PMID(sorted ascending)
[presence of rotavirus and adenovirus in fecal samples of children with gastroenteritis, in the city of goyania].in an attempt to detect rotavirus and adenovirus prevalence among other enteropathogens (bacteria and parasites) in diarrhoea, three hundred fecal samples originating from children living in goiânia city (goiás state, brazil) were analysed. rotavirus was found to be the only pathogen in 47 cases, and associated with other infectious agents in 21 cases. 97.0% positive samples of rotavirus showed an electrophoretic pattern characteristic of subgroup ii. adenovirus was found in 7 cases, and associa ...19892561636
[comparison of latex agglutination technics and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for the rotavirus diagnosis. habana city, 1986].two methods for the diagnosis of rotavirus are compared with 120 stool samples from children under two years of age who had been hospitalized in centro habana children's hospital with a clinical diagnosis of acute diarrheal disease and 30 samples of healthy children of the same age group who served as controls. the methods used were latex agglutination (rotalex, commercially-available kit from orion diagnostic espoo, finland) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. electronic microscopy was used ...19892561799
[rotavirus infection in children with acute diarrhea in habana city].this paper shows the incidence of rotavirus and other pathogenic agents in 256 children under three years of age with a diagnosis of acute diarrhea. this study included the months of december 1983 through may 1984. rotavirus was found in 27.7% of patients, followed by enteropathogenic e. coli (17%). no positive cases were found in the control group. the highest incidence of rotavirus infection coincided with the coldest months where the lowest volumes of rains were reported.19892561800
[the incidence of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli, rotavirus and clostridium perfringens from cases of diarrhea in children, in the region of campinas, sp, brazil].a survey for the detection of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec), rotavirus and enterotoxigenic clostridium perfringens in diarrheic stools of children up to 2 years old was carried out in the region of campinas, sp, brazil. twenty-seven (20.45%) faecal specimens were positive for etec. from these samples 41 strains of etec were isolated from which 40 produced only thermolabile (lt) enterotoxin, as detected by a modified radial immune haemolysis test. among the 183 faecal specimens examined ...19892561801
association of reoviridae particles in an enteric syndrome of poults observed in turkey flocks during enteric syndrome of turkey poults, characterized by enteritis, crop mycosis, intestinal changes (pale, thin-walled ballooning with watery contents), and rickets, occurred during 1988 in 74 turkey flocks from different farms belonging to 9 california turkey growers. the flocks ranged in size from 9,000 to 120,000 birds. pools of intestine sections from 618 birds, representing 78 field cases, were examined. histopathological examination of the intestines showed a mild to severe atrophy with a r ...19892562199
detection of rotavirus in fecal samples from calves by a cell culture indirect immunofluorescence, an ag-capture elisa, a tissue culture elisa, and a commercial ag-capture elisa. 19892562213
a novel bovine rotavirus electropherotype from outbreaks of neonatal diarrhea in utah beef herds. 19892562214
[detection of rotavirus in the stools of infants aged 0-3 yr (study performed from july 1987 to may 1989)].301 stools were collected during a period of 2 years from children aged 0-3 years, most of them presenting an acute gastro-enteritis; search for rotavirus was carried out using elisa and latex techniques, together with coproculture. 44 stools were positive (14.61%), 18.68% of these positive cases were in the age groups 0-6 months. the rotavirus gastro-enteritis affects boys (63.63%) two times more often than girls. it is frequent in hospitals (20.51% of all cases). the coproculture shows that ab ...19892562259
[healthy carriers of enteropathogenic micro-organisms among the child population of seville].we have studied for 1-year period a group of 144 children (31 newborn infants, 62 aged 1 year and 51 aged 2 years) who were randomly selected from the registrar's office of sevilla with the purpose of determining the incidence of diarrhoea and the prevalence of enteropathogenic microorganisms. two samples of faeces (one at the beginning and the second by the second semester of the 1-year period) were obtained from all children which were processed for culture and parasite and rotavirus examinati ...19892562303
detection of enteropathogens in diarrhoeal diseases among malnourished egyptian infant and children.the influence of the pre-existing malnutrition (pem) on the severity of diarrhoea as well as the causative organisms was studied on 60 cases. the duration of diarrhoea was prolonged in cases with pem. the stool purgative rate ranged from 4-15 times/day in pem infant while it was 3-6 times in well nourished cases (wnc) (p less than 0.05). also vomiting and dehydration was more marked among pem cases (52.9% and 32.4% of cases than in wnc cases (31.3% and 12.5% of cases) (p less than 0.05). rota vi ...19892562440
prevalence of escherichia coli strains with localized, diffuse, and aggregative adherence to hela cells in infants with diarrhea and matched determine the possible role of escherichia coli strains with three different patterns of adherence to hela cells in causing diarrhea in infants in são paulo, brazil, we studied stool specimens from 100 infants up to 1 year of age with acute diarrheal illnesses and 100 age-matched control infants without recent diarrhea. e. coli with localized adherence to hela cells was much more common in patients (23%) than in controls (2%) (p less than 0.0001) and was detected more frequently than rotaviru ...19892563383
infantile gastroenteritis associated with excretion of pestivirus antigens.faeces from children under 2 years old who had gastroenteritis that could not be attributed to recognised enteric pathogens were examined with a monoclonal-antibody-based immunoassay for pestivirus antigens. such antigens were detected in 30 of 128 episodes of gastroenteritis. children without diarrhoeal disease and children infected with rotaviruses had little evidence of pestivirus infection (faeces positive in 1 of 28 and 1 of 31, respectively). the diarrhoeal disease in children excreting pe ...19892564059
