PMID(sorted ascending)
antigenic and molecular characterization of bovine rotaviruses isolated in japan.japanese bovine rotavirus isolates, which fall into two different serotypes, were shown to belong to subgroup i and to have long rna electrophoretypes. this study confirmed the distinction of two serotypes on the basis of a greater than 20-fold difference in neutralization titres between the homologous and heterologous reactions; however, significant one-way cross-neutralization was observed between one of the strains with bovine serotype 2 and antisera to strains with bovine serotype 1 (serotyp ...19892549598
comparison of human, simian, and bovine rotaviruses for requirement of sialic acid in hemagglutination and cell adsorption.human rotaviruses (wa, kun, mo) showed hemagglutination (ha) only with fixed 1-day-old chicken erythrocytes, and their ha activities were completely destroyed by trypsin activation of virions. simian sa-11 and bovine ncdv had ha activities not only against fixed erythrocytes but also against fresh erythrocytes from various species. their ha activities against fixed erythrocytes were also inhibited by trypsin activation, but those against fresh erythrocytes were not. neuraminidase treatment of fi ...19892549710
the tecumseh study. xv: rotavirus infection and pathogenicity.rotavirus infection and associated symptoms were studied prospectively from 1976 through 1981 in a 10% sample of families in tecumseh, michigan. infection was determined using an antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) method designed for use with large numbers of sera collected semiannually. illness was identified from symptoms ascertained weekly by telephone. risks of infection during a rotavirus season varied from 4.8% in 1978 to 9.2% in 1980. risks were 20.6% in the under two year ...19892549788
propagation of avian rotavirus in primary chick kidney cell and ma104 cell cultures.the ch2 strain of avian rotavirus was propagated in primary chick kidney cell (ckc) and ma104 cell cultures in the presence of trypsin. cultures were evaluated for the presence of rotavirus by an indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) assay and by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). after two passages, the viral titer was significantly higher in ckc than ma104 cell cultures. also, the ifa assay was more sensitive than the indirect elisa for detecting rotavirus-positive cultures.19892549944
studies on rotavirus homologous and heterologous active immunity in infant mice.homologous and heterologous active immunity was studied in mice with mammalian group a rotaviruses. one day old mice were vaccinated with one of the following rotaviruses: bovine b641 (serotype 6), bovine b223 (untyped), simian sa11 (serotype 3) and murine edim (untyped). at 10 days of age they were challenged with edim virulent virus or sa11 virus. all the vaccines induced a serological antibody response in the mice but only the homologous immune response was protective.19892550022
evaluation of a new latex agglutination kit for detection of human rotavirus in faecal specimens.a commercial latex agglutination (la) test was compared with elisa and direct electron microscopy (em) for detection of rotavirus antigen in 93 stool specimens obtained from as many children with acute gastroenteritis. seventy one specimens (76.3%) were either positive or negative with all the three techniques, while 22 (23.7%) gave contradictory results. only 1 sample was positive by la test but not with elisa or em. the sensitivity of la test and em was 62.5 per cent (30 of 48) and 75 per cent ...19892550364
comparison of three protein a-gold immune electron microscopy methods for detecting rotaviruses.three immune electron microscopic (iem) methods employing protein a-colloidal gold (pag) were compared with direct electron microscopy (dem) and direct iem (diem) techniques for their abilities to detect simian rotavirus (sa11) and human rotavirus. using pag iem the number of rotavirus particles per grid square was 10 to 50 times and 2 to 5 times higher than observed with dem and diem, respectively. a comparison of sensitivities among the three pag iem methods showed that the trapping efficiency ...19892550499
subgroup and serotype distributions of human, bovine, and porcine rotavirus in thailand.the subgroup and serotype specificities of human, bovine, and porcine group a rotaviruses in stool specimens collected in thailand were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by using subgroup- and serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies. a clear yearly change was observed in the serotype distribution of human rotavirus. between 1983 and 1984, serotype 4 was the most prevalent, while the highest frequency of serotype 2 was found between 1987 and 1988. all the bovine and porcine rotavir ...19892550515
