PMID(sorted descending)
vaccines and future global health needs.increased international support for both research into new vaccines and their deployment in developing countries has been evident over the past decade. in particular, the gavi alliance has had a major impact in increasing uptake of the six common infant vaccines as well as those against hepatitis b and yellow fever. it further aims to introduce pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines in the near future and several others, including those against human papillomavirus, meningococcal disease, rubella a ...201121893548
Accelerating introduction of new vaccines: barriers to introduction and lessons learned from the recent Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine experience.Adoption of new vaccines in developing countries is critical to reducing child mortality and meeting Millennium Development Goal 4. However, such introduction has historically suffered from significant delays that can be attributed to various factors including (i) lack of recognition of the value of a vaccine, (ii) factors related to weak health systems, and (iii) policy considerations. Recently, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) supported efforts to accelerate the introdu ...201121893547
evaluation of vaccines against enteric infections: a clinical and public health research agenda for developing countries.enteric infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. to date, vaccines have played a limited role in public health efforts to control enteric infections. licensed vaccines exist for cholera and typhoid, but these vaccines are used primarily for travellers; and there are two internationally licensed vaccines for rotavirus, but they are mainly used in affluent countries. the reasons that enteric vaccines are little used in developing countries are multiple, and ...201121893543
VP8* antigen produced in tobacco transplastomic plants confers protection against bovine rotavirus infection in a suckling mouse model.Group A rotavirus is a major leading cause of diarrhea in mammalian species worldwide. In Argentina, bovine rotavirus (BRV) is the main cause of neonatal diarrhea in calves. VP4, one of the outermost capsid proteins, is involved in various virus functions. Rotavirus infectivity requires proteolytic cleavage of VP4, giving an N-terminal non-glycosilated sialic acid-recognizing domain (VP8*), and a C-terminal fragment (VP5*) that remains associated with the virion. VP8* subunit is the major determ ...201121893114
determination of bovine rotavirus g serotype by polymerase chain reaction.a total of 113 diarrheic samples comprising of 68 buffalo calves and 45 cow calves were screened by rna-page for the detection of presence of rotavirus. rna-page analysis of these samples revealed 11 (9.73%) was found positive for rotavirus. out of 68 faecal samples of buffalo calves tested for viral gastroenteritis, 8 (11.76%) were found positive for rotavirus. similarly, out of 45 faecal samples of cattle calves tested for viral gastroenteritis, 3 (6.66%) was found positive for rotavirus. rota ...201121892766
acute encephalopathy associated rotavirus gastroenteritis. 200921887204
Full genomic analyses of human rotavirus G4P[4], G4P[6], G9P[19] and G10P[6] strains from North-eastern India: evidence for interspecies transmission and complex reassortment events.In hospitalized patients with acute gastroenteritis in Manipur, India, four rotavirus strains were found to possess VP7 and/or VP4 genes with porcine or bovine characteristics. Considering the animal-like nature of these strains, the remaining eight gene segments were analysed to decipher their exact origin. Analyses of full genome of these strains exhibited their origin from porcine/bovine rotaviruses. This study suggests single or multiple events of reassortment involving multiple gene segment ...201121884295
national and state vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months--united states, 2010.the national immunization survey (nis) monitors vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months using a random-digit-dialed sample of telephone numbers of households to evaluate childhood immunization programs in the united states. this report describes the 2010 nis coverage estimates for children born during january 2007-july 2009. nationally, vaccination coverage increased in 2010 compared with 2009 for ≥ 1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (mmr), from 90.0% to 91.5%; ≥ 4 doses ...201121881546
effects of lactoferrin-containing formula in the prevention of enterovirus and rotavirus infection and impact on serum cytokine levels: a randomized trial.lactoferrin has been shown to exhibit anti-enterovirus 71 (ev71) and antirotavirus properties. this trial was conducted to determine whether a formula containing bovine lactoferrin (blf) exerts a protective effect against ev71 or rotavirus infection among children from 2 to 6 years old.201121880194
unexpected benefits of rotavirus vaccination in the united states. 201121878426
Infant rotavirus vaccination may provide indirect protection to older children and adults in the United States.Following the introduction of rotavirus vaccination in the United States, rotavirus and cause-unspecified gastroenteritis discharges significantly decreased in 2008 in the 0-4, 5-14, and 15-24-year age groups, with significant reductions observed in March, the historic peak rotavirus month, in all age groups. We estimate that 15% of the total 66 000 averted hospitalizations and 20% of the $204 million in averted direct medical costs attributable to the vaccination program were among unvaccinated ...201121878425
norovirus: an overview.although noroviruses (novs) were the first viral agents linked to gastrointestinal disease, for a long time they have been considered secondary cause of gastroenteritis, second to rotaviruses as etiologic agents. the development of molecular techniques in diagnosing nov provided a clearer insight into the epidemiological impact of these viruses, which are currently recognized not only as the leading cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks, but also as a major cause of sporadic gastroent ...201121876931
Silencing of the rotavirus NSP4 protein decreases the incidence of biliary atresia in murine model.Biliary atresia is a common disease in neonates which causes obstructive jaundice and progressive hepatic fibrosis. Our previous studies indicate that rotavirus infection is an initiator in the pathogenesis of experimental biliary atresia (BA) through the induction of increased nuclear factor-kappaB and abnormal activation of the osteopontin inflammation pathway. In the setting of rotavirus infection, rotavirus nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) serves as an important immunogen, viral protein 7 (VP7 ...201121876759