rapid diagnosis of adult diarrhea rotavirus (adrv): detection of viral antigens in faecal samples using staphylococcal co-agglutination test.staphylococcus aureus cowan i rich in protein a when sensitized with guinea pig antiserum to adult diarrhea rotavirus (adrv) at 1:16 gave a strong co-agglutination with adrv-positive faecal samples as previously confirmed by electron microscopy (em) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the bacteria sensitized with normal guinea pig serum did not give any co-agglutination. blocking tests using rabbit adrv-specific antiserum for the treatment of twelve adrv-positive samples abolished the ...19892565672
rna-electrophoresis as a typing method for nosocomial rotavirus infection in a special-care baby unit.during january and february 1988 an outbreak of nosocomial rotavirus infection occurred in a special-care baby unit (scbu). seven infants were affected, of whom five had symptoms of diarrhoea. typing by rna electrophoresis (electropherotyping) demonstrated that a single rotavirus strain was responsible for the outbreak. the epidemic electropherotype was introduced by an infant with diarrhoea admitted directly into the scbu from the community. eight other electropherotypes were identified during ...19892567767
effect of viral infection of fc receptors and immunologically nonspecific receptors of blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes: an in vitro model.i describe the effect on phagocytic activity of the migration of bovine blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmnl) through collagen and a monolayer of pk-15 cells in vitro infected with rotaviruses (strain osu, rfc-17, sa-11), a picornavirus (strain svdv), bovine herpesvirus (bhv-1) and equine herpesvirus (ehv-1). the pmnl were examined before and after their migration as follows: (1) for ea rosette formation with sensitized sheep erythrocytes, (2) for phagocytic activity mediated through fc rece ...19892569805
an outbreak of viral gastroenteritis in a psychiatric september and october 1987, an outbreak of gastroenteritis due to small round structured viruses occurred in a large psychiatric hospital. a total of 149 people, 83 patients and 66 members of staff, were affected over a 26-day period. most cases were associated with three psychogeriatric wards. the outbreak highlighted the special problems of infection control in long-stay psychiatric units and methods of overcoming these difficulties are discussed.19892570097
outbreaks of astrovirus type 1 and rotavirus gastroenteritis in a geriatric in-patient population.two outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis occurred in seven psychogeriatric wards of a 469-bed psychiatric hospital. the outbreaks occurred over an eight-week period; the first affected 30 people and rotavirus was detected in 12 of 14 persons from whom faecal specimens were available. the second affected 32 people (15 of whom were affected in the previous outbreak) and astrovirus was detected in 5 of the 24 people from whom specimens were available. specific igm to astrovirus was demonstrated in 3 ...19892570110
passive immunisation of children with bovine colostrum containing antibodies to human rotavirus.the efficacy of a 10-day course of bovine colostrum with high antibody titre against the four known human rotavirus serotypes in protecting children against rotavirus infection was examined in patients admitted to hospital. children aged 3 to 15 months were blocked in pairs according to ward accommodation (ie, isolation or open area). each block contained 1 treated and 1 control child. the allocation to treatment or control (an artificial infant formula) was randomised. 9 of 65 control children ...19892570959
school outbreak of gastroenteritis due to atypical rotavirus. 19892570978
passive oral immunisation of children. 19892574282
atypical human rotaviruses in the g.d.r.following the aetiologic agent of diarrhoea in children aged one to three years we found in the stools a large number of rotaviruses by electron microscopy (em), although elisa was negative; the sensitivity of elisa had been confirmed in previous investigations. in 141 children with diarrhoea 10 conventional (group a) and 21 antigenically distinct rotaviruses were detected. the presence of atypical rotaviruses could be confirmed by electrophoretic analysis of their rna migration profiles. the el ...19892574938
nosocomial gastroenteritis in paediatric patients.between november 1982 and april 1985, 2228 children under the age of 5 years with acute gastroenteritis were admitted to the paediatric isolation ward of queen mary hospital, department of paediatrics, university of hong kong. in 56.2% the causative agent was identified as rotavirus, salmonella, campylobacter, shigella, escherichia coli or a combination of these pathogens. our isolation procedures included cohort nursing of all diarrhoeal patients in two separate rooms (each accommodating 6 pati ...19892575634
the pathogenic potency of rotaviruses. 19892576604
preliminary characterization of an epitope involved in neutralization and cell attachment that is located on the major bovine rotavirus glycoprotein.the 38,200-molecular weight (unreduced)/41,900-molecular-weight (reduced) glycoprotein of bovine rotavirus, isolate c486, was identified as the major neutralizing antigen. this glycoprotein as well as the corresponding glycoprotein of another bovine rotavirus serotype also specifically attached to cell monolayers under normal conditions for virus adsorption in vitro. further support for this glycoprotein being directly responsible for virus attachment to cells was that (i) infectious virus of bo ...19852578197
neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to human rotavirus and indications of antigenic drift among strains from neonates.cells producing neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to a serotype 3 human neonatal rotavirus strain rv-3 were derived by fusion of hyperimmunized mouse spleen cells with mouse myeloma cells. as ascites fluid, three rotavirus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies were characterized by hemagglutination inhibition and reacted with 17 cultivable mammalian rotaviruses representing five virus serotypes, by fluorescent focus neutralization and enzyme immunoassay. two antibodies, mab rv-3:1 and mab rv-3:2, ...19852579249
