PMID(sorted ascending)
interventions in diarrheas of infants and young prevent diarrhea, efforts must be directed toward decreasing environmental contamination of enteropathogens, altering exposure of persons to naturally occurring agents, or to increasing host tolerance to prevalent enteropathogens. a vaccine is feasible in the control of certain enteric infections among high risk groups: typhoid fever and cholera, in areas of hyperendemicity or during an epidemic, shigellosis in institutionalized populations that are at risk to develop illness due to known pre ...1978359524
breast-feeding: main promoter of infant health.unique immunological factors in breast milk are responsible for the protection it affords infants against pathogenic agents. this protection is particularly effective against the infectious agents which invade or colonize the small and large intestine. factors interfering with enterotoxigenic and enteroinvasive bacteria, and with entero- and rotaviruses, have already been detected in colostrum and mature human milk. moreover, the biochemical composition of human milk makes it the best infant foo ...1978362883
etiology of gastroenteritis among americans living in the philippines.between december 1975 and june 1976, american military personnel with diarrhea who were seen at an outpatient clinic at clark air force base hospital were investigated to determine the etiology of their disease. enterotoxigenic escherichia coli were detected in 16% (18/115), rotavirus in 4% (4/111), salmonellae in 3% (3/115), shigellae in 2% (2/115) and giardia lamblia in 2% (3/152) of patients with diarrhea. thus from only 27% of the subjects studied were identifiable potential pathogenic agent ...1979375723
detection of antigens and igm antibodies for rapid diagnosis of viral infections: a who memorandum.this memorandum describes recent progress in the development of simplified and rapid laboratory technology and reviews currently available methods for the direct detection of viral antigens in clinical material and/or quantification of specific igm antibody in acute serum specimens. particular emphasis is given to such infections as viral hepatitis, rotavirus gastroenteritis, viral infections of the skin, genital, and respiratory tracts, and rabies. in addition, the standardization and quality c ...1979394872
intestinal immunity and vaccine development: a who part of the research component of the who diarrhoeal diseases control programme, a scientific working group met in august 1978 to review recent advances in knowledge of intestinal immunity, the application of genetic techniques in enteric vaccine development, the status of currently available immunizing agents against cholera, typhoid fever, and shigella dysentery, and the prospects for the development of new or improved vaccines against the well known and newly recognized agents such as rota ...1979396051
reovirus-like agent in acute epidemic gastroenteritis in japanese infants: fecal shedding and serologic response.the reovirus-like agent, sometimes referred to as duovirus or rotavirus, was visualized by electron microscopy in stool extracts from japanese infants and young children with acute epidemic gastroenteritis. the virus particles measured 70 nm in diameter and had double-shelled capsids. one hundred ten (89%) of 124 patients with the gastroenteritis had such virus particles in stools obtained during the acute phase. the virus particles were excreted in the stools usually during the first eight days ...1977402427
diagnosis of rotavirus infection by cell culture.rotaviruses were detected by electronmicroscopy in 35 of 84 specimens of faeces from infants with diarrhoea, and in 31 by fluorescent staining of tissue cultures infected with help of centrifugation. llc-mk2 cells were found to be the most sensitive, although primary and secondary human-embryo-kidney and primary calf-kidney cells could also be used. a micromodification of the tissue-culture method provides a relatively simple technique for the diagnosis of rotavirus infection, for the titration ...1977402472
complement-fixing antibody response to rotavirus infection.a human rotavirus complement-fixing (cf) antigen, prepared by purification of large volumes of fluid feces collected from children with winter diarrhea, was used to study the development and persistence of antibody in children with diarrhea and the prevalence of rotavirus antibody in melbourne. in children with diarrhea, antibody rises were detectable within 4 to 6 weeks of the onset of illness, and the titers usually remained elevated for the next 1 to 2 years. cf antibody did not develop in tw ...1977403196
stool viruses in babies in glasgow. i. hospital admissions with diarrhoea.stools from 183 babies under 2 years of age admitted to ruchill hospital with diarrhoea were examined by electron microscopy, virus culture, bacterial culture and light microscopy. as far as possible, several stools were examined from each patient and the results showed rotaviruses, astroviruses and other viruses in association with symptoms, as well as the expected bacterial pathogens. examination of several stools from the same patient also showed that in this age group the viral flora of the ...1977403233
rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infections: comparison of electron microscopy and immunoelectroosmophoresis for the detection of rotavirus in human infantile gastroenteritis.eighty-seven faecal samples from infants and children suffering from acute gastroenteritis were investigated for the presence of rotavirus by immunoelectroosmophoresis (ieop) and electron microscopy (em). sixty-one % of the samples contained rotavirus antigens when examined by ieop whereas only 50% were diagnosed as positive em. however, where it was possible to perform em within the same day that the sample was received it took 24 h to establish the diagnosis by ieop. the high sensitivity of th ...1977406356
aetiology of acute gastroenteritis in infancy and early childhood in southern india.the aetiology of acute gastroenteritis was studied in 50 infants and young children. bacterial pathogens were isolated in 33, enteropathogenic e. coli (epec), salmonella, and shigella being the commonest isolates. rotaviruses were detected in the stools of 13 of the cases. all children with gastroenteritis in whom rotavirus was detected were seen during the months july to december. in 30 children who served as controls, epec were isolated in 6, but rotavirus was detected in none. it is concluded ...1977406857
