PMID(sorted descending)
[the rotavirus vaccine is effective]. 201020369429
isolation and characterization of the first chinese strain of porcine teschovirus-8.investigations were carried out to identify the causal agent of acute diarrhea, respiratory distress, and death of pigs on a swine farm in jilin province, northern china. only porcine teschovirus (ptv, designated as ptv-8 jilin/2003) was isolated from samples of organs. the presence of ptv was confirmed by the production of a specific cytopathic effect on susceptible cells and by the results of the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (ipma), polymerase chain reaction, and electron microscopy. other ...201020362007
characterization of rotavirus strains from day care centers: pre- and post-rotavirus vaccine 2006 the rotavirus vaccine was included in the brazilian immunization program. the aim of this study was to report the results of a 5-year surveillance study of rotavirus strains in children < 5 years with acute gastroenteritis from day care centers in the state of são paulo, brazil.201020361122
community incidence of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease in england: improved estimates using viral load for norovirus diagnosis.existing estimates of the incidence of infectious intestinal disease (iid) caused by norovirus are based on electron microscopy or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). neither method accurately represents norovirus disease burden: electron microscopy has poor diagnostic sensitivity, and rt-pcr has poor diagnostic specificity. in this study, viral load measurements were used to identify cases of norovirus-associated iid and to produce new incidence estimates for england. iid ...201020360244
detection and genotyping of korean porcine rotaviruses.porcine group a rotavirus (garv) is considered to be an important animal pathogen due to their economic impact in the swine industry and its potential to cause heterologous infections in humans. this study examined 475 fecal samples from 143 farms located in 6 provinces across south korea. rt-pcr and nested pcr utilizing primer pairs specific for the garv vp6 gene detected garv-positive reactions in 182 (38.3%) diarrheic fecal samples. a total of 98 porcine garv strains isolated from the garv-po ...201020359834
reduction in gastroenteritis in united states children and correlation with early rotavirus vaccine uptake from national medical claims databases.we sought to estimate rotavirus disease reduction among children in hospital and office settings in the 4 us regions following rotavirus vaccine introduction and to estimate vaccine uptake.201020354464
mechanism of intraparticle synthesis of the rotavirus double-stranded rna genome.rotaviruses perform the remarkable tasks of transcribing and replicating 11 distinct double-stranded rna genome segments within the confines of a subviral particle. multiple viral polymerases are tethered to the interior of a particle, each dedicated to a solitary genome segment but acting in synchrony to synthesize rna. although the rotavirus polymerase specifically recognizes rna templates in the absence of other proteins, its enzymatic activity is contingent upon interaction with the viral ca ...201020351108
reassortment of human rotavirus gene segments into g11 rotavirus strains.g11 rotaviruses are believed to be of porcine origin. however, a limited number of g11 rotaviruses have been recently isolated from humans in combination with p[25], p[8], p[6], and p[4]. to investigate the evolutionary relationships of these strains, we analyzed the complete genomes of 2 human g11p[25] strains, 2 human g11p[8] strains, and 3 porcine reference strains. most of the 11 gene segments of these 7 strains belonged to genotype 1 (wa-like). however, phylogenetic clustering patterns sugg ...201020350376
identification of norovirus as the top enteric viruses detected in adult cases with acute elucidate the importance of the norovirus and other enteric viruses, and the difference of the genetic relatedness on norovirus between the outbreak and sporadic cases, a total of 557 stool samples, consisting of 503 sporadic cases and 54 samples of 4 outbreaks were collected and tested for norovirus and other enteric viruses in beijing, china, july 2007-june 2008. the data showed norovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, and sapovirus, were detected in 26.6%, 6.1%, 1.8%, and 0.5%, respectively. noro ...201020348525
fate and transport of zoonotic, bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens during swine manure treatment, storage, and land application.members of the public are always somewhat aware of foodborne and other zoonotic pathogens; however, recent illnesses traced to produce and the emergence of pandemic h1n1 influenza virus have increased the scrutiny on all areas of food production. the council for agricultural science and technology has recently published a comprehensive review of the fate and transport of zoonotic pathogens that can be associated with swine manure. the majority of microbes in swine manure are not zoonotic, but se ...201020348375
the effect of rotavirus vaccine on diarrhoea mortality.approximately 39% of the global diarrhoea deaths in children aged 5 years may be attributable to rotavirus infection. two rotavirus vaccines were recently introduced to the market, with evidence of efficacy in the usa, europe and latin america. we sought to estimate the effectiveness of these vaccines against rotavirus morbidity and mortality.201020348127
post-natal paucity of regulatory t cells and control of nk cell activation in experimental biliary atresia.although recent studies have identified important roles for t and nk cells in the pathogenesis of biliary atresia (ba), the mechanisms by which susceptibility to bile duct injury is restricted to the neonatal period are unknown.201020347178
potential epidemiological and economical impact of two rotavirus vaccines in colombia.a complete economic study was carried out to assess the economical impact of two rotavirus vaccine in colombia. a markov decision model was built to assess the health outcomes from birth to 24 months of age for three hypothetical cohorts: one unvaccinated, one vaccinated with 2 doses of rotarix and the third, with 3 doses of rotateq. without vaccination, the annual number of medical visits by diarrhea in children under 2 years would be 1,293,159 cases, with 105,378 medical visits and 470 deaths ...201020347057
