PMID(sorted ascending)
comparison of elisa with electron microscopy, and page for the detection of human rotavirus in stools. 19882855233
involvement of structural and nonstructural polypeptides on rotavirus rna synthesis.rotavirus are segmented double stranded rna viruses with a double protein capsid around a central core. the virus replicates in the cell cytoplasm. after infection, eleven mrnas are transcribed from the viral genome. to characterize further the infection cycle, viral polypeptide synthesis and rna replication were studied using labelled precursors. the involvement of nonstructural polypeptides ns34 and ns35 was determined by the kinetics of the appearance of viral polypeptides in infected cells. ...19882855696
paediatric gastroenteritis in the eastern malaysian state of sarawak: an epidemiological and clinical study.over a period of 2 months, 35 of 69 (51%) cases of juvenile diarrhoea studied in eastern malaysia were associated with rotavirus excretion; rotavirus associated diarrhoea occurred most commonly in the 6-24 month age group. polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) of genome ribonucleic acid showed that only 4 rotavirus electropherotypes could be detected. of those, 2 predominated and 2 were detected only once each; one of these may have been a reassortment of the two predominant electropherotype ...19882855768
[diagnosis and quantification of rotavirus excretion by viral rna electrophoresis]. 19882855815
[the effect of physico-chemical factors on the sensitivity and specificity of immunoenzyme analysis]. 19882855895
are rotavirus vaccines coming of age? 19882855915
rotavirus gastroenteritis.rotavirus gastroenteritis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. dehydration, which is often isotonic, occurs in 40 to 80% of patients. rehydration and maintenance of proper fluid and electrolyte balance remains the mainstay of treatment. in recent years, development of efficient diagnostic methods has led to better understanding of the morphology of the virus, the epidemiology and natural history, as well as the importance of rotavirus disease. rapid ...19882855916
[the occurrence of rotaviruses in small children with acute infectious gastroenteritis]. 19882855937
[the role of rotaviruses as a cause of acute diarrhea in children and adolescents]. 19882855941
serological evidence of rotavirus infection in a guinea pig colony.antibodies reacting with simian rotavirus sa11 were detected by enzyme immunoassay (eia) and western blot assay (wba) in sera from guinea pigs bred for experimental use at the fundação oswaldo cruz, rio de janeiro, brazil. the proportion of antibody-positive animals and the antibody titres rose sharply in 1985, were maintained at a high levels in 1986 and declined in 1987. there were no obvious signs of disease coinciding with serological evidence of infection. results of wba suggest that the vi ...19882856077
[temporal distribution of electrophoretic profiles of nucleic acid from rotavirus in the feces of children in belém, pará, brazil].electrophoresis of rotavirus rna in polyacrylamide gel was carried out by using faecal samples collected from children living in the peripheral area of belém, brazil. typical rotavirus profiles (eleven bands) were noted in 46(76.7%) out of 60 elisa rotavirus positive specimens. according to the electrophoretic patterns, 5(10.9%) were classified as subgroup i, while 41(89.1%) of them as subgroup ii. lacking of bands 10 and 11 in 14(23.3%) samples did not allow us to classify their electropherotyp ...19882856078
rotavirus and coronavirus infections in animals. 19852856168
gene cloning to study viral antigens: prospects for novel influenza and rotavirus vaccines. 19872856220
[electrophoretic types of rna from human rotaviruses isolated from a population of children in dakar (senegal)]. 19882856312
polymicrobial aetiology of travellers' diarrhoea.of 35 us peace corps volunteers in thailand, 20 (57%) had a total of 30 episodes of diarrhoea during their first 6 weeks in the country. enteric pathogens were associated with 90% of the episodes. a single pathogen was identified in 17 (57%) episodes, 2-4 pathogens were identified in 10 (33%) episodes, and there were 15 symptomless infections. enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) was identified in 37% of these episodes, and various salmonella serotypes were isolated in 33%. infections with 9 ...19852857430
evidence that a novel rotavirus-like agent of rats can cause gastroenteritis in man.a rotavirus-like agent known to cause gastroenteritis in rats was also found to be associated with diarrhoea in a human population. serological studies indicated that infection with this virus is prevalent in children and adults living in baltimore, maryland. the virus is antigenically and genomically distinct from group a rotaviruses and this should be borne in mind in efforts to develop vaccines for protection against infantile gastroenteritis.19852861512
[frequency of enteropathogenic micro-organisms isolated in children with and without acute diarrhea]. 19852861829
seroepidemiology of adult rotavirus. 19852862483
influence of rotaviral diarrhea on intestinal microflora establishment in conventional and axenic mice. 19852862640
