PMID(sorted descending)
immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable haemophilus influenzae protein d conjugate vaccine (phid-cv) in mexican infants.the immunogenicity and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, phid-cv, have been documented in european and asian studies. in this open study conducted in mexico (nct00489554), 230 healthy infants received three doses of phid-cv and dtpa-hbv-ipv/hib vaccines at 2, 4 and 6 months of age and two doses of oral human rotavirus vaccine at 2 and 4 months. serotype-specific pneumococcal responses and opsonophagocytic activity (opa) were measured one month post-dose 3. phid-cv's primary ...201122048109
[Clinical epidemiological study of acute gastro-enteritis outbreak recorded in a children community, in Iasi, during May, 2009].Acute diarrheal disease affect all demographic structures and it is considered a major cause of morbidity and mortality for young age groups; underreporting is due to clinical and epidemiological diversity, everywhere, including the developed countries.201122046808
[contribution of mathematical modeling to vaccination decision making. examples from varicella, rotavirus and papillomavirus vaccinations].the decision to add a new vaccine to the immunization schedule is a complex and multidisciplinary process based on the risk-benefit balance and, increasingly, on the cost- effectiveness ratio. such decisions now use mathematical models that can predict the indirect, and potentially detrimental, effects of mass vaccination on the epidemiology of the target disease. the adjunction of an economic component to the modeling process ensures that vaccination represents an efficient allocation of availa ...201022046716
[rotavirus vaccination in europe in 2010].the important burden of rotavirus infections in infants largely justifies vaccine prevention. two attenuated oral vaccines were licensed in europe in 2006 and have proven effective against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants, yet few countries have implemented vaccination. this hesitation may be related to a very low risk of intussusception in vaccinees, but is mainly due to national differences in cost-effectiveness.201022046709
[viral gastroenteritis in domestic animals and zoonoses].etiologic investigations of infectious diarrhea were long limited to bacteria and protozoa. the advent of electron microscopy and molecular biology showed that diarrhea could also be caused by viruses, both in humans and in other animals. in 1969, electron microcopy was used to show, for the first time, the responsibility of a virus in a case of calf diarrhea. this "reo-like virus "was subsequently identified as a rotavirus, and was shown only four years later to be responsible for severe diarrh ...201022046708
[gastroenteritis viruses in france and europe].rotaviruses and noroviruses are the main causes of acute gastroenteritis in young children and adults, respectively. prospective molecular surveillance of rotavirus genotypes in france and europe shows that circulating strains may vary with the season, locality or country. rotavirus ok? genotypes g1 and g9 are the most prevalent. most strains are associated with p[8], showing a certain genotypic stability of rotaviruses currently circulating in europe and suggesting that vaccination would be eff ...201022046707
[epidemiology of viral gastroenteritis in france and europe].continuous surveillance of acute diarrhea in france has been conducted by inserm's sentinel network of general practitioners (gp) since 1991. similar gp-based studies have been performed in the netherlands, austria and the uk. the causes of most cases of acute diarrhea are unclear. in case-controlstudies designed to identify viruses in stools, 35 to 40% of cases and virtually none of the controls were positive for one of 4 major viruses (rotavirus, calicivirus, astrovirus and adenovirus). thus, ...201022046706
canine viral enteritis: prevalence of parvo-, corona- and rotavirus infections in dogs in the netherlands.summary after a brief review of the present knowledge about canine viral enteritis, the role played by parvoviral, coronaviral and rotaviral infections in contagious diarrhoea in dogs in the netherlands is discussed. for this purpose a serologic survey, pathologic findings in dogs, and the demonstration of parvoviral antigen with an immunofluorescence test and with a newly developed haemadsorption-elution-haemagglutination assay (heha) are presented. it is concluded that infections with ca ...198022039978
socio-economic modelling of rotavirus vaccination in castilla y leon, spain.rotavirus is one of the main causes of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. furthermore, rotavirus is the leading cause of hospitalization and death from acute gastroenteritis among infants and young children worldwide. although death due to rotavirus is rare in industrialized regions such as spain, the rotavirus disease burden and its economic impact is severe. this study aims to assess systematic vaccination against rotavirus economically and socially in a spanish region. econo ...201122037437
[treatment perspectives.]celiac disease (cd) is a chronic inflammatory enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten. a safe and efficient but unpleasant treatment exists for cd in form of a strict gluten-free diet. thus, there is a need for new treatment strategies, which are based on the improved and advanced understanding of the pathophysiology of cd. the first strategy consists in reducing or even eliminating major antigenic motifs in gluten, responsible for the inflammatory reaction. the use of less immunogenic whe ...201122037405
the rotavirus enterotoxin (nsp4) promotes re-modeling of the intracellular microtubule network.expression of the rotavirus enterotoxin (nsp4) in transfected monkey kidney cells was found to result in a dramatic re-modeling of the microtubule (mt) network. this important centrosome organized cytoskeletal element was dissolved by expression of nsp4 and re-formed in a ring array at the periphery of the cell, similar to that seen following normal virus infection. site directed mutagenesis of the n-linked glycosylation sites in nsp4 was employed to show that glycosylation of nsp4 was not requi ...201122036730
notes from the field: outbreaks of rotavirus gastroenteritis among elderly adults in two retirement communities--illinois, february 2011, three residents of a retirement community in illinois were hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis. the admitting physicians ordered testing of stool specimens for several pathogens, including rotavirus. the hospital laboratory detected rotavirus antigen in specimens from each patient, and the hospital infection control practitioner reported that information to the cook county department of public health. two additional residents were hospitalized for rotavirus gastroenteritis s ...201122031219