acute cerebellitis associated with rotavirus infection.background: rotavirus infection is occasionally associated with central nervous system involvement, including cerebellitis. however, the precise clinical sequelae of central nervous system disorders and the usefulness of neuroradiological examination for clinical therapies such as steroid pulse therapy have not been clarified. methods: we present a case of rotavirus cerebellitis examined by magnetic resonance imaging (mri), magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and single photon emission computed tom ...201121874616
Decreasing Rate of Biliary Atresia in Taiwan: A Survey, 2004-2009.Objectives: The pathogenesis of biliary atresia (BA) is unclear, but epidemiological studies may help to elucidate possible causes. The goals of this study were to identify BA incidence changes in Taiwan in 2004-2009 and to survey the factors that might influence incidence changes to elucidate the possible causes of BA. Methods: A Taiwan national registry system for BA has been established since 2004. By using data from the national registry system for BA, we identified BA incidence changes in 2 ...201121873702
Rotavirus Encephalitis With Basal Ganglia Involvement in an 8-Month-Old Infant. 201121868600
enteric viruses in new zealand drinking-water sources.this study determined whether human pathogenic viruses are present in two new zealand surface waters that are used as drinking-water sources. enteric viruses were concentrated using hollow-fibre ultrafiltration and detected using pcr for adenovirus (adv), and reverse transcription pcr for norovirus (nov) genogroups i-iii, enterovirus, rotavirus (rov) and hepatitis e virus (hev). target viruses were detected in 106/109 (97%) samples, with 67/109 (61%) samples positive for three or more viral type ...201121866776
[Detection and genotyping of rotavirus in diarrhea infant feces in Chengdu].To study the genotype of rotavirus and the genetic variations of the major neutralization antigen VP4 of group A rotavirus in fecal samples from infants with diarrhea in Chengdu, Sichuan province, China.201121866637
Healthy-days time equivalents for outcomes of acute rotavirus infections.Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. Health-state utility measures used in economic evaluations of rotavirus vaccines do not reflect differences between mild and severe symptoms of rotavirus gastroenteritis and, therefore, do not adequately capture preferences for non-fatal outcomes associated with rotavirus common in industrialized countries. This paper describes the development and results of a survey specifically designed to dev ...201121864612
structural organisation of the rotavirus nonstructural protein nsp5.rotavirus is one of the leading agents of gastroenteritis worldwide. during infection, viral factories (viroplasms) are formed. the rotavirus nonstructural proteins nsp5 and nsp2 are the major building blocks of viroplasms; however, nsp5 function and organisation remain elusive. in this report, we present a structural characterisation of nsp5. multi-angle laser light scattering, sedimentation velocity and equilibrium sedimentation experiments demonstrate that recombinant full-length nsp5 forms a ...201121864538
childhood diarrhea deaths after rotavirus vaccination in mexico. 201121864191
co-circulation of g1, g2 and g9 rotaviruses in hospitalized patients in bangladesh during 2006-2009.rotavirus strain diversity in bangladesh has been explored since 1985 and as seen in other parts of the world, rotaviruses have shown tremendous strain diversity overtime. rotavirus antigen was detected in stool specimens using a solid-phase sandwich-type enzyme immunoassay. a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) was performed for rotavirus g and p genotypes. this current study was carried out between 2006 and 2009 during which time 1,607 (23%) of 7,058 fecal specim ...201121860255
developing novel antisecretory drugs to treat infectious diarrhea.diarrhea, a disease of poverty and poor sanitation, kills an estimated two million children each year. oral rehydration therapy is a very simple and inexpensive treatment that has significantly reduced mortality from secretory diarrhea caused by rotavirus, cholera and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli. the efficacy and adoption of oral rehydration therapy would be enhanced by a drug that reduces fluid loss associated with these diseases and alleviates disease symptoms. secretion and absorption by ...201121859305
rotavirus shedding in premature infants following first immunization.there is limited data regarding rotavirus vaccine shedding in premature infants. we describe the natural history of rotavirus shedding in premature infants in the 2-week period following first immunization with rotateq(®), the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5), and the risk for symptomatic transmission to household contacts (hhc).201121856359
Norovirus VLPs and rotavirus VP6 protein as combined vaccine for childhood gastroenteritis.Noroviruses (NoVs) and rotaviruses (RVs) are the two most important viral causes of severe gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. Live oral RV vaccines are already part of routine childhood immunization in many countries, but may be associated with low risk of intussusception and other potential risks associated with live vaccines. NoV capsid-derived virus-like particles (VLPs) are in early phase clinical trials, but there is no vaccine available yet. We suggest that there is a need for no ...201121854823
monitoring impact and effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination.rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age globally. since 2009, the who has recommended inclusion of rotavirus vaccine in the national immunization programs of all countries. data regarding rotavirus vaccine impact and effectiveness under conditions of routine use are important for encouraging countries to implement vaccination programs. in the absence of a national rotavirus vaccination program in france, the ivanhoe study was initiated t ...201121854307
Study results show potential impact of rotavirus vaccine on hospitalization rates of children. 201121854305
Human infection with novel G3P[25] rotavirus strain in Taiwan.Genotype P[25] rotaviruses are rare and to date have been reported to occur only in a few countries of mainland Asia. Here we report the molecular characterization of a novel human rotavirus genotype combination, G3P[25], detected in a 17-month-old child hospitalized due to severe gastroenteritis during 2009 in central Taiwan. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the VP4 gene demonstrated a distinct origin from other strains bearing the P[25] VP4 gene, whereas the VP7, VP6 and NSP4 gene phylo ...201121851477