prospective study of community-acquired rotavirus infection.we determined titers of group a rotavirus common antibodies and neutralizing antibodies against serotypes 1 to 4 of prototype human rotavirus (hrv) in cord blood and serum specimens obtained from 38 infants at 4-month intervals from birth until 2 years of age. nineteen of the infants developed one episode of hrv diarrhea each, and they were matched by age and birth weight with the other 19 infants, who did not develop hrv diarrhea during the follow-up period. we estimated the incidence rate of h ...19892550518
identification of serotype 9 human rotavirus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with monoclonal antibodies.hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies to vp7, a major neutralizing protein of serotype 9 rotavirus (strain w161), were prepared. one monoclonal antibody, w161-6a1, was shown to neutralize only serotype 9 rotavirus strains and reacted specifically with serotype 9 rotaviruses in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the development of an immunoassay for detection of serotype 9 rotaviruses should facilitate epidemiologic studies.19892550520
[clinico-laboratory analysis of the diarrhea syndrome in young children excreting rotaviruses with feces].a total of 404 children admitted to the infectious hospital of the non-intestinal type were examined with the aid of counter immunoelectroosmophoresis. rotavirus antigen was detected in feces in 46.8% of 126 children admitted with a diagnosis of diarrhea, in 10.8% of 278 without diarrhea, and also in 32.9% of 149 children with diarrhea that occurred at the hospital. the clinical course of acute rotavirus gastroenteritis appeared to be materially influenced by acute respiratory viral infection, p ...19892550879
efficacy of an inactivated oil-adjuvanted rotavirus vaccine in the control of calf diarrhoea in beef herds in argentina.we have assessed the potency of an inactivated oil-adjuvanted rotavirus vaccine in beef herds in argentina. two different vaccine trials were conducted. in a small-scale experimental trial, involving 21 pregnant cows (13 vaccinated and eight unvaccinated controls), a significant increase in neutralizing antibody titres against different serotypes of bovine rotaviruses was found in both the colostrum and serum of vaccinated cows compared with that of unvaccinated controls. seven days after birth, ...19892551102
epidemiological studies of piglet diarrhoea in intensively managed danish sow herds. iv. pathogenicity of porcine rotavirus.colostrum-deprived piglets inoculated with rotavirus 24 h after birth developed a profuse diarrhoea that spread to non-inoculated, colostrum-deprived litter mates and, occassionally, to colostrum-fed piglets. case fatality rates in these 3 categories of piglets were 63.2%, 35.7% and 8.3%, respectively. surviving piglets recovered in 1-2 weeks, but shedded virus via the faeces for up to 3 weeks p.i. the d-xylose test revealed severe malabsorption, with extremely flat absorption curves for up to 3 ...19892551154
cloning and expression of the major inner capsid protein of sa-11 simian rotavirus in escherichia coli.the major inner capsid protein (vp6) of sa-11 simian rotavirus has been expressed in escherichia coli using a cloned cdna derived from sa-11 double-stranded rna segment 6. the cloned gene was fused to the n-terminal coding sequence of lacz resulting in the synthesis of a 44-kda protein. several smaller polypeptides were also observed, resulting predominantly from transcription and translation within the gene 6 coding sequence. the recombinant vp6 proved to be antigenic by immunoblot analysis usi ...19892551775
an outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with acute rotaviral infection in april 1988 a large outbreak of group c rotavirus infection associated with acute gastroenteritis occurred among schoolchildren and their teachers simultaneously at seven elementary schools in fukui city, japan. of 3,102, 675 (21.8%) became ill. clinical symptoms were mild, predominantly abdominal pain and vomiting, with diarrhea reported in only 27.6%. the outbreak subsided within 2 d. no pathogenic bacteria were found in fecal specimens; the virus particles detected by electron microscopy we ...19892551975
passive immunity modulates genetic reassortment between rotaviruses in mixedly infected mice.genetic reassortment between simian rotavirus sa11 and rhesus rotavirus (rrv) occurs with high frequency following mixed infection of nonimmune suckling mice (j. l. gombold and r. f. ramig, j. virol. 57:110-116, 1986). we examined the effects of passively acquired homotypic or heterotypic immunity on reassortment in vivo. passively immune suckling mice obtained from dams immune to either serotype 3 simian rotavirus (sa11) or serotype 6 bovine rotavirus (ncdv) were infected orally with either sa1 ...19892552138
