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[a follow-up survey on the human rotavirus carrier state in apparently normal individuals of mianyang county]. 19872820583
cultivation and characterization of rotavirus strains infecting newborn babies in melbourne, australia, from 1975 to 1979.twenty-three rotavirus strains obtained from the stools of 71 newborn babies were adapted to growth in ma-104 cells. babies were housed in newborn nurseries of eight different obstetric hospitals in melbourne between 1975 and 1979. all strains belonged to serotype 3 when reacted with serotype-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in an enzyme immunoassay. genome rna of these 23 strains and of one stool virus not adapted to cell culture were compared by coelectrophoresis of mixtures of rna. ...19872821061
evaluation of a latex test for rotavirus detection.a latex agglutination (la) test (slidex rota-kit; biomérieux, marcy-l'etoile, france) was a rapid, easily used method for detecting rotavirus (rv) in pediatric fecal specimens. with 45 rv-positive and 50 rv-negative diarrhea specimens, the sensitivity of the la test was 82%, and the specificity was 100%. six other specimens produced indeterminate results. the frequency of positive la tests appeared to be proportional to the concentration of virions in the stool.19872821065
specificity of dot hybridization assay in the presence of rrna for detection of rotaviruses in clinical specimens.nucleic acid hybridization is used to identify viral genomic sequences in clinical and environmental samples. however, rna virus genomes have been reported to hybridize to mammalian rrna from uninfected cells under stringent conditions, and caution has therefore been advised in the use of nucleic acid probes for detection of rna viruses. to evaluate the effect of rrna on a diagnostic assay for an rna virus, we tested the specificity of a rotavirus dot hybridization assay with clinical specimens ...19872821066
avirulent rotavirus infections protect calves from disease with and without inducing high levels of neutralizing antibody.two bovine rotaviruses, c3-160 and 17/4, which multiplied in calves without inducing disease, were studied for their ability to protect against disease caused by a virulent rotavirus, cp-1. rotavirus 17/4 and the virulent virus cp-1 cross-neutralized poorly and, on the basis of 20-fold differences in neutralization titres, belonged to different serotypes. rotaviruses c3-160 and cp-1 were more closely related: neutralization of the cp-1 virus by c3-160 antisera was within 20-fold of the homologou ...19872821172
candidate rotavirus vaccine (rhesus rotavirus strain) in children: an evaluation.fifty children, 3 months to 12 years of age, were given an experimental, orally administered, live attenuated rotavirus vaccine. overall evidence of vaccine effectiveness as judged by vaccine virus shedding or a serologic response was seen in 82% of vaccinees. no clinical illness was seen in the rotavirus vaccinees when compared with 40 concurrently studied control children. no transmission to control children was observed even with close daily contact in a day-care setting. young infants, gener ...19872821477
nucleotide sequence for gene 6 of rotavirus strain s2. 19872821494
[detection of the rotavirus group antigen by a screening test using the elisa-ic kit in subjects with acute gastroenteritis, at the pediatric services of moldavia].the rotaviral antigen was detected by a screening test using the elisa-ic kit in 17.6% out of 415 children with acute gastroenteritis. the highest frequency (28.9%) was found in children hospitalized in pediatric services with a diagnosis of diarrhoeic disease associated to acute respiratory infection. the rotavirus infection incidence was about three times higher during the cold season than during summer (30.4% versus 10.5%). the 6-11 month age group was the most severely affected.19872821675
infectivity and antigenicity reduction rates of human rotavirus strain wa in fresh waters.the rates of inactivation of human rotavirus type 2 (strain wa) (hrv-wa) and poliovirus type 1 (strain chat) were compared in polluted waters (creek water and secondary effluent before chlorination) and nonpolluted waters (lake water, groundwater, and chlorinated tap water). viral infectivity titers were determined by plaque assays, while hrv-wa antigenicity also was monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. both viruses persisted longest in lake water and shortest in tap water. the act ...19872821902
bovine rotavirus with rearranged genome reassorts with human rotavirus. brief report.bovine rotavirus (brv) possessing a rearranged genome [hundley et al. (1985), virology 143: 88-103] was found to reassort with tissue culture-adapted group a human rotavirus carrying a standard genome. the rearranged part of the brv genome containing segment 5-specific sequences was exchanged with the normal rna segment 5 of the human rotavirus in some of the reassortants.19872821964
variations and persistency of electropherotypes of bovine rotavirus field isolates. brief report.genomic variations in electropherotypes of bovine rotavirus were analyzed in dairy farms. a unique electropherotype was detected in each farm which persisted at least for a year. in one farm a dual infection and a second electropherotype were detected.19872821965