cross-linking of rotavirus outer capsid protein vp7 by antibodies or disulfides inhibits viral entry.antibodies that neutralize rotavirus infection target outer coat proteins vp4 and vp7 and inhibit viral entry. the structure of a vp7-fab complex (s. t. aoki, et al., science 324:1444-1447, 2009) led us to reclassify epitopes into two binding regions at inter- and intrasubunit boundaries of the calcium-dependent trimer. it further led us to show that antibodies binding at the intersubunit boundary inhibit uncoating of the virion outer layer. we have now tested representative antibodies for each ...201121849465
high prevalence of community-acquired norovirus gastroenteritis among hospitalized children: a prospective study.acute gastroenteritis (age) causes significant morbidity, especially in young children, and frequently requires hospitalization even in developed countries. surveillance studies of age are important to determine the prevalence and variety of bacterial and viral pathogens, to initiate targeted preventive measures, such as vaccine programmes, and to monitor its impact. a prospective study was conducted in children <5 years old, admitted with age between april 2006 and april 2007 to the virgen del ...201121848976
Rapid and sensitive detection of PRRSV by a reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.A real-time monitoring reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the sensitive and specific detection of prototypic, prevalent North American porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains. As a higher sensitivity and specificity method than reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the RT-LAMP method only used a turbidimeter, exhibited a detection limit corresponding to a 10(-4) dilution of template RNA ex ...201121847756
[infectious enteritis].infectious diarrhea belongs to the most frequent infections worldwide and can be elicited by a wide array of microbial pathogens. in developed countries transmission occurs much more frequently from contaminated food as compared to direct person-to-person contact, except for enteric viruses which can also be transmitted by aerosol formation after vomiting. in germany, more than 90% of cases are caused by the four pathogens norovirus, rotavirus, campylobacter and salmonella. therapy of infectious ...201121847579
characteristics of rotavirus gastroenteritis in hospitalized children in israel.diarrhea is a leading cause of child mortality worldwide. rotavirus is one of the most common causes of severe diarrhea and dehydration in children.201121845967
astrovirus infections in humans and animals - molecular biology, genetic diversity, and interspecies transmissions.astroviruses are small, non-enveloped, positive sense, single-stranded rna viruses first identified in 1975 in children suffering from diarrhea and then described in a wide variety of animals. to date, the list of animal species susceptible to astrovirus infection has expanded to 22 animal species or families, including domestic, synantropic and wild animals, avian, and mammalian species in the terrestrial and aquatic environments. astrovirus infections are considered among the most common cause ...201121843659
hospital-based study of the economic burden associated with rotavirus diarrhea in eastern china.rotavirus infection is one of the most common causes of severe diarrhea in china. to evaluate the economic burden associated with rotavirus infection of children in china, we combined data on the disease burden of rotavirus-associated costs for samples comprising 832 outpatients and 604 inpatients from five seaside cities. the average social costs and direct medical costs for rotavirus-associated admissions were calculated to be us $61.64 and us $40.73 for outpatients, and us $684.15 and us $559 ...201121843578
the occurrence of amino acid substitutions d96n and s242n in vp7 of emergent g2p[4] rotaviruses in nepal in 2004-2005: a global and evolutionary perspective.rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among children worldwide. strains with g2p[4] have captured recent attention because of its abrupt increase or re-emergence in many locations in the world. in nepal, g2p[4] strains were detected at a rate of 1% in 2003-2004, but increased to 33% in 2004-2005. thus, the vp7 genes of 45 emergent g2 strains from nepal were sequenced and analyzed together with a total of 339 g2vp7 sequences detected over the last 34-áyears that were compiled from the ...201121842161
identification of a novel biomarker candidate, a 4.8-kda peptide fragment from a neurosecretory protein vgf precursor, by proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from children with acute encephalopathy using seldi-tof-ms.abstract: background: acute encephalopathy includes rapid deterioration and has a poor prognosis. early intervention is essential to prevent progression of the disease and subsequent neurologic complications. however, in the acute period, true encephalopathy cannot easily be differentiated from febrile seizures, especially febrile seizures of the complex type. thus, an early diagnostic marker has been sought in order to enable early intervention. the purpose of this study was to identify a novel ...201121838886
clinical features and molecular epidemiology of rotavirus and norovirus infections in libyan children.rotaviruses and noroviruses are leading viral causes of diarrhoea in children. a cross-sectional study was undertaken among children aged <5 years with acute gastroenteritis at al-jala children's hospital, tripoli, libya, from october 2007 to september 2008. of 1,090 fecal samples collected, 260 from inpatients and 830 from outpatients, all inpatients and approximately a third of outpatients, selected systematically, were investigated for rotavirus and norovirus infection by elisa and real-time ...201121837804
investigations of porcine circovirus type 1 (pcv1) in vaccine-related and other cell lines.porcine circovirus type 1 (pcv1) is highly prevalent in swine and was recently reported in u.s. licensed rotavirus vaccines. since animal-derived raw materials, such as cells, trypsin, and serum, can be a major source of introducing virus contamination in biological products, we have investigated pcv1 in several cell lines obtained from atcc that have broad use in research, diagnostics, or vaccine development. it is expected that these cell lines have been exposed to bovine and porcine viruses d ...201121835219