demonstration of size variation of rna segments between different isolates of calf rotavirus.polyacrylamide gel electrophosesis of rna extracted from wild rotavirus isolates and cell culture adapted virus revealed a significant variation in the molecular weight of individual rna segments. the major differences were observed between wild isolates on the one hand and the adapted strain on the other hand. the slight variations that were observed between different wild isolates were found regularly and appeared to be related to the origin of the samples.1977407327
[rotavirus and gastroenteritis in the newborn infant. initial observations].a simplified method for the diagnosis of rotavirus by electron microscopy is presented. the incidence of these viruses is observed in new-born infants and the relationship with acute gastroenteritis is recalled.1977408044
acute diarrheal infections in infants. i. epidemiology, treatment, and prospects for immunoprophylaxis.epidemiologic differences that appear to be geographic or climatic actually relate more closely to socioeconomics and sanitation. regardless of etiology, the major management problems are those of dehydration and its sequelae. progress toward development of antibacterial and antiviral vaccines is discussed. next month the viral and bacterial agents that cause diarrheal infections will be reviewed.1979511128
the rate of development of postmortem artefact in the small intestine of neonatal calves.the rate of development of postmortem artefacts was investigated in the mucosa of the small intestine of a calf dually infected with an enteropathogenic strain of esch. coli and rotavirus, and an uninfected control calf. samples were removed under general anaesthesia from the proximal, middle and distal small intestine and compared with those taken from adjacent sites 1-30 min after severing the major blood vessels of the neck. in the challenged calf, changes occurred in the villous mucosa by 3 ...1978656317
reovirus-like agent (rotavirus) from lambs.rotavirus particles were demonstrated by electron microscopy in the feces of lambs with diarrhea. rotavirus antigen was synthesized in cell cultures infected with filtrates of the diarrheic feces, but the virus was not adapted to grow serially in cell cultures. an antigenic relationship between rotaviruses from lambs, pigs, and calves was demonstrated by immunofluorescence. colostrum-deprived lambs were infected with the lamb rotavirus, and the virus was passaged in lambs. viral replication occu ...1976793991
characteristics of the genome of human infantile enteritis virus (rotavirus).thermal denaturation studies and polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis have shown that the genome of human infantile enteritis virus (human rotavirus) consists of approximately 11 double-stranded segments. differences in the molecular weights of some of the corresponding genome segments are apparent between different isolates of the virus.1976820876
[rotavirus as a cause of acute gastroenteritis]. 1976824559
the morphogenesis of a cytopathic bovine rotavirus in madin-darby bovine kidney cells.the morphogenesis of a cytopathic bovine rotavirus isolate was examined in mdbk cells. distension of cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum was seen 14 h post-infection (p.i.), but few virus particles were present. many virus particles were observed within distended cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum 22 h p.i., and matrices of viroplasm were found close to developing virus particles. the virus particles measured 68 to 72 nm in diam. and consisted of an electron-dense nucleoid surrounde ...1976826605
rotaviruses in venezuelan children with gastroenteritis.rotaviruses were identified by electron microscopy in 19 of 26 (73%) venezuelan children with gastroenteritis. noncultivable adenoviruses and small (29-30 nm), spherical viruses were also observed in a few cases. bacterial pathogens were isolated from five children (19%), all of whom were also carrying rotaviruses.1977842776
biochemical studies on a reovirus-like agent (rotovirus) from lambs.ten polypeptides were detected in double-capsid lamb rotavirus; four of these appeared to be associated with the outer capsid. lamb rotavirus rna, which consisted of 11 or 12 segments, differed from pig rotavirus rna in the electrophoretic mibility of one of the genome segments.1977850308
rotavirus infections in calves. ii. experimental infections with a dutch isolate.rotaviruses were observed electron microscopically in clarified faecal samples from calves with diarrhoea. several herds with a history of scouring among neonatal calves were shown to be infected with rotaviruses. a bacteria-free faecal filtrate from a rotavirus positive sample administered orally induced diarrhoea in one out of two colostrum-deprived calves. both calves excreted rotaviruses in their faeces and serum antibody responses were demonstrated by complement-fixation and indirect immuno ...1977857337
propagation of the rotavirus of neonatal calf diarrhea in fetal intestinal cell cultures.bovine fetal intestinal cells were successfully propagated in monolayer cultures for up to 21 passages. infection of these cells with the rotavirus of neonatal calf diarrhea resulted in a cytopathic effect that was more obvious than in infected bovine fetal kidney cells.1977861843
solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the detection of rotavirus.a solid-phase radioimmunoassay method has been developed for the detection of rotavirus in the form of a purified antigen and in stool. the parameters of the radioimmunoassay were examined and optimized to give high sensitivity and same-day results. compared with electron microscopy, the assay is up to 10 times as sensitive for detection of the virus in stool and up to 128 times as sensitive for detection of a purified virus antigen. in a field study on stool specimens it was at least as effici ...1977863510
a survey of rotaviruses in sheep in scotland. 1977867760