updating prevaccination rotavirus-associated mortality. 201122030331
2008 estimate of worldwide rotavirus-associated mortality in children younger than 5 years before the introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination programmes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.background: who recommends routine use of rotavirus vaccines in all countries, particularly in those with high mortality attributable to diarrhoeal diseases. to establish the burden of life-threatening rotavirus disease before the introduction of a rotavirus vaccine, we aimed to update the estimated number of deaths worldwide in children younger than 5 years due to diarrhoea attributable to rotavirus infection. methods: we used pubmed to identify studies of at least 100 children younger than 5 y ...201122030330
current immunization policies for pneumococcal, meningococcal c, varicella and rotavirus vaccinations in italian regions can implement different policies for immunizations that are not already recommended "across the board" in the country, the present study aimed to describe regional recommendations and strategies concerning pneumococcal, meningococcal c, varicella and rotavirus vaccines.201122030308
a frequentist approach to estimating the force of infection for a respiratory disease using repeated measurement data from a birth cohort.this article aims to develop a probability-based model involving the use of direct likelihood formulation and generalised linear modelling (glm) approaches useful in estimating important disease parameters from longitudinal or repeated measurement data. the current application is based on infection with respiratory syncytial virus. the force of infection and the recovery rate or per capita loss of infection are the parameters of interest. however, because of the limitation arising from the study ...201122028340
clinical and molecular epidemiology of norovirus infection in childhood diarrhea in china.a prospective investigation was carried out among pediatric outpatients and inpatients with acute non-dysenteric diarrhea between august, 2008 and july, 2009 in shanghai, hangzhou, chongqing, and tianjin, china. one step real-time rt-pcr was used for detection of norovirus (nov) genogroups i and ii (gi, gii). the nov genotypes were classified based on partial capsid sequences. rotavirus (rv) was detected in parallel. among 4,123 fecal samples from outpatients, 1,067 (25.9%) were nov-positive, of ...201222028199
putative canine origin of rotavirus strain detected in a child with diarrhea, taiwan.abstract rotavirus g3p[3] strains have been reported from a variety of species including humans, cats, dogs, monkeys, goats, and cows. here, we report the characterization of the first human g3p[3] rotavirus from east asia identified in a 2-year-old child who was treated in a hospital's emergency ward in taiwan in february 2005. sequence and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close genetic relationship between the vp4, vp6, vp7, and nsp4 genes of taiwanese g3p[3] strain 04-94s51 and an itali ...201122022813
whole genome analysis of multiple rotavirus strains from a single stool specimen using sequence-independent amplification and 454® pyrosequencing reveals evidence of intergenotype genome segment recombination.infection of a single host cell with two or more different rotavirus strains creates conditions favourable for evolutionary mechanisms like reassortment and recombination that can generate novel strains. despite numerous reports describing mixed rotavirus infections, whole genome characterisation of rotavirus strains in a mixed infection case has not been reported. double-stranded rna, exhibiting a long electropherotype pattern only, was extracted from a single human stool specimen (rva/human-wt ...201122019521
[Current events in vaccination].The annual meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) ; which brought together nearly 5000 participants from over 80 countries in Vancouver, Canada, October 21 to 24, 2010 ; provided a review of the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, evaluated vaccination programmes and presented new vaccines under development. With 12,500 deaths in the United States in 2009-2010, the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic was actually less deadly than the seasonal flu. But it essentially hit the young, an ...201122019286
group a rotavirus detection on environmental surfaces in a hospital intensive care unit.background: environmental surfaces can play a role in the spread of pathogens, such as enteric viruses, within a hospital. this study assessed the level of contamination of group a rotavirus (rv-a) on environmental surfaces samples from an adult intensive care unit in a hospital in rio de janeiro, brazil. methods: a total of 504 environmental surface samples were obtained from multiple sites in the intensive care unit, including flushing buttons, telephones, and alcohol gel supports. nested and ...201122018841
role of temperature and suwannee river natural organic matter on inactivation kinetics of rotavirus and bacteriophage ms2 by solar irradiation.although the sunlight-mediated inactivation of viruses has been recognized as an important process that controls surface water quality, the mechanisms of virus inactivation by sunlight are not yet clearly understood. we investigated the synergistic role of temperature and suwannee river natural organic matter (srnom), an exogenous sensitizer, for sunlight-mediated inactivation of porcine rotavirus and ms2 bacteriophage. upon irradiation by a full spectrum of simulated sunlight in the absence of ...201122017181
high prevalence of turkey parvovirus in turkey flocks from hungary experiencing enteric disease syndromes.samples collected in 2008 and 2009, from 49 turkey flocks of 6 to 43 days in age and presenting clinical signs of enteric disease and high mortality, were tested by polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the presence of viruses currently associated with enteric disease (ed) syndromes: astrovirus, reovirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, and parvovirus. turkey astroviruses were found in 83.67% of the cases and turkey astrovirus 2 (tast-2) in 26.53%. ...201122017049
Low prevalence of rotavirus and high prevalence of norovirus in hospital and community wastewater after introduction of rotavirus vaccine in nicaragua.Rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) are major causes of pediatric diarrhea and are altogether associated with approximately 800,000 deaths in young children every year. In Nicaragua, national RV vaccination program using the pentavalent RV5 vaccine from Merck was implemented in October 2006. To determine whether RV vaccination decreased the overall number of RV infections, we investigated the occurrence of RV and NoV in wastewater in the city of León from July 2007 to July 2008 and compared these ...201122016794