receptor activity of rotavirus nonstructural glycoprotein ns28.rotavirus morphogenesis involves the budding of subviral particles through the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rer) membrane of infected cells. during this process, particles acquire the outer capsid proteins and a transient envelope. previous immunocytochemical and biochemical studies have suggested that a rotavirus nonstructural glycoprotein, ns28, encoded by genome segment 10, is a transmembrane rer protein and that about 10,000 mr of its carboxy terminus is exposed on the cytoplasmic side of th ...19892552139
rotavirus gene detection with biotinylated single-stranded rna probes.biotinylated single-stranded rna probes from two of the eleven genome segments of the simian rotavirus sa11 were synthesized from cloned dna and used in dot-blot and northern-blot hybridization assays. different types of membranes and conditions to prepare and use synthetic non-radioactive transcript probes were evaluated to obtain optimal test results. nytran membranes showed the highest sensitivity and lowest backgrounds for hybridization with biotinylated rna probes. when a gene 6 single-stra ...19892552300
identification of rotavirus genogroups by rna-rna hybridization.the genetic relatedness of various human rotavirus strains was examined by rna-rna hybridization in which 32p-labelled single stranded rnas produced by in vitro transcription from viral rnas were used as probes. denatured genomic double stranded rnas were hybridized to the probes under highly stringent conditions and the resulting hybrids were fractionated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. based on the hybridization patterns obtained with probes made from prototype strains wa (subgroup ii, ...19892552301
use of alkaline northern blot hybridization for the identification of genetic relatedness of the fourth gene of rotaviruses.a recently developed alkaline northern blot hybridization assay (li, j. k. k., parker, b. & kowalik, t., analytical biochemistry 163, 210-18, 1987) was used to assess the genetic relatedness of the fourth gene of human rotavirus strains recovered from children with diarrhea and from asymptomatic neonates. genomic double stranded (ds) rnas of the rotavirus strains were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and were blotted to nylon membranes (gene screen plus or zeta probe membranes). t ...19892552302
nucleotide sequence of the simian rotavirus sa11 genome segment 3. 19892552420
characterization of rotavirus replication intermediates: a model for the assembly of single-shelled particles.the segmented double-stranded (ds)rna genome of the rotaviruses is replicated asymmetrically with viral mrna serving as the template for minus-strand rna synthesis. to identify intermediate structures in rotavirus replication, subviral particles (svps) purified from the cytoplasm of simian rotavirus sa11-infected cells were assayed for rna polymerase activity in a cell-free system that supports viral rna replication. intact svps containing newly made rna were resolved by electrophoresis under no ...19892552662
broad-spectrum antiviral activities of neplanocin a, 3-deazaneplanocin a, and their 5'-nor derivatives.the neplanocin a analogs, 3-deazaneplanocin a, 9-(trans-2',trans-3'-dihydroxycyclopent-4'-enyl)adenine (dhca), and 9-(trans-2',trans-3'-dihydroxycyclopent-4'-enyl)-3-deazaadenine (dhcda), all potent inhibitors of s-adenosylhomocysteine (adohcy) hydrolase, were studied for their broad-spectrum antiviral potential. 3-deazaneplanocin a, dhca, and dhcda proved specifically effective against vesicular stomatitis virus, vaccinia virus, parainfluenza virus, reovirus, and rotavirus. their selectivity wa ...19892552906
vaccination. 19892553063
development of a murine model to study the pathogenesis of rotavirus infection.a murine model to study enteritis induced by bovine (brv) and murine rotavirus (mrv) has been developed. the course of infection was determined by clinical symptoms of diarrhea and virus isolation as well as histopathological, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic methods. both isolates were able to replicate and produce clinical symptoms in neonatal mice. rotavirus-free neonates were orally inoculated with mrv or brv and observed over a 192-hr postinoculation (hpi) period. following inf ...19892553474
rotavirus infection of thai infants. serotypes and subgroups of cultivated viruses in 1984 and 1985. 19892553765