[etiology of acute infantile gastroenteritis in gabon].rotaviruses are the main etiology of acute diarrhoeas in gabonese children (11 to 30% according to age). salmonellae (11.4%), shigellae (7.1%) and e. histolytica (7.1%), isolated or associated with enterobacteria, e. coli (3%), giardia and strongyloides stercoralis (1.4%), yersinia enterocolitica (1%) and balantidium coli (0.5%) were also found, without cholera.19852863005
rotavirus-like agent, rats, and man. 19852864595
chinese adult rotavirus is a group b rotavirus. 19852865590
the relative importance of enteric pathogens affecting neonates of domestic animals. 19852868628
failure of live, attenuated oral rotavirus vaccine. 19862873370
protective effect of naturally acquired homotypic and heterotypic rotavirus assess serotype specificity of immune resistance to rotavirus gastroenteritis, the relation between pre-existing neutralising antibodies to homotypic and heterotypic rotaviruses and protection against infection or clinical illness was investigated. the subjects were 44 orphans exposed once or twice to consecutive outbreaks of gastroenteritis due to type 3 rotavirus in an orphanage in sapporo. sera were collected throughout these outbreaks and the serum levels of neutralising antibodies agains ...19862874413
the detection of enteropathogens in acute diarrhea in a family cohort population in rural 8 villages of rural northeastern egypt, a 2-year study of the etiologic agents associated with episodes of diarrhea was carried out. stool specimens (3,243) from 3,513 episodes of diarrhea were processed for enteropathogens. the most commonly identified agents in the group with diarrhea were giardia lamblia (44%), heat stable enterotoxin (st)-producing enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) (15%), heat labile toxin (lt)-producing etec (12%), enteropathogenic e. coli (epec) (4%), rotavirus (3 ...19862876656
prevalence of various enteropathogens in the feces of diarrheic and healthy calves.the presence of various enteropathogens was examined in the feces of homebred dairy calves reared in a restricted geographical area of france (north west of county of indre-et-loire) during winter 1983-1984. two distinct surveys were carried on: a case-control study including 32 diarrheic calves and 21 healthy calves bred in 53 different farms; and a separate study on nine diarrheic calves in another farm. the following infectious agents were looked for, by specific methods of detection: escheri ...19862877609
self-contained enzymic membrane immunoassay for detection of rotavirus antigen in clinical samples.a self-contained enzymic membrane immunoassay (scemia) system has been developed for the detection of viral antigens in clinical samples. the assay system makes use of antiviral antibodies bound to a nylon membrane, a flow-through washing procedure, and a clearly visible endpoint of the enzymic reaction. a scemia system with antibodies against rotavirus detected rotavirus antigen, within 15 min, in all faecal samples from children with gastroenteritis that were positive for antigen in a standard ...19862878176
prevalence of k88, k99, and 987p pili of escherichia coli in neonatal pigs with enteric hundred nineteen live neonatal pigs with diarrhea less than or equal to 2 weeks old were euthanatized, and frozen sections of their ilea were submitted to an indirect fluorescent antibody technique to identify k88, k99, and 987p pili (also referred to as f-4, f-5, and f-6 pili, respectively) in escherichia coli. ten-centimeter ileal sections were used to determine numbers of lactose-fermenting bacteria. of 52 pigs in which e coli pili were found, 14 had k88 (27%), 23 had k99 (44%), 13 had 98 ...19862878634
occult blood and faecal leucocyte tests in acute infectious diarrhoea in children. 19872880230
an outbreak of rotavirus infection in a geriatric hospital.we describe an outbreak of rotavirus infection in a geriatric hospital. the outbreak lasted for 6 weeks, and affected 14 patients of 68 at risk. diarrhoea was the main symptom, lasting only 1 day in most patients. rising or high rotavirus antibody titres were demonstrated in six patients. of 96 staff only one member was infected.19872880904
protection against severe rotavirus diarrhoea by rhesus rotavirus vaccine in venezuelan infants.the efficacy of the rhesus rotavirus vaccine candidate mmu-18006 was evaluated in a longitudinal double-blind field trial in caracas, venezuela. 247 infants aged 1-10 months were studied and followed for up to 1 year (201 completed the 1-year surveillance): 123 received a dose of 10(4) plaque-forming units of the vaccine orally and 124 received placebo. 21 episodes of rotavirus diarrhoea were detected, 16 in the controls and 5 in the vaccines: vaccine efficacy against any rotavirus diarrhoea was ...19872882289
rotavirus persistence in malabsorption syndrome: virus assessment by immunofluorescence in small intestine biopsies in relation to antibody titres.results of quantitative immunofluorescence (if) in small intestine biopsies and the serum antibody titres as detected by indirect rotalex test in rotavirus infections were compared using regression and correlation analysis. based on the significance of the statistically established correlation (r = 0.76; n = 30) between immunohistological identification of rotavirus antigen and determination of serum antibody levels, the indirect rotalex test may be applied as a diagnostic tool to avoid biopsies ...19872883855