history of rotavirus research in children in malawi: the pursuit of a killer.rotavirus gastroenteritis is a major health problem among malawian children. studies spanning 20 years have described the importance, epidemiology and viral characteristics of rotavirus infections in the country. despite a wide diversity of circulating rotavirus strains causing severe disease in young infants, a clinical trial of a human rotavirus vaccine clearly demonstrated the potential for rotavirus vaccination to greatly reduce the morbidity and mortality due to rotavirus diarrhoea in malaw ...200920345020
the detection of enteric viruses in selected urban and rural river water and sewage in kenya, with special reference to determine the occurrence of eight human enteric viruses in surface water and sewage samples from different geographical areas in kenya.201020337763
sequence analysis of the vp7 gene of human rotaviruses g2 and g4 isolated in japan, china, thailand, and vietnam during 2001-2003.sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the rotavirus vp7 gene were performed on 52 human g2 and g4 strains isolated in japan, china, thailand, and vietnam during 2001-2003. all genotype g2 strains included in the study clustered into lineage ii of the phylogenetic tree, together with the majority of global g2 strains detected since 1995. the amino acid substitution at position 96 from aspartic acid to asparagine was noted among the emerging or re-emerging g2 rotavirus strains in japan, thailand, ...201020336736
genetic variation of prevalent g1p[8] human rotaviruses in south korea.the human rotavirus g1p[8] strain is one of the most common rotaviruses worldwide, including korea. six korean g1p[8] human rotaviruses, isolated using cell culture techniques, were characterized on the basis of sequence differences in vp7, vp4, vp6, and nsp4 genes to elucidate the evolutionary relationships in the community. all strains had a long rna electropherotype, supported by vp6 gene analysis, clearly associated with subgroup ii specificity. the phylogenetic analysis of vp7 gene sequence ...201020336735
geographical differences in the proportion of human group a rotavirus strains within new zealand during one epidemic season.the prospect of future rotavirus vaccine programs means it is important to understand rotavirus strain diversity within new zealand, especially if this was to influence vaccine effectiveness. the g-genotype of 359 group a rotavirus strains isolated from 416 stool samples collected from june 2005 to may 2006 (inclusive) from children less than 5 years of age in multiple centers throughout new zealand was determined. g1 was the dominant circulating strain (55.8%) followed by g4 (21.4%), g3 (3.4%), ...201020336723
separation and quantification of double- and triple-layered rotavirus-like particles by cze.virus-like particles have been successfully used as safe vaccines, as their structure is identical to their native counterparts but devoid of the viral genetic material. however, production of these complex structures is not easy, as recombinant proteins must assemble into virus-like particles. techniques to differentiate assembled and soluble proteins, as well as assembly intermediaries often present in a sample, are required. an example of complex virus-like particles mixture occurs when rotav ...201020336682
rotaviruses associate with cellular lipid droplet components to replicate in viroplasms, and compounds disrupting or blocking lipid droplets inhibit viroplasm formation and viral replication.rotaviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. early stages of rotavirus assembly in infected cells occur in viroplasms. confocal microscopy demonstrated that viroplasms associate with lipids and proteins (perilipin a, adrp) characteristic of lipid droplets (lds). ld-associated proteins were also found to colocalize with viroplasms containing a rotaviral nsp5-enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) fusion protein and with viroplasm-like structures in uninfected c ...201020335253
rotavirus antigenemia and genomia in children with rotavirus gastroenteritis.we investigated group a rotavirus (garv) antigenemia and genomia in children with rotavirus gastroenteritis. a total of 16 patients (2-29 months old), who received a diagnosis of garv gastroenteritis using a commercial rapid test, were enrolled in this study. the sera from the patients were tested for the presence of garv antigen and the vp7 and nsp3 genes using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. furthermore, when the v ...201020332567
orthogonal predictions: follow-up questions for suggestive data.when a biological hypothesis of causal effect can be inferred, the hypothesis can sometimes be tested in the selfsame database that gave rise to the study data from which the hypothesis grew. valid testing happens when the inferred biological hypothesis has scientific implications that predict new relations between observations already recorded. testing for the existence of the new relations is a valid assessment of the biological hypothesis, so long as the newly predicted relations are not a lo ...201020309840
prevalence of rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus, and astrovirus infections and coinfections among hospitalized children in northern france.from january to december 2007, 973 stool specimens were prospectively collected from children hospitalized for gastroenteritis signs or from neonates and premature cases who were born in two french hospital settings in the north of france. they were tested by rapid enzyme immunoassay (eia) analyses for rotavirus and adenovirus and by two commercially available elisa tests for the detection of norovirus and astrovirus. the overall rates of prevalence for rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus, and astr ...201020305010