evidence aid and the disaster response in pakistan and haiti.this editorial has also been recorded as a podcast; please click here to if a natural disaster was not enough, vibrio cholerae emerged to make the situation worse in post-flood pakistan, and for the first time since the 1960s in post-earthquake haiti . how do we, as researchers, policy-makers and human beings, respond to such situations? in response to the tsunami on 26 december 2004, concerned reviewers within the cochrane collaboration established evidence aid - an initiative that po ...201021833937
complications in hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus: a retrospective analysis.acute gastroenteritis (age) caused by rotavirus (rv) is a common disease among infants and toddlers, often leading to hospitalization and, in resource-poor countries, to death. however, little is known on specific complications of severe rv-positive (rv+) age and on the clinical course in chronically ill children. this was a retrospective analysis of data for children <5-áyears of age hospitalized due to age during six rotavirus seasons in three large german pediatric hospitals. the primary stud ...201121833497
genetic divergence and classification of nonstructural protein 1 among porcine rotaviruses of species b.porcine rotavirus b (rvb) has been often detected in diarrhea of suckling and weaned pigs. moreover, epidemiological studies using elisa demonstrated high antibody prevalence in sera from sows, indicating that rvb infections are widespread. because it is difficult to serially propagate rvbs in cell culture, genetic analysis of rna segments of porcine rvbs other than those encoding vp7 and nsp2 has been scarcely performed. we conducted sequence and phylogenetic analyses focusing on nonstructural ...201121832005
small intestinal segment perfusion test in piglets: future applications in studying probiotics-gut crosstalk in infectious diarrhoea?worldwide infectious diarrhoea, mainly caused by rotavirus and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec), accounts for a large part of deaths in children. etec is also the main cause of traveller's diarrhoea. probiotics are promising for prevention and treatment of diarrhoea, but there is insufficient evidence to support the use of any specific probiotic or probiotics in general. because of the sensitivity of suckling and weaned piglets for etec, piglets are a good model for infectious diarrhoea i ...201021831782
phylogenetic analysis of vp1, vp2, and vp3 gene segments of genotype g5 group a rotavirus strains circulating in brazil between 1986 and 2005.genotype g5 group a rotavirus (rv-a), which is common in pigs and also detected in horses and cattle, circulated as endemic genotype in the 1980s and early 1990s in brazil. after 1996, g5 rv-a has been replaced by g9 rv-a, becoming only sporadically detected. recently, g5 has been reported in children with severe diarrhea in argentina, cameroon, paraguay, people's republic of china, and vietnam, suggesting that, although uncommon in humans, it has a worldwide distribution. in a previous study, b ...201121827799
viruses exploiting peroxisomes.viruses that are of great importance for global public health, including hiv, influenza and rotavirus, appear to exploit a remarkable organelle, the peroxisome, during intracellular replication in human cells. peroxisomes are sites of lipid biosynthesis and catabolism, reactive oxygen metabolism, and other metabolic pathways. viral proteins are targeted to peroxisomes (the spike protein of rotavirus) or interact with peroxisomal proteins (hiv's nef and influenza's ns1) or use the peroxisomal mem ...201121824805
rotavirus in a wild english red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris) identified by electron microscopy. 201121821691
the incidence and direct medical cost of hospitalization due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in kyoto, japan, as estimated from a retrospective hospital study.anticipating imminent licensure of rotavirus vaccine for use in japan, we estimated the incidence of rotavirus hospitalization and calculated the direct medical cost associated with rotavirus hospitalization in a hospital that provided virtually exclusive pediatric beds to the local community adjacent to the northern outskirts of metropolitan kyoto, japan. for a 2 year period between september, 2008 and august, 2010, there were 103 hospitalizations due to acute gastroenteritis among children les ...201121821087
cost-effectiveness of universal rotavirus vaccination in reducing rotavirus gastroenteritis in ireland.we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of universal infant rotavirus (rv) vaccination compared to current standard of care of "no vaccination". two rv vaccines are currently licensed in ireland: rotarixôäó and rotateqôäó. a cohort model used in several european countries was adapted using irish epidemiological, resource utilisation and cost data. the base case model considers the impact of rotarix vaccination on health-related quality of life of children under five years old from a healthcare payer ...201121821085
3,3'-diindolylmethane induces immunotoxicity via splenocyte apoptosis in neonatal mice.3,3'-diindolylmethane (dim), a major product of indole-3-carbinol derived from vegetables of the genus brassica, exhibits chemotherapeutic activity and various immune modulatory effects in animal models and in vitro studies. although extensive studies have only focused on dim's beneficial effects, the toxic effects of dim on the immune systems have not been clearly elucidated. the aim of this study was to explore the immunotoxic effects of dim in a neonatal mouse and to further evaluate whether ...201121820497
rotavirus vaccination in germany: analysis of nationwide surveillance data 2006 to 2010.background:: efficacy of rotavirus (rv) vaccination is difficult to assess outside of controlled clinical trials. in countries with low-to-moderate rv vaccination coverage, annual variation in rv outbreak might have a stronger influence on morbidity than rv vaccination. methods:: we analyzed german rv surveillance data from 2006 to 2010 in the 16 federal states of germany. to overcome the bias of annual variation of rv infections, we analyzed the effects of rv vaccination in germany by comparing ...201121817956