serological characterization of bovine rotaviruses isolated from dairy and beef herds in argentina.bovine rotaviruses isolated from beef and dairy herds in argentina were serotyped by the immunoperoxidase focus reduction assay as previously described (g. gerna, m. battaglia, g. milenesi, n. passarani, e. percivalle, and e. cattaneo, infect. immun. 43:722-729, 1984). three strains from beef herds were related to the uk and ncdv bovine rotavirus strains defined as serotype 6 (y. hoshino, r. g. wyatt, h. b. greenberg, j. flores, and a. z. kapikian, j. infect. dis. 149:694-702, 1984). two other s ...19892553769
specificity of peptide binding by the hla-a2.1 molecule.the hla-a2 molecule contains a putative peptide binding site that is bounded by two alpha-helices and a beta-pleated sheet floor. previous studies have demonstrated that the influenza virus matrix peptide m1 55-73 can sensitize target cells for lysis by hla-a2.1-restricted virus-immune ctl and can induce ctl that can lyse virus-infected target cells. to assess the specificity of peptide binding by the hla-a2.1 molecule, we examined the ability of seven variant m1 peptides to be recognized by a p ...19892553813
rotavirus-specific cytotoxic t lymphocyte response of mice after oral inoculation with candidate rotavirus vaccine strains rrv or wc3.the immunologic basis of homotypic and heterotypic protection by immunization with two candidate rotavirus vaccine strains (simian strain rrv and bovine strain wc3, respectively) was investigated. mice were orally inoculated with rrv, and 6 d later splenic lymphocytes lysed target cells infected with rrv (serotype 3) but not with human rotavirus serotypes 1 or 2; 4 w after inoculation, cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctls) generated in vitro from ctl precursors were also strain-specific. also, the freq ...19892553826
simultaneous administration of rhesus rotavirus vaccine and oral poliovirus vaccine: immunogenicity and reactogenicity.rotavirus vaccine could be administered most efficiently if it were incorporated into routine childhood immunizations and did not interfere with the immune response to the other vaccines, principally oral poliovirus vaccine (opv). we conducted a placebo-controlled randomized trial giving oral rhesus rotavirus vaccine (rrv) (strain mmu 18006) alone and together with a child's first dose of opv and diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-pertussis to examine the possible interaction of these vaccines. a total ...19892554244
comparison of four latex agglutination (la) and three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) for the detection of rotavirus in fecal specimens.eighty-two stool specimens obtained from children with gastrointestinal disease were tested for the presence of antigen to rotavirus by latex agglutination (la) (virogen (vr), meritec (mer), wellcome (wel), slidex rotatest (srt), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (rotaclone [trc], rotazyme ii [rtz], pathfinder [pth]). confirmatory testing was performed by isolation of rotavirus from stool specimens with the use of a shell vial centrifugation, antigen-detection tissue culture amplification m ...19892554719
rotavirus serotypes causing acute diarrhoea in hospitalized children in yogyakarta, indonesia during 1978-1979.rotavirus strains in stool specimens from 111 children aged 3-24 months admitted to hospital in yogyakarta, indonesia for treatment of acute diarrhoea were serotyped using vp7 serotype specific monoclonal antibodies in a double sandwich enzyme immunoassay. a serotype could be assigned to 59 of 111 specimens (53%). inability to assign a serotype to 47% of specimens was probably due to loss of the outer capsid during transport of specimens from indonesia to australia. all four major human rotaviru ...19892554854
characterization of rotavirus subgroup-specific monoclonal antibodies and use in single-sandwich elisa systems for rapid subgrouping of human strains.two subgroup-specific monoclonal antibodies (mab) raised in mice against group a human rotavirus were shown to react by immunoblotting with the trimeric form of vp6 of the homologous subgroup and successfully applied to development of new single-sandwich elisa systems for rapid subgrouping of human strains. all of the 344 strains tested could be subgrouped, but for two of them prior propagation in cell cultures was required.19892554860
[comparative studies of the detection of rotavirus in fecal samples of calves with diarrhea with the latex test "slidex rota-kit 2" and electron microscopy].of 68 fecal samples from calves with diarrhoea which were tested for rotavirus with the latex agglutination test "slidex rota-kit2" and by electron microscopy 33 samples were positive and 33 were negative with both tests respectively. divergent results (latex test positive/em negative and vice versa) were observed in one specimen only, respectively. cross reactions with other viruses diagnosed by electron microscopy were not observed with the latex agglutination test. the "slidex rota-kit2" is a ...19892554880