penetration and uncoating of rotaviruses in cultured cells.early steps of replication (penetration and uncoating) of the osu strain of porcine rotavirus were studied in ma-104 cells. after adsorption of trypsin-treated viruses at 4 degrees, followed by a shifting of the temperature to 37 degrees, particles were seen within coated pits, coated vesicles, and secondary lysosomes, indicating that virus entry occurred by receptor-mediated endocytosis, and that uncoating (removal of the outer capsid) could occur by the effect of lysosomal enzymes. this latter ...19872822601
antigenic characterization of rotaviruses isolated in kenya from 1982 to 1983.the electropherotypes of human rotavirus rnas from 100 diarrheic stool specimens collected in two major districts of kenya from 1982 to 1983 were previously reported (y. chiba, c. miyazaki, y. makino, l. n. mutanda, a. kibue, e. o. lichenga, and p. m. tukei, j. clin. microbiol. 19:579-582, 1984). of these specimens, 25 that contained rotaviruses with different rna electropherotypes were subjected to a virus isolation experiment with ma-104 cells, and 16 rotavirus strains were isolated. the use o ...19872822762
seroepidemiology of rotavirus in singapore. 19862822792
heterogeneity of genome rearrangements in rotaviruses isolated from a chronically infected immunodeficient child.rotaviruses with genome rearrangements, isolated from a chronically infected immunodeficient child, were adapted to growth in bsc-1 cells. preparations of viral rna from fecal extracts showed a mixed atypical rotavirus rna profile, which was due to the presence of at least 12 subpopulations of viruses grossly differing in genotype. besides various forms of genome rearrangements involving segment 8-, 10-, and 11-specific sequences, reassortment in vivo was likely to have occurred during the emerg ...19872822946
synthesis of plus- and minus-strand rna in rotavirus-infected cells.the genomes of the rotaviruses consist of 11 segments of double-stranded rna. during rna replication, the viral plus-strand rna serves as the template for minus-strand rna synthesis. to characterize the kinetics of rna replication, the synthesis and steady-state levels of viral plus- and minus-strand rna and double-stranded rna in simian rotavirus sa11-infected ma104 cells were analyzed by electrophoresis on 1.75% agarose gels containing 6 m urea (ph 3.0). synthesis of viral plus-strand and minu ...19872822955
comparison of elisa, direct electron microscopy and antibody capture technique for detection of rotavirus in human stools--an experience in a developing country. 19872822975
perspective on the development and deployment of rotavirus vaccines. 19872823210
[ultrastructure of rotavirus].the human rotavirus is an icosadeltahedral structure, with a characteristic pattern of a triangulation number (t) of 13 with a skew symmetry. the inner layer of the rotavirus has 132 morphological units, with 260 structural units of trimetric structure. it is possible that the outer layer is a smooth geodesic shell.19862823323
virological implications of the use of primates in xenotransplantation. 19872823433
[etiological study of viral gastroenteritis in swine].studied were the etiology and spread of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in pigs over a period of five years. ascertained were cases of diarrhea caused by the virus of transmissive gastroenteritis, epizootic diarrhea, and rotaviruses. the transmissive gastroenteritis virus was found in 14.1 per cent of the investigated material, mostly in the winter months (67.8 per cent), which was 65.6 per cent of the positive cases. the number of cases and that of the farms involved abruptly rose in the last two ...19872823451
[rotavirus enteritis in buffaloes].immunodiffusion was used to investigate a total of 492 serum samples of buffaloes--buffalo calves up to the age of 6 months and buffalo heifers--on both private and public farms. positive serological reagents for rotaviruses were established in 73.4 per cent of the cases. the study of the same samples via the blocking elisa test revealed the presence of 86.2 per cent positive cases. it was demonstrated that this type of the elisa technique was a more precise method for the demonstration of group ...19872823454
nucleotide sequence and expression in escherichia coli of the gene encoding the nonstructural protein ncvp2 of bovine rotavirus.cloned dna copy of rotavirus genome segment 5 from bovine rotavirus rf strain has been used to determine the nucleotide sequence of the gene that encodes for the nonstructural viral protein ncvp2. the sequence data indicated that segment 5 consists of 1581 base pairs and is a + t rich (66%). the positive strand of segment 5 contains a single open reading frame that extends 491 codons and possesses 5'- and 3'-terminal untranslated regions of 32 and 73 base pairs, respectively. the first aug confo ...19872823457
comparison of the amino acid sequences of the major neutralization protein of four human rotavirus serotypes.we sequenced the gene coding for the major neutralizing protein (vp7) from eight human rotavirus strains representing serotype 1, 2, 3, or 4. in addition, the corresponding gene of the rhesus rotavirus vaccine strain mmu 18006 (serotype 3) was sequenced. comparative analyses of their deduced amino acid sequences revealed an overall 15-29% divergence in the vp7 proteins that define four different rotavirus serotypes and confirmed the presence of six discrete regions of clustered sequence divergen ...19872823458