hospital-based surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the era of limited vaccine uptake through the private investigate possible impact of limited vaccine uptake by the private sector since 2007, a prospective observational study included all children <5 years hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis (age) in a tertiary care hospital between 09/2006 and 08/2010. rotavirus (rv) antigen was detected in stools by a rapid immunochromatographic test and genotype analysis was performed on positive samples by rt-pcr. compared to 2006-2008, the likelihood of rotavirus infection was significantly reduced amon ...201121816195
one-step rt-qpcr with an internal control system for the detection of turkey rotaviruses in faecal samples.turkey rotaviruses are one of the major pathogens responsible for the poult enteritis syndrome (pes). in this study a one step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-qpcr) assay targeting the rotaviral non-structural protein 4 (nsp4) was developed. the nsp4 is a highly conserved gene inside the turkey rotavirus genome and contains an internal control system to monitor any potential rt-qpcr inhibitors. the detection limit of the optimized nsp4-rt-qpcr assay ranged from 8.15 ...201121816176
modification of the trypsin cleavage site of rotavirus vp4 to a furin-sensitive form does not enhance replication efficiency.the infectivity of rotavirus (rv) is dependent on an activation process triggered by the proteolytic cleavage of its spike protein vp4. this activation cleavage is performed by exogenous trypsin in the lumen of the intestines in vivo. here, we report the generation and characterization of a recombinant rv expressing cdna-derived vp4 with a modified cleavage site (arginine at position 247) recognized by endogenous furin as well as exogenous trypsin. unexpectedly, the mutant virus (ku//rvp4-r247fu ...201121813706
monovalent rotavirus vaccine provides protection against an emerging fully heterotypic g9p[4] rotavirus strain in mexico.after the introduction of monovalent rotavirus vaccine (rv1) in mexico in 2006-2007, diarrhea mortality and morbidity declined substantially among mexican children under 5 years of age. in january 2010, surveillance identified the emergence of a novel g9p[4] rotavirus strain nationwide. we conducted a case-control study to assess the field effectiveness of rv1 against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by this unusual strain and to determine whether the g9p[4] emergence was related to vacci ...201121810915
[impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization or presenting to emergency room among children less than 5years in france.]background: in france, rotavirus infections are responsible for approximately 300,000 cases of acute gastroenteritis (age) in children less than 5 years every year, 138,000 outpatient consultations and 18,000 hospitalizations. surveillance for rotavirus infections in hospitalized kids (shrik) is a european prospective observational study conducted to assess the burden related to rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) in these children. methods: patients less than 5 years visiting emergency rooms for a ...201121807470
economic evaluations of rotavirus immunization for developing countries: a review of the literature.diarrhea is a leading cause of mortality for children under 5 years of age, and rotavirus is identified as the main cause of severe diarrhea worldwide. since 2006, two rotavirus vaccines, rotarix and rotateq, have been available in the market. these vaccines have proved to have high efficacy in developed countries. clinical trials are being undertaken in asia and africa, and early clinical results found that the vaccine significantly reduces severe diarrhea episodes due to rotavirus (48.3% for a ...201121806398
sequence analysis of vp4 genes of wild type and culture adapted human rotavirus g1p[8] conduct a comparative analysis of the vp4 gene sequences of indian wild type (06361, 0613158, 061060 and 0715880) and cell culture adapted (06361-ca, 0613158-ca, 061060-ca and 0715880-ca) g1p[8] rotavirus strains.201121803305
porcine rotavirus closely related to novel group of human rotaviruses.we determined nucleotide sequences and inferred amino acid sequences of viral protein (vp) 4, vp6, vp7, and nonstructural protein 4 genes of a porcine rotavirus strain (ska-1) from japan. the strain was closely related to a novel group of human rotavirus strains (b219 and j19).201121801631
incidence of acute gastroenteritis and role of norovirus, georgia, usa, 2004-2005.approximately 179 million cases of acute gastroenteritis (age) occur annually in the united states. however, lack of routine clinical testing for viruses limits understanding of their role among persons seeking medical care. fecal specimens submitted for routine bacterial culture through a health maintenance organization in georgia, usa, were tested with molecular diagnostic assays for norovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, and adenovirus. incidence was estimated by using national health c ...201121801613
control and prevention of viral gastroenteritis.diarrheal illness remains 1 of the top 5 causes of death in low-income and middle-income countries, especially for children <5 years of age. introduction of universal childhood vaccination against rotaviruses has greatly reduced the incidence and severity of illness in upper-income and lower-income settings. for adults, norovirus is the leading cause of sporadic cases and outbreaks of diarrheal illness and is responsible for nearly 21 million episodes annually in the united states, of which 5.5 ...201121801608
rotavirus vaccine and intussusception:report from an expert consultation. 201121800466
detection of a porcine rotavirus strain with vp4, vp7 and nsp4 genes of different animal origins.a new rotavirus strain, sh0902, was detected in diarrheic piglets on a farm in shanghai, china, and its genotype was characterized as g1p[7]. analysis of the vp4, vp7 and nsp4 genes demonstrated vp4 homology to bovine and swine rotavirus strains; the nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) identities were 99.7% and 99.5%, respectively. the vp7 gene was highly homologous to that of a giant panda rotavirus strain, with 98.5% similarity at the nt level and 99% similarity at the aa level. the nucleotide ...201121796401
sequence analysis of human rotavirus strains: comparison of clinical isolates from northern and southern italy.the surveillance and monitoring of rotavirus (rv)-related diseases, preferably through the establishment of sentinel surveillance sites, are essential for assessing the need for vaccination and the projected results of the vaccine in terms of reducing the burden of disease. the objective of the present study was to compare rv strains isolated in northern (ferrara) and southern (galatina-le) italy. during 2007-2008, 115 rv-positive stool samples were collected from children with diarrhea admitted ...201121796344