hospitalizations due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in catalonia, spain, 2003-2008.abstract:201122013948
Sapovirus as a gastrointestinal pathogen in febrile pediatric patients with cancer.Human caliciviruses are the second most common cause of viral gastroenteritis after rotavirus in children. Unlike norovirus, sapovirus infection is less well characterized and defined in the clinical setting of gastrointestinal disease, and there are no reports of sapovirus infections in pediatric oncology patients receiving chemotherapy treatment. Stool samples from all pediatric oncology patients presenting with fever and diarrhea at one pediatric oncology unit were tested prospectively for sa ...201122012734
Genotyping of human rotaviruses circulating among children with diarrhea in Valencia, Venezuela.Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis during childhood worldwide, especially in developing countries. Two rotavirus vaccines are available for childhood immunization programs. Evaluation of the vaccine performance will benefit from knowledge of the epidemiological features of rotavirus infection in regional settings. Limited information on the molecular characteristics of the rotavirus types circulating in Venezuela is available. Eighty seven (89.7%) of the 97 EL ...201122012733
characterization of norovirus strains in australian children from 2006 to 2008: prevalence of recombinant strains.noroviruses are highly infectious and are the most common cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks. genotype ii.4 strains have been the dominant type identified in adults, however the genotype distribution in children is less clearly defined. this study aimed to detect and genotype norovirus strains infecting children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in melbourne, australia from 2006 to 2008. stool samples were collected from 272 children admitted to the royal children's hospital, melbourne, au ...201122012731
Addition of history of intussusception as a contraindication for rotavirus vaccination.The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved revised prescribing information and patient labeling from GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals for the monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1, marketed as Rotarix) and revised prescribing information and patient labeling from Merck & Co. for the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5, marketed as RotaTeq) to include history of intussusception as a contraindication. FDA approved the revisions for RV1 in February 2011 and for RV5 in July 2011. In its rotavirus vac ...201122012117
Rotavirus infection in an Indian birth cohort. 201122010932
Respiratory syncytial virus--the unrecognised cause of health and economic burden among young children in Australia.Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) presents very similar to influenza and is the principle cause of bronchiolitis in infants and young children worldwide. Yet, there is no systematic monitoring of RSV activity in Australia. This study uses existing published data sources to estimate incidence, hospitalisation rates, and associated costs of RSV among young children in Australia. Published reports from the Laboratory Virology and Serology Reporting Scheme, a passive voluntary surveillance system, a ...201122010512
immunisation coverage annual report, 2009.this, the third annual immunisation coverage report, documents trends during 2009 for a range of standard measures derived from australian childhood immunisation register data, including overall coverage at standard age milestones and for individual vaccines included on the national immunisation program (nip). coverage by indigenous status and mapping by smaller geographic areas as well as trends in timeliness is also summarised according to standard templates. with respect to overall coverage, ...201122010506
clinical profile and prevalence of rotavirus infection in children presented with acute diarrhea at tertiary care referral hospital at northern part of india.a prospective analysis of 90 clinically diagnosed cases with acute diarrhea over a period of one year was carried out to determine the prevalence of rotavirus infection in children between 2 months to 2 years of age. enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) were used for detection of rotavirus from stool sample. fourteen (15.6%) of them were found to be positive for group a rotavirus, 9 (23%) cases were between 6 months to 1 year of age. rotavirus e ...200922010485
toxic megacolon.toxic megacolon represents a dreaded complication of mainly inflammatory or infectious conditions of the colon. it is most commonly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (ibd), i.e., ulcerative colitis or ileocolonic crohn's disease. lately, the epidemiology has shifted toward infectious causes, specifically due to an increase of clostridium difficile-associated colitis possibly due to the extensive (ab)use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. other important infectious etiologies include salmone ...201122009735
lessons from the us rotavirus vaccination program. 201122009102
horizontal transmission of a human rotavirus vaccine strain--a randomized, placebo-controlled study in twins.transmission of excreted vaccine-derived infectious virus from vaccinated to unvaccinated individuals is possible within close contacts. this randomized (1:1), double-blind study evaluated the potential for transmission of human rotavirus vaccine strain, hrv (rotarix™) from vaccine recipients to unvaccinated close contacts (twins). 100 pairs of healthy twins aged 6-14 weeks at the time of dose 1 of hrv vaccine/placebo were enrolled and one randomly selected twin from each pair received two vacci ...201122008819
th2 signals induce epithelial injury in mice and are compatible with the biliary atresia phenotype.biliary atresia (ba) is a destructive cholangiopathy of childhood in which th1 immunity has been mechanistically linked to the bile duct inflammation and obstruction that culminate in liver injury. based on reports of decreased th1 cytokines in some patients and the development of ba in mice lacking cd4+ t cells, we hypothesized that th1-independent mechanisms can also activate effector cells and induce ba. here, we tested this hypothesis using stat1-/- mice, which lack the ability to mount th1 ...201122005305