further studies on passive immunization of newborn calves against rotaviral inactivated rotavirus vaccine was prepared with an adjuvant which gives a water-in-oil emulsion. the vaccine when injected into cows in their last month of pregnancy, proved to be as effective as the traditional vaccine, prepared with the freud's incomplete adjuvant, in enhancing the lactogenic immunity. thus, feeding experimentally infected calves with colostrum and first milk from vaccinated cows prevented diarrhea and reduced significantly rotavirus shedding. because of its low grade visco ...19892555109
efficiency of isolation of human rotavirus in primary african green monkey kidney cells.out of 212 human rotavirus (hrv) containing fecal specimens, 173 (81.6%) yielded virus on first passage in primary african green monkey kidney cells (agmk), while additional 34 specimens, did not yield virus on first passage. however, following blind passages, 18 of the 34 yielded virus in passage levels 2-8, thus raising the overall isolation rate to 90.1%. the isolation rate of hrv strains obtained in embryonic rhesus monkey kidney cell line (ma-104), was only 41.4%. elisa tests performed on f ...19892555376
rapid screening test for the diagnosis of rotavirus infection.the early diagnosis of human rotavirus infection is essential for effective patient management and infection control. we report here a rapid, easy-to-perform, and inexpensive test for rotavirus detection. the viral rna is extracted directly from the stools and electrophoresed on 1% agarose gels. currently available immunoassays for routine diagnostic purposes are directed at the common group a-specific antigen. as reports become available on human gastroenteritis caused by the atypical or novel ...19892555394
investigation of an outbreak of adult diarrhea rotavirus in 1987 an epidemic of diarrhea associated with adult diarrhea rotavirus (adrv) occurred in qinhuangdao city, china, affecting more than 200 persons and causing 2 deaths. the outbreak was introduced by a person returning from an epidemic area and was spread initially to his family members and subsequently to the entire community. adults were at greater risk of diarrhea than children 0-4 y of age and, the duration of illness increased significantly with increasing age. adrv was identified by elis ...19892555422
priming for rotavirus neutralizing antibodies by a vp4 protein-derived synthetic the rotavirus sa11 surface protein vp4, the trypsin cleavage sites associated with the enhancement of infectivity are flanked by two amino acid regions that are highly conserved among different rotaviruses. we have tested the ability of synthetic peptides that mimic these two regions to induce and prime for a rotavirus neutralizing antibody response in mice. after the peptide immunization schedule, both peptides induced peptide antibodies, but neither was able to induce virus antibodies, as m ...19892555564
neutralizing antibody to three different serotypes of porcine rotavirus in pigs. 19892555620
[causes of infectious gastro-enteritis in children in dakar].between february 1983 and may 1988, 1,157 stools from children aged under 15 years presenting with diarrhoea and admitted to a paediatric hospital in dakar, senegal, were examined for the presence of bacterial and parasitic agents. we looked for campylobacter and rotavirus in only 245 and 111 samples respectively. enterobacteria were detected most frequently (162/264; 61.3 per cent). among these, we found 92 (34.8 per cent) strains of enteropathogenic e. coli; 40 strains (15.1 per cent) of salmo ...19892555813
pathology of infectious diarrhea of infant rats (idir) induced by an antigenically distinct rotavirus.suckling rats were inoculated with a group b rotavirus to determine the progression of the morphologic changes induced in the intestine by this virus. several changes were observed by light microscopy 1 day after viral inoculation: shortening of small intestinal villi, villous epithelial necrosis, and villous epithelial syncytia. the lesions were most often present in the distal small intestine, although other small intestinal segments were affected to a lesser degree. by day 3 post-inoculation, ...19892555957
