mxa rna quantification in febrile patients who underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation for primary immunodeficiency.the presence of myxovirus resistance protein a (mxa) rna was studied in 55 febrile children with primary immunodeficiency, 27 of whom underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation, and in 28 age-matched controls. the level of mxa rna was above the cutoff, established as the 95th percentile found in controls, with primary immunodeficiency either undergoing transplantation or not in febrile patients, and with a documented diagnosis of infection by adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, epstein-barr virus, re ...201121532489
oral immunization with live lactococcus lactis expressing rotavirus vp8* subunit induces specific immune response in mice.rotaviruses are the major cause of worldwide infectious diarrhea in children and vaccination is considered to be the most effective way to control these infections. the development of a mucosal live vaccine using the food-grade lactic acid bacteria lactococcus lactis as antigen vehicle is an attractive and safe vaccination strategy against rotavirus. in this study, the construction of recombinant l. lactis strains able to produce the rotavirus spike-protein subunit vp8* in cytoplasmic, secreted ...201121530589
rare rotavirus strains in children with severe diarrhea, the editor: we report the identification of g3p[9] rotavirus in children with acute diarrhea in malaysia. globally, rotavirus infections are the most common cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children admitted to hospital. it is estimated that 527,000 children <5 years of age die each year of rotavirus diarrhea (1). strains with a g3p[9] genotype represent a rare group of viruses, initially reported in japan in 1982. these viruses have been sporadically associated with diarrhea in ...201121529427
epidemiology of rotavirus and cholera in children aged less than five years in rural bangladesh.despite the known presence of rotavirus-associated diarrhoea in bangladesh, its prevalence, including records of hospitalization in rural health facilities, is largely unknown. in a systematic surveillance undertaken in two government-run rural health facilities, 457 children, aged less than five years, having acute watery diarrhoea, were studied between august 2005 and july 2007 to determine the prevalence of rotavirus. due to limited financial support, the surveillance of rotavirus was include ...201121528784
rotavirus surveillance --- worldwide, 2009.rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea worldwide among children aged <5 years. an estimated 527,000 children in this age group died from rotavirus in 2004, and approximately 85% of those deaths occurred in south asia and sub-saharan africa. in 2009, the world health organization (who) recommended inclusion of rotavirus vaccination in all national immunization programs. disease burden data generated from surveillance are important for making decisions regarding whether to introduce rot ...201121527889
decline in diarrhea mortality and admissions after routine childhood rotavirus immunization in brazil: a time-series 2006, brazil began routine immunization of infants <15 wk of age with a single-strain rotavirus vaccine. we evaluated whether the rotavirus vaccination program was associated with declines in childhood diarrhea deaths and hospital admissions by monitoring disease trends before and after vaccine introduction in all five regions of brazil with varying disease burden and distinct socioeconomic and health indicators.201121526228
rotavirus in children with diarrhea in tripoli, libya. 201121526041
clinical and molecular observations on two fatal cases of rotavirus-associated enteritis in italian children.two fatal cases of infantile rotavirus enteritis occurred in north italy during 2005. both children were severely dehydrated and death was related to severe cerebral oedema. histological examination demonstrated extensive damage of the intestinal epithelium, villous atrophy or blunting and macrophage infiltration. the two rotavirus strains possessed g1p[8] types and long electropherotype. the 2005 g1p[8] rotaviruses differed in the nsp4, vp3, vp4 and vp7 genes from g1p[8] rotaviruses circulating ...201121525221
epidemiology and burden of rotavirus disease in central asia.background: rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in children worldwide. new rotavirus vaccines are not currently used in the five countries that make up the central asian region. three of these countries, kazakhstan, uzbekistan, and kyrgyzstan, have a combined total population of 48 million and an estimated 1 million annual births. methods: we conducted prospective hospital-based surveillance for rotavirus diarrhea in three central asian countries (kazakhstan, u ...201121524932
effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in spain.with the aim of determining rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (rvve) in spain, from oct-2008/jun-2009, 467 consecutive children below 2 years old with acute gastroenteritis (age) were recruited using a pediatric research network ( that includes primary, emergency and hospital care settings. of 467 enrolled children, 32.3% were rotavirus positive and 35.0% had received at least one dose of any rotavirus vaccine. rrve to prevent any episode of rotavirus age was 91.5% (95% ci: ...201121521947
[intestinal invagination: change in its incidence from 1987 to 2008].some series have shown a decrease in the incidence of intestinal invaginations in last years. moreover, the recent introduction of new types of rotavirus vaccines increases the interest of invagination' s incidence. to this purpose, reliable local epidemiological data are needed. in order to ascertain the trend in the incidence of invaginations and their current value in our area we have performed a retrospective review of patients under 3 years of age with the diagnosis of intussusception and c ...201021520551
ifn-{lambda} determines the intestinal epithelial antiviral host defense.type i and type iii ifns bind to different cell-surface receptors but induce identical signal transduction pathways, leading to the expression of antiviral host effector molecules. despite the fact that type iii ifn (ifn-λ) has been shown to predominantly act on mucosal organs, in vivo infection studies have failed to attribute a specific, nonredundant function. instead, a predominant role of type i ifn was observed, which was explained by the ubiquitous expression of the type i ifn receptor. he ...201121518880
racecadotril for childhood gastroenteritis: an individual patient data meta-analysis.background: racecadotril is an antidiarrhoeal drug with intestinal antisecretory mechanism of action. aim: to assess racecadotril efficacy as an adjunct to oral rehydration solution, against oral rehydration solution alone or with placebo in childhood acute gastroenteritis. methods: individual patient data meta-analysis following multilevel mixed models testing the significance of the treatment effect adjusted for baseline covariates. results: nine randomised clinical trials (n=1384) were identi ...201121514257
[safe drinking water supply to the vologda region's population using risk assessment methodology].to supply the population with qualitative potable water is a priority problem in the provision of sanitary-and-epidemiologic well-being and in the prevention of disease in the vologda region. the monitoring of the results of laboratory control over the quality of drinking-water and the assessment of health risk enabled a package of measures to be proposed to optimize the conditions of drinking water supply in the vologda region. the risk assessment technology used by a state agency for sanitary- ...201121513060
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