[molecular drift of rotavirus during attenuation].the genome structure and polypeptide composition of a rotavirus virion isolated from piglets is described. proteins p90 and p38 were localized in the external capsid of the virion, and the group-specific antigen of rotaviruses, protein p42, in the internal capsid. minor polypeptides p116, p98, and p92 were associated with the virus core. a scheme of the structure of porcine rotavirus virion is proposed on the basis of the virion ultrastructure and localization of viral proteins in the capsid. at ...19872823483
[isolation of the human rotavirus in a cell culture of green monkey kidneys].properties of a virus isolated from a patient with rotavirus gastroenteritis (the diagnosis verified by direct electron microscopy) were studied. the virus was identified as a rotavirus in tissue culture neutralization and complement fixation tests. it was shown to replicate through a significant number of passages in continuous cell cultures (vero, rh) as well as in primary cell cultures of human and animal origin (human embryo kidney, green monkey kidney); some features associated with rotavir ...19872823484
[viruses of pediatric gastroenteritis]. 19872823672
inactivation of animal viruses during sewage sludge treatment.using a previously developed filter adsorption technique, the inactivation of a human rotavirus, a coxsackievirus b5, and a bovine parvovirus was monitored during sludge treatment processes. during conventional anaerobic mesophilic digestion at 35 to 36 degrees c, only minor inactivation of all three viruses occurred. the k' values measured were 0.314 log10 unit/day for rotavirus, 0.475 log10 unit/day for coxsackievirus b5, and 0.944 log10 unit/day for parvovirus. however, anaerobic thermophilic ...19872823708
inactivation of human and simian rotaviruses by ozone.the inactivation of simian rotavirus sa-11 and human rotavirus type 2 (wa) by ozone was compared at 4 degrees c by using single-particle virus stocks. although the human strain was clearly more sensitive, both virus types were rapidly inactivated by ozone concentrations of 0.25 mg/liter or greater at all ph levels tested. comparison of the virucidal activity of ozone with that of chlorine in identical experiments indicated little significant difference in rotavirus-inactivating efficiencies when ...19872823709
characterization of viral polypeptides from avian rotavirus.the synthesis of avian rotavirus (avrv-1) polypeptides in ma 104 cells was investigated. extracts of cells labeled with either [35s]methionine or [3h]mannose were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. viral protein synthesis was detected first at 6 hours postinfection. ten major viral polypeptides were detected at this time. the presence of five viral structural proteins (100k, 90k, 88k, 45k, and 37k) were demonstrated in avrv-1-infected cells by immunoprecipitat ...19872823777
etiologic role of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli & rotavirus in acute diarrhoea in delhi children. 19872824350
purification of polymeric immunoglobulin from cell culture supernatants by affinity chromatography using secretory component.human secretory component bound covalently to sepharose 4b has been used as an affinity adsorbent to isolate and purify polymeric immunoglobulin from cell culture supernatants. the method was used to isolate murine igm isotype anti-trinitrophenol antibody and rat igm isotype anti-lymphocyte antibody from hybridoma cell culture supernatants. gel filtration of the eluted antibodies followed by enzyme immunoassay showed that all recovered igm was of pentameric molecular size. murine iga isotype ant ...19872824617
neutralizing antibody response of gnotobiotic piglets after fetal infection and neonatal challenge with human rotavirus strains. 19872824622
biophysical characterization of rotavirus particles containing rearranged genomes.human rotaviruses containing rearranged genomes were found to package up to 1,800 additional base pairs in virus particles. the viruses compared were indistinguishable in respect of their particle diameters and their apparent s values. particles containing rearranged genomes were found to be of a higher density than rotavirus particles containing a standard genome as determined by equilibrium density ultracentrifugation. the increase in density was directly proportional to the number of addition ...19872824672
expression of bovine rotavirus neutralization antigen in escherichia coli.a 646 bp fragment derived from a full length cdna clone of genomic segment 9 of bovine rotavirus (ncdv strain) was inserted into escherichia coli expression plasmid pex1. the fragment encodes amino acids 50 to 265 of the major vital neutralization antigen vp7, a 326 amino acid long outer shell glycoprotein. several transformed bacterial clones were isolated in which the recombinant plasmid directed the synthesis of a cro-beta-galactosidase-vp7 fusion protein that was recognized by rabbit polyclo ...19872824674
serotyping and subgrouping of some rotavirus strains in china.this article reports for the first time in china the results of serotyping and subgrouping of some rotavirus strains obtained from faecal fluids of cases with infant diarrhoea. infant diarrhoea rotavirus serotype 1 (wa strain)-specific and serotype 2 (kun strain)-specific hyperimmune sera, and infant diarrhoea rotavirus serotype 3-specific, rotavirus subgroup i-specific and subgroup ii-specific monoclonal antibodies were used in serotyping and subgrouping by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent ...19872824683