[characteristics of electrophoretic types of rotaviruses isolated from children with acute gastroenteritis].in an analysis of sporadic cases of gastroenteritis in children, rotaviruses were detected in 61 out of 363 specimens examined. studies of rotavirus isolates by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (ep) of rna revealed 9 different ep types. in one region, during the entire epidemic season one "long" ep type was prevalent. in one patient, a mixture of a "short" and "long" ep types was detected. in another region, "atypical" rotaviruses were found not belonging to the antigenic group a of rotaviruse ...19892555966
[use of the passive hemagglutination reaction for diagnosing rotavirus infections]. 19892555969
[assessment of diagnostic prospects for a method of immunoenzyme analysis during mass testing of feces of patients for the purpose of detecting rotavirus antigens]. 19892555970
[the use of commercial immunoenzyme and latex preparations for the demonstration of human rotavirus antigens].the results of using enzyme immunoassay and latex preparations for the diagnosis of rotavirus gastroenteritis are presented. high effectiveness of the enzyme immunoassay system developed in the ussr with latex diagnostic agents, such as rotalex (orion diagnostica, finland), slidex rota kit (biomérieux, france), the wellcome rotavirus latex kit (wellcome foundation ltd., great britain), 48-63% and 21-41% respectively, has been noted. the results of the comparison of the system developed in the us ...19892555984
a plaque hybridization assay for rotaviruses.a plaque hybridization assay was adapted to rotavirus. in this test cdna or oligonucleotide probes were used to discriminate between plaques originating from virus carrying genes of bovine and simian origin. only mrnas present in infected cells were detected as demonstrated by using oligonucleotides corresponding to both strands. this assay can be used to screen reassortants or mutants of rotaviruses.19892556423
evaluation of end-point titration, single dilution and capture enzyme immunoassays for measurement of antirotaviral iga and igm in infantile secretions and order to facilitate measurement of antirotaviral iga in large collections of faeces and secretions, adaptations of enzyme immunoassay methods for estimating antirotaviral iga and igm in duodenal fluid, saliva, faeces and serum were studied. to quantitate specific iga, a single dilution of each sample was assayed. results were expressed as antirotaviral iga units derived from a standard curve. units were calculated by log-logit analysis on computer. there was strong correlation between antirot ...19892556425
reactivity of vp4-specific monoclonal antibodies to a serotype 4 porcine rotavirus with distinct serotypes of human (symptomatic and asymptomatic) and animal rotaviruses.thirteen hybridomas secreting vp4-specific monoclonal antibodies against the gottfried strain of porcine rotavirus (serotype 4) were produced and characterized. nine of the hybridomas secreted neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (n-mabs) against gottfried rotavirus. these n-mabs were divided into five distinct groups (groups i to v) according to their patterns of reactivity with different serotypes of human and animal rotaviruses. group i n-mabs (n = 3) were cross-reactive with five different ser ...19892556431
comparison of immunoglobulin a (iga), igg, and igm enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, plaque reduction neutralization assay, and complement fixation in detecting seroresponses to rotavirus vaccine a phase 1 study to evaluate human-rhesus rotavirus reassortant vaccines, 116 infants 1 to 5 months of age received one of the following five preparations: the serotype 1 reassortant, the serotype 2 reassortant, rhesus rotavirus (serotype 3), a bivalent preparation (serotypes 1 and 3), or a placebo. seroresponses to the different vaccines were measured by plaque reduction neutralization assay (prna); rotavirus-specific immunoglobulin a (iga), igg, and igm enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (el ...19892556433
temporal and geographical distributions of human rotavirus serotypes, 1983 to 1988.between 1983 and 1988, subgroups and serotypes were determined for 907 of 1,084 clinical specimens of rotaviruses collected in various countries of europe, north and south america, africa, and asia. enhanced enzyme immunoassays based on monoclonal antibodies specific for rotavirus proteins vp6 and vp7 were used. significant differences in the prevalent serotypes were detected from year to year in the united kingdom and brazil and also in different countries during the same year. throughout the s ...19892556435
further antigenic characterization of porcine rotavirus ym.we recently reported that the serotype specificity of ym, a group a porcine rotavirus, is different from those of the previously established rotavirus serotypes, 1 to 6 (a. m. ruiz, i. v. lopez, s. lopez, r. t. espejo, and c. f. arias, j. virol. 62:4331-4336, 1988). here we demonstrate by cross-neutralization studies that rotavirus ym is also antigenically distinct from prototype rotavirus strains of serotypes 7 (ty1), 8 (69m), 9 (wi61), and 10 (b223). a comparison of the serotype-determining am ...19892556438