trial of an attenuated bovine rotavirus vaccine (rit 4237) in gambian infants.a randomised, controlled trial of bovine rotavirus vaccine was undertaken in gambian infants. three doses were administered, from the age of ten weeks, concurrently with oral or killed polio vaccine. prevaccination rotavirus neutralising antibody levels were high. 84/185 infants (45%) showed an increase in neutralising antibody titre after receiving rotavirus vaccine, compared with 20/91 (22%) unvaccinated infants. clinical rotavirus infection was detected in 24/78 (31%) children in the rotaviru ...19872884455
trial of an attenuated bovine rotavirus vaccine (rit 4237) 19872886814
occurrence and properties of fy(att25)+ escherichia coli associated with diarrhoea in calves.escherichia coli producing the adhesive antigen fy(att25) were isolated from 46 of 1341 (3.4 per cent) e coli isolated from calves on 20 of 164 (12.1 per cent) farms in scotland and england. twenty of the 46 calves had diarrhoea and in nine of these animals there were mixed infections with rotavirus, coronavirus, cryptosporidium and salmonella typhimurium. the f41 fimbrial adhesin was found on one of the fy(att25)+ e coli. this strain also produced heat stable enterotoxin. the remaining fy(att25 ...19872889286
live attenuated oral rotavirus vaccine. 19872890003
[human retroviruses. significance for pediatrics]. 19872890323
different electrophoretypes of human rotaviruses in hungary.polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of rotaviral double-stranded ribonucleic acid (rna) extracted directly from faecal specimens collected in three different parts of hungary was applied to characterize and distinguish 21 randomly selected viral isolates. this technique made it possible to define 7 different electrophoretypes. of the isolates 11 exhibited an identical "long" electrophoretic migration pattern. "short" rna pattern was found in two cases, and one atypical rotavirus was also revealed ...19872891275
[the occurrence of rotavirus and fimbriae-bearing e. coli types in foals with diarrhea]. 19872892483
serum aspartate aminotransferase levels after rotavirus gastroenteritis. 19882895172
intestinal enzyme profiles in normal and rotavirus-infected investigate further the pathophysiology of rotavirus-induced diarrhea, changes in specific activities of eight relevant intestinal enzymes [alkaline phosphatase, thymidine kinase, lactase, maltase, sucrase, na+,k+-adenosine triphosphatase (atpase), adenylate and guanylate cyclases] were measured following infection of suckling mice with murine rotavirus (epizootic diarrhea of infant mouse strain) and compared with age-matched control mice. the concentration of lactose within the lumen of the ...19882895174
infectivity assay of bovine rotavirus: evaluation of plaque and end-point methods in comparison with immunofluorescent cell assay.three different methods, namely plaque assay, immunofluorescent cell (ifc) count and end-point dilution (tcid50) were evaluated for quantitative infectivity assay of the cell culture adapted uk strain of bovine rotavirus in secondary calf kidney (ck) cells and bgm cell line. plaque and ifc count techniques were found equally efficient for infectivity titration of bovine rotavirus. addition of trypsin into maintenance medium enhanced the sensitivity of the tcid50 method. both ck and bgm cells ser ...19882897773
analysis of electrophoretypes of rotavirus from diarrhoeic faeces of neonatal buffalo calves in india.two distinct rotavirus rna electrophoretypes were revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by silver staining (page-ss). the rotavirus was sampled from the faeces of buffalo calves in india from october, 1986 to january, 1987. in the buffalo farm under study one electrophoretype was prevalent first and then the second appeared after the disappearance of the first electrophoretype. for the detection of rotavirus in the diarrhoeic faeces of buffalo calves page-ss was found more sens ...19882899963
hepatic injury during rotavirus infections. 19882903230
five year study of rotavirus gastroenteritis in bulgaria.we tested by electron microscopy 7,530 samples from children admitted to different hospitals in sofia between february 1981 and february 1986; from these, rotaviruses were found in 725 (9.6%) faecal samples. electron microscopic analysis of 264 samples from 181 children admitted to the hospital of infectious diseases in shumen between december 1984 to february 1986 revealed rotaviruses in 120 (66.6%) of the tested children. a part of the samples positive by electron microscopy was tested by elis ...19882903635
rotavirus infection in gastroenteritis in children.the electron microscopic investigation of biological materials (faeces, intestinal mucous biopsies) from 19 children and sucklings with clinically diagnosed acute gastroenteritis evidenced the presence of some rotavirus-like viral particles in 31 percent of cases. the age of hospitalized subjects varied between 4 months and three years. there have been identified viral particles in the cytoplasm of enterocytes of the intestinal villi and in suspensions of the fecal materials.19852931592
epidemiological model of acute bacterial and viral diarrhoeal diseases. 19852933447