the cellular secretory pathway is not utilized for biosynthesis, modification, or intracellular transport of the simian virus 40 large tumor antigen.unlike most proteins, which are localized within a single subcellular compartment in the eucaryotic cell, the simian virus 40 (sv40) large tumor antigen (t-ag) is associated with both the nucleus and the plasma membrane. current knowledge of protein processing would predict a role for the secretory pathway in the biosynthesis and transport of at least a subpopulation of t-ag to account for certain of its chemical modifications and for its ability to reach the cell surface. we have examined this ...19872824825
rotavirus-specific cytotoxic t lymphocytes cross-react with target cells infected with different rotavirus serotypes.splenocytes from adult c57bl6 (h-2b) mice orally inoculated with nonmurine rotaviruses lysed syngeneic rotavirus-infected target cells. cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctls) were responsible for this cytotoxic activity. cytotoxic activity was (i) detected 7 days after primary oral inoculation; (ii) not detected in uninoculated animals; (iii) specific for rotavirus-infected target cells; (iv) eliminated by treatment with thy 1.2-specific immunoglobulin m and complement; and (v) restricted at h-2db. in a ...19882824841
assignment of simian rotavirus sa11 temperature-sensitive mutant groups a, c, f, and g to genome segments.crosses were performed between prototype temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of simian rotavirus sa11 representing reassortment groups a, c, f, and g and ts mutants of rhesus rotavirus rrv that belonged to different reassortment groups. wild-type (ts+) reassortant progeny were identified by plaque formation at nonpermissive temperature (39 degrees), picked, and grown to high titer. the ts+ phenotype of the resulting progeny clones was verified by titration at 39 degrees and 31 degrees. the electr ...19872825418
evidence for endocytosis-independent infection by human rotavirus.the effects of five lysosomotropic drugs (nh4cl, chloroquine, methylamine, amantadine and dansylcadaverine) and cytochalasin b on human rotavirus (hrv kun strain) and vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv indiana strain) infection in monkey ma 104 cells were examined. these drugs had little effect on hrv yield but greatly reduced vsv yield. the results strongly suggest that hrv does not require endocytotic activity and intracellular acidic vesicles for the initial stage of infection and support our po ...19872825623
[prolonged excretion of rotavirus in infants with diarrhea]. 19872825729
[laboratory findings and treatment of autumn infantile diarrhea caused by rotavirus]. 19872826026
cryptosporidium oocysts in immunocompetent children: epidemiologic investigations in the day-care centers of poitiers, france.the recent discovery of self-resolving cryptosporidium infection in immunocompetent patients has aroused growing interest in this parasite, which has thus far been known to affect mainly immunodeficient individuals. following the hospitalization of two children attending the same day-care center in february 1986 cryptosporidium oocysts were found in the stools of one of them. this led to an epidemiological investigation to assess the frequency of cryptosporidium oocysts in the stools of children ...19872826221
processing of rotavirus glycoprotein vp7: implications for the retention of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum.rotaviruses are icosahedral particles that assemble in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (er). the viral glycoprotein, vp7, is also directed into this compartment and is retained for assembly onto the surface of viral cores. vp7 is therefore a resident er glycoprotein with a luminal orientation. the vp7 gene possesses two potential in-frame initiation codons, each preceding a hydrophobic domain. mature vp7 is derived from a precursor by cleavage but the site of cleavage has not been determi ...19872826493
a combined dot nitrocellulose-enzyme immunoassay for rotavirus and adenovirus.a combined enzyme immunoassay using nitrocellulose membrane as solid support is described for the detection of rotavirus and adenovirus in faeces from children with gastroenteritis. its sensitivity and specificity are comparable to those of a previously described assay performed on plastic microplates (pereira et al. (1985) j. virol. methods 10, 21-28). the introduction of nitrocellulose membrane as support for the immune reactions greatly simplifies the multiple washing steps and precludes the ...19872826521
serum albumin treatment to eliminate false-positive results with laboratory rodent specimens tested by rotazyme enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.a high proportion of positive results was found in fecal specimens from mice and rats tested by rotazyme ii enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but the presence of virus could not be confirmed. positive specimens and nonautoclaved rodent diet contained a substance that apparently attached nonspecifically to the antibody-coated beads used in the test and reacted directly with the substrate. pretreatment of the beads with 0.1% bovine serum albumin eliminated this nonspecific activity.19872826539
rapid and reliable routine diagnosis of rotavirus using a commercial monoclonal antibody based immunoassay. 19872826547
occurrence of rotaviruses in guangzhou and hong kong.electropherotypes of human rotavirus (hrv) isolated from hong kong and guangzhou were compared to study the transmission of hrv between the cities. forty-one electropherotypes were identified from 418 hospitalized patients with hrv infection at the queen mary hospital, and 22 were detected from 66 outpatients in community clinics at a separate area in hong kong. nineteen electropherotypes were detected in 370 hospitalized cases of hrv infection from seven hospitals in guangzhou. results showed t ...19882826616