clinical, laboratory, and epidemiologic features of a viral gastroenteritis in infants and children.we studied 27 infants admitted to the hospital with acute diarrhea caused by human rotavirus (hrv) and obtained additional data on fecal excretion from ten outpatients with the same infection. the disease was characterized by watery diarrhea with fever and vomiting at the onset, isotonic dehydration, compensated metabolic acidosis, and increased concentrations of sodium and chloride but low concentrations of sugar in stools. diarrhea usually ceased in three to four days when oral feedings were r ...1977887336
[seroepidemiological investigations on the epidemiology of human rotavirus infections (author's transl)].263 sera of infants and children up to 10 years of age were tested for antibodies (cf-test) against nebraska calf diarrhoea virus (ncdv) which is antigenically related to the rotavirus of man; in addition the mean antibody titers in different age groups were investigated. antibodies of maternal origin were eliminated during the first year of life. most of the infections occurred during the second year of life and at the end of this year 40-50% of the investigated children demonstrated antibodies ...1977899370
[infectious agents in diarrhea of hospitalized children in costa rica].shigella, toxigenic escherichia coli (stable toxin) and rotaviruses were frequently found among 50 children hospitalized with diarrhea studied during one year. these agents were less common among 45 controls without diarrhea, of comparable age and from the same wards as the cases reported. there was a greater frequency of respiratory symptoms in the diarrhea associated with rotaviruses. these were characterized by frequent bowel movements and vomiting and often fever. the bacterial diarrheas sho ...1977911458
letter: rotavirus as a cause of gastro-enteritis in black south african infants. 1976959923
morphological and antigenic relationships between viruses (rotaviruses) from acute gastroenteritis of children, calves, piglets, mice, and foals.the reovirus-like particles present in the feces of young pigs and foals with acute enteritis and the virus causing epizootic diarrhea of infant mice were found to be indistinguishable morphologically from each other, from the south african sa. 11 and "o" viruses, and from the rotaviruses of children and calves. the inner capsid layer of each of these viruses reacted seriologically with sera of children, calves, mice, piglets, and foals convalescent from infection with their respective rotavirus ...1976965097
isolation of a rotavirus from deer. 1976997186
rotavirus infection in lambs: studies on passive protection.gnotobiotic lambs were protected against rotavirus infection by the presence in the gut at the time of infection of colostrum or serum containing antibodies to rotavirus. this protection was observed even when passively-acquired antibody was not present in the serum of the infected lamb. infection under these conditions may have conferred immunity to subsequent challenge.1976999520
winter diarrhoea and rotaviruses in the winter fewer bacterial pathogens are isolated from patients with gastro-enteritis than in the summer. the incidence of rotavirus infection is, however, at its greatest during the winter months and the virus is rarely found in cases of gastro-enteritis which occur during the warm season. the clinical pattern in winter diarrhoea is characteristically severe and acute but there has been no mortality or cross-infection.19761006454
[rotavirus infection in calves (author's transl)].several laboratory workers have demonstrated a viral agent, suspected of playing an important role in the aetiology of calf diarrhoea during the first weeks of life. based on its morphology this agent was designated a reo-like virus. later the name rotavirus was introduced. rotaviruses were proved experimentally to induce diarrhoea in calves. usually the course of the disease after similar experimental infection is mild, but could become worse with secondary bacterial infections. the available i ...19761013979
[in vitro culture of a rotavirus associated with neonatal calf diarrhea].about fifty diarrheic fecal samples in which the calf rotavirus was present in variable quantities were passed in tissue cultures and the ability of the virus to replicate was analysed under different experimental conditions by means of an indirect immunoflourescent test. several cell species were shown to be susceptible to the virus but the best results were obtained in primary or secondary cultures of embryonic calf kidney cells in presence of maintainance medium containing 2 to 4 p. 100 foeta ...19761028381
[infantile gastroenteritis: a new viral agent, the rotavirus]. 19751101185
transmission of human rotaviruses to gnotobiotic piglets.faecal filtrates containing rotavirus particles, from children with acute infectious diarrhoea, were inoculated intranasally into gnotobiotic piglets. the piglets developed no symptoms, but birus was readily found by electron microscopy in their faeces during three serial passages. among 11 piglets tested 3 weeks after inoculation of virus, all had developed fluorescent antibodies against tissue-culture-adapted calf rotavirus but only two had neutralising antibody. growth of human rotavirus did ...19751107554
a rotavirus in lambs with diarrhoea.a reovirus-like agent was identified from an outbreak of enteritis in young lambs. from its morphology and immunological relationship with calf rotavirus, it was concluded that it was a rotavirus which infects lambs.19761257621
rotaviruses and acute gastroenteritis of infants and means of electron microscopy and ultracentrifugation techniques rotavirus-like particles have been found in 84 of 269 specimens of faeces collected from infants and young children admitted to the royal alexandra hospital for children, camperdown, n.s.w. during the usual winter outbreak of infantile gastroenteritis. morphologically intact viruses were also found in faecal specimens stored at -20 degrees c for up to nine years. rotaviruses were found in specimens collected from five newborn inf ...19761263949