an indirect elisa for serodiagnosis of cattle footrot caused by fusobacterium necrophorum.a serodiagnostic elisa (rl-elisa) using recombinant truncated leukotoxin protein pl2 (aa 311-644) of fusobacterium necrophorum as antigen was developed for detection of antibodies against f. necrophorum from cattle footrot. in rl-elisa, the recombinant diagnostic antigen showed no cross-reaction with antisera against bovine foot and mouth disease virus, bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine rotavirus type a, bovine escherichia coli, and bovine salmonella. the rl-elisa ...201020304080
australian rotavirus surveillance program annual report, 2008/2009.the australian rotavirus surveillance program together with collaborating laboratories australia-wide, conducts a laboratory based rotavirus surveillance program. this report describes the genotypes of rotavirus strains responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 july 2008 to 30 june 2009, the second year of surveillance following introduction of rotavirus vaccine into the national immunisation program. five hundred and ninety-two faecal samples ...200920301967
annual report: surveillance of adverse events following immunisation in australia, 2008.this report summarises australian passive surveillance data for adverse events following immunisation (aefi) reported to the therapeutic goods administration (tga) for 2008, and describes reporting trends over the 9-year period 2000 to 2008. there were 1,542 aefi records for vaccines administered in 2008. this was an annual aefi reporting rate of 7.2 per 100,000 population, a 5% decrease compared with 2007. the majority of aefi reports described non-serious events while 10% (n = 152) were classi ...200920301966
trends in hospitalizations from all-cause gastroenteritis in children younger than 5 years of age in brazil before and after human rotavirus vaccine introduction, 1998-2007.rotavirus vaccination was introduced in brazil in march 2006. we describe trends in hospitalizations from all-cause gastroenteritis in children younger than 5 years during pre- and postvaccination periods using hospital discharge data from brazil hospital information system (sih-sus). a reduction in gastroenteritis hospitalizations of 26% and 48% in 2006 and in 2007, respectively, was observed among children younger than 1 year compared with prevaccination period (1998-2005). the largest reducti ...201020300045
convalescent phase sera from children infected with g12 rotavirus cross-neutralize rotavirus strains belonging to the wa genogroup.the emergence of g12 rotaviruses raises questions about the ability of candidate vaccines in providing protection against such emerging genotypes. therefore, we assessed cross-neutralization against four reference rotavirus strains namely wa (g1p[8]), ds-1 (g2p[4]), 116e (g9p[11]) and rv024 (g12p[6]) using paired sera from 28 children infected with g1p[8], g2p[4], g9p[6/8] or g12p[6] genotypes. convalescent sera of g12p[6]-infected children demonstrated heterotypic response against 116e and wa s ...201020237224
[a multicentric study of a lactose free formula supplemented with saccharomyces boulardii in children with acute diarrhea].in a double-blind, randomized, controlled, multicentric study, the study compared the efficacy of a specific adapted formula (lactose-free, high-mineral, low-osmolarity formula, containing rice and pectin fortified with saccharomyces boulardii) in the management of infants with acute diarrhea with a standard formula used to feed healthy infants from birth.201020236813
macrophages are targeted by rotavirus in experimental biliary atresia and induce neutrophil chemotaxis by mip2/cxcl2.biliary atresia is an obstructive cholangiopathy of unknown etiology. although the adaptive immune system has been shown to regulate the obstruction of bile ducts in a rotavirus-induced mouse model, little is known about the virus-induced inflammatory response. here, we hypothesized that cholangiocytes secrete chemoattractants in response to rotavirus. to test this hypothesis, we infected cholangiocyte and macrophage cell lines with rhesus rotavirus type a (rrv), quantified cytokines and chemoki ...201020234283
detection of human coronaviruses in children with acute gastroenteritis.human coronaviruses (hcovs) are known respiratory pathogens. moreover, coronavirus-like particles have been seen by electron microscope in stools, and sars-hcov has been isolated from intestinal tissue and detected in stool samples.201020233673
rotavirus gastroenteritis and strain diversity in saudi arabia. current status and future determine the epidemiological profile and strain diversity in the light of recent published studies to provide an updated comprehensive picture of the significance of the effect of this virus in saudi arabia.201020231932
impact of community-acquired paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis on family life: data from the reveal study.rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (age) and the most frequent cause of severe diarrhoea in children aged less than 5 years. although the epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis (rvge) is well documented, there are few data on the impact of rvge on the families of affected children.201020230601
genotypic linkages of vp4, vp6, vp7, nsp4, nsp5 genes of rotaviruses circulating among children with acute gastroenteritis in thailand.rotavirus is the main cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. surveillance of group a rotavirus has been conducted in chiang mai, thailand since 1987 up to 2004 and those studies revealed that group a rotavirus was responsible for about 20-61% of diarrheal diseases in hospitalized cases. in this study, we reported the continuing surveillance of group a rotavirus in 2005 and found that group a rotavirus was detected in 43 out of 147 (29.3%) stool samples. fiv ...201020223298
immunogenicity of a live-attenuated human rotavirus rix4414 vaccine with or without buffering agent.aim: the lyophilized form of the human rotavirus rix4414 vaccine (rotarix()) is usually reconstituted with a liquid calcium carbonate (caco(3)) buffer and administered orally. however, errors in the reconstitution could occur (e.g. reconstituted with water instead of caco(3) buffer) or the buffer might be temporarily unavailable in few instances. this study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity of the rix4414 vaccine if the vaccine was reconstituted with other agents (e.g., water) instead ...201020220306