detection of human rotavirus by nucleic acid analysis in comparison to enzyme-linked immunoassay and electron microscopy.the results of rna analysis for the detection of rotavirus were compared with those of a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and electron microscopy using 212 faecal specimens obtained from 200 children with gastroenteritis. rotavirus was extracted directly from faecal specimens and rna segments were made visible by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using a silver staining technique. of the 212 faecal specimens 137 were found to be positive in elisa, 125 in rna analysis and 121 i ...19852580704
rotavirus neutralizing protein vp7: antigenic determinants investigated by sequence analysis and peptide synthesis.the rotavirus neutralizing antigen, vp7, is a 37,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein which is a major component of the outer shell of the virion. the amino acid sequence of vp7 for strain s2 (human serotype 2) and nebraska calf diarrhea virus (bovine serotype) has been inferred from the nucleic acid sequence of cloned copies of genomic segment nine. comparison of the amino acid sequences of these two vp7 proteins with those already determined for other rotavirus strains reveals extensive sequence ...19852582147
epidemiological and clinical features of rotavirus associated acute infantile diarrhoea in cairo, egypt.rotavirus was looked for in stool specimens from 200 randomly chosen infants and children aged 1-24 months presenting with acute diarrhoea of not more than 5 days duration at the bab el-sha'reya university hospital during a 12-month period (january-december 1986). forty per cent of cases were positive for rotavirus by the elisa technique. considering the seasonal pattern, during the hot months may to august, the monthly percentage of rotavirus positive cases ranged from 24 to 32 per cent while d ...19892585579
high incidence of false positives by a latex agglutination test for the diagnosis of clostridium difficile associated colitis in compromised patients.detection of clostridium difficile cytotoxin using cell culture assays for the diagnosis of antibiotic-associated colitis has been used for over a decade. because the methodology is time consuming and cumbersome, a recently introduced commercial latex agglutination (la) kit has attracted much attention. we compared the sensitivity and specificity of this method with the cytotoxic assay (cta) using diarrheal stools from 652 patients at a referral tertiary care center. specimens from 71 (10.9%) pa ...19892591165
acute gastroenteritis. changing pattern of clinical features and management.during seven epidemics of rotavirus from 1978 to 1987, 575 children younger than 3 years were admitted to hospital with acute gastroenteritis. the management before and during hospitalization, the status on admission and the outcome are reviewed. the mean age of the patients rose significantly during the study period, with the proportion younger than 12 months decreasing from 50 to 26%. mild to moderate iso-osmolal dehydration was found in most cases, both hypernatraemia and hyponatraemia were r ...19892596274
gastrointestinal infection.rotavirus and various types of e coli can cause life-threatening vomiting and diarrhoea in children. food poisoning and traveller's diarrhoea cause problems for adults.19892602321
mixed infections in childhood diarrhoea: results of a community study in kiambu district, thousand four hundred and twenty diarrhoea specimens from 846 children aged 0 to 60 months were collected and analysed for bacteria, parasites and rotavirus over a 16 month period, from june 1985 to september 1986 inclusive. the study was conducted in 4 villages situated in kiambu district, kenya. all the specimens were analysed for rotavirus and parasites, including cryptosporidium. the majority of the specimens were analysed for enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec), shigella, salmonell ...19892606013
relative prevalence of rotavirus diarrhoea in children attending outpatient departments of hospitals and general practitioners in sao paulo, brazil.the study was done to know the relative prevalence of rotavirus diarrhoea in 329 children with diarrhoea aged less than 1 month to 6 years (32 were of unknown age) attending the outpatient departments (opd) of public hospitals and 38 comparable patients treated by general practitioners (gp) in sao paulo, brazil. forty-three age-matched patients without any diarrhoea or respiratory symptoms, 28 from the hospital opds and 15 from the gps, served as controls. rotavirus was detected in 52 of the 329 ...19892607099
symptoms associated with diarrhoeal illness at san lazaro hospital, manila in 1983 and 1984.the clinical features associated with various agents of diarrhoeal disease were studied using 2,836 patients admitted to san lazaro hospital, manila. three general patient groups were considered including single pathogen isolations, "multiple pathogen" isolations, and "no pathogen" isolations. in general, symptoms of diarrhoeal illness were found to be non-specific. however, shigella flexneri. vibrio parahemolyticus, and rotavirus were significantly associated with a number of prominent symptoms ...19892609210
prostaglandins in the plasma and stool of children with rotavirus investigate whether prostaglandins (pgs) are involved in the mechanism of rotavirus diarrhea, pge2 and pgf2 alpha concentrations in the plasma and stool of children (21 and 16, respectively) with rotavirus gastroenteritis were measured and compared with those of their respective controls. the effect of aspirin on the diarrhea was also studied in 14 patients with rotavirus gastroenteritis. the pge2 and pgf2 alpha contents of both the plasma and the stool of patients with rotavirus gastroenteri ...19892614618
[clinical aspects of combined rotavirus-dysentery infection in children]. 19892628911
putting biomedical knowledge to use in the third world.the quality and quantity of biomedical research on diseases of the poor, such as diarrhea and schistosomiasis, is inferior to that of diseases of the rich, such as cancer. for example, few new and better vaccines exist on the market, even though the scientific community is close to an effective rotavirus vaccine. researchers have made biomedical breakthroughs in substantial health problems, yet few health workers and caretakers apply them. bridging the gap between knowledge and technologies a ...19892629588
bacterial and viral causes of acute diarrhoea in children in kuwait.bacterial and viral causes of acute diarrhoea were studied prospectively for one year in 343 hospitalised young children in kuwait. in 288 (84%) patients, one or more pathogens were identified compared with 12 of 86 (13.9%) children admitted with diseases other than diarrhoea (p less than 0.01). forty-four (12.9%) of the patients were infected with two or more pathogens. viral agents detected in the stools were rotaviruses (40.2%), enteric adenoviruses (1.7%), and enteroviruses (1.5%). enterobac ...19892632640