recovery of viruses and bacteria in waters off bondi beach: a pilot study.a pilot study was conducted between february and april, 1989, on the occurrence of sewage-derived viruses and bacteria in the beach and nearshore waters off bondi, sydney. enteroviruses were isolated from 41% of a total of 66 sewage, sea-water, grease and sediment samples. poliovirus vaccine strains accounted for 78% of the isolates. adenoviruses were isolated four times and coxsackievirus b was isolated twice in samples that were collected away from the bathing area. rotavirus and hepatitis a v ...19892556634
rotavirus gene structure and function.knowledge of the structure and function of the genes and proteins of the rotaviruses has expanded rapidly. information obtained in the last 5 years has revealed unexpected and unique molecular properties of rotavirus proteins of general interest to virologists, biochemists, and cell biologists. rotaviruses share some features of replication with reoviruses, yet antigenic and molecular properties of the outer capsid proteins, vp4 (a protein whose cleavage is required for infectivity, possibly by ...19892556635
asymptomatic rotavirus infections among normal indian children in chatsworth, durban.during a 27-month survey in chatsworth, durban, serum from 1,041 normal indian children, ranging in age from birth up to 13 years, was tested for the presence of anti-rotavirus antibodies by means of a complement fixation test. it was found that from an initial high positivity rate of 47.7% in the newborn, there was a sharp drop to 23.8% in the 1-2-month age group (p = 0.0009). this low positivity rate was maintained up to the age of 9-11 months, after which it rose to 46.4% in the 12-17-month a ...19892556805
nucleotide sequence of gene segment 1 of a porcine rotavirus strain.the nucleotide sequence of gene segment 1, which encodes vp1 of porcine rotavirus strain gottfried, was determined. vp1 is associated with single-shelled rotavirus particles and has been linked to virus transcriptase and replicase enzymatic activities. gene segment 1 is 3302 nucleotides long with a single open reading frame capable of coding for a protein of 1088 amino acids (calculated mol wt 125 kda). the predicted amino acid sequence revealed that vp1 is basic, with a net positive charge of 1 ...19892556853
response to rit 4237 oral rotavirus vaccine in human milk, adapted-and soy-formula fed infants.during the first month of life 28 full-term newborns were breast-fed (18 males and 11 females). thereafter 8 infants continued breast-feeding while the remainder were randomly fed on either an adapted milk formula (n=13) or a soy-formula (n=7). at five months, after an oral dose of rit 4237 rotavirus vaccine of bovine origin was given, growth and igm/igg type antibodies against rotavirus were measured. weight gain was similar in all infants. there were 2 igm and 1 igg responders out of 7 soy fed ...19892556883
detection of anti rotavirus coproantibodies by immunoblotting technique.iga and igg coproantibodies to individual simian rotavirus (sa 11) structural polypeptides were detected in healthy infants in nursery homes. the number of immunoblottable peptides differed from individual to individual. coproantibodies were also detected at the convalescent stage of rotavirus infection in two patients but not during the acute stage. this method is useful for confirming the diagnosis of rotavirus infection serologically without the need for paired sera.19892557382
the complete nucleic acid sequence of gene segment 3 of the idir strain of group b rotavirus. 19892557579
detection and survival of group a rotavirus in a piggery.samples of dust, faeces and effluent were collected from a piggery and examined for group a rotavirus, using a commercial elisa test, electron microscopy and inoculation of ma-104 cells. rotavirus antigen was demonstrated in samples collected from farrowing and weaner rooms but not from fattener and sow houses. rotavirus antigen was also detected in samples collected from a weaner room which had been free of piglets for three months. a cytopathic porcine rotavirus (british isolate sw20/21) was k ...19892557702
[rotavirus in stools from hospitalized children].electron microscopy, elisa for rotavirus and virus cultivation in cell cultures were used to study the occurrence of rotavirus in 451 fecal samples collected from hospitalized children. rotavirus was found in samples from 24 of 27 patients admitted with acute diarrhoea. all specimens from randomly selected patients without diarrhoea were negative. two patients developed nosocomial rotavirus infection. elisa was positive, but electron microscopy was negative in two specimens obtained from asympto ...19892558425