rotavirus-associated diarrhea in a commercial epizootic of diarrheal disease occurred in a commercial specific-pathogen-free rabbitry, and was characterized by sudden onset, rapid spread, and high morbidity and mortality among sucklings. affected rabbits rapidly became dehydrated and most died within two days of the onset of diarrhea. eight of these rabbits were necropsied. five had blunted and fused small intestinal villi with attenuated villous enterocytes. a rotavirus was isolated from four rabbits, and five survivors of affected litt ...19862939288
evidence of immunity induced by naturally acquired rotavirus and norwalk virus infection on two remote panamanian islands.for better understanding of the role of humoral immunity in ameliorating infections with rotavirus (rv) and norwalk virus (nw), 305 cuna indians living on two isolated islands located off panama's carribean coast were surveyed daily for diarrhea over a seven-month period. nine (8%) of 108 persons with a baseline rv antibody titer of greater than 1:4 developed rv infection compared with 70 (46%) of 151 persons with a baseline rv antibody titer of less than 1:4 (p less than .001). thirty-eight (25 ...19852981278
human rotavirus-like particles in a hepatic abscess. 19852981310
effect of malnutrition on rotavirus infection in suckling mice: kinetics of early infection.the effects of malnutrition on the viral replication pattern and severity of clinical disease were examined in suckling mice infected with mouse rotavirus (mrv). the infection in malnourished animals was characterized by a significant decrease in the minimal infectious dose and in the incubation period of the onset of diarrhea, when compared to well-nourished controls. viral replication in the dispersed enterocytes was observed 6-12 hr earlier, fecal viral shedding peaked significantly earlier, ...19852981423
serologic survey of rotavirus, norwalk agent and prototheca wickerhamii in wastewater workers.analysis of paired sera from 48 wastewater workers and controls who reported gastrointestinal illness did not reveal any excess of seroconversions to norwalk agent or to rotavirus. inexperienced wastewater-exposed workers had higher levels of antibody to norwalk agent than did experienced and control workers and those with high and medium aerosol exposure had higher titres than those in the low aerosol category. analysis for prototheca antibody titres was essentially negative.19852981485
isolation and identification of caliciviruses from dogs with enteric infections.caliciviruses were isolated from 7 dogs and 1 captured coyote with enteritis. there was a high fatality rate in dogs 4 to 16 weeks of age. the occurrence in these dogs of concurrent infection with known enteric pathogens such as salmonella sp, canine parvovirus, canine coronavirus, and canine rotavirus did not allow making any conclusions regarding the pathogenicity of this newly recognized calicivirus. the caliciviruses were characterized by electron microscopy and were further identified as be ...19852982299
isolation of ovine rotavirus in cell cultures. brief report.three cytopathic rotavirus strains were isolated in ma 104 cells from intestinal contents of lambs with diarrhea. pretreatment of virus with pancreatin and incorporation of a small amount of pancreatin in maintenance medium were important for establishment of the strains in these cells. the isolates showed marked cross reactions with bovine rotavirus in immunofluorescence, but no cross reaction with bovine, human, simian, equine, porcine and lapine rotaviruses in neutralization.19852982347
nucleic acid probes in diagnosis of viral diseases of man. brief review.with the recent, rapid advances in recombinant dna technology, it has become possible to consider the use of nucleic acid probes in diagnosis of human viral diseases. several examples are discussed which employ techniques of dot blot hybridization, sandwich hybridization and in situ hybridization. typing of viral strains using restriction endonuclease digestion as an epidemiological tool is considered. finally, the present limitations of molecular hybridization are discussed, and future developm ...19852982349
isolation and characterization of cytopathic strains of rotavirus from rabbits. brief report.three cytopathic rotavirus isolates were recovered from young rabbits affected by an enteric syndrome. the three isolates, when compared by cross serum-neutralization tests, were found to be of the same serotype. cross neutralization occurred also between a representative of the rabbit isolates and one strain of bovine rotavirus.19852982351
a combined enzyme immunoassay for rotavirus and adenovirus (eiara).a combined enzyme immunoassay for rotavirus and adenovirus (eiara) was developed as a double-antibody sandwich assay in which test samples are added to plastic wells coated with rotavirus or adenovirus goat antibody. the presence of antigens is detected by mixed-guinea pig antisera to the same viruses followed by rabbit anti-guinea pig igg conjugated with peroxidase and subsequently by ortho-phenylenediamine substrate. titrations of rotavirus (sa11) and adenovirus type 2 tissue culture grown vir ...19852982891
reassortant rotaviruses as potential live rotavirus vaccine candidates.a series of reassortants was isolated from coinfection of cell cultures with a wild-type animal rotavirus and a "noncultivatable" human rotavirus. wild-type bovine rotavirus (uk strain) was reassorted with human rotavirus strains d, ds-1, and p; wild-type rhesus rotavirus was reassorted with human rotavirus strains d and ds-1. the d, ds-1, and p strains represent human rotavirus serotypes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. monospecific antiserum (to bovine rotavirus, ncdv strain) or a set of monoclonal ...19852983101