antigenic sequences of poliovirus recognized by t cells: serotype-specific epitopes on vp1 and vp3 and cross-reactive epitopes on vp4 defined by using cd4+ t-cell clones.a panel of poliovirus-specific murine cd4+ t-cell clones has been established from both balb/c (h-2d) and cba (h-2k) mice immunized with sabin vaccine strains of poliovirus serotype 1, 2, or 3. t-cell clones were found to be either serotype specific or cross-reactive between two or all three serotypes. specificity analysis against purified poliovirus proteins demonstrated that t-cell clones recognized determinants on the surface capsid proteins vp1, vp2, and vp3 and the internal capsid protein v ...19921279196
distribution of conserved and specific epitopes on the vp8 subunit of rotavirus vp4.three cdna clones comprising the vp8 subunit of the vp4 of human rotavirus strain ku (vp7 serotype g1; vp4 serotype p1a) g1 were constructed. the corresponding encoded peptides were designated according to their locations in the vp8 subunit as a (amino acids 1 to 102), b (amino acids 84 to 180), and c (amino acids 150 to 246 plus amino acids 247 to 251 from vp5). in addition, cdna clones encoding peptide b of the vp8 subunit of the vp4 gene from human rotavirus strains ds-1 (g2; p1b) and 1076 (g ...19921279204
the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus-associated gastro-enteritis in the transkei, southern africa.rotaviruses were detected in 32.8% (71/216) of stool specimens collected from young children with gastro-enteritis attending the rehydration unit at umtata general hospital between april 1988 and march 1989. a seasonal distribution was observed with an increase in numbers shedding the virus during the colder months of the year. based on variations in the migration pattern of the rna genome segments when passed through polyacrylamide gels, 14 different electrophoretypes were identified: 69% were ...19921280040
detection of norwalk virus in stool specimens by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and nonradioactive oligoprobes.a reverse transcriptase (rt)-polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-oligoprobe (op), or rt-pcr-op, method was developed for the detection of the norwalk virus, which causes acute, epidemic gastroenteritis, in stool specimens. the norwalk virus genome regions encoding the following two proteins were amplified by rt-pcr: the rna polymerase (260-bp product) and a putative immunogenic protein (224-bp product). the resulting dna fragments (amplicons) were hybridized to a digoxigenin-labeled internal op spec ...19921280649
human rotavirus strain with unique vp4 neutralization epitopes as a result of natural reassortment between members of the au-1 and wa genogroups.human rotavirus strain k8, which possesses unique vp4 neutralization epitopes, was examined by rna-rna hybridization to determine its genogroup. while it possessed four gene segments that formed hybrids with strain wa (a prototype of the wa genogroup), strain k8 possessed seven gene segments, including gene segment 4, that formed hybrids with strain au-1 (a prototype of the au-1 genogroup) which has been shown to share a unique gene 4 allele with feline rotaviruses. these results suggest that st ...19921280946
rotavirus surveillance and cluster detection. 19921285150
childhood diarrhoea due to rotavirus in a community.the etiologic role of rotavirus in acute diarrhoeal illness in children under five years of age was studied over a period of one year in an urban slum community. rotavirus was detected in 17.7 per cent of 376 children with diarrhoea and 4 per cent of 299 healthy children with maximum prevalence at 19-24 months of age with statistically comparable detection in 0-6 months of age. the overall prevalence was significantly higher in children below 2 yr as compared to those between 2-5 yr of age. girl ...19921291458
an update on the "jennerian" and modified "jennerian" approach to vaccination of infants and young children against rotavirus diarrhea. 19921295353
[nursing care and prevention of transmission of human rotavirus in pregnancy and neonates]. 19921301279
a one year community-based study on the incidence of diarrhoea and rotavirus infection in urban and suburban malaysian children.a 1 year longitudinal study of 156 malaysian children from urban and suburban areas in the klang valley revealed that the incidence rate of diarrhoea was 23.6 per 100 person-year with abnormal faeces reported on 0.26% of the total days of observation. diarrhoea cases were detected in children from all socioeconomic classes. rotavirus was isolated from 12% of the diarrheic children and asymptomatic rotavirus infection occurred in 3.2% of the children. all rotaviruses isolated were group a rotavir ...19921303484
determinants of rotavirus stability and density during cscl purification.the stability of rotavirus infectivity during cscl gradient purification and subsequent storage was examined using our standard sa11 wild type (sa11-cl3), the sa11 4f variant (sa11-4f), bovine rotavirus b223, and a panel of bi- and triparental reassortants derived from these parental viruses. viral stability was determined by the recovery of infectivity at each step during a standard cscl purification protocol. sa11-4f was the most stable parent (91-93% recovery), sa11-cl3 had intermediate stabi ...19921309275
seroepidemiologic evaluation of antibodies to rotavirus as correlates of the risk of clinically significant rotavirus diarrhea in rural bangladesh.a case-control study was conducted among children and adult women in rural bangladesh to evaluate whether serologic immunity to rotavirus was associated with a lower risk of rotavirus diarrhea of sufficient severity to cause patients to seek medical care. acute-phase sera from 219 cases of rotavirus diarrhea, detected among patients treated in three diarrheal treatment centers, were compared with sera from 477 contemporaneously selected community controls. overall, serum igg antirotavirus antibo ...19921309372
serology versus clinical signs or symptoms and main laboratory findings in the diagnosis of exanthema subitum (roseola infantum).twenty-five patients with clinical exanthema subitum (roseola infantum) were enrolled into a study, where acute-phase and convalescent sera were examined for antibodies to human herpesvirus 6 (hhv-6), several other viruses, and other microbes. in addition, an acute-phase fecal specimen was examined for viruses by electron microscopy. confirmative or suggestive serologic evidence for recent hhv-6 infection was obtained in 23 (92%) cases. conversion to hhv-6 was found in 19 (76%), a diagnostic (gr ...19921309393