[optimization of conditions of culturing rotaviruses in heteroploid cell lines]. 19892558451
detailed structural analysis of a genome rearrangement in bovine rotavirus.a genome rearrangement involving rna segment 11 of a bovine rotavirus has been analysed by molecular cloning and sequencing. this revealed that the rearranged genome segment was generated by a head to tail concatemerisation of two almost full length copies of segment 11. the upstream copy of the gene has lost its 3' end and the downstream copy its 5' end. the truncation of the upstream copy of the gene occurs within the termination codon for vp11 converting it from a uag to a uga, the rearranged ...19892558459
[the epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis].the materials, comprehensively characterizing the water outbreaks of gastroenteritis with its etiology established and its clinico-epidemiological interpretation made, are presented. along with other data, the water nature of the outbreak was verified by the detection of rotavirus antigen, made in the enzyme immunoassay, not only in patients, but also in water samples from the surface water source and from sewage. to isolate the infective agent from environmental objects, bentonite, a mineral so ...19892558470
unusual human rotavirus strains having subgroup i specificity and "long" rna electropherotype.during an epidemiological study of human rotavirus in metro manila, philippines, we found 20 unusual strains which belong to subgroup i but have "long" rna pattern typical of subgroup ii human rotavirus. the rna patterns of the 20 strains were classified into four groups though they were very similar to each other. four strains, designated l4, l26, l27, and l34 were isolated in ma104 cells from stool specimens. they possessed subgroup i specificity and long rna pattern identical to that of the v ...19892558627
comparative sequence analysis of vp7 genes from five australian porcine rotaviruses.the genes coding for the rotavirus major neutralizing protein, vp7, from 5 australian porcine rotaviruses representing glycoprotein (i.e. vp7 or g) serotypes 3, 4, and 5, were sequenced. the genes were each 1,062 nucleotides long with two long open reading frames for proteins of either 326 or 297 amino acids and containing only one potential glycosylation site at amino acid position 69. when compared to the corresponding genes of human viruses, the porcine genes showed very high nucleotide and d ...19892558633
studies on attenuation of rotavirus. a comparison in piglets between virulent virus and its attenuated derivative.the development of rotavirus vaccines against acute gastroenteritis for human infants has been accorded a very high priority. several vaccine candidates all of which are live cultivated strains of animal origin have been tested in humans. however the nature of attenuation of these viruses for humans is unknown. in this study we have attenuated a pig rotavirus by 15 sequential passages in cell culture after which the virus no longer causes diarrhoea in piglets. the pathogenesis of infection of th ...19892558635
isolation of marine bacteria with antiviral properties.we report in this study the isolation of marine bacteria with antiviral properties that have been tentatively classified as moraxella. these bacteria retained their virucidal capacity after prolonged subcultivation in the laboratory. the virus-inactivating agent could not be separated from the viable marine bacteria, indicating that the active agent(s) either remains associated to the microorganisms or has a very short lifetime, or both. the antiviral capacity of the isolated microorganisms was ...19892558789
detection of rotavirus in faecal specimens with a monoclonal antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: comparison with polyclonal antibody enzyme immuno-assays and a latex agglutination test.monoclonal antibodies have been produced against the 81/36f strain of rotavirus. one of them, was chosen as diagnostic reagent: it showed high elisa reactivity with all the bovine, human and porcine rotavirus strains tested and reacted with vp6, structural protein product known to support the common rotavirus antigen. a sandwich elisa procedure using the chosen monoclonal as "capture and detecting" antibody was performed to detect rotavirus in faecal samples from experimentally inoculated newbor ...19892558838
[epidemiology of rotavirus infection around tokyo area].epidemiology of rotavirus infection was studied from 1981 to 1988 mainly in three hospitals around tokyo area. major serotypes of rotaviruses in the three places were