protection against rotavirus-induced gastroenteritis in a murine model by passively acquired gastrointestinal but not circulating antibodies.newborn mice suckled on dams immunized either orally or parenterally with primate rotavirus sa-11 were protected against diarrhea induced by sa-11 virus challenge. experimental oral administration of milk from orally immunized dams protected suckling mice against challenge; protective activity was detected both in the anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin a (iga) and igg fractions, but iga was more potent in vivo than igg. oral administration of milk from parentally immunized dams also protected sucklin ...19852983120
a two-year longitudinal study on the etiology of acute diarrhea in young children in northern italy.during a 24-month period, 561 young children (6 months-2 years of age) hospitalized for acute diarrhea were studied for enteric pathogens. patients positive for one or more pathogens were 359 (64.0%). infection with one pathogen was found in 266 (47.4%) patients, whereas multiple infection was detected in 93 (16.6%) patients. enteropathogens associated with disease were rotaviruses: 150 (26.7%), adenoviruses: 99 (17,6%), non-polio enteroviruses: 48 (8.5%), coronaviruses: 10 (1.8%), parvoviruses: ...19852983179
antibody to human rotavirus in cow's milk.rotavirus infection is an important cause of gastroenteritis in infants and young children. since the virus replicates in the intestinal lumen, we investigated the presence and effectiveness of rotavirus antibody in three forms of milk: raw milk, pasteurized milk, and commercially available infant formulas. both raw and pasteurized milk contained detectable levels of igg1 antibody directed at rotavirus. on the other hand, little or no anti-rotavirus antibody was detected in commercially availabl ...19852983202
prevalence of antibody to typical and atypical rotaviruses in pigs. 19852983481
laboratory experiments on oral vaccination of calves against rotavirus or coronavirus induced diarrhoea. 19852983509
virus enzyme-linked cell immunoassay (velcia): detection and titration of rotavirus antigen and demonstration of rotavirus neutralizing and total antibodies.virus enzyme-linked cell immunoassay (velcia) for detection and titration of rotavirus antigen has been developed. wild-type porcine rotavirus antigen can be detected and titrated directly from the fecal material within 24 h. porcine osu strain can be titrated higher than 10(-8). the method has also been introduced for the demonstration of rotavirus neutralizing and total antibodies. in velcia the advantages of the cell culture system for virus isolation are combined with enzyme immunodetection ...19852984228
porcine rotavirus-like virus (group b rotavirus): characterization and pathogenicity for gnotobiotic pigs.a rotavirus-like virus (rvlv) was isolated from a diarrheic pig from an ohio swine herd. this virus infected villous enterocytes throughout the small intestine of gnotobiotic pigs and induced an acute, transitory diarrhea. complete virions were rarely observed in the intestinal contents of infected animals; the predominant particle detected by immune electron microscopy was a corelike particle 52 nm in diameter. the genome of the porcine rvlv was composed of 11 discrete segments of double-strand ...19852984243
serotypic characterization of rotaviruses derived from asymptomatic human neonatal infections.nineteen rotavirus strains derived from asymptomatic neonates (seven from england, five from australia, two from venezuela, and five from sweden) were successfully cultivated in primary african green monkey kidney cell cultures, serotyped by plaque reduction neutralization tests, subgrouped by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and electropherotyped by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. all 19 strains were shown to fall into one of the four known human serotypes; serotype 1 (all venezu ...19852984247
enteric viral infections of calves and passive least eight viruses have been identified, four within the last 5 yr, that produce diarrhea and pathological intestinal lesions in experimentally inoculated calves. coronavirus and rotavirus frequently are associated with the neonatal calf diarrhea syndrome, but the etiologic role of the newly identified viruses is undefined. all diarrheal viruses replicate within small intestinal epithelial cells, resulting in variable degrees of villous atrophy. immunity against these viral infections, there ...19852984270
intestinal and serum immune response to a naturally acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis in children.seventeen children (mean age: 2.0 years, range: 36 days-8 years) hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis were investigated. thirteen children had a rotavirus infection while four did not. rotavirus serum iga as well as scig, i.e., antirotavirus immunoglobulin containing secretory component, increased rapidly after rotavirus infection. while rotavirus iga persisted in serum for at least 6 months, rotavirus scig disappeared from serum in less than 4 months. rotavirus igg could be detected in serum ...19852984402