a clinical study of rotavirus diarrhea in thai children. 19872826634
reassortant formation and selection following coinfection of cultured cells with subgroup 2 human rotaviruses.reassortant formation following coinfection has been suggested as a mechanism of evolution of rotaviruses. this study was designed to examine the selection of reassortants following coinfection of cultured cells with pairs of subgroup 2 human rotaviruses. the three pairs studied (wa x p, cjn x 31, 62 x 69) were chosen to maximize the number of rna segments that could be electrophoretically distinguished. after coinfection and multiple passages, reproducible selection of reassortants was observed ...19882826663
specific serum iga in rotavirus gastroenteritis.virus-specific serum igm, iga, and igg were detected by elisa in sera obtained from children with rotavirus gastroenteritis and fractionated by gel filtration. specific igm and igg could be easily demonstrated, whereas iga were very low. moreover, polymeric iga (p-iga) were not present, whereas in the immune response against viruses causing systemic infections, they are synthetised in large amounts.19872826676
serologic characteristics of a human rotavirus isolate, au-1, which has a "long" rna pattern and subgroup i specificity.an unusual human rotavirus (hrv) isolate, designated au-1, has a "long" rna electrophoretic pattern and subgroup i specificity, in contrast to properties common to hrvs previously isolated. hemagglutination activity of the au-1 strain was demonstrated using erythrocytes of 1-day-old chicken. neutralization assays revealed that the au-1 strain was crossneutralized by hyperimmune antisera against the mo strain (serotype 3). however, antiserum directed against a reassortant in which the gene for vp ...19872826677
a comparison of seven strains of porcine rotavirus as studied by serum neutralization and rna electrophoresis.seven strains of porcine rotavirus, four of which (83/17f, 84/52f, 84/106f, 84/158f) had been isolated from diarrheic piglets in herds located in three regions (lombardia, veneto, emilia) of northern italy, and the remaining three (sw 20/21, osu, s80) obtained from the u.k., usa and japan, respectively, were compared. the study included reciprocal serum neutralization tests as well as genomic rna electrophoresis. the italian isolates together with the u.k. (sw 20/21) and the usa (osu) strains pr ...19872826970
enteric infections in veal calves: a longitudinal study on four veal calf units.forty-five calves on four veal calf units were monitored during the first four weeks after their arrival. faecal samples were collected on alternate days and screened for the presence of rotaviruses, bovine coronavirus, cryptosporidium oocysts, k99 positive strains of e. coli and salmonella spp. rotaviruses and cryptosporidium were the most commonly detected agents (78% and 60% respectively of the calves). bovine coronavirus was detected in the faeces of 18% of the calves, whilst k99 positive e. ...19872827367
derivation of a monoclonal antibody against the group specific antigen of rotaviruses and its use in a diagnostic enzymatic immunoassay. 19862827408
rotavirus infection in mice: pathogenesis and immunity. 19872827439
isotypes of intestinal and systemic antibodies in colostrum-fed and colostrum-deprived calves challenged with rotavirus. 19872827445
mucosal antibody response of calves after oral and intrabronchial administration of rotavirus. 19872827448
application of dna hybridization techniques in the assessment of diarrheal disease among refugees in thailand.the epidemiology and etiology of acute diarrheal disease were determined in a hmong refugee camp on the thai-laotian border from april 11 to may 14, 1985. dna hybridization techniques were used to detect shigella species, enteroinvasive escherichia coli, and enterotoxigenic e. coli. a monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect rotavirus, and standard microbiology was used to detect other enteropathogens. the age-specific diarrheal disease rates were 47 episodes per month per ...19882827459
methods for recovering poliovirus and rotavirus from oysters.polioviruses and rotaviruses are potential indicators of sewage pollution of water and shellfish. several methods for detecting these viruses in oysters were assessed. elution-precipitation involving catfloc for clarification and skim milk for subsequent flocculation resulted in the recovery of an average of 79% of poliovirus type 1 and 37% of rotavirus sa-11 from oyster homogenates inoculated with low numbers of these viruses. adsorption-elution-precipitation did not improve the recovery of pol ...19872827573
serotyping of rotavirus by nadp-enhanced enzyme-immunoassay.a method is described for the serotyping of rotaviruses directly from samples of faeces. serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies were used in a solid phase enzyme-immunoassay utilising a novel substrate system based on the de-phosphorylation of nadp, followed by cyclic colour reaction. this method is shown to be approximately 5-10 times more specific and sensitive than assays utilising a conventional substrate for alkaline phosphatase, and allowed serotypes to be ascribed to samples which could ...19872828402