[pathogenic agents in acute non-enterocolic diarrheal syndrome].along a one year period 112 infants admitted with non enterocolic acute diarrhea were studied for isolation of potentially ethiologic agents, namely enteropathogenic bacteria (salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, classic enteropathogenic, enteroinvasive and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli), rotavirus (viral rna electrophoresis) and enteroparasites (telemann and pafs). the most frequently identified pathogen was rotavirus (57.8%), followed by thermo labile toxin producing escherichia coli (19.7% ...19892634863
[atypical epidemic outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus].an outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children from 1 month to 7 years of age, detected during the summer months with the highest incidence being in august, is described here. after studying the different factors which may be related to this outbreak, it appears that the humid climatic characteristics together with the social habits of our region may have been the causes which unleashed the epidemic.19892635372
human viral gastroenteritis.during the last 15 years, several different groups of fastidious viruses that are responsible for a large proportion of acute viral gastroenteritis cases have been discovered by the electron microscopic examination of stool specimens. this disease is one of the most prevalent and serious clinical syndromes seen around the world, especially in children. rotaviruses, in the family reoviridae, and fastidious fecal adenoviruses account for much of the viral gastroenteritis in infants and young child ...19892644024
case-control study of endemic diarrheal disease in thai a year-long, case-control study of endemic diarrheal disease among 1230 thai children less than five years of age, rotavirus was detected in 20%, campylobacter in 13%, shigella in 13%, salmonella in 12%, and enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec) in 9%. the differences in detection of enteric pathogens between patients and controls was significant for rotavirus (p less than .001), shigella (p less than .001), etec that produced heat-labile and heat-stable toxins (lt and st; p = .005), and st ...19892644383
incidence and etiology of infantile diarrhea and major routes of transmission in huascar, studies of diarrhea etiology and epidemiology were carried out from july 1982-june 1984 in 153 infants residing in a poor peri-urban community near lima, peru. study infants had nearly 10 episodes of diarrhea in their first year of life. diarrhea episodes were associated with organisms such as campylobacter jejuni, enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic escherichia coli, shigella, rotavirus, and cryptosporidium. these organisms appeared to be transmitted to infants in the home thro ...19892646919
infectious diseases of new-world camelids (nwc).although there are notable infectious conditions that are capable of producing clinical disease in the nwc, overall, these species are quite healthy. of the bacterial diseases, enterotoxemia caused by clostridium perfringens types c and d would be deemed the most significant in north america, while type a also would be regarded as important in south america. other important bacterial infections of potential concern are tuberculosis, johne's disease, anthrax, malignant edema, actinomycosis, tetan ...19892647231
analysis of enteric coagulase-negative staphylococci from neonates with necrotizing enterocolitis.we investigated the possible role of coagulase-negative staphylococci in necrotizing enterocolitis. stool coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from neonates during an outbreak of rotavirus-associated necrotizing enterocolitis were analyzed by a variety of techniques, including speciation, semiquantitative culturing, antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid profiling and cytotoxicity assays. no differences were observed between the coagulase-negative staphylococci of symptomatic babies and thos ...19892652085
newer gastrointestinal infections. 19892655244
control of diarrheal diseases.the tremendous advances made in the control of diarrheal diseases in the past few years indicate what more can be achieved. even though the lives of an estimated three quarters of a million children are being saved each year, over three million children are still dying from readily preventable diarrheal disease. the challenge is to build on the successes thus far, to learn from experience, to promote changes in health habits that will prevent diarrhea, and to make all of these activities sustain ...19892655632
lack of impact of rapid identification of rotavirus-infected patients on nosocomial rotavirus infections.the efficacy of rapid identification of rotavirus-infected patients in the control of nosocomial rotavirus infections on an infant and young toddler ward by use of a rotavirus antigen detection test on stool from patients with diarrhea was evaluated by comparing the rate of nosocomial rotavirus infection in children during two separate 5-week periods in the winters of 1984 and 1986. in contrast to 1984 rapid rotavirus antigen testing by latex agglutination of stool from patients with diarrhea wa ...19892657618
recent advances in the study of viral gastroenteritis.acute infectious gastroenteritis is the commonest cause of death in children under 5 years old who live in developing countries. in developed countries, whilst deaths occur rarely, gastroenteritis remains an important public health problem. before the early 1970s the cause of the majority of diarrhoeal disease episodes was a mystery. the recognized causes of infectious diarrhoea at the time were bacteria and parasites. during the 1970s a number of previously unknown viruses were discovered and s ...19892658047
molecular biology and immunology of rotavirus infections.rotaviruses were first recognized about 15 years ago in association with diarrhea in children and animals. since then, rotaviruses have been determined to be the most important viral agent that causes clinically significant diarrhea in children and a need for an effective vaccination program has been recognized. this article reviews the progress which has been made in understanding the molecular biology of rotaviruses and summarizes information on the immune responses to rotavirus infections obt ...19892659520