dysentery caused by escherichia coli (s102-9) in calves: natural and experimental disease.a dysentery syndrome was recognized among the institute's calves at 18 to 21 days of age. it was reproduced experimentally in gnotobiotic calves with an atypical escherichia coli (s102-9) isolated from the affected calves. in both natural and experimental disease the calves passed copious bright red blood in the feces and developed diarrhea. walls of the colon and rectum were thickened, and the mucosa was reddened and covered by an exudate that contained mucus and blood clots. bacteria were seen ...19852984830
infant formulas and gastrointestinal illness.infants under age one in a pediatric practice were followed prospectively, and the determinants of acute gastrointestinal illness were evaluated in case-control pairs, matched by birth month. the risk of acute gastrointestinal illness in infants receiving formula was six times greater than in infants receiving breast milk and 2.5 times greater than in infants receiving cow milk. in the second six months of life, infants on formula had 0.38 more gastrointestinal illness episodes per child than in ...19852984949
comparison of the airborne survival of calf rotavirus and poliovirus type 1 (sabin) aerosolized as a mixture.a mixture of a cell culture-adapted strain (c-486) of calf rotavirus and poliovirus type 1 (sabin) was prepared in tryptose phosphate broth containing 0.1% uranine (physical tracer) and antifoam at a final concentration of 0.001%. by using a six-jet collison nebulizer, the mixture was aerosolized into a 300-liter stainless-steel rotating (4 rpm) drum. the temperature of the air inside the drum was kept at 20 +/- 1 degrees c, and the virus aerosols were held at the following three levels of relat ...19852984990
isolation from faecal specimens of new strains of human rotavirus primarily cytopathic for stationary cell cultures without trypsin.eight cytopathic human rotavirus strains were isolated in llc-mk2 cells and in human embryo fibroblasts. the strains were isolated from faeces collected from pediatric and adult patients. pretreatment of specimens with trypsin and trypsin incorporation in maintenance medium were not performed. inoculated monolayers were not subjected to centrifugation and were incubated stationary at 36 degrees c. viruses were identified by electron microscopy and by fluorescent antibody techniques. it is sugges ...19852985029
a field trial to evaluate the efficacy of a combined rotavirus-coronavirus/escherichia coli vaccine in dairy cattle.a field trial was designed to determine the efficacy of a combination rotavirus-coronavirus/escherichia coli vaccine on dairy farms in southwestern ontario. in part a of the trial, 321 cows on 15 farms were randomly assigned to either vaccination or placebo groups. on eight farms, 50% of the dams were vaccinated, while on the other seven farms, 80% of the dams were vaccinated. in part b of the trial, 26 farms were randomly assigned to either a total vaccination program or to no vaccination progr ...19852985213
long-term survival of human rotavirus in raw and treated river water.this study was aimed at assessing the role of water as a vehicle for rotavirus spread by determining how well these viruses survive in the water environment. a cell culture adapted strain of human rotavirus subgroup 2, grown in ma-104 cells, was used as a model. virus survival was tested in the following types of water samples, derived from the ottawa river, at two different times of the year: (i) raw water (rw), (ii) muncipally treated tap water (tw), and (iii) raw water that had been filtered ...19852985227
distinct rotaviruses isolated from asymptomatic calves.rotaviruses were isolated following cell culture of the intestinal contents of four non-diarrheic calves. the four isolates were serially propagated in mdbk and bsc-1 cells in the presence of trypsin and produced rotavirus particles morphologically similar to those found associated with diarrhea. they were antigenically related to the nebraska calf rotavirus (norden strain) as investigated by immunofluorescence. three isolates could be distinguished from the reference nebraska rotavirus by their ...19852985333
evaluation of four tests for detecting human rotavirus in feces. 19852985392
direct appraisal of latex agglutination testing, a convenient alternative to enzyme immunoassay for the detection of rotavirus in childhood gastroenteritis, by comparison of two enzyme immunoassays and two latex tests.during february and march 1984, 207 fecal samples from infants and children with gastroenteritis were tested for rotavirus with four techniques: two enzyme immunoassays (rotazyme; abbott laboratories, north chicago, ill., and enzygnost-rotavirus; calbiochem-behring, la jolla, calif.) and two latex agglutination tests (rotalex; orion research, inc., cambridge, mass., and slidex rota-kit; biomérieux). all stool samples were also tested for yeasts and bacterial pathogens. electron microscopy was us ...19852985650
feasibility and efficacy of in-home water chlorination in rural north-eastern brazil.the purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and effect of an in-home water chlorination programme in a rural village. previous studies at this site showed high levels of faecal coliforms in household water, high diarrhoea rates in children, and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli and rotaviruses were the most common pathogens isolated from patients. household water came from a pond and was stored in clay pots. no homes had sanitary facilities. a blind, cross-over trial of ...19852985691