novel light-upon-extension real-time pcr assay for simultaneous detection, quantification, and genogrouping of group a rotavirus.we have developed a light-upon-extension (lux) real-time pcr assay for detection, quantification, and genogrouping of group a rotavirus (rv), the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in children. the lux system uses a fluorophore attached to one primer and having a self-quenching hairpin structure, making it cost-effective and specific. we designed genogroup-specific primers having different fluorophores, making it possible to differentiate between the two main genogroups of human group a ...201020220154
6th world congress of the world society for pediatric infectious diseases (wspid).the 6th world congress of the world society for pediatric infectious diseases (wspid) was held in buenos aires, argentina between 18 and 22 november, 2009. this is one of the biggest pediatric infectious disease assemblies in the world and it brought together pediatricians and pediatric infectious disease and vaccine experts. numerous topics about pediatric infectious diseases were discussed during the congress. the scientific program focused on vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases, includi ...201020218854
rotavirus vaccines rolled out. 200620217941
molecular characterization of vp7 gene of human rotaviruses from bangladesh.this study was carried out during july 2005-june 2006, to characterize rotaviruses circulating in bangladeshi children less than 5 years attended a peri-urban hospital. the proportion of rotavirus diarrhea was 39.5%. genotype g2 was dominant (45.5%) followed by g1 (24.8%), g12 (9.6%), g9 (8.5%), and g4 (2.1%). g2 were mainly in combination with p[4], g1 and g9 with p[8], and g12 with p[6]. phylogenetically bangladeshi g1, g2, and g12 were closely related with the respective types from india, whe ...201020217207
molecular epidemiology of rotaviruses in bulgaria: annual shift of the predominant genotype.rotavirus molecular epidemiology investigations provide important information about the incidence of rotavirus diseases and rotavirus strains in circulation in the prevaccine era. the purpose of this investigation was to study the burden of rotavirus disease, rotavirus strain diversity, and epidemiology specificities of rotavirus infections in bulgaria. a total of 3,130 stools collected between 2005 and 2008 were tested by immune enzyme tests. g-p genotype identification of rotavirus strains wer ...201020217165
prevalence and etiology of nosocomial diarrhoea in children < 5 years in tikrit teaching hospital.a cross-sectional hospital-based study was carried out at tikrit teaching hospital, iraq, from october 2004 to september 2005, to identify the prevalence and etiology of nosocomial infectious diarrhoea among children under 5 years of age. of 259 children admitted to the paediatric ward for reasons other than diarrhoea and hospitalized for more than 3 days, clinical and laboratory analysis of stool samples showed nosocomial diarrhoea in 84 children (32.4%). the most common causative agents were e ...200920214124
predominance of rotavirus g2p[4] and emergence of g12p[9] strains in asunción, paraguay, 2006-2007.rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in children worldwide. monitoring the diversity of rotavirus strains is of great importance for current and future vaccination programs. to determine the diversity of rotavirus circulating in asuncion, paraguay, between 2006 and 2007, we carried out a molecular characterization of rotaviruses detected in children <5 years old and adults (>18 years old). we found that the most common circulating strain was g2p[4] (69/143), followed by g9p[8] ( ...201020213281
in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the efficacy of bovine colostrum against human rotavirus infection.we found that skimmed and concentrated bovine late colostrum (scblc) obtained from normal cows at 6-7 d after parturition exhibited high potency in inhibiting replication of human rotavirus (hrv) in vitro. furthermore, prophylactic oral administration of scblc once before inoculation of hrv prevented the development of diarrhea in suckling mice in vivo. scblc from normal cows might be useful in the prevention of hrv-induced severe gastroenteritis in immunocompromised hosts.201020208370
probiotics.the pharmacology, uses, dosages, safety, drug interactions, and contraindications of probiotics are reviewed.201020208051
improved immunogenicity of biodegradable polymer particles entrapped rotavirus vaccine.rotavirus (rv) entrapped in polylactide (pla) and polylactide-coglycolide (plga) polymer particles were formulated and evaluated in mice for improved immunogenicity using oral, intranasal (in), and intramuscular (im) routes of administration. microparticles of size ranges between 1 and 8 µm were prepared using double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. stabilizers like mouse serum albumin, sucrose, and sodium bicarbonate that were used during particle formulation helped in minimizing the den ...201120207774
meeting report: a celebration of the work of professor tony hart, liverpool, united kingdom, 7 march 2009.over 300 delegates participated in this scientific meeting to celebrate the career of the late professor tony hart, who was head of department of medical microbiology, university of liverpool, from 1986 until his death in september 2007. the meeting, which was opened by professor james stewart (head, school of infection and host defence, university of liverpool) and closed by professor bernard brabin (head of the child health group, liverpool school of tropical medicine), captured some of the ma ...201020207719
analysis of genetic diversity and molecular evolution of human group b rotaviruses based on whole genome b rotavirus (gbr) is a rare enteric pathogen that causes severe diarrhoea, primarily in adults. nearly full-length sequences of all 11 rna segments were determined for human gbrs detected recently in india (idh-084 in 2007, ic-008 in 2008), bangladesh (bang117 in 2003) and myanmar (mmr-b1 in 2007), and analysed phylogenetically with the sequence data of gbrs reported previously. all rna segments of gbr strains from india, bangladesh and myanmar showed >95 % nucleotide sequence identities. ...201020200192