reconstitution of template-dependent in vitro transcriptase activity of a yeast double-stranded rna virus.isolated mature l-a viral particles from yeast have a transcriptase activity that uses endogenous l-a double-stranded rna (dsrna) as template. we have previously demonstrated that empty particles derived from mature l-a viral particles have replicase activity capable of synthesizing minus strand single-stranded rna (ssrna) on an added plus strand ssrna template to form dsrna. we report here that empty particles also have transcriptase activity that uses added viral dsrna as template. the newly s ...19892659596
[value of rapid diagnostic methods in rotavirus infection in the neonatal period].one hundred and forty eight faecal specimens were collected from 40 newborn infants during an outbreak of rotavirus infections in a neonatal unit. rotavirus was sought every 3 days by immunoelectron microscopy (iem) and was found in 12 newborn babies. rotavirus excretion persisted for up to 6 days after healing of the diarrhoea. no significant difference was found between infected (n = 12) and uninfected (n = 28) infants with regard to gestational age (35.2 +/- 3.7 vs 36.9 +/- 2.6 weeks), birth ...19892660766
acute diarrhea in children.acute diarrhea is a common problem in children. understanding the different pathologic processes that cause diarrhea, and the agents that are associated with those processes, can aid the clinician in predicting the etiology of the diarrhea in an individual patient. small bowel involvement, most commonly caused by rotavirus, produces a high incidence of vomiting, often before the onset of diarrhea, and large, watery, and relatively infrequent stools. large bowel involvement, usually due to campyl ...19892664748
etiology of childhood diarrhea in assess the role of recently recognized enteropathogens in childhood diarrhea in korea, 231 children with diarrhea admitted to and 104 children without diarrhea seen at the well-baby clinic or the outpatient department of hanyang university hospital in seoul, korea, were evaluated during a 14-month period. stools were cultured for bacterial pathogens, including enterotoxigenic (heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxin-producing) and enteroadherent organisms. only those stools obtained from pati ...19892666437
intestinal infections: current aspects and new possibilities of prophylaxis and treatment.intestinal infections of still high importance from the hygienic-epidemiological aspects and the recent results obtained in this field have been surveyed. recently recognized enteric pathogens (campylobacter, yersinia, rotavirus, clostridium difficile, etc.) as well as the newest data on the pathomechanism of intestinal infections have been discussed. these data not only have increased our knowledge of the pathology but also resulted in basic, favourable changes in therapy. detailed information ...19892667192
infectious diarrhea in children undergoing bone-marrow transplantation.fecal flora of 12 children undergoing bone-marrow transplantation was monitored prospectively using comprehensive microbiological techniques. diarrhea developed at least once in ten of the 12 children (83%), and a total of 24 episodes were recorded. recognised gut pathogens were isolated from 11/21 (52%) diarrheal episodes where fecal specimens were obtained. enteric pathogens identified included viral pathogens in 19% (rotaviruses, 'enteric' adenoviruses), parasites in 19% (cryptosporidium, gia ...19892669709
descriptive epidemiology of persistent diarrhoea among young children in rural northern order to determine the descriptive epidemiology of persistent diarrhoea in rural northern india, a cohort of 963 children aged 0-71 months was followed prospectively for 12 months through weekly household visits. the incidence of persistent diarrhoea was 6.3 per 100 child-years among those aged 0-71 months, and was highest (31 per 100 child-years) among those aged 0-11 months. there were no significant sex-related differences in the incidence of the disease, and the overall seasonal distribut ...19892670297
pneumatosis intestinalis in children beyond the neonatal period.pneumatosis intestinalis (pi) is a well-recognized manifestation of necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) in the newborn--a condition that often requires surgical intervention for infarcted bowel. however, little information is available concerning pi in older children or its management. sixteen older infants and children (greater than 2 months) had x-ray findings of pi (intramural air). there were eight girls and eight boys ranging in age from 2 months to 8 years. associated conditions included short ...19892671335
the association of enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic escherichia coli and other enteric pathogens with childhood diarrhoea in yugoslavia.the presence of enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic escherichia coli (etec and epec, respectively) was investigated in stool specimens of 1082 preschool children with diarrhoea and in stools of 335 healthy controls in localities in southern yugoslavia, as well as in 566 children with diarrhoea and in 231 controls living in northern part of the country, during the seasonal peak (august-november) of enteric diseases in 1986. etec were found in 114 (10.5%) children with diarrhoea and in 14 (4.2%) ...19892673826
supply of rotavec k99 vaccine. 19892678723
comparative evaluation of the who and dakopatts enzyme-linked immunoassay kits for rotavirus detection.faeces obtained from 1,163 children (including 66 newborn babies) were analysed in parallel for the presence of rotavirus particles using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. the kits had been formulated by the who collaborating centre for reference and research on rotavirus (who-elisa kit) and by dakopatts (dako-elisa kit) to be suitable for use in laboratories in developing countries. the kits were evaluated in laboratories in burma, chile, india, mexico, pakistan, sri lanka and the uni ...19892680139
aggregative escherichia coli, salmonella, and shigella are associated with increasing duration of order to relate etiology of diarrhea to the duration of the episode, a cohort of 452 children up to 36 months of age was visited once weekly at their households for 18 consecutive months to record diarrheal morbidity. fecal specimens were obtained in 453 diarrheal episodes occurring in 354 children during this period. the common putative agents as single isolations associated with diarrhea were ea-aggec (17.2%), etec (14.1%), epec (6.0%) and rotavirus (4.0%). the pathogens with higher median ...19892684853