identification of cognate genes among heterologous strains of group b rotavirus.the genetic relatedness of group b rotavirus (gbr) strains has previously been documented by hybridization with probes derived from whole genomic sequences, but the relationship of individual genes of heterologous gbr strains has not been evaluated. definition of cognate gbr genes would facilitate investigation of the determinants of group specificity, serotype identity, and neutralization epitopes. therefore, we investigated the genetic relatedness of three gbr strains by means of northern (rna ...19921309899
hemagglutinin activity of two distinct genogroups of feline and canine rotavirus strains.genomes of hemagglutinating strains of feline and canine rotaviruses, were much more closely related to each other than to non-hemagglutinating strains. the cat2 feline rotavirus appears to derive from reassortment between hemagglutinating and non-hemagglutinating strains.19921309998
sequences of the four larger proteins of a porcine group c rotavirus and comparison with the equivalent group a rotavirus proteins.the sequences of the four larger proteins of rotavirus group c (cowden strain) are presented and compared with the sequences of the corresponding group a proteins. they exhibit a significant level of homology, allowing gene coding assignment for the group c rotavirus. the coding strategy of the group c virus rna segment is the same as that for the group a large segments as one long open reading frame is present in each segment. the genome segment 1 encodes the structural protein vp1 which presen ...19921310192
rotavirus serotype g3 predominates in horses.foal fecal group a rotavirus strains were characterized by electropherotype, serotype, and subgroup and shown to be distinctly different from rotaviruses of other mammals. of 86 strains that were electropherotyped, 98% had similar profiles, with gene segments 3 and 4 close together and segments 7, 8, and 9 widely spaced. of 70 strains that had sufficient detectable vp7 antigen to be serotyped by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas), 63% were serotype g3 (39% were subtype g3a and 24% were ...19921310333
isolation of an avianlike group a rotavirus from a calf with atypical group a rotavirus (993/83) was isolated from a 3-day-old german calf with diarrhea. it differed from 35 conventional german bovine rotavirus isolates analyzed previously with respect to subgroup (strain 993/83 was non-subgroup i and non-subgroup ii), serotype (strain 993/83 showed a two-way cross-reaction with serotype 7 and a one-way cross-reaction with serotype 3), and electropherotype (strain 993/83 showed comigrating gene segments 10 and 11). isolate 993/83 reacted with only one ...19921310334
molecular and serological analyses of two bovine rotaviruses (b-11 and b-60) causing calf scours in australia.fecal specimens from 78 calves involved in outbreaks of calf diarrhea which occurred in three farms in victoria, australia, in 1988 were analyzed for rotaviruses. thirty-eight samples were positive for group a virus antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and 20 of these contained viral double-stranded rnas that could be detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. two major electropherotypes could be observed, and a representative isolate of each electropherotype (isolates b-11 and b-6 ...19921310336
simian rotavirus sa11 strains. 19921310786
in vitro transcription and translation of group b rotavirus strain idir gene 8 and immunoprecipitation by human b rotaviruses (gbrs) are associated with episodes of acute diarrhea in humans and a variety of animal species. to date, these agents have not been well adapted to growth in tissue culture, and evaluation of human sera for antibodies directed against gbrs has been hindered by the inability to obtain standardized and highly purified preparations of gbr antigens. in order to evaluate the reactivities of antisera with a highly specific antigen, we prepared a full-length cdna clone of gene 8 of ...19921311336
nucleotide sequences of normal and rearranged rna segments 10 of human rotaviruses.normal and rearranged rna segments 10 of group a rotaviruses isolated from a chronically infected immunodeficient child were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction as full-length cdna copies, and were subsequently cloned and sequenced. compared with the nucleotide sequence of the normal rna segment 10, the rearranged form contains a partial non-coding duplication at its 3' end and several point mutations. the normal rna segment 10 was similar to that of bovine rotavirus.19921312123
rotavirus detection by dot blot hybridization assay using a non-radioactive synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide probe.a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide of 40 nucleotides corresponding to nucleotides 33-72 of the gene coding for the viral protein vp7 of rotavirus, was used as a nucleic acid probe to develop a non-radioactive hybridization method for rotavirus detection. the probe was labelled at the 3' end with biotin-7-datp. the sensitivity and specificity of the dot blot hybridization assay for rotavirus detection was evaluated with 303 stool specimens. the results indicate that the hybridization assay has a hi ...19921312480
prevention of human rotavirus-induced diarrhea in gnotobiotic piglets using bovine antibody.the efficacy of passively administered bovine antibody for preventing human rotavirus (hrv)-induced diarrhea was investigated using a gnotobiotic pig model. cows were immunized with inactivated hrv serotypes 1 (wa) and 2 (s2) and simian rotavirus serotype 3 (sa11), and immune colostrum and milk were collected. antibody concentrates derived from these materials were fed to germ-free piglets that were subsequently inoculated with hrv wa. both viral shedding and diarrhea were effectively reduced or ...19921313067
outbreaks of human enteric adenovirus types 40 and 41 in houston day care centers.human enteric adenovirus (ead) types 40 and 41 cause diarrhea in young children, but little is known about their association with outbreaks of diarrhea in the child care setting. this study evaluated ead as a cause of outbreaks of diarrhea among infants and toddlers in day care centers.19921313095