human enteric coronaviruses: antigenic relatedness to human coronavirus oc43 and possible etiologic role in viral a group of infants with acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis, examination of paired sera for antibody to human coronavirus (hcv) oc43 and neonatal calf diarrhea coronavirus showed a peculiar pattern of serological response, restricted only to hcv oc43 surface antigens, in a significantly higher proportion than among age-matched controls. in another group of infants and young children with acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis, fecal excretion of coronavirus-like particles was detected by electron ...19852985710
a candidate for a new serotype of human rotavirus.we investigated genetic and serological characteristics of a human rotavirus isolate from indonesia which had a "super short" rna electrophoretic pattern (a. hasegawa, s. inouye, s. matsuno, k. yamaoka, r. eko, and w. suharyono, microbiol. immunol. 28:719-722, 1984). this virus, strain 69m, was found by rna-rna hybridization to have a low degree of homology with the representative strains of all four human serotypes. furthermore, it could not be classified by neutralization analysis into any of ...19852985825
travelers' diarrhea. nih consensus development conference.diarrhea is the major health problem in travelers to developing countries. travel to high-risk areas in latin america, africa, the middle east, and asia is associated with diarrhea rates of 20% to 50%. the syndrome is caused by an infection acquired by ingesting fecally contaminated food or beverages. escherichia coli, a common species of enteric bacteria, is the leading pathogen, although a host of other bacteria, viruses, and protozoa have been implicated in some cases. prudent dietary and hyg ...19852985834
rotavirus infection in children presenting with acute gastroenteritis ibadan, nigeria.faecal samples from 84 children presenting with acute gastroenteritis at the university college hospital, ibadan, nigeria and 28 from a non-diarrhoeal control group were tested for rotavirus by an elisa. 18 cases (21%) and none of the controls were positive. hospital in-patients had a higher percentage of positives (25%) than did out-patients (10%). the age distribution of infections showed that the highest infection rate (67%) occurred in children four to six months old. percentages of positive ...19852986323
rise per base pair in helices of double-stranded rotavirus rna determined by electron microscopy.regular helices of double-stranded rna occur in nature only as the genome of certain viruses. the structure of such double-stranded rna helices has been little studied compared to that of dna, but some x-ray crystallographic data (arnott, 1970; saenger, 1984) are available. the recent advent of sequence data of bovine rotavirus rna (dyall-smith et al., 1983; elleman et al., 1983; ward et al., 1984) has enabled us to determine by direct measurement of electron micrographs the translation, or axia ...19852986375
[viral diarrheas].in the developing countries diarrhoea ranks among the most frequent diseases: 5-18 million children are estimated to die annually from gastro-intestinal infections. but also in europe and the usa diarrhoea is of utmost medical importance, especially among children and infants. it was only twelve years ago that 2 viral groups, the norwalk and the rotavirus group, were discovered to be etiological agents responsible for a large proportion of gastro-intestinal infections. whilst viruses of the norw ...19852986379
in vitro activities of bismuth salts against rotaviruses and other enteric viruses.bismuth salts inhibited plaque formation of all enteric viruses tested, which included four strains of rotavirus and one strain each of echovirus, reovirus, and poliovirus. the compounds had no direct virucidal effect at concentrations ranging from 0.025 to 2.5 mg/ml, and the inhibitory effects were observed only at concentrations slightly below those that caused extensive cytotoxicity. plaque inhibition appeared to result from interference with host cell functions, with secondary inhibition of ...19852986544
[etiopathogenesis of infectious diarrheas]. 19852986658
the neurovirulence of human and animal rotaviruses in cercopithecus monkeys.cercopithecus monkeys were inoculated according to the specifications of neurovirulence safety test for live rubella virus vaccine with rit 4237, a rotavirus vaccine candidate. rit 4237 is a high passage level of the nebraska calf diarrhoea virus (ncdv). the histological findings in the first test indicated some involvement of the central nervous system. the same test was therefore repeated with rit 4237, with a lower passage level of the ncdv strain, and with the 'wa' strain, a human virus grow ...19852987270
epidemiology of rotavirus electropherotypes determined by a simplified diagnostic technique with rna analysis.the incidence and rna electropherotypes of rotavirus in stools or rectal swabs of children with diarrhea were studied for three rotavirus seasons (1981 through 1984) in philadelphia, pa. we used a simplified rna analysis method involving polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by silver staining. phosphate-buffered saline suspensions of the stools and swab eluates were examined directly by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-silver staining analysis and enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ro ...19852987300