viruses with bisegmented double-stranded rna in pig faeces.viruses similar to the bisegmented double-stranded (ds) rna picobirnaviruses described in human faeces and the intestinal contents of oryzomys nigripes rats and guinea pigs were isolated from the faeces of pigs taken from several areas in the state of sao paulo, brazil. samples were collected from 912 pigs of several breeds, aged nine to 61 days, and assayed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with silver staining and a combined enzyme immunoassay for rotavirus and adenovirus, using the simian ...19892687991
the protective effect of human milk against diarrhea. a review of studies from bangladesh.field studies conducted in bangladesh in collaboration with laboratory studies in goteborg, bethesda and atlanta were directed toward identifying specific enteric infections in infants influenced by breastfeeding. the international centre for diarrheal disease research set up at the dhaka hospital examined 4000 children under 5 with diarrhea between march 1980 and february 1982. breast feeding is the preferred feeding method in this population, and is extended into the 2nd and 3rd years in the ...19892692384
the role of proteae in diarrhea.a survey was undertaken on the occurrence of protease in the human fecal flora and its coincidence with other well-documented enteropathogens such as campylobacter, salmonella, shigella, staphylococcus aureus, yersinia, protozoa and rotavirus. a total of 2000 fecal specimens was investigated, 1000 from patients suffering from diarrhea and 1000 from healthy persons which served as controls. proteus mirabilis was isolated more frequently from diarrhea cases than from healthy people. the difference ...19892692584
intestinal permeability assessed with polyethylene glycols in children with diarrhea due to rotavirus and common bacterial pathogens in a developing community.intestinal permeability was assessed with different-sized polyethylene glycols (peg 400 and peg 1,000) in small children with acute diarrhea. all children with acute diarrhea absorbed and excreted less peg of all molecular sizes into the urine when compared with healthy control children (p less than 0.001). children with acute rotavirus infection excreted significantly less peg of all sizes than children with shigella, salmonella, and enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec) infection (p less th ...19892693681
adenoviruses as vectors for the transfer of genetic information and for the construction of new type present many types of corpuscular nondefective, conditional-defective and helper-dependent expressing adenoviral vectors are available which can be used in constructing gene-engineered live or inactivated viral vaccines. in particular, promising results have been obtained with live recombinant human adenoviruses expressing the s antigen of hepatitis b virus, capsid protein of rotaviruses and gb protein of herpes virus. these recombinants are proper candidates for testing as corresponding vacc ...19892694817
neonatal viral diarrhoeas. 19892695038
disease problems in the third world.the mean annual rate of decline of the probability of dying 5 years of age in developing countries is 2.5%. nevertheless disease accounts for a considerable proportion of premature deaths. the leading causes of death in these countries, in order, include respiratory disease, diseases of the circulatory system, low birth weight, diarrhea, measles, injuries, malnutrition, and neoplasms. these conditions represent diseases of poverty and affluence. respiratory infections are common among 5-year ...19892698079
[acute diarrhea: recent etiopathogenetic findings].acute diarrhoeas in children represent still now a very serious problem for public health either in developing or in industrialized countries. in the last years great progress has been made in the aetiology and epidemiology of this disease. the most important results, which are worth recording, obtained in this field are: the detection of rotavirus as a more common agent causing infectious enteritis in children; the "rediscover" of some pathogenic agents (campylobacter and yersinia) ignored sinc ...19892698467
disease-related animal models for optimising oral rehydration solution optimise the composition of oral rehydration solutions (ors) for european children is not a simple task. although controlled clinical trial is ultimately the only way to determine whether a new solution is superior to an established ors, testing many different formulations is neither feasible nor ethical. several groups of investigators have evolved the concept of using animal models to test new ors formulations. disease-related animal models using perfusion of cholera toxin-treated rat small ...19892701833
overview of childhood acute diarrhoea in europe: implications for oral rehydration therapy.infant mortality from acute diarrhoea has sharply declined in the last few decades throughout europe. however, acute diarrhoea is still a very common occurrence in european children, who experience, in their first 3 years of life, approximately 1 episode/year. the commonest agent responsible for infectious diarrhoeas appears to be rotavirus, followed by campylobacter. although water loss may be high, the mean sodium loss is close to 40 mmol/l of stool in rotaviral diarrhoea, and to 60 mmol/l in ...19892701836
[acute infantile diarrhea caused by rotavirus in a pediatric population of mérida, yucatan, mexico].the frequency and clinical characteristics of rotavirus infections were studied in 150 infants hospitalized in the general hospital "agustin o'horán" ssa in mérida, yucatán, méxico, because of acute gastroenteritis during 1986. rotavirus was detected in 32% of all subjects tested. rotavirus was detected in all months studied. an age-related incidence peak was observed between 7 and 24 months and the infection proved to prevail within the rural area. the clinical pictures were analyzed. we consid ...19892713069
diagnosis of rotavirus infection. 19892715332
[clinical course, diagnosis and treatment of rotavirus infection in young children]. 19892726365
diagnostic studies of nosocomial diarrhea in children: assessing their use and value.during a 17-month period (01/11/85-05/31/86) 225 cases of nosocomial diarrhea were identified in a children's hospital. diarrhea was considered to be nosocomial if it began at least 72 hours after the patient's hospital admission or within 3 days after discharge. one or more routine diagnostic studies for identification of a pathogen were performed in 195 (87%) cases. the most commonly performed test was the bacterial stool culture. none of these samples yielded a bacterial pathogen. the only pa ...19892729660