lack of correlation between virus barosensitivity and the presence of a viral envelope during inactivation of human rotavirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and avian metapneumovirus by high-pressure processing.high-pressure processing (hpp) is a nonthermal technology that has been shown to effectively inactivate a wide range of microorganisms. however, the effectiveness of hpp on inactivation of viruses is relatively less well understood. we systematically investigated the effects of intrinsic (ph) and processing (pressure, time, and temperature) parameters on the pressure inactivation of a nonenveloped virus (human rotavirus [hrv]) and two enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus [vsv] and avian ...201122003028
Novel Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CECT 7210 Strain Active against Rotavirus Infections.Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis among children worldwide. It is well known that breast-feeding and vaccination afford infants protection. Since breast-feeding has drastically decreased in developed countries, efforts have been focused on the potential use of probiotics as preventive agents. In this study, a novel Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis strain was isolated from infant feces and selected, based on its capacity to inhibit in vitro rotavirus Wa replicat ...201122003027
the hidden costs and characteristics of childhood rotavirus emergency visits in canada.background:: administrative databases are often used to determine burden of rotavirus disease in emergency departments (eds). our objective was to describe rotavirus ed visits to include healthcare utilization pre- and postvisit to estimate true societal costs. methods:: during rotavirus seasons in 2007, 2008, and 2009, a convenience sample of children <3 years of age with vomiting and/or diarrhea and rotavirus in stool samples at ed visits was identified at 5 pediatric hospitals in canada. inte ...201122001965
Enteroendocrine and Neuronal Mechanisms in Pathophysiology of Acute Infectious Diarrhea.BACKGROUND: While enterocyte secretion is the predominant mechanism considered responsible for secretory diarrhea in response to acute enteric infections, there are several lines of evidence that support alternative mechanisms controlling fluid and electrolyte secretion in diarrhea. AIM: To review enteroendocrine and neuronal mechanisms that participate in the development of acute infectious diarrhea. ...201122001941
[Application of clinical pathways in children with Rotavirus enteritis].Clinical pathways are standardized, multidisciplinary, integrated management plans. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of clinical pathways in children with Rotavirus enteritis.201122000440
Sudden death from systemic rotavirus infection and detection of nonstructural rotavirus proteins.A 2.5-year-old girl died suddenly during the course of rotavirus gastroenteritis. The autopsy showed encephalopathy with rotavirus systemic infection. Here, we provide evidence of rotavirus replication in multiple organs. Our findings clarify that rotavirus infection in children can extend beyond the intestinal tract through viremia.201121998424
role of lipids on entry and exit of bluetongue virus, a complex non-enveloped virus.non-enveloped viruses such as members of picornaviridae and reoviridae are assembled in the cytoplasm and are generally released by cell lysis. however, recent evidence suggests that some non-enveloped viruses exit from infected cells without lysis, indicating that these viruses may also utilize alternate means for egress. moreover, it appears that complex, non-enveloped viruses such as bluetongue virus (btv) and rotavirus interact with lipids during their entry process as well as with lipid raf ...201021994677
rotavirus antagonism of the innate immune response.rotavirus is a primary cause of severe dehydrating gastroenteritis in infants and young children. the virus is sensitive to the antiviral effects triggered by the interferon (ifn)-signaling pathway, an important component of the host cell innate immune response. to counteract these effects, rotavirus encodes a nonstructural protein (nsp1) that induces the degradation of proteins involved in regulating ifn expression, such as members of the ifn regulatory factor (irf) family. in some instances, n ...200921994581
probiotics for prevention and treatment of diarrhea.probiotics have been extensively studied over the past several years in the prevention and, to a larger extent, in the treatment of diarrheal diseases, especially in pediatric populations. diarrhea is a symptom, and not a disease. this review will not address chronic disorders associated with diarrhea, or clostridium difficile-induced diarrhea. rather it will focus on published clinical trials performed on acute-onset, likely infectious diarrhea occurring in the settings of day-care centers, in ...201121992955
Rotavirus vaccine and health care utilization for diarrhea in U.S. children.Routine vaccination of U.S. infants with pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) began in 2006.201121992123
rotavirus vaccine rix4414 (rotarix™): a pharmacoeconomic review of its use in the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in developing countries.this article provides an overview of the clinical profile of rotavirus vaccine rix4414 (rotarix™) in the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) in developing countries, followed by a comprehensive review of pharmacoeconomic analyses with the vaccine in low- and middle-income countries. rvge is associated with significant morbidity and mortality among children <5 years of age in developing countries. the protective efficacy of a two-dose oral series of rotavirus vaccine rix4414 has been d ...201121988293
prevalence of human rotavirus genotypes in wuhan, china, during 2008-2011: changing trend of predominant genotypes and emergence of strains with the p[8]b subtype of the vp4 surveillance of rotavirus genotypes was conducted in wuhan, china, between march 2008 and may 2011. the detection rates of group a rotavirus were 24.6% (458/1859) and 12.1% (96/795) in children and adults, respectively, with diarrhea. among the 554 positive specimens, the most frequent genotype was g3p[8] (57.9%), followed by g1p[8] (29.4%). compared with previous studies in wuhan (2000-2008), the relative frequency of g3p[8] has been decreasing year by year, while the predominant ...201121986895
occurrence of group b rotavirus infections in the outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis from western india. 201121985827
Development of cystic periventricular leukomalacia in newborn infants after rotavirus infection.We describe 5 preterm and 3 term infants who presented with seizures during rotavirus infection within 6 weeks after birth. Six of these infants developed late-onset cystic periventricular leukomalacia. Four of the preterm infants had neurodevelopmental delay, and 4 (near) term infants had normal early outcome.201221982304