rotavirus nsp5 orchestrates recruitment of viroplasmic proteins.rotavirus genome replication and the first steps of virus morphogenesis take place in cytoplasmic viral factories, called viroplasms, containing four structural (vp1, vp2, vp3 and vp6) and two non-structural (nsp2 and nsp5) proteins. nsp2 and nsp5 have been shown to be essential for viroplasm formation and, when co-expressed in uninfected cells, to form viroplasm-like structures (vls). in the present work, vls formation was shown upon co-expression of nsp5 with the core protein vp2 despite the a ...201020200190
[emergence pathogens infections in ent department of children's hospital in 2005-2008].the development of medicine, in this the new techniques and antibiotic therapy enlarged the survivability of patients in hospital. applying antibiotics caused breakthrough in treatment stepping out in ill's group infections treated in hospital, however enlarging resistance is natural this effect, resulting from: the selection of resistant strains, the formation of new mechanisms of resistance, and/or the spreading of gene of resistance. multidrug-resistant strains were included to emergence-path ...200920198987
rotavirus-associated diarrhoea in foals in greece.severe outbreaks of diarrhoeic syndrome occurred in young foals at the same stud farm during two consecutive breeding periods namely spring 2006 and 2007. rotavirus-like particles were detected by electron microscopy in the faeces of the affected foals and group a rotavirus infection was confirmed by reverse-transcription (rt)-pcr with selected sets of rotavirus-specific primers. sequence analysis of the genes encoding the outer capsid rotavirus proteins vp7 and vp4 enabled classification of the ...201020197218
modelling the seasonality of rotavirus disease and the impact of vaccination in england and wales.two rotavirus vaccines are currently recommended for inclusion in routine childhood immunization programmes. we developed a deterministic age-structured model of rotavirus transmission and disease to investigate the population-level effects of vaccination in england and wales. the model explicitly captures the natural history of infection and uses realistic population mixing patterns. the model accurately reproduces the strong seasonal pattern and age distribution of rotavirus disease observed i ...201020197142
rotavirus enterotoxin nsp4 has mucosal adjuvant properties.rotavirus nonstructural protein 4 (nsp4) is a protein with pleiotropic properties. it functions in rotavirus morphogenesis, pathogenesis, and is the first described viral enterotoxin. since many bacterial toxins function as potent mucosal adjuvants, we evaluated whether baculovirus-expressed recombinant simian rotavirus sa11 nsp4 possesses adjuvant activity by co-administering nsp4 with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (klh), tetanus toxoid (tt) or ovalbumin (ova) as model antigens in mice. following i ...201020197138
rotavirus infection of murine small intestine causes colonic secretion via age restricted galanin-1 receptor expression.mechanisms for age restriction of rotavirus diarrhea are unclear. because rotavirus primarily infects small intestine, colonic contribution has not been widely studied. recent data suggest that colonic secretion postbacterial infection is mediated by galanin-1 receptors (gal1-r). we evaluated age-dependent expression of gal1-r in rhesus rotavirus (rrv)-infected mice and its contribution to fluid secretion.201020197068
[analysis on vp7 and vp4 genes of human rotavirus g9 identified from children with diarrhea in beijing, from 2007 to 2008.].to characterize the outer capsid protein vp7 and vp4 encoding genes of human rotavirus g9 strains detected in beijing, from 2007 to 2008.200920193591
cause of uric acid stones in rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis. 201020191366
corrected 2007 rotavirus hospitalization rates. 201020190618
[infectious diarrhoea in children under five years].to determine the prevalence of rotavirus in acute diarrhea among children under 5 years and to describe the epidemiology, clinical trials of rotavirus diarrhea and compare them with those of other gastroenteritis.200920180381
vomiting calls to nhs direct provide an early warning of norovirus outbreaks in hospitals.a wintertime peak of norovirus activity occurs each year, affecting institutions including schools and hospitals. traditional laboratory and outbreak surveillance systems for norovirus are too vulnerable to reporting delay to act as a timely signal of activity in the community. calls to the national health service (nhs) telephone service nhs direct have the potential to be an early warning tool for public health purposes. we investigated whether nhs direct vomiting calls can be used as a reliabl ...201020172625
epidemiology and economic burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in hospitals and paediatric clinics in taiwan, 2005-2006.baseline estimates of rotavirus disease burden and epidemiology are useful for the evaluation of newly introduced rotavirus vaccination programs. prospective, cross-sectional surveillance for acute gastroenteritis (age) was conducted in hospitals and outpatient paediatric clinics in taiwan to assess the prevalence of rotavirus gastroenteritis and associated medical costs prior to rotavirus vaccine introduction. faecal specimens were collected from 1130 children <5 years of age from december 2004 ...201020171305
multiplex nested rt-pcr for the detection of porcine enteric viruses.porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (pedv), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), and porcine group a rotavirus (prv-a) are major viruses causing enteric diseases of piglets. a multiplex nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (multiplex nested rt-pcr) was developed for the detection of these viruses in field samples from piglets with diarrhea. a mixture of (1) three external pairs of primers, yielding in the amplification step two different amplicons with sizes of 950 bp and 31 ...201020170679