development of methods to study the survival of airborne viruses.a number of viruses have been shown to be transmitted by the airborne route. it is the ability of these viruses to retain their infectivity for living hosts which play a key role in their aerial dissemination. data generated by a number of workers on the airborne survival of viruses varies considerably because laboratory techniques have not been standardized. about 5 yr ago we started studies on the airborne survival of a number of animal and human viruses. this paper describes the methodology d ...19872828403
evaluation of new commercial enzyme immunoassay for rotavirus detection.we evaluated a new commercial enzyme immunoassay (eia) for rotavirus (rotavirus eia; international diagnostic laboratories, chesterfield, mo.). a total of 161 consecutive stool samples (including 18 from infants less than 30 days old) submitted to the diagnostic laboratory at children's hospital, washington university medical center, st. louis, mo., for rotavirus detection were tested by rotavirus eia and by rotazyme ii (abbott laboratories, north chicago, iii.) according to the instructions of ...19872828415
molecular epidemiology of rotavirus in black infants in south africa.the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus infections in black infants in ga-rankuwa, south africa, was investigated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. between 1983 and 1986, 14 different rna electrophoretic patterns were observed for children with acute gastroenteritis. these electrophoretypes showed a sequential pattern of appearance, with a limited number being present at any one time. in contrast, for neonates only one rna electrophoretype was detected, which persisted for at least 3 years.19872828416
production and characterization of neutralizing monoclonal antibody to a human rotavirus strain with a "super-short" rna pattern.a neutralizing monoclonal antibody, b37:1, against a human rotavirus (b37) with a "super-short" rna pattern was derived. the antibody gave serotype-specific reactions with a panel of standard rotaviruses and was reactive in an enzyme immunoassay. epidemiological studies of this new human serotype should now be possible.19872828420
use of serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies to study the epidemiology of rotavirus infection.the development of an enzyme immunoassay (eia) capable of serotyping human rotavirus (hrv) in faecal extracts has enabled us to retrospectively study the epidemiology of rotavirus infection in melbourne. of 552 stored specimens obtained from individuals with rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis between 1975 and 1986, the serotype could be determined in 62%. infection was most prevalent in two groups, neonates and children aged between 12 and 24 months. in these groups infection was due to differ ...19882828532
rotavirus shedding by neonates and possible modes of transmission. 19872828647
infection immunity of piglets to either vp3 or vp7 outer capsid protein confers resistance to challenge with a virulent rotavirus bearing the corresponding antigen.a single-gene substitution reassortant 11-1 was generated from two porcine rotaviruses, osu (serotype 5) and gottfried (serotype 4). this reassortant derived 10 genes, including gene 4 encoding vp3, from the osu strain and only gene 9, encoding a major neutralization glycoprotein (vp7), from the gottfried strain and was thus designated vp3:5; vp7:4. oral administration of this reassortant to colostrum-deprived gnotobiotic newborn pigs induced a high level of neutralizing antibodies not only to g ...19882828669
clinical and laboratory characteristics of rotavirus-associated diarrhoea. 19872828895
antibodies to rotaviruses in chickens' eggs: a potential source of antiviral immunoglobulins suitable for human consumption.the prevalence of antibodies to human rotaviruses in commercially available eggs and egg products that are suitable for human consumption was investigated. the yolks of virtually all of the individual eggs and pasteurized pooled egg preparations contain antirotavirus antibodies detectable by means of enzyme immunoassay systems. also, the eggs and egg preparations are capable of inhibiting the growth of two strains of rotaviruses in tissue culture. chromatographic studies indicated that the antig ...19882829106
nucleotide sequence of porcine rotavirus (osu strain) gene segments 7, 8, and 9. 19882829124
nucleotide sequence of bovine rotavirus genomic segment 10: an rna encoding the viral nonstructural glycoprotein. 19882829135
gene sequence of the vp7 serotype specific glycoprotein of gottfried porcine rotavirus. 19882829137
the rhesus rotavirus gene encoding protein vp3: location of amino acids involved in homologous and heterologous rotavirus neutralization and identification of a putative fusion region.the complete gene 4 nucleotide sequence was determined for rhesus rotavirus and each of 11 viral variants selected by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. gene 4 is 2362 bases in length and encodes a protein, vp3, of 776 amino acids with a calculated mr of 86,500. a conserved trypsin cleavage site, located at amino acid 247, divides vp3 into vp8 and vp5. neutralizing monoclonal antibodies directed at vp3 were used to select variants that escaped neutralization. each variant contains a single gene ...19882829198