severity of rotavirus infection in relation to serotype, monotype and electropherotype.the aim of this study was to determine whether the severity of symptoms associated with rotavirus infection was related to the serotype of the infecting virus. severity of clinical symptoms in 108 children admitted to hospital for treatment of rotavirus diarrhoea was retrospectively assessed using a scoring system for frequency and duration of vomiting and diarrhoea, degree of fever, acidosis and dehydration, and presence of electrolyte imbalance. children were 6-30 months old and were fully wea ...19921313250
[viral diarrheas].it is now well known that several viruses are responsible for acute diarrhoea or gastroenteritis in both children and adults. these viruses are difficult to identify since most of them cannot be isolated by stool cultures on cells. the reality of proven reinfection by some of these organisms is not always clearly understood, even though the existence of several serotypes in the same group (notably rotavirus) can be blamed, and this explains why vaccines are difficult to develop.19921313558
reduction in morbidity due to diarrhea in nursing beef calves by use of an inactivated oil-adjuvanted rotavirus-escherichia coli vaccine in the outbreak of neonatal diarrhea occurred among beef calves (2000 animals) from one large argentinian farm in 1985. rotavirus was detected in 78% (106/136) and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli in 1.5% of the samples (2/136) obtained from sick calves. in comparison rotavirus was identified in only 1.6% (1/63) of the samples from clinically healthy calves. the rotavirus strain responsible for the outbreak was characterized as serotype 6 belonging to group a. in the following three years the protec ...19921313621
vaccinia-rotavirus vp7 recombinants protect mice against rotavirus-induced diarrhoea.recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing wild type intracellular vp7 (vp7wt) from rotavirus sa11 or vp7sc, a cell surface-anchored variant, boosted antibody titres in sa11-immune mice. pups born to these mice were protected from diarrhoea following challenge with sa11. in rotavirus-naive mice, two immunizations with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing vp7sc stimulated protective immunity that could be transferred to pups, whereas viruses expressing vp7wt did not stimulate protective immunity. r ...19921313627
rotavirus infection in children in saudi arabia.three hundred sixty-three fecal specimens were collected from infants and young children with gastroenteritis over a 13-month period in jeddah, western saudi arabia. rotavirus was detected in 46% of the 363 specimens tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), and in 40.7% of 113 specimens using a latex agglutination test. one hundred nine of the 113 specimens that were positive by the latex agglutination test were also positive by elisa. electron microscopy was used to examine so ...19921313655
salivary antibody titers in adults challenged with a human determine whether salivary antibody is a reliable indicator of rotavirus infection and mucosal rotavirus antibody concentrations, salivary rotavirus antibody titers were determined as a function of time following inoculation of 24 adult volunteers with a virulent strain of human rotavirus (cjn). twenty of the subjects became infected and all produced detectable amounts of salivary rotavirus iga. these antibody concentrations remained undetectable in the four uninfected subjects. rises of grea ...19921314287
genetic variation in rotavirus serotype 4 subtypes.serotype 4 rotavirus strains have been classified into two antigenic "subtypes" by a solid phase immune electron microscopy technique in which cross-absorbed animal polyclonal immune sera are used as the source of antibodies. the sequences of the gene encoding the outer capsid glycoprotein vp7 from a single serotype 4 rotavirus field strain identified as subtype a ("st3-like") and from three field strains identified as subtype b ("va70-like") were determined. a comparison of the deduced amino ac ...19921314460
evidence that active protection following oral immunization of mice with live rotavirus is not dependent on neutralizing antibody.studies were performed to determine whether active immunity against murine rotavirus (edim) infection of mice correlated with titers of neutralizing antibody to the challenge virus. neonatal mice administered either murine or heterologous rotaviruses all developed diarrhea and high titers of serum rotavirus igg. however, only mice given edim, the murine eb, or simian sa11-fem strains were protected against edim infection when challenged 60 days later. other serotype 3 strains (rrv, sa11-sem), as ...19921314467
rotavirus vp3 expressed in insect cells possesses guanylyltransferase activity.we have examined the possible function(s) of the protein vp3 encoded by the rotavirus sa11 genomic segment 3. viral-associated vp3 in double-shelled and single-shelled particles was shown to bind gtp covalently and reversibly. these properties are similar to the unique characteristics of eukaryotic and viral guanylyltransferases, suggesting that vp3 is associated with a capping enzyme activity. previous studies have shown that intact viral particles are required for transcription, making it diff ...19921314468
rotavirus diarrhoea in children in the highlands of papua new guinea.children from the highlands of papua new guinea, hospitalized for severe diarrhoea, were examined for clinical signs and the presence of rotaviruses. rotavirus was detected in faecal samples from 68% (23/38) of patients examined. in contrast to other studies, an excess of respiratory symptoms was not observed and the infection rate of disease due to rotavirus was relatively high in children under 6 months of age. in an environment where pigs and humans share close contact a rotavirus strain infe ...19921314472
virus infections complicating bone marrow transplantation.virus infections account for considerable morbidity in bone marrow transplant (bmt) recipients. in all ages, members of the herpes virus group are the predominant pathogens. of these, cytomegalovirus is pre-eminent in being the most frequent cause of death due to infection associated with the transplant procedure. considerable effort is being invested in the development of preventative and therapeutic strategies to control this virus. other potentially life-threatening virus infections may be ac ...19921314724