Characterization of rotavirus and norovirus strains: a 6-year study (2004-2009).To monitor rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) infections in hospitalized children = 5 years with acute gastroenteritis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, during a 6-year period (2004- 2009).201121979837
an assay for detecting neutralization of rotavirus infection by quantitative determination of vp6 protein fluorescence intensity.previous rotavirus infection studies used the focus reduction assay extensively to evaluate cellular responses to viral infection, but this technique has a number of limitations. in this study, we developed a simplified, accurate rotavirus infection assay to evaluate the effects of inhibitory substances on rotavirus infection in vitro by measurement of the fluorescence intensities of stained cells.201121979094
evidence of conserved epitopes in variable region of vp8* subunit of vp4 protein of rotaviruses of p[8]-1 and p[8]-3 lineages.although antibody responses to the human rotavirus vp4 protein have been reported, few studies have analyzed the specificity of these responses to the vp8* subunit. this study investigated antibody responses generated against the variable region of the vp4 protein (vp8* subunit) in children infected with rotavirus genotype p[8]. recombinant vp8* subunit (rvp8*) and truncations corresponding aa 1-102 <br />(peptide a) and 84-180 (peptide b) of rotavirus strains p[8]-1 and p[8]-3 lineages were exp ...201121978162
the emergence of rotavirus g12 and the prevalence of enteric viruses in hospitalized pediatric diarrheal patients in southern vietnam.diarrhea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries, and the majority of infections are of viral etiology. we aimed to compare the etiological prevalence of the major enteric viruses in an urban and a rural setting in southern vietnam. we simultaneously screened fecal specimens from 362 children in ho chi minh city and dong thap province that were hospitalized with acute diarrhea over a 1-month-long period for four viral gastrointestinal pathogens. rotavirus wa ...201121976585
occurrence of norovirus and other enteric viruses in untreated groundwaters of korea.a total of 39 water samples from 23 different groundwater wells in korea were collected and analyzed in order to monitor the occurrence of norovirus (nov) and other indicator microbes as the first part of a national survey of groundwater. more than 500 l of untreated groundwater were filtered through 1mds filters. following elution and concentration by organic flocculation, pcr and sequence analysis were employed to detect and identify nov, enterovirus, rotavirus, hepatitis a virus and adenoviru ...201121976201
Oral immunoglobulin for the treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in low birth weight infants.Rotavirus infection is the most common neonatal nosocomial viral infection. It is a major health problem worldwide. Epidemics with the newer P(6)G9 strains have been reported in neonatal units globally. These strains can cause severe symptoms in most infected infants. Infection control measures become necessary and the utilization of hospital resources increase. Local mucosal immunity in the intestine to rotavirus is important in the resolution of infection and protection against subsequent infe ...201121975740
outstanding challenges for rotavirus vaccine introduction in low-income countries--a systematic review.rotavirus infections are the most common cause of severe diarrhoea in children worldwide. two internationally licensed rotavirus vaccines have proven to be efficacious in middle and high-income countries and they could potentially be valuable tools for the prevention of rotavirus-associated diarrhoea in low-income countries where the disease burden is greatest. however, before the vaccines can be introduced into the national immunisation programmes in these countries, many challenges related to ...201121975154
the molecular epidemiology of circulating rotaviruses: three-year surveillance in the region of monastir, tunisia.rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe, dehydrating, gastroenteritis among children worldwide. in developing countries, approximately 1440 children die from rotavirus infections each day, with an estimated 527,000 annually. in infants, rotavirus is estimated to cause more than 2 million hospitalizations every year depending on the income level of the country. the purpose of this study was to estimate the proportion of rotavirus gastroenteritis and identify the distribution of cir ...201121967503
recommendations for the use of rotavirus vaccines in infants.rotavirus infection occurs in the majority of healthy children before five years of age, and is the most common diarrheal illness associated with hospitalization. the majority of children present with symptoms of vomiting, diarrhea and fever. as a result, rotavirus gastroenteritis is responsible for greater morbidity than other common childhood diarrheal illnesses. the highest risk of severe disease is in children younger than two years of age. it is estimated that one in 20 children will requir ...201021966238
Global study of viral diarrhea in hospitalized children in Spain: results of structural surveillance of viral gastroenteritis net work (VIGESS-net) 2006-2008.Detection and characterization of gastroenteritis cases (viruses) was conducted during eleven years through the surveillance VIGESS-net, which was created in an effort to conduct a structured surveillance of rotavirus genotypes co-circulating in Spain.201121963269
Norovirus prevalence in 'pathogen negative' gastroenteritis in children from periurban areas in Lima, Peru.Norovirus was detected in 17.4% of 224 diarrhoeal samples from children younger than 24 months of age in Lima, in whom all common pathogens had been excluded (pathogen negative). Norovirus was identified more frequently in children older than 12 months of age than in younger children (34% vs 8%, P<0.001). Among norovirus-positive samples, genogroup II was the predominant group (92%). Compared with rotavirus, norovirus episodes tended to be of shorter duration and less severe. The role of norovir ...201121962615
Whole-genomic analysis of rotavirus strains: current status and future prospects.Studies on genetic diversity of rotaviruses have been primarily based on the genes encoding the antigenically significant VP7 and VP4 proteins. Since the rotavirus genome has 11 segments of RNA that are vulnerable to reassortment events, analyses of the VP7 and VP4 genes may not be sufficient to obtain conclusive data on the overall genetic diversity, or true origin of strains. In the last few years following the advent of the whole-genome-based genotype classification system, the whole genomes ...201121958144