etiology of diarrhea in measles.thirty-six measles cases with diarrhea were studied with two age and sex matched control groups, measles without diarrhea (75 cases) and acute diarrhea (70 cases). bacterial pathogens were isolated from 5 out of 36 (13.9%) in measles with diarrhea but rotavirus, coronavirus and parasites were not detected in any case. the bacterial and viral etiology of measles with diarrhea were statistically significant different from the acute diarrhea group (p less than 0.005) and p less than 0.01 respective ...19892732637
chemical disinfection of non-porous inanimate surfaces experimentally contaminated with four human pathogenic viruses.the chemical disinfection of virus-contaminated non-porous inanimate surfaces was investigated using coxsackievirus b3, adenovirus type 5, parainfluenza virus type 3 and coronavirus 229e as representatives of important nosocomial viral pathogens. a 10 microliter amount of the test virus, suspended in either faeces or mucin, was placed onto each stainless steel disk (about 1 cm in diameter) and the inoculum allowed to dry for 1 h under ambient conditions. sixteen disinfectant formulations were se ...19892737256
cryptosporidium as a common cause of childhood diarrhoea in italy.cryptosporidium oocysts were observed in the stools of 9 (7.2%) of 124 italian children with diarrhoea, examined during the period 1 january-31 december 1984. in two children, the parasite was associated with other enteric pathogens. the duration of diarrhoea was 2-30 days, with a median of 6 days. in all cases the infection was self limiting. the mean age of the cryptosporidium-positive children was 34 months, and all cases occurred in the warm season. cryptosporidium was found to be the third ...19892737258
[vaccines today and tomorrow. rotavirus vaccine to prevent infant mortality in developing countries]. 19892747361
epidemiology of rotavirus infection and gastroenteritis in prospectively monitored argentine families with young children.a prospective study was carried out in 49 families of newborns in avellaneda district, argentina, recruited when the mother was in the last trimester of pregnancy and followed until the newborn was aged two years, to study the epidemiology of rotavirus infection under natural conditions. weekly surveillance of all family members for diarrhea and rotavirus-related diarrhea was carried out from may 1983 to july 1986. serum samples were also collected every six months to study the incidence of rota ...19892750728
rotavirus as an aetiological agent of acute childhood diarrhoea in ile-ife, nigeria.of the 456 urban children aged 14 days and 4 years examined for rotavirus in this study, 376 had diarrhoea while 80 were without diarrhoea and serve as control. among the 376 diarrhoeic children, 57 (15.2%) had rotavirus while none of the 80 control children had the virus. rotavirus was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) among the in-patients (19.8%) than in the out-patients (10.3%) and among children of 7-12 months compared with other aged groups. the majority of the children that had the ...19892758990
[virological and serological characteristics of outbreaks and sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis].specimens from patients with gastroenteritis (ge) collected during outbreaks and from sporadic cases reported in the ussr in 1979-1984 were examined by electron microscopy (em), enzyme immunoassay, rotavirus neutralization test in cell culture. all the winter-spring outbreaks and a considerable number (34.9%) of sporadic ge cases were caused by rotaviruses. the summer-autumn outbreaks were of non-rotavirus nature. in water-borne winter-spring outbreaks in adults, severe forms of ge with signs of ...19892763515
prospective study of nosocomial rotavirus infection in a paediatric enteric infections, particularly those due to rotavirus, were investigated by studying 220 patients under 3 years of age who were admitted without gastroenteritis to two paediatric general medical wards during a 10 month period. faecal specimens were collected within 48 h of admission and then daily until the patients were discharged. samples were also collected after discharge if patients developed enteric symptoms within 2 days of discharge. fourteen per cent (31 of 220) of p ...19892764838
the tecumseh study. xvi: family and community sources of rotavirus infection.the effect of age on transmission of rotavirus infection within households and on the risk of infection from outside of the household was investigated through analyses of serum pairs. these paired specimens had been collected from individuals of all ages in families of diverse age composition in tecumseh, michigan. serologic observations on 1,508 individuals divided into 0-1, 2-4, 5-9, 10-17, and 18+ year age groups provided infection determinations on 3,311 person-seasons during the 1977 throug ...19892773919
science versus opinion: a response to cunningham's critique. 19892775462
prevalence of acute enteric viral pathogens in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with diarrhea.diarrhea due to enteric pathogens is an important complication of advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. whereas numerous bacterial and parasitic agents have been implicated, the role of pathogenic enteric viruses is less clear. stools from 153 human immunodeficiency virus seropositive men were tested by electrophoresis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immune electron microscopy for the presence of rotaviruses (group a and non-group a), adenoviruses, and norwalk agent. virus was ...19892777028
[severe form of rotavirus infection during the period of seasonal rise of its incidence].the authors describe the results of observation and clinico-laboratory examination of patients during seasonal rises of the rotavirus infection incidence in 5 districts of the moscow region in 1984-1987. the diseases ran their courses in the form of gastroenteritis and enteritis and were marked by a great number of the grave patterns (42-46%), mainly in children of the first three years of life, by a high percentage (77.5%) of the aggravated premorbid status of patients with the grave patterns. ...19892780158