in vitro transcription and translation of genomic rna from a porcine group c rotavirus.eleven segments of ssrna were synthesized from dsrnas of a porcine group (gp) c rotavirus (cowden strain) using an in vitro transcription system. in vitro translation of unfractionated ssrnas revealed at least nine viral proteins, ranging from 22 kda to 93 kda. the 37 kda and 25 kda proteins were glycosylated as demonstrated by the endoglycosidase h assay. in vitro translated products analyzed by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and partial protease peptide mapping were comparable to those ...19921315134
the fortuitous diagnosis of cholera in a two-year-old girl.we are reporting the fortuitous diagnosis of a case of cholera and the unusual failure of the commercial bacteriologic media that led to the unexpected isolation of vibrio cholerae. the case demonstrates the need for communication between the medical staff and laboratory personnel when an uncommon disease, such as cholera, is suspected. this case also alerts the clinician to the possibility of multiple enteric pathogens coinfecting a traveller.19921315232
hemagglutination by a human rotavirus isolate as evidence for transmission of animal rotaviruses to humans.human rotavirus strain ro1845, which was isolated in 1985 from an israeli child with diarrhea, has a hemagglutinin that is capable of agglutinating erythrocytes from guinea pigs, sheep, chickens, and humans (group o). hemagglutination was inhibited after incubation with hyperimmune sera or in the presence of glycophorin, the erythrocyte receptor for animal rotaviruses. these results suggest that ro1845 is an animal rotavirus that infected a human child.19921315327
distribution of serotypes of human rotavirus in different populations.serotyping is a useful tool to study the epidemiologic characteristics of rotaviruses in large populations and to assess the need for a vaccine to protect against all strains. by using an enzyme immunoassay with serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies to the four most common rotavirus serotypes, we analyzed 1,183 rotavirus-positive specimens from 16 stool collections in eight countries on four continents that were obtained from 1978 to 1989. of the 926 strains (78%) that could be serotyped, 48% ...19921315333
neutralizing serum antibodies to serotype 6 human rotaviruses pa151 and pa169 in ecuadorian and german children.serum samples from 726 ecuadorian children who underwent natural rotavirus (rv) exposure were tested for neutralizing serum antibodies against two serotype 6 (st6) human rv (hrv) isolates from italy, pa151 and pa169, and two st6 bovine rv (brv) isolates, ncdv and uk. gene 4 was distinct in all four st6 strains. ninety-one, 56, 67, and 65 serum samples neutralized hrv pa151 (13%), hrv pa169 (8%), brv ncdv (9%), and brv uk (9%), respectively. a total of 44 of the 91 serum samples which neutralized ...19921315337
prevalence of bovine group a rotavirus shedding among dairy calves in ohio.fecal samples were collected from 450 neonatal calves, ranging from 1 to 30 days old, between may, 1988 and may, 1989 to estimate the prevalence of bovine group a rotavirus in a stratified random sample of ohio dairy herds. calves were from 47 dairy herds chosen to be representative of ohio herds. bovine group a rotavirus was detected in fecal samples by a cell culture immunofluorescence test (ccif) and elisa. of 450 samples tested, 46 (10%) were positive by ccif and 67 (15%) were positive by el ...19921315490
[the detection of infectious rotaviruses by cell culture technique: use and evaluation of the immunoperoxidase assay].in the present study, virus isolation was attempted in one hundred and twenty-one fecal samples of children suffering from acute gastroenteritis. virus isolation was performed either conventionally by examination of cytopathogenic effect (cpe) or by immunoperoxidase staining (ips) of rotavirus group specific antigen (inner capsid) in trypsin free ma104 cells within 18 h. applying the conventional technique, rotavirus was isolated in only 4 (3.3%) fecal specimens. in contrast, ips detected infect ...19921315552
detection of human group c rotaviruses by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal antibodies was established for the detection of human group c rotaviruses. seventeen clinical samples which were found to contain group c rotaviruses were all strongly positive, whereas 9 samples containing group a rotaviruses and 51 samples lacking rotaviruses were all negative with this test.19921316369
rotavirus-specific helper t cell responses in newborns, infants, children, and obstacle to developing a successful rotavirus vaccine has been the inability to consistently correlate the humoral immune response with protection against disease. transplacental transfer of maternal rotavirus-specific antibodies may obscure the capacity to discriminate an active from a passively acquired humoral immune response in infants. in an attempt to circumvent this problem, an assay was developed to detect rotavirus-specific helper t cells among circulating mononuclear cells. rotaviru ...19921316412
interaction of rotavirus particles with liposomes.we have studied the interactions of purified viral particles with liposomes as a model to understand the mechanism of entry of rotavirus into the cell. liposomes, made from pure as well as mixed lipids, that contained encapsulated self-quenching concentrations of the fluorophore carboxyfluorescein (cf) were used. rotavirus-liposome interactions were studied from the fluorescence dequenching of cf resulting from its release to the bulk solution. purified infectious double-shelled virus particles ...19921316453
transient expression and mutational analysis of the rotavirus intracellular receptor: the c-terminal methionine residue is essential for ligand binding.maturation of rotavirus involves an intracellular membrane budding event in which the single-shelled icosahedral particle interacts with a virus-encoded receptor glycoprotein, ns28, that is located in the rough endoplasmic reticulum membrane. the receptor is a tetramer and is oriented with the c-terminal 131 amino acids on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane (a.r. bellamy and g.w. both, adv. virus res. 38:1-48, 1990). we have used the t7-vaccinia virus transient expression system to deliver mut ...19921316468