identification of two sublineages of genotype g2 rotavirus among diarrheic children in parauapebas, southern pará state, brazil.on a world scale, group a human rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe acute gastroenteritis during infancy and childhood, including five (g1, g2, g3, g4, and g9) epidemiologically important genotypes. among these, g2 denotes a different genogroup which appears to have a cyclic pattern of occurrence and yet little information is available about its genetic variability. the aim of this report was to characterize the emergence of g2 genotype in paraupebas, southern pará state, brazil, som ...201020166186
circulating human group a rotavirus genotypes in malaysia.this study examined the temporal distribution of rotavirus genotypes in malaysia. rotaviruses from children with diarrhea admitted to hospitals in 1996 (n = 93) and 2007 (n = 12) in two different regions of peninsular (west) malaysia were analyzed for their g and p genotypes using a hemi-nested rt-pcr assay. in the 2007 samples, the dominant strain was g9p[8]. it was identified in 42% of the samples. different strains all possessing the g1 genotype were identified in the rest of the samples. in ...201020166178
genetic variation of g4p[6] rotaviruses: evidence for novel strains circulating between the hospital and hundred forty-six fecal specimens collected between 2007 and 2008 from infants with acute gastroenteritis were screened for rotavirus by elisa with vp6-specific antibody. one hundred twenty-three of the samples (84.2%) were confirmed to be positive for group a rotavirus (community-acquired, n = 90 [73.2%] and nosocomial, n = 33 [26.8%]), and were typed subsequently using rt-pcr and sequence analysis methods. determination of g- and p-type combinations showed that g4p[6] (78.9%) was the most ...201020166174
rotavirus: the challenges ahead. 200920165617
rotavirus differentially infects and polyclonally stimulates human b cells depending on their differentiation state and tissue of origin.we have shown previously that rotavirus (rv) can infect murine intestinal b220(+) cells in vivo (m. fenaux, m. a. cuadras, n. feng, m. jaimes, and h. b. greenberg, j. virol. 80:5219-5232, 2006) and human blood b cells in vitro (m. c. mesa, l. s. rodriguez, m. a. franco, and j. angel, virology 366:174-184, 2007). however, the effect of rv on b cells, especially those present in the human intestine, the primary site of rv infection, is unknown. here, we compared the effects of the in vitro rv infe ...201020164228
detection of equine rotavirus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp).reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) was applied to detection of equine rotavirus. because equine rotavirus of the single p genotype, p[12], is predominant in the equine population worldwide, an rt-lamp primer set was designed to target the genotype p[12] sequence and thus detect equine rotavirus. the detection limit of the rt-lamp assay was 10(3) copies of viral rna, whereas that of semi-nested rt-pcr for genotype p[12] was 10(5) copies. the rt-lamp assay speci ...201020160420
perturbations in cytokine gene expression after inoculation of c57bl/6 mice with pasteurella pneumotropica.pasteurella pneumotropica can cause inflammation and abscess formation in a variety of tissues. most commonly, p. pneumotropica produces clinical disease in immunodeficient mice or those concurrently infected with other pathogens. because clinical disease is infrequent in immunocompetent mice harboring p. pneumotropica, some scientists consider it an opportunistic pathogen with little clinical relevance to biomedical research. however, other infectious agents, including mouse parvoviruses, mouse ...201020158944
[two cases of infants with acute renal failure due to bilateral obstructive ureteral stones associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis].we report on 2 infants with acute renal failure caused by bilateral obstructive ureteral stones associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis. a 28-month boy and a 13-month boy with several days history of watery diarrhea and vomiting were referred to our hospital because of anuria. they were diagnosed acute post-renal failure due to obstructive bilateral ureteral stones based on the findings of ultrasound scan and computed tomography. immediately, percutaneous nephrostomy tubes were inserted for ur ...201020158076
full genomic analysis and possible origin of a porcine g12 rotavirus strain ru172.human group a rotavirus (gar) g12 strains are regarded as potentially important pathogens for acute gastroenteritis. on the other hand, to date, the only report of detection of g12 in animals was that of a porcine g12p[7] strain ru172. strain ru172 formed a separate g12 lineage, distinct from human g12 strains, and by analyses of deduced amino acid sequences, had a vp4, vp6, nsp4-5 of porcine origin. in the present study, we determined the full-length nucleotide sequences of vp1, vp3, and nsp1-3 ...201020157771
prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of rotavirus genotypes in thailand between 2007 and 2009.rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe diarrhea among infants and young children worldwide, especially in developing countries. in thailand, rotavirus has presented a major public health problem causing severe diarrhea in infants and young children. it was responsible for about one-third of diarrheal diseases in hospitalized patients. in this study, we have analyzed the distribution and performed molecular characterization of rotaviruses circulating in infants and young children with di ...201020156600
food-borne diseases - the challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge.the burden of diseases caused by food-borne pathogens remains largely unknown. importantly data indicating trends in food-borne infectious intestinal disease is limited to a few industrialised countries, and even fewer pathogens. it has been predicted that the importance of diarrhoeal disease, mainly due to contaminated food and water, as a cause of death will decline worldwide. evidence for such a downward trend is limited. this prediction presumes that improvements in the production and retail ...201020153070