effect of the administration of oral poliovirus vaccine on infantile diarrhoea mortality.infectious diarrhoea is one leading cause of infantile mortality in developing countries. rotaviruses and other enteroviruses have an important role in diarrhoea but, currently, there are no vaccines available to immunize infants. the use of oral poliovirus vaccine (opv) over two decades has shown that, besides protecting effectively against poliomyelitis, it can interfere with intestinal infection by other enteroviruses. this interference by the vaccine viruses could explain two epidemiological ...19892781855
epidemiological studies of piglet diarrhoea in intensively managed danish sow herds. iii. rotavirus infection.the prevalence of rotavirus infection was studied in 1090 litters from 26 sow herds. samples of normal, semifluid and watery stools were examined for rotavirus by an elisa-test on faeces. rotavirus was detected in 77% of the herds and in 30.5% of the litters (prevalence rates). the highest prevalence rate was seen in piglets between 21 and 41 days of age. gilts' litters had a very high prevalence during the first week of life. apart from this, no difference was found between litters from gilts a ...19892782234
immunization against bovine rotaviral infection.calves fed with colostrum from cows vaccinated with an inactivated rotavirus vaccine were refractory to experimental infection with strain 81/36f of bovine rotavirus. in the field study, 458 pregnant cows from 26 herds were involved. in each herd, cows were selected and randomly subdivided in two groups. cows in one group (248 head in total) were vaccinated, whereas cows in the other group (210 head in total) were left as unvaccinated controls. at calving, colostrum was collected from each cow a ...19892792305
microbial etiology of acute gastroenteritis in hospitalized children in kuwait.during a period of 15 months 621 hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis and 152 control children were investigated for etiologic agents of the disease. putative enteropathogens were identified in 86% of the patients and 10% of the controls. common viral agents associated with gastroenteritis among children included rotaviruses (45%) and enteric adenoviruses (4%). bacterial pathogens infecting children were salmonella serotypes (24%), enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (9%), campylobacter ...19892797954
effects of dietary change and rotavirus infection on small intestinal structure and function in gnotobiotic piglets.the combined effects of weaning and rotavirus infection on small intestinal structure and function and on growth rate were studied in 28 gnotobiotic piglets. there was little damage by rotavirus to the proximal small intestine, some damage to the mid small intestine and relatively severe damage to the distal small intestine; villi were stunted, crypts lengthened and activities of all brush border enzymes decreased. the damage was short-lived despite the synchronisation of rotavirus infection wit ...19892799078
[patho-anatomic changes in rotaviral gastroenteritis in children].two children (a 6-month-old girl and a 9-month boy) died from rotavirus gastroenteritis as evidenced by virological, electron microscopic, and immune fluorescence studies of intestinal tissue. histological and morphometric examinations of the small intestine revealed acute diffuse enteritis with enlarged and shortened villi, infiltration of intrinsic plates with lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages, enhanced mitotic activity of epitheliocytes and their increased lymphocyte-induced infiltrat ...19892803034
[experience in the differential diagnosis of infectious diseases].it is stated that social and scientific progress in the course of evolution gives rise to marked changes in infectious pathology. the changes are obvious from reduced incidence of epidemic diseases, distinct clinical appearance of infection, different cyclic pattern of a number of nosological entities. such newly recognized diseases as hemorrhagic fever, adenovirus and herpes virus infections, yersiniosis, rotavirus gastroenteritis, legionellosis, aids have advanced to the forefront. previously ...19892811205
[studies on the role of rotaviruses in the etiology of acute diarrhea in infants].immunoenzymatic test elisa performed in the group of 243 infants hospitalized during one year because of the acute diarrhoea revealed rotaviruses in 86 of them (35.4%). during the winter season, this percentage exceeded 55%. clinical analysis including detailed symptomatology and laboratory findings enabled the conclusion that the diagnosis of diarrhoea caused by rotaviruses is not possible basing on the little characteristic clinical picture and course. however, there are some features helpful ...19892812904
an observational study of naturally acquired immunity to rotaviral diarrhea in a cohort of 363 egyptian children. calculation of risk for second episodes using age-specific person-years of observation.a cohort of 363 rural children in bilbeis, egypt, were followed from birth from 1981 to 1983, with twice-weekly home visits made to detect diarrheal illness. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for detection of rotavirus in stools collected during episodes of diarrhea. rotavirus-associated diarrhea was detected once in 74 children and twice in 12 children. using a technique not previously described, the authors calculated the age-specific incidence rates for initial episodes and second ep ...19892816905
atypical rotavirus in chickens in argentina the presence of rotavirus was investigated in a chicken flock experiencing periodic episodes of diarrhoea during the winter of 1986. all the samples analysed were negative by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). however, when samples were observed by electron microscopy, particles which were indistinguishable from standard rotaviruses were detected in some samples. ten of the 36 samples were positive after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) analysis, all of them sho ...19872820007
[total protein, urea and blood sugar in healthy calves and calves with diarrhea].studied was the amount of the total protein, the urea, and the blood sugar in both normal calves and calves that were affected with enteritis with frequent isolates of pathogenic escherichia coli strains and corona and rotaviruses. stated are the normal values of these indices in calves aged from 1 to 6 days as well as from 7 to 15 days. it was found that with diarrhea-affected calves there were hypoproteinaemia, rise of urea, and very commonly encountered drop of blood sugar in the course of th ...19872820118
[some features of diarrheal diseases in heilongjiang province, china]. 19872820582
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