in vitro detection of porcine rotavirus-like virus (group b rotavirus) and its antibody.four isolates of porcine rotavirus-like virus (prvlv) infected ma104 cells and induced syncytium formation after low-speed centrifugation of the inoculum onto the monolayer. ten of 44 (23%) ohio swine sera had prvlv antibodies when tested by indirect immunofluorescence, using prvlv-infected ma104 cell monolayers as antigen.19852987303
preparation and characterization of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies with different reactivity patterns to human employing three strains of cultivable human rotaviruses with different serotype specificity as immunizing antigens, we prepared 11 hybridomas which secreted neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against human rotaviruses. in neutralization tests with four strains of serotype 1, and three each of serotypes 2 and 3, the monoclonal antibodies showed different reactivity patterns: seven monoclonal antibodies reacted specifically with all strains of either serotype 1, 2 or 3 human rotavirus, but two ...19852987395
[viral gastroenteritis: serological characteristics and molecular epidemiology of human rotavirus]. 19852987572
rotavirus electrophoretypes in infantile gastro-enteritis. an epidemiological study.from january first 1978 to september 30, 1981, 93 fecal samples from children hospitalized with a rotavirus gastro-enteritis were tested after rna extraction and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 14 electrophoretypes (ti--t14) were identified by this technique. they were studied in relation with epidemiological as well as clinical symptoms. no electrophoretype correlated well with age or living area. the electrophoretype t3 was found only in male infants and the electrophoretype t7 was 3 times ...19852987774
transmission of viral infections by the water route: implications for developing countries.the "enteric" virus group comprises greater than 100 different viruses. these viruses typically infect the cell lining of the alimentary canal and are discharged in very large numbers in the feces of infected persons. contamination of water supplies by enteric viruses represents an important source of viral infection. many communities, particularly in developing countries, depend on sewage-polluted sources for their recreational and drinking water. because conventional methods of sewage and wate ...19852988098
[diagnosis of rotavirus infection using coagglutination reactions]. 19852988212
rotavirus infections in conventional pigs: kinetics excretion in faeces of rotavirus antigens, antibodies and immune complexes by pigs from birth up to three month of age. 19852988238
detection of rotavirus by a latex agglutination test, rotalex: comparison with electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.a commercially available latex agglutination test, rotalex (orion diagnostics, finland), for detecting rotaviruses was evaluated in comparison with four other tests (electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) routinely used in our laboratories. although rotalex was the least complex method, it showed lack of specificity and sensitivity when carried out according to the manufacturer's instructions. four basic modifications o ...19852989342
the etiology of diarrhoea studied in the community in young urban gambian a community-based longitudinal study of 126 urban gambian children from birth to 2 years, bacterial and/or viral pathogens were identified significantly more often in diarrheal episodes studied (27.5%) than during control periods (19.0%), (p0.001). rotavirus and st-toxigenic escherichia coli emerged as the most frequently-occurring pathogens in symptomatic children. campylobacter species, accounting for nearly 1/3 of all pathogens, isolated, occurred more frequently during control periods, ...19852989356
rotavirus prevalence and relationships with climatological factors in gabon, africa.a one-year study of rotavirus prevalence was carried out using electron microscopy in gabon, equatorial africa. one hundred fifty-six nonhospitalized diarrheic children up to 10 years of age and 115 age-matched controls were investigated together with diarrheic adults and children over 10 years of age. rotaviruses were observed only in diarrheic children under 10 years of age (10.2%). rotaviruses were more prevalent in the dry-season months (19.2% versus 1.3%, p less than .001). rotaviruses were ...19852989420
analysis of the terminal sequences of the genome segments of four orbiviruses.the rna sequences of the terminal regions of the genome segments of 4 different orbiviruses were analysed. in 3 of these [bluetongue virus (btv) types 1 and 20 and ibaraki virus, a member of the epizootic hemorrhagic disease (ehd) serogroup], 1 strand of all of the genome segments analysed ends in 3'caauuu...5' while the other strand ends in 3'cauuca...5'. these conserved sequences are identical to those reported for btv types 10 and 11. the 3' terminal sequences of segments 3 and 10 of the btv ...19852989875
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