meeting of the international task force for disease eradication, october 2009. 201020151497
acute gastrointestinal illness in new zealand: information from a survey of community and hospital describe and quantify laboratory testing of faecal samples for enteric pathogens as a component of the reporting pyramid of acute gastrointestinal illness (agi) in new zealand.200920148044
improvement of intractable childhood epilepsy following acute viral this study, we report 11 patients with intractable childhood epilepsy that improved following acute viral infection. the patients were 8 boys and 3 girls. six of the 11 children were diagnosed as west syndrome (5 of the symptomatic type and 1 of the cryptogenic type). the remaining 5 children were myoclonic seizures. the patients became seizure free within 6 days following acute viral infections without an exchange or addition of antiepileptic drugs (aeds). the types of acute viral infections ...201120144516
identification of g8 rotavirus strains determined as g12 by rotavirus genotyping pcr: updating the current genotyping methods.rotaviruses are classified into g- and p-types, which are determined by the reactivity with antibodies to the outer viral proteins, vp7 and vp4, respectively, or sequence variation in the genes encoding these proteins. there are presently a number of different rotavirus strains co-circulating within the uk, with the common human strains g1p[8], g2p[4] and g9p[8] being the most prevalent. as part of strain surveillance for the european rotavirus network (eurorotanet) a cluster (n=29) of g8 strain ...201020138804
milk supplemented with immune colostrum: protection against rotavirus diarrhea and modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in calves experimentally challenged with bovine a bovine rotavirus (brv) is the major cause of neonatal calf diarrhea worldwide. as a preventive strategy, we evaluated the protection and immunomodulation in two groups of brv-inoculated calves. all calves received control colostrum (cc; vn=65,536; igg(1)=16,384) prior to gut closure followed by the milk supplemented with immune colostrum (vn=1,048,576; igg(1)=262,144), twice a day, for 14 days. calves received milk supplemented with 0.8% immune colostrum [(gp 1) vn=16,384; igg(1)=4096] o ...201020138373
burden of childhood rotavirus disease on health systems in the united determine the burden of rotavirus disease before the introduction of rotavirus vaccines.201020135751
seasonal trend and serotype distribution of rotavirus infection in japan, 1981-2008.a total of 10,917 fecal specimens from infants and children with gastroenteritis in seven different regions of japan in the last 3 decades were examined for rotavirus. we observed that the rotavirus peak shifted gradually from january to april (winter to early spring) during 17 seasons and the g1p[8] combination was the most predominant genotype in the last 28 years in japan.201020135750
phylogenetic analysis of human p[8]g9 rotavirus strains circulating in brazil reveals the presence of a novel genetic a rotavirus (rv-a) genotype p[8]g9 has emerged as one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis in children worldwide and currently is recognized as one of the five most common genotypes detected in humans. high intragenotype diversity in g9 rv-a has been observed, and nowadays, based on the genetic variability of the vp7 gene, six different phylogenetic lineages and eleven sublineages were described.201020133185
global implementation of human papillomavirus (hpv) vaccine: lessons from hepatitis b vaccine.development of safe and effective vaccines against human papillomavirus (hpv)-the second vaccine against a major human cancer-is one of the most important medical and public health achievements of this century. as with all new vaccines, hpv is currently expensive and this cost precludes its use in the developing world, which has the greatest burden of disease from hpv-related cancers. hepatitis b (hb) virus vaccine, which prevents chronic hb infection and related cirrhosis and liver cancer, has ...201020129654
[phylogenetic analysis indicates human origin of rotavirus and hepatitis a virus strains found in the drinking water of western colombia].quibdó, the capital of chocó province, is one of the poorest cities in colombia. enteric viruses such as rotavirus and hepatitis a virus was found to occur commonly in city drinking water and indicated poor water quality and high risk of becoming infected. the source of these viruses was unknown, but humans and cattle were suspect sources.200920128346
x-ray crystal structure of the rotavirus inner capsid particle at 3.8 a resolution.the rotavirus inner capsid particle, known as the "double-layered particle" (dlp), is the "payload" delivered into a cell in the process of viral infection. its inner and outer protein layers, composed of viral protein (vp) 2 and vp6, respectively, package the 11 segments of the double-stranded rna (dsrna) of the viral genome, as well as about the same number of polymerase molecules (vp1) and capping-enzyme molecules (vp3). we have determined the crystal structure of the bovine rotavirus dlp. th ...201020122940
management of neurologic complications of rotavirus. 200920118693
ultrasonography findings and symptoms in acute rotavirus gastroenteritis.the aim of the present study was to better understand how clinical events in acute rotavirus gastroenteritis are depicted on ultrasonography.201020113420
[the viral gastroenteritis: a public health problem].acute gastroenteritis (ag), which may be caused by bacteria, parasites and enteropathogenic viruses, including rotaviruses, astroviruses, adenoviruses and caliciviruses, is an important health problem. the frequency of rotavirus as a cause of sporadic cases of ag ranges between 17.3% and 37.4%. although it has been suggested that common exposure is not an important factor in the diffusion of rotavirus, it is difficult to associate apparently sporadic cases, meaning that there are probably outbre ...200920111816
persistent rotavirus vaccine shedding in a new case of severe combined immunodeficiency: a reason to screen. 201020109754