inhibitory effects of bile acids and synthetic farnesoid x receptor agonists on rotavirus replication.rotaviruses (group a rotaviruses) are the most important cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and children worldwide. currently, an antiviral drug is not available and information on therapeutic targets for antiviral development is limited for rotavirus infection. previously, it was shown that lipid homeostasis is important in rotavirus replication. since farnesoid x receptor (fxr) and its natural ligands bile acids (such as chenodeoxycholic acid [cdca]) play major roles in cholesterol and ...201121957312
gavi rolls out vaccines against child killers to more countries. 201121957215
vaccine campaign to target deadly childhood diarrhoea. 201121956306
Regulation of gene expression by the NSP1 and NSP3 non-structural proteins of rotavirus.The role of the rotavirus non-structural proteins NSP1 and NSP3 in regulating cellular and viral mRNA translation has been investigated by examining the effect of added recombinant NSP3 on protein translation in a T7-based in vitro coupled transcription-translation system. Addition of purified NSP3 to assays primed solely with cellular mRNA was found to have no effect on the translation efficiency of the mRNA. However, as expected, the addition of viral mRNA to such assays competitively inhibite ...201121947567
identification of lineage iii of g12 rotavirus strains in diarrheic children in the northern region of brazil between 2008 and 2010.this study reports on the surveillance for rotavirus genotypes and the identification of g12 human rotavirus in the northern region of brazil. rotavirus-positive samples were collected from children <5 years of age with acute diarrhea from january 2008 to october 2010. g2p[4] was the most prevalent genotype, accounting for 45.6% (126/303) of cases. five rotavirus strains bearing g12p[6] genotype specificity were detected. phylogenetic analysis of the vp7 gene showed that g12 strains clustered in ...201121947565
the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in armenia.the cost-effectiveness of introducing infant rotavirus vaccination in armenia in 2012 using rotarix(r) was evaluated using a multiple birth cohort model. the model considered the cost and health implications of hospitalisations, primary health care consultations and episodes not leading to medical care in children under five years old. rotavirus vaccination is expected to cost the ministry of health $220,000 in 2012, rising to $830,000 in 2016 following termination of gavi co-financing, then dec ...201121945959
Novel structural insights into rotavirus recognition of ganglioside glycan receptors.Rotaviruses ubiquitously infect children under the age of 5, being responsible for more than half a million diarrhoeal deaths each year worldwide. Host cell oligosaccharides containing sialic acid(s) are critical for attachment by rotaviruses. However, to date, no detailed three-dimensional atomic model showing the exact rotavirus interactions with these glycoconjugate receptors has been reported. Here, we present the first crystallographic structures of the rotavirus carbohydrate-recognizing pr ...201121945555
suspected zoonotic transmission of rotavirus group a in danish adults.summarygroup a rotaviruses infect humans and a variety of animals. in july 2006 a rare rotavirus strain with g8p[14] specificity was identified in the stool samples of two adult patients with diarrheoa, who lived in the same geographical area in denmark. nucleotide sequences of the vp7, vp4, vp6, and nsp4 genes of the identified strains were identical. phylogenetic analyses showed that both danish g8p[14] strains clustered with rotaviruses of animal, mainly, bovine and caprine, origin. the high ...201121943834
a multi-center, qualitative assessment of pediatrician and maternal perspectives on rotavirus vaccines and the detection of porcine 2010, researchers using novel laboratory techniques found that us-licensed rotavirus vaccines contain dna or dna fragments from porcine circovirus (pcv), a virus common among pigs but not believed to cause illness in humans. we sought to understand pediatricians' and mothers' perspectives on this finding.201121943237
Molecular epidemiology and clinical characterization of group A rotavirus infections in Tunisian children with acute gastroenteritis.Rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe viral gastroenteritis in early childhood worldwide. Thus, the objectives of our study were to determine the molecular epidemiology and the clinical features of rotavirus gastroenteritis in Tunisia. Between January 2003 and April 2007, a prospective study was conducted on 788 stool samples collected from children under 12 years of age who were suffering from acute gastroenteritis. Rotavirus was detected by multiplex RT-PCR in 27% (n = 213) of sample ...201121942357
impact of introducing the pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines into the routine immunization program in niger.objectives. we investigated whether introducing the rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines, which are greatly needed in west africa, would overwhelm existing supply chains (i.e., the series of steps required to get a vaccine from the manufacturers to the target population) in niger. methods. as part of the bill and melinda gates foundation funded vaccine modeling initiative, we developed a computational model to determine the impact of introducing these new vaccines to niger's expanded programs on ...201121940923
Nanobodies®: new ammunition to battle viruses.In 1989, a new type of antibody was identified, first in the sera of dromedaries and later also in all other species of the Camelidae family. These antibodies do not contain a light chain and also lack the first constant heavy domain. Today it is still unclear what the evolutionary advantage of such heavy chain-only antibodies could be. In sharp contrast, the broad applicability of the isolated variable antigen-binding domains (VHH) was rapidly recognized, especially for the development of thera ...201121939690
Rotavirus in adults requiring hospitalization.To determine the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of rotavirus among adults admitted to the hospital with diarrhea that have bacterial stool cultures sent.201221939687
Tilt-pair analysis of images from a range of different specimens in single-particle electron cryomicroscopy.The comparison of a pair of electron microscope images recorded at different specimen tilt angles provides a powerful approach for evaluating the quality of images, image-processing procedures, or three-dimensional structures. Here, we analyze tilt-pair images recorded from a range of specimens with different symmetries and molecular masses and show how the analysis can produce valuable information not easily obtained otherwise. We show that the accuracy of orientation determination of individua ...201121939668