[comparison of enzyme immunoassay, counterimmunoelectrophoresis and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for the diagnosis of rotaviruses].detection of human rotaviruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), provided by the world health organization, in 100 stool specimens was compared with the sensitivity of detection by counterimmunoelectrophoresis (cied) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). table 1 shows that 34 samples were found to contain rotavirus antigens by elisa and in other 4 specimens false negative results were observed in the elisa confirmatory test because of high antigen concentration. the elisa co ...19852829273
development of nasal, fecal and serum isotype-specific antibodies in calves challenged with bovine coronavirus or rotavirus.unsuckled specific pathogen free calves were inoculated at 3-4 weeks of age, either intranasally (in) or orally (o) with bovine coronavirus or o plus in (o/in) or o with bovine rotavirus. shedding of virus in nasal or fecal samples, and virus-infected nasal epithelial cells were detected using immunofluorescent staining (if), elisa or immune electron microscopy (iem). isotype-specific antibody titers in sera, nasal and fecal samples were determined by elisa. calves inoculated with coronavirus sh ...19872829415
[rotavirus infection in the older child and adult].rotaviruses were detected in 1.3% of more than 10,000 stool samples from children--older than 6 years--and adults. beside rotaviruses the main enteropathogenic agents found were salmonellae (6.3%) and campylobacter jejuni/coli (1.7%). similar as the rotavirus infection of infants, in adults symptoms and signs were nearly the same except that the disease was not so severe. a correlation of the rotavirus infection with certain behaviour or eating habits was not found.19872830184
new porcine rotavirus serotype antigenically related to human rotavirus serotype 3.serotyping of porcine rotaviruses isolated in ma104 cells from australian piglets with diarrhea showed that two strains belonged to serotype 3 and one strain was antigenically similar to the osu strain of porcine rotavirus (serotype 5). in addition, neutralizing antibodies to human rotavirus serotype 4 (st-3 strain) were detected in serum samples from sows in one area, and so it seems probable that porcine rotaviruses of at least three serotypes occur in australia.19882830302
polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of rna compared with polyclonal- and monoclonal-antibody-based enzyme immunoassays for rotavirus.polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) of rotaviral rna, a sensitive and highly specific test for detecting rotavirus in stool, was compared with two commercially available enzyme immunoassays (eias), monoclonal (pathfinder) and polyclonal (rotazyme ii). stool samples from 204 children with nosocomial diarrhea were tested for rotavirus by both eias and by page of rna extracted from raw stools or 10% stool suspensions. samples which tested positive by either eia but were negative by page were ...19882830303
kinetics of intestinal replication of group b rotavirus and relevance to diagnostic methods.non-group-a rotaviruses have been implicated with increasing frequency as causes of acute gastroenteritis in humans and other animals. however, the incidence and significance of infection with these agents, as well as appropriate diagnostic strategies for making these determinations, are largely unknown. studies to make these determinations could be more accurately conducted if the relationship between the viral replication kinetics and the particular diagnostic method used is understood. we thu ...19882830307
recent respiratory and enteric adenovirus infection in children in the manchester area.seventy-three group b adenoviruses (29 type 3 and 44 type 7) identified in a recent community outbreak were analysed with restriction endonucleases. considerable genetic heterogeneity was identified, particularly amongst the type 3 isolates, but this genome variation could not be correlated with either clinical or epidemiological findings. group f adenoviruses were found in 132 (4.1%) of 3202 stool specimens from children with gastroenteritis and, after rotaviruses, they were the most common vir ...19882830401
nosocomial transmission of rotavirus infection.children admitted to the infant ward between november 30, 1983, and may 5, 1984, were sampled for rotavirus antigen at admission and at 4-day intervals during subsequent hospitalization. rotavirus was detected in 51 of 315 infants, 24 at the initial sampling and 27 after 72 hours of hospitalization (nosocomial cases). forty-one of the cases were symptomatic and 10 were asymptomatic. nosocomial rotavirus was detected in 5, 13 and 24% of children in the hospital for 4 to 8, 9 to 13 and greater tha ...19882830585
non-group a rotavirus infection associated with severe gastroenteritis in a bone marrow transplant patient. 19882830587
[epizootiology of bovine diarrheas in costa rica]. 19872830649
[familial outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis associated with rotavirus in belém, pará]. 19872830651
rotavirus serotype-specific neutralizing activity in human milk.a plaque reduction neutralization assay was used to determine rotavirus serotype-specific neutralizing activity in human breast milk from 25 mothers of upper socioeconomic background and 20 mothers of a lower socioeconomic status. levels of neutralizing activity, as well as those of rotavirus-specific antibodies detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), were comparable for each socioeconomic group. overall, neutralizing activity in human milk was detected in the majority of samples ...19882830785