is it cost-effective to introduce rotavirus vaccination in the dutch national immunization program?this study assessed whether the inclusion of two rotavirus (rv) vaccines in the dutch national immunization programme is cost-effective. costs and outcomes in unvaccinated and vaccinated populations are compared for a time period of 20 years. in the baseline, assuming competitive market forces in relation to vaccine costs, rotarix is more cost-effective than rotateq, resulting in a cost-utility ratio (cur) of euro 53,000 per daly (third payer perspective) and euro 49,000 per daly (societal persp ...201020109593
prevention and treatment of viral diarrhea in pediatrics.diarrhea is the second largest cause of mortality worldwide in children from the perinatal period to the age of 5 years. rotavirus has been the most commonly identified viral cause of diarrhea in children. norovirus is now recognized as the second most common viral pathogen. adenovirus, astrovirus and sapovirus are the other major viral causes of pediatric gastroenteritis. strategies for prevention include basic hygiene, optimization of nutrition and, ultimately, vaccination. two new vaccines ha ...201020109050
[study on viral pathogens for infant diarrhea in chizhou, anhui].to understand the major viral pathogens for infant diarrhea in chizhou, anhui.200920108777
detection of enteric viruses in sewage sludge and treated wastewater effluent.sewage sludge and treated wastewater when contaminated with enteric virus and discharged into the environment, could pose a human health risk. the aim of study was to verify the presence and viability of enteric viruses in sewage sludge and treated wastewater at a local sewage plant in florianopolis city, brazil. sewage sludge was concentrated by organic flocculation and polyethylene glycol precipitation and wastewater by electronegative membrane filtration and ultrafiltration by centriprep conc ...201020107281
rotavirus vaccine--a powerful tool to combat deaths from diarrhea. 201020107222
vaccine-acquired rotavirus in infants with severe combined pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine is recommended in the united states for routine immunization of infants. we describe three infants, two with failure to thrive, who had dehydration and diarrhea within 1 month after their first or second rotavirus immunization and subsequently received a diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency. rotavirus was detected, by means of reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (rt-pcr) assay, in stool specimens obtained from all t ...201020107217
effect of rotavirus vaccination on death from childhood diarrhea in mexico.a phased introduction of a monovalent rotavirus vaccine occurred in mexico from february 2006 through may 2007. we assessed the effect of vaccination on deaths from diarrhea in mexican children in 2008 and 2009.201020107215
effect of human rotavirus vaccine on severe diarrhea in african infants.rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis among young children worldwide. data are needed to assess the efficacy of the rotavirus vaccine in african children.201020107214
an oral versus intranasal prime/boost regimen using attenuated human rotavirus or vp2 and vp6 virus-like particles with immunostimulating complexes influences protection and antibody-secreting cell responses to rotavirus in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model.we determined the impact of mucosal prime/boost regimens and vaccine type (attenuated wa human rotavirus [atthrv] or nonreplicating wa 2/6 rotavirus-like particles [vlp]) on protection and antibody-secreting cell (asc) responses to hrv in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig disease model. comparisons of delivery routes for atthrv and evaluation of nonreplicating vlp vaccines are important as alternative vaccine approaches to overcome risks associated with live oral vaccines. groups of neonatal gnotobioti ...201020107005
lactic acid bacteria efficiently protect human and animal intestinal epithelial and immune cells from enteric virus infection.this study aimed to examine the potential antiviral activity of lactic acid bacteria (lab) using animal and human intestinal and macrophage cell line models of non tumor origin. to this end, lab strains selected on the basis of previous in vitro trials were co-incubated with cell line monolayers, which were subsequently challenged with rotavirus (rv) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev). in order to elucidate the possible mechanism responsible for the antiviral activity, the induction ...201020106541
prevention of biliary atresia in the experimental mouse model provides a new approach to elucidate its immune pathomechanism. 201020105622
[molecular epidemiology of rotavirus among children under 5 years old hospitalized for diarrhea in china].to study molecular epidemiology of rotavirus among children under 5 years of age in china.200920104767
[the effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in blastocystis hominis infection].the aim of this study was to investigate clinical findings and the effects of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (tmp-smx) in cases of blastocystosis. a total of 37 cases whose stool specimens were sent to the parasitology laboratory from the outpatient clinics of our hospital for various reasons were included in the study. only five or more blastocystis hominis were found during examination with direct wet mount using the 40x objective. the stool specimens were tested for other agents (salmonella sp ...200920101575
sibling transmission of vaccine-derived rotavirus (rotateq) associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis.although rotavirus vaccines are known to be shed in stools, transmission of vaccine-derived virus to unvaccinated contacts resulting in symptomatic rotavirus gastroenteritis has not been reported to our knowledge. we document here the occurrence of vaccine-derived rotavirus (rotateq [merck and co, whitehouse station, nj]) transmission from a vaccinated infant to an older, unvaccinated sibling, resulting in symptomatic rotavirus gastroenteritis that required emergency department care. results of ...201020100758
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