Changing patterns of rotavirus genotypes in Turkey.To describe the circulation dynamics of human rotavirus genotypes and to understand the epidemiological changes of rotavirus infection in Turkey, one of the countries where the highest mortality rates are seen due to rotavirus in Europe. Stool samples of children under 5 years of age which gave positive results for rotavirus antigen were stored at -20°C and then genotyped using multiplex reverse transcription polymerase-chain reaction. Of the 494 stool samples, 137 (28.1%) were positive for rota ...201121938522
rotavirus infection induces the unfolded protein response of the cell and controls it through the nonstructural protein nsp3.the unfolded protein response (upr) is a cellular mechanism that is triggered in order to cope with the stress caused by the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (er). this response is initiated by the endoribonuclease inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (ire1), activating transcription factor 6 (atf6), and pkr-like er kinase, which increase the expression of the genes involved in the folding and degradation processes and decrease the protein input into the er by inhibiting tr ...201121937647
[Investigation of verotoxigenic escherichia coli O157:H7 incidence in gastroenteritis patients].Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the most common serotype among verotoxigenic E.coli (VTEC) strains that cause haemolytic uremic syndrome. Although sporadic VTEC cases originating from Turkey and small outbreaks have been reported from our country, VTEC has not been routinely investigated in most of the diagnostic microbiology laboratories in Turkey and studies related to this topic are limited. In this study, the incidence of E.coli O157:H7 in patients who were admitted to Alanya Research and Applic ...201121935785
maintaining vaccine delivery following the introduction of the rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines in thailand.although the substantial burdens of rotavirus and pneumococcal disease have motivated many countries to consider introducing the rotavirus vaccine (rv) and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (pcv-7) to their national immunization programs (epis), these new vaccines could affect the countries' vaccine supply chains (i.e., the series of steps required to get a vaccine from their manufacturers to patients). we developed detailed computational models of the trang province, thailand, vaccine ...201121931805
receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors that block replication of influenza a and other viruses.we have previously reported that two receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (rtkis), called ag879 and tyrphostin a9 (a9), can each block the replication of influenza a virus in cultured cells. in this study, we further characterized the in vitro antiviral efficacies and specificities of these agents. the 50% effective concentration (ec(50)) of each against influenza a was found to be in the high nanomolar range, and the selectivity index (si = 50% cytotoxic concentration [cc(50)]/ec(50)) was determ ...201121930873
trends in intussusception-associated deaths among us infants from 1979-2007.objective: we examined data from 1979-2007 to generate up-to-date baseline estimates of rotavirus intussusception mortality in us infants, to inform policy deliberations of the risks and benefits of vaccination. study design: secular trends in the infant intussusception mortality rate were evaluated using national multiple cause-of-death and natality data from 1979- 2007. linked birth/infant death data from 1998-2006 were examined to identify risk factors for intussusception deaths. results: aft ...201121925681
Epidemiology of acute encephalopathy in Japan, with emphasis on the association of viruses and syndromes.A research committee supported by the Japanese government conducted a nationwide survey on the epidemiology of acute encephalopathy in Japan using a questionnaire. A total of 983 cases reportedly had acute encephalopathy during the past 3years, 2007-2010. Among the pathogens of the preceding infection, influenza virus was the most common, followed by human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and rotavirus. Among syndromes of acute encephalopathy, acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced di ...201121924570
[rotavirus vaccine].rotavirus is the single main cause of severe acute gastroenteritis in children less than 5 years of age, resulting in over 527,000 deaths worldwide annually. the majority of rotavirus-related deaths are seen in less-developed countries; in developed countries, rotavirus is an infrequent cause of death but a commom cause of hospitalizations. rotavirus gastroenteritis was also estimated to result in approximately 790,000 doctor visits every year leading to medical intervention among children aged ...201121922762
interaction of enterovirus infection and cow's milk-based formula nutrition in type 1 diabetes-associated autoimmunity.background: enteral virus infections and early introduction of cow's milk (cm)-based formula are among the suggested triggers of type 1 diabetes (t1d)- associated autoimmunity, although studies on their role have remained contradictory. here, we aimed to analyse whether interactions between these factors might clarify the controversies. materials: the study population comprised 107 subjects developing positivity for at least two t1d-associated autoantibodies and 446 control subjects from the fin ...201121922634
cost-effectiveness of a pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine for children ≤5 years of age in taiwan.a markov model was used to assess the impact of rv5, a pentavalent (g1, g2, g3, g4, p1a[8]) human bovine (wc3 strain) reassortant rotavirus vaccine, on reducing the healthcare burden and cost associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis (rge) in taiwan. other cost-effectiveness analyses for rotavirus vaccination in industrialized countries have produced varying results depending on the input parameters assumed.201121919673
Novel pentameric structure of the diarrhea-inducing region of the rotavirus enterotoxigenic protein NSP4.A novel pentameric structure which differs from the previously reported tetrameric form of the diarrhea-inducing region of the rotavirus enterotoxin NSP4 is reported here. A significant feature of this pentameric form is the absence of the calcium ion located in the core region of the tetrameric structures. The lysis of cells, the crystallization of the region spanning residues 95 to 146 of NSP4 (NSP4(95-146)) of strain ST3 (ST3:NSP4(95-146)) at acidic pH, and comparative studies of the recombin ...201121917949