isolation and identification of rotavirus from racing pigeons. 19921316665
molecular cloning, sequence analysis, in vitro expression, and immunoprecipitation of the major inner capsid protein of the idir strain of group b rotavirus (gbr).the sixth genomic segment of the infectious diarrhea of infant rats (idir) strain of group b rotavirus (gbr) was cloned from double-stranded rna purified from infected rat feces. sequence comparison with group a rotaviruses (gar) and the human adrv strain of gbr indicated that idir gene 6 encoded the major inner capsid protein. the nucleic acid sequences of the two gbr genes were 72.9% conserved, and 83.4% of the amino acids were identical. sequence substitutions between idir and adrv were more ...19921316675
extraintestinal rotavirus infections in children with immunodeficiency.some rotavirus strains, including vaccine candidates, have been demonstrated to cause hepatitis in immunodeficient and malnourished mice and to grow in human liver cells. to determine whether rotavirus spreads outside the intestine in naturally infected children, we examined tissues from four immunodeficient children affected with severe combined immunodeficiency disease, acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome, or digeorge syndrome. chronic rotavirus-related diarrhea, which persisted until d ...19921317419
false positive reactions with rotavirus latex agglutination test. 19921317889
rotavirus vaccines. 19921318136
molecular basis of age-dependent gastric inactivation of rhesus rotavirus in the mouse.rotavirus requires specific proteolytic activation by trypsin for efficient replication in tissue culture. to observe the nature of intestinal proteolytic activation of rotavirus in vivo, metabolically labeled rhesus rotavirus (rrv) grown in the presence of trypsin inhibitors was administered to adult and 10-d-old suckling mice by gavage. in the adult stomach, vp4 was cleaved in a manner distinct from in vitro trypsin cleavage. in the suckling stomach, rrv vp4 remains largely uncleaved. the alte ...19921318323
expression of the osu rotavirus outer capsid protein vp4 by an adenovirus recombinant.full-length cdna of the vp4 gene of porcine rotavirus strain osu was cloned into adenovirus type 5 (ad5) downstream of the e3 promoter. the plaque-purified recombinant (ad5-osu vp4) expressed apparently authentic vp4 rotavirus outer capsid protein. the protein had the same molecular size (85 kda) and electrophoretic mobility as did native osu vp4 and was immunoprecipitated by a polyclonal antiserum raised to osu vp4. cotton rats that possessed prechallenge rotavirus antibodies that may have been ...19921318411
rotavirus infection in horses. genome profile analysis of a rotavirus isolated from an infected foal.electrophoretic analysis in polyacrylamide gel (page) of the equine rotavirus 106/88/li/eq, isolated from the diarrhea of an 18 day old foal was compared to the bovine strain ncdv. there was a notable difference in the migration of some segments of the viral rna. bands 2 and 3 of the equine rotavirus comigrated while there was a clear separation of segments 7, 8 and 9. moreover, the migration of segments 1, 4 and 5 revealed a lower molecular weight than the corresponding segments of ncdv.19921318490
direct isolation of rotaviruses from turkeys in embryonating chicken eggs. 19921318597
rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection in calves by dot immunobinding assay. 19921318598
the effect of dexamethasone-induced immunosuppression on the development of faecal antibody and recovery from and resistance to rotavirus infection.rotavirus-naive and rotavirus-immune gnotobiotic calves were treated with high doses of dexamethasone (dx) to suppress the immune system. calves were then infected with a virulent rotavirus inoculum, j-160, to investigate the role of immune responses both in recovery from primary rotavirus infection and in resistance to secondary rotavirus infection. treatment of calves with dx markedly suppressed in vitro responsiveness of peripheral blood lymphocytes to mitogens within 48 h of the start of dx ...19921318600
three-dimensional reconstruction of baculovirus expressed bluetongue virus core-like particles by cryo-electron microscopy.when the viral proteins vp3 and vp7 of bluetongue virus (btv) are expressed simultaneously in the baculovirus system, core-like particles form spontaneously. the 3-d structure of these core-like particles, determined from cryo-electron micrographs, reveals an icosahedral structure 72.5 nm in diameter with 200 triangular spikes arranged on a t = 13,i lattice; the five spikes around each of the fivefold axes are absent. this is in contrast to the native btv core particles which have a complete t = ...19921318601
expression of the gene coding for the major outer capsid protein of sa-11 rotavirus in a baculovirus system.the gene coding for the major outer capsid protein (vp7) of simian rotavirus sa-11 has been expressed in a baculovirus-insect cell system. the resulting protein is 35 kda and is primarily associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. neutralizing sa-11 polyclonal antiserum and vp7 monospecific antiserum reacted specifically with the expressed gene product. antiserum derived against the recombinant vp7 protein neutralized sa-11 rotavirus infectivity in a fluorescent focus assay.19921318623
a family outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by group c rotavirus.a family outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by group c rotavirus is described. all five members of the family, with children between 8 and 15 years of age, fell ill with diarrhea. the diagnosis was initially based on the detection of rotavirus rna showing a typical group c profile in gel electrophoresis in stool samples, and it was serologically verified from patient sera using a cell culture adapted porcine group c rotavirus as a source of standard antigen. all collected serum samples from the ...19921318707
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