protective effect of natural rotavirus infection in an indian birth cohort.more than 500,000 deaths are attributed to rotavirus gastroenteritis annually worldwide, with the highest mortality in india. two successive, naturally occurring rotavirus infections have been shown to confer complete protection against moderate or severe gastroenteritis during subsequent infections in a birth cohort in mexico. we studied the protective effect of rotavirus infection on subsequent infection and disease in a birth cohort in india (where the efficacy of oral vaccines in general has ...201121793745
gastroenteritis in children.acute gastroenteritis results from infection of the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly with a virus. it is characterised by rapid onset of diarrhoea with or without vomiting, nausea, fever, and abdominal pain. diarrhoea is defined as the frequent passage of unformed, liquid stools. regardless of the cause, the mainstay of management of acute gastroenteritis is provision of adequate fluids to prevent and treat dehydration. methods and outcomes: we conducted a systematic review and aimed to ans ...201121791124
[molecular and epidemiological study on viral diarrhea among infants in lanzhou].to study the epidemiologic characteristics of viral diarrhea in children under 5 years old in lanzhou, understand the four major virus in children of distribution.201121789851
[advances and challenges in immunoprophylaxis].a significant progress in the management of controllable infections achieved by the early xxi century made it possible eliminate poliomyelitis across the nation, and practically eliminate measeles by vaccinating 96-99% of the children without raising the complication rate. the list of counterindications was shortened significantly, the calendar of immunoprophylaxis was supplemented by inoculations against hepatitis b, rubella, flu, and type b haemophilis influenzae infections. morbidity of contr ...201121789797
cost-effectiveness analysis of a universal rotavirus immunization program in anticipation of the imminent licensure of rotavirus vaccine, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in japan by taking into account the considerable variations in the incidence of rotavirus-associated hospitalizations previously reported in the literature. we assumed that the variation was due to local differences in healthcare utilization practices rather than a true difference in the incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. thus, a markov model was constructed such t ...201121788701
rotavirus stimulates release of serotonin (5-ht) from human enterochromaffin cells and activates brain structures involved in nausea and vomiting.rotavirus (rv) is the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children. a virus-encoded enterotoxin, nsp4 is proposed to play a major role in causing rv diarrhoea but how rv can induce emesis, a hallmark of the illness, remains unresolved. in this study we have addressed the hypothesis that rv-induced secretion of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-ht) by enterochromaffin (ec) cells plays a key role in the emetic reflex during rv infection resulting in activation of vagal afferent nerves c ...201121779163
viruses in diarrhetic dogs include novel kobuviruses and sapoviruses.the close interactions of dogs with humans and surrounding wild life provide frequent opportunities for cross-species virus transmissions. in order to initiate an unbiased characterization of the eukaryotic viruses in the gut of dogs we used deep sequencing of partially purified viral-capsid protected nucleic acids from the feces of eighteen diarrhetic dogs. we identified known canine parvoviruses, coronaviruses, and rotaviruses, and characterized the genomes of the first reported canine kobuvir ...201121775584
evaluation and verification of the seeplex(r) diarrhea-v ace assay for the simultaneous detection of adenovirus, rotavirus and norovirus genogroups i and ii in clinical stool specimens.acute viral gastroenteritis is an intestinal infection that can be caused by several different viruses. here we describe the evaluation and verification of seeplex® diarrhea-v ace (seeplex® dv), a novel commercial multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay that detects 5 diarrheal pathogens including adenovirus, rotavirus, norovirus genogroup i (gi) and gii and astrovirus. we describe a retrospective study of 200 clinical specimens of which 177 were stool specimens ...201121775550
genetic heterogeneity of wild-type g4p[6] porcine rotavirus strains detected in a diarrhea outbreak in a regularly vaccinated pig a rotavirus (rv-a) with short electropherotype was identified by ss-page in a neonatal diarrhea outbreak at a brazilian pig farm where the sows were regularly vaccinated with a commercial vaccine containing osu (g5p[7]) and gottfried (g4p[6]) porcine rv-a (porv-a) strains. the ss-page positive stool samples (n=20) were characterized as p[6] genotype by multiplex-nested-rt-pcr assay. the nucleotide analysis of the vp4 gene (vp8*) state that the viruses clustered in p[6] lineages that are al ...201121775076
rotavirus infection activates the upr but modulates its activity.abstract:201121774819
case-control study of the effectiveness of vaccination with pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in nicaragua.background:: in 2006, merck & co., inc., partnered with the nicaraguan ministry of health to demonstrate the public health impact of routine universal vaccination by delivering more than 1.3 million doses of the oral, pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) in a 3-year period. methods:: a matched case-control study evaluated the effectiveness of rv5 in reducing the risk for severe wild-type rotavirus gastroenteritis (rge) resulting in hospitalizations and emergency department visits among children w ...201121768920
effectiveness of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against severe disease.objective: to determine the vaccine effectiveness (ve) of complete and partial vaccination with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) in the prevention of rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (age) hospitalizations and emergency department visits during the first 3 rotavirus seasons after vaccine introduction. methods: active, prospective population-based surveillance for age and acute respiratory infection (aris) in inpatient and emergency department settings provided subjects for a case-control e ...201121768317