One year environmental surveillance of rotavirus specie A (RVA) genotypes in circulation after the introduction of the Rotarix® vaccine in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Rotavirus specie A (RVA) infection is the leading cause of severe acute diarrhea among young children worldwide. To reduce this major RVA health impact, the Rotarix® vaccine (GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium) was introduced in the Brazilian Expanded Immunization Program in March 2006 and became available to the entire birth cohort. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spread of RVA in the environment after the introduction of Rotarix® in Brazil. For this purpose, a Wastewater Treatment P ...201121917289
Prospective evaluation of indirect costs due to acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in Spain: the ROTACOST study.The effect of rotavirus in developed countries is mainly economic. This study aimed to assess the indirect costs induced by rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (RVAGE) in Spain.201121917176
whole genome analyses of african g2, g8, g9, and g12 rotavirus strains using sequence-independent amplification and 454® pyrosequencing.high mortality rates caused by rotaviruses are associated with several strains such as g2, g8, g9, and g12 rotaviruses. rotaviruses with g9 and g12 genotypes emerged worldwide in the past two decades. g2 and g8 rotaviruses are however also characterized frequently across africa. to understand the genetic constellation of african g2, g8, g9, and g12 rotavirus strains and their possible origin, sequence-independent cdna synthesis, amplification, and 454(®) pyrosequencing of the whole genomes of fi ...201121915879
Molecular epidemiology of enteric viruses in children with sporadic gastroenteritis in Valencia, Venezuela.The epidemiology and clinical symptoms in infants and young children with acute sporadic viral gastroenteritis due to viral etiologies other than rotaviruses have not been studied thoroughly in developing countries. Fecal specimens from 480 children <5 years of age who were admitted to a large children's hospital in the city of Valencia, Venezuela, with acute diarrhea during January to December 2003 were collected and screened by ELISA and RT-PCR for rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus, sapovirus, ...201121915873
acute motor-sensory axonal guillain-barré syndrome with unilateral facial nerve paralysis after rotavirus gastroenteritis in a 2-year-old boy.guillain-barré syndrome (gbs) is well known as presenting with acute immune-mediated polyneuropathies, with strong associations with antecedent infections. several variant forms of gbs have been described, including acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, acute motor axonal neuropathy, acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy, and sensory gbs. we present a rare case of 2-year-old boy with acute motor and sensory polyneuropathy and left-sided facial nerve paralysis after rotavirus infection ...201121915637
molecular detection of three gastroenteritis viruses in urban surface waters in beijing and correlation with levels of fecal indicator assess the presence of three gastroenteritis viruses responsible for human acute gastroenteritis in surface water, a 1-year study was carried out in the city of beijing, china. a total of 108 urban surface water samples were collected from nine collection sites which were defined with a global positioning system in rivers or lakes from september 2006 to august 2007. the water samples were subjected to virus concentration using an ha electronegative filter, followed by polymerase chain reactio ...201121915594
protection against rotavirus challenge in mice orally inoculated with trypsin inhibitor.the burden of rotavirus disease is significant in developed as well as developing countries and has not diminished with improved hygiene. in the present studies the protective efficacy of soyabean trypsin inhibitor (ti) was investigated on the gut following rotavirus (rv) infection in inbred mice.200121901906
replication of the rotavirus genome requires an active ubiquitin-proteasome we show that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is required for the efficient replication of rotavirus rrv in ma104 cells. the proteasome inhibitor mg132 decreased the yield of infectious virus under conditions where it severely reduces the synthesis of not only viral but also cellular proteins. addition of nonessential amino acids to the cell medium restored both viral protein synthesis and cellular protein synthesis, but the production of progeny viruses was still inhibited. in medium supple ...201121900156
meta-analysis: the effects of lactobacillus rhamnosus gg supplementation for the prevention of healthcare-associated diarrhoea in children, healthcare-associated diarrhoea, in particular, due to rotavirus, may prolong the hospital stay and increase medical costs, prompting interest in effective, low-cost, preventive strategies.201121899584
a case of kawasaki disease with anasarca and concomitant rotavirus infection.we present the case of a child who initially presented with gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis complicated by hyponatraemic dehydration. appropriate intravenous fluid therapy was administered but the patient, still feverish, developed anasarca probably due to hyperpermeability of microvessels following massive inflammation. atypical kawasaki disease was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical findings and laboratory tests. an echocardiogram performed on the 1 ...200921897831
projecting the effectiveness of rotateq® against rotavirus-related hospitalisations in brazil.rotateq® (merck & company, inc, whitehouse station, nj, usa) is an oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (rv5) that has shown high and consistent efficacy in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis (rge) in randomised clinical trials previously conducted in industrialised countries with high medical care resources. to date, the efficacy and effectiveness data for rv5 are available in some latin american countries, but not brazil. in this analysis, we projected the effectiveness of rv5 in terms of the ...201121894373
patient volume and quality of care for young children hospitalized with acute explore the relationship between the volume of children admitted to the hospital with acute gastroenteritis and adherence to recommended quality indicators.201121893651
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