molecular epidemiology of rotavirus infection in a room for convalescing newborns.in a prospective study, all patients admitted to a unit for convalescing newborns on an infant-toddler ward between january and april 1985 were tested every other day for rotavirus (rv) excretion by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. rna electrophoresis of the rv strains identified in this population were analyzed to determine whether specific strains of virus were associated with infections in newborns. rv strains infecting older, symptomatic children from the infant-toddler ward were ...19882831284
asymptomatic excretion of rotavirus before and after rotavirus diarrhea in children in day care centers.a 12-month prospective study of diarrhea in children in day care centers (dccs) provided an opportunity to evaluate the duration of excretion of rotavirus from children before and after episodes of diarrhea caused by rotavirus. ninety-nine episodes of rotavirus diarrhea occurred in 94 children. asymptomatic rotavirus excretion occurred in 50% of children tested on the day before diarrhea occurred, 31% two days before diarrhea, and 9% in days 3 through 5 before diarrhea. two children had positive ...19882831326
infectious rotavirus enters cells by direct cell membrane penetration, not by endocytosis.rotaviruses are icosahedral viruses with a segmented, double-stranded rna genome. they are the major cause of severe infantile infectious diarrhea. rotavirus growth in tissue culture is markedly enhanced by pretreatment of virus with trypsin. trypsin activation is associated with cleavage of the viral hemagglutinin (viral protein 3 [vp3]; 88 kilodaltons) into two fragments (60 and 28 kilodaltons). the mechanism by which proteolytic cleavage leads to enhanced growth is unknown. cleavage of vp3 do ...19882831376
identification of the simian rotavirus sa11 genome segment 3 product.previous studies on rotavirus gene-coding assignments failed to clearly identify the simian rotavirus sa11 genome segment 3 protein product. this question was reexamined by using new conditions of electrophoresis with improved resolution of proteins in the high-molecular-weight range. our results showed that the sa11 genome segment 3 codes for a protein with an apparent mol wt of 88,000. this protein normally comigrates with the protein product of genome segment 4. the gene 3 protein was located ...19882831664
[experiences in practice evaluation of the direct immunofluorescence test in the detection of transmissible gastroenteritis and epizootic viral diarrhea and rotavirus antigens in conventional and industrial production of swine stocks]. 19872831835
[development of a bovine combined rotavirus-escherichia coli vaccine]. 19872831839
[histologic and immunohistologic examination findings in enteritis in newborn calves]. 19872831842
isolation of a cytopathic bovine rotavirus strain in the socialist republic of romania. 19872831843
[comparison of various laboratory diagnostic methods in the detection of bovine rotaviruses and coronaviruses]. 19872831844
[rotavirus infection of the calf. 2. use of enzyme immunoassay in the detection of virus antigen in fecal samples]. 19872831846
molecular characterization of three rabbit rotavirus strains.we report biochemical (rna and protein patterns and gene-coding assignments) and serologic (serotype and subgroup) properties of three strains of rabbit rotaviruses--ala c11 and r2. the rna electropherotypes were a standard "short" pattern for r2, an unusual "short" pattern for ala, and an unusual "long" pattern for c11. serologic studies indicated that these viruses were all group a serotype 3 rotaviruses. in addition, the ala and c11 viruses were found to possess subgroup i specificity, wherea ...19882831858
[incidence of rotavirus in the menino jesus pediatric hospital (sp): elisa--a practical and efficient method for its detection].seventy infants and children with age from 2 months to 4 years old were admitted to "hospital infantil menino jesus", in são paulo, brazil, in the period from march 1983 to june 1984 with acute diarrhea. feces from these patients were analysed in the search of rotavirus and enteropathogenic bacteria (shigella, salmonella and e. coli), for the purpose of defining the role of rotavirus as an agent of acute diarrhea in infants and young children in this country. elisa (enzyme-linked immuno sorbent ...19862831862
a modified genome electropherotyping procedure for detecting turkey rotaviruses in small volumes of intestinal contents.a modified extraction procedure, suitable for the quick extraction of viral dsrna from small quantities of intestinal contents, was developed. of the 70 specimens positive for dsrna viruses by genome electropherotyping with preparations derived by the standard extraction procedure, 56 (80%) were positive for virus with preparations derived by the modified procedure.19872831872
viral agents associated with outbreaks of diarrhea in turkey flocks in quebec.the relative importance of various enteric viruses associated with diarrhea of turkey poults was investigated by an evaluation of specimens received since 1982. specimens originated from one to eight week old turkey poults, with mild to severe diarrhea, from 114 flocks in 42 commercial operations located in southern quebec. the acute phase of enteritis occurred usually in poults between two and four weeks of age. clarified intestinal contents were examined by direct electron microscopy and enzym ...19882832044
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