burden of rotavirus and other enteropathogens among children with diarrhea in burkina faso.objective: there is limited information available regarding the etiology of gastrointestinal infections in burkina faso. the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and epidemiology of enteric pathogens causing gastroenteritis in young children, with a focus on rotavirus, and to investigate the levels of malnutrition and other clinical factors in association with the severity of diarrhea. methods: a prospective study was undertaken from may 2009 to march 2010, covering the rainy and ...201121763172
antiviral activity of substituted salicylanilides - a review.chemotherapy of viral infections is still challenging. salicylanilides demonstrated a wide range of biological activities including antiviral potency and the review summarizes this field. niclosamide was described to be able to affect coronaviruses, some salicylanilides and salicylamides could inhibit hiv virus by targeting of hiv-1 integrase or reverse transcriptase. hepatitis c virus is another virus, which could be potentially afflicted by salicylanilides on the level of two enzymes - ns3 pro ...201121762100
incidence assessment of rotavirus and adenovirus associated acute gastroenteritis cases in early childhood.this study was undertaken to give an insight into the incidence of acute gastroenteritis cases of rotaviral/adenoviral aetiology in patients presenting to the emergency room of an inner-city government teaching hospital. group a rotavirus and adenovirus serotype 40-41 antigen results were obtained via immunochromatography. in 2007, there were 1543 patients with gastroenteritis between 0-5 years of age whose stool samples were tested for rota and adenovirus, of whom 386 (25%) had positive stool s ...201121753251
genotypes of rotavirus associated with acute gastroenteritis in seoul, korea.acute viral gastroenteritis is one of the most common infectious diseases in infants and young children. rotavirus is mainly important in childhood. the present study determined the detection rate, seasonality and g and p genotypes of rotaviruses in children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis in seoul, korea in 2009. a total of 1,423 stool specimens were screened by elisa for the presence of rotavirus antigens and the rotavirus-positive stools genotyped by rt-pcr. the g genotype was determin ...201121752085
update on childhood and adolescent immunizations: selected review of us recommendations and literature: part provide a clinically relevant synopsis of research findings regarding childhood and adolescent vaccines.201121750429
impact of rotavirus vaccination on diarrhoea mortality and hospital admissions in brazil.objective to analyse the data reported by the national surveillance system of brazil, including data on diarrhoea mortality and hospital admissions before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction, and evaluate the impact of its widespread use under operational conditions. method retrospective analysis of routinely collected data was reported by several surveillance systems of brazil, comprising an 8-year period of all diarrhoea-related hospitalisations and deaths in children <5 years old (2002 ...201121749584
epidemiology and prevention of rotavirus infection: an underestimated issue? 201121749188
osteopontin upregulation in rotavirus-induced murine biliary atresia requires replicating virus but is not necessary for development of biliary atresia.biliary atresia (ba) is a progressive fibro-inflammatory pediatric liver disease in which osteopontin (opn), a glycoprotein with inflammatory and fibrogenic activity, may play a pathogenic role. the current studies were conducted in a mouse model of rotavirus-induced ba to test the hypotheses that live but not inactivated rotavirus causes antigenemia, upregulation of hepatic opn expression, and induction of ba and fibrosis; and that opn is necessary for development of ba. prolonged or transient ...201121742364
Productive infection of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by porcine circovirus type 1.Porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1), a small DNA virus in pigs, recently gained its notoriety when commercial human rotavirus vaccines were discovered to be contaminated by infectious PCV1. Here we report, for the first time, definitive evidence of productive PCV1 infection in a subclone of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Huh-7, subclone 10-3). Infectious virus was detected in the lysates of infected Huh-7 cells by immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and can be serially passaged in Huh-7-S10-3 ...201121742002
comparative review of three cost-effectiveness models for rotavirus vaccines in national immunization programs; a generic approach applied to various regions in the world.abstract:201121740545
randomized, open-label, multicentre pharmacokinetic studies of two dose levels of pantoprazole granules in infants and children aged 1 month through <6 years with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.the primary objective of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetic profile of pantoprazole delayed-release granules in infants and children aged 1 month to <6 years with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (gord). the studies described in this manuscript were conducted to fulfil the requirements of the paediatric written request for pantoprazole by the us fda.201121740077
molecular characterization of rotavirus strains from children with diarrhea in italy, 2007-2009.the surveillance network rotanet-italia was established in 2007 in order to investigate the diversity of co-circulating rotavirus strains in italy, and to provide a baseline for future assessment of possible effects of vaccine implementation in selecting novel versus common rotavirus strains. a total of 2,645 rotavirus strains from pediatric patients with acute diarrhea were collected over three consecutive seasons from september 2006 through august 2009, and partially characterized by standardi ...201121739459
development and clinical validation of multiplex taqman-« assays for rapid diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis.there is a need to provide rapid, sensitive, and often high throughput detection of pathogens in diagnostic virology. viral gastroenteritis is a serious health issue often leading to hospitalization in the young, the immunocompromised and the elderly. the common causes of viral gastroenteritis include rotavirus, norovirus (genogroups i and ii), astrovirus, and group f adenoviruses (serotypes 40 and 41). this article describes the work-up of two internally controlled multiplex, probe-based pcr as ...201121739458
case report: detection of rotavirus rna in the cerebrospinal fluid of a child with rotavirus gastroenteritis and meningism.although case reports have described detection of rotavirus (rv) in extraintestinal sites such as the liver, kidney, and central nervous system (cns) of children with rv gastroenteritis, cns localization in rv infection seems to be rare. rt-pcr and nucleotide sequencing detected a g1p[8] strain in the stool and cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples of a patient with concurrent rv-associated enteritis and cns signs. upon sequence analysis, the viruses detected in the csf was identical to the virus de ...201121739456
monitoring of group c rotavirus in children with acute gastroenteritis in brazil: an emergent epidemiological issue after rotavirus vaccine?group c rotavirus (gpcrv) has a worldwide distribution; however, its epidemiology and ecology are still unclear. evidence for a possible zoonotic role has been postulated recently for brazilian children strains. the aim of this study was to monitor gpcrv in children ôëñ15 years with acute gastroenteritis during the 2007-2010 national brazilian rotavirus surveillance, and to undertake the molecular characterization of the major vp6 capsid protein. a total of 3,019 fecal samples were first screene ...201121739455
molecular characterization of fecal microbiota in patients with viral diarrhea.the study provides molecular analyses of fecal microbiota of diarrhea patients infected with four different types of viruses. fecal specimens from 52 patients with viral diarrhea (13 each of adenovirus, norovirus, rotavirus, and astrovirus) and six healthy individuals were collected and etiological viral agent was confirmed by enzyme immunoassay and specific pcr. to assess the changes in microbial diversity in patients with viral diarrhea, dna from stool were extracted and characterized by pcr-d ...201121739252
monitoring the circulation of rotavirus among children after the introduction of the rotarixôäó vaccine in goi+ónia, brazil.the epidemiological features of rotavirus a (rva) infection differ between children from developing and developed countries which could result in differences in vaccine efficacy around the world. to evaluate the impact of rotarixôäó on rva prevalence, we monitored rva genotypes circulating in goi+ónia by monitoring virus in faecal samples from children that had or had not been previously vaccinated. from february-november of 2008, 220 faecal samples were collected from children in seven day-care ...201121739040
enteric vaccines for resource-limited countries: current status and future prospects. 201121736257
Treatment of Acute Diarrhea With Saccharomyces Boulardii in Infants: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial.OBJECTIVES:: To determine if an oral treatment with a commercial pharmaceutical product containing Saccharomyces boulardii would reduce the duration of diarrhea in infants with acute diarrhea. MATERIAL AND METHODS:: In this double-bind, placebo controlled study, 186 infants, 6 to 48 months old and hospitalized within 72ÔÇèhours after the onset of acute diarrhea in two hospitals in Goi+ónia, Goi+ís, Brazil, were randomly assigned to receive twice a day during five days 200ÔÇèmg of a commercial ph ...201121734600
interactions of diarrhea, pneumonia, and malnutrition in childhood: recent evidence from developing countries.this review highlights recent progress toward understanding complex interactions between diarrhea, pneumonia, and undernutrition among children in low-income and middle-income countries.201121734569
summary of effectiveness and impact of rotavirus vaccination with the oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine: a systematic review of the experience in industrialized countries.the pentavalent rotavirus (rv) vaccine rotateqôäó has been available in industrialized countries since 2006. several studies have been conducted to evaluate the benefit of rv vaccination under routine conditions of use. a systematic review of all publicly available data from rotateqôäó vaccine-effectiveness and vaccination-impact studies in the usa, europe and australia between 2006 and february 2010 was undertaken. depending on the population studied, effectiveness of up to 100% (95% confidence ...201121734466
rotavirus-induced ifn-{beta} promotes anti-viral signaling and apoptosis that modulate viral replication in intestinal epithelial cells.rotavirus (rv), a leading cause of diarrhea, primarily infects intestinal epithelial cells (iec). rotavirus-infected iec produce ifn-+¦ and express hundreds of ifn-dependent genes. we thus hypothesized that type 1 ifn plays a key role in helping iec limit rv replication and/or protect against cell death. to test this hypothesis, we examined iec (ht29 cells) infected with rv (moi 1) -¦ neutralizing antibodies to ifn-+¦/+¦ via microscopy and sds-page immunoblotting. we hypothesized that neutraliza ...201121733977
norovirus infections in children under 5 years of age hospitalized due to the acute viral gastroenteritis in northeastern poland.the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and seasonality of norovirus infection in hospitalized polish children under 5 years of age, and a secondary aim was to compare the clinical severity of norovirus and rotavirus disease. the prospective surveillance study was carried out from july 2009 through june 2010. stool samples from 242 children hospitalized due to acute viral gastroenteritis were tested for rotavirus group a and adenovirus with commercial immunochromatographic te ...201121732202
gastroenteritis in children.acute gastroenteritis results from infection of the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly with a virus. it is characterised by rapid onset of diarrhoea with or without vomiting, nausea, fever, and abdominal pain. diarrhoea is defined as the frequent passage of unformed, liquid stools. regardless of the cause, the mainstay of management of acute gastroenteritis is provision of adequate fluids to prevent and treat dehydration. methods and outcomes: we conducted a systematic review and aimed to ans ...200921726481
etiology of acute gastroenteritis in children requiring hospitalization in the netherlands.infectious gastroenteritis causes a considerable burden of disease worldwide. costs due to gastroenteritis are dominated by the hospitalized cases. effective control of gastroenteritis should be targeted at the diseases with the highest burden and costs. for that, an accurate understanding of the relative importance of the different bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens is needed. the objective of the present study was to determine the incidence and etiology of gastroenteritis requiring hosp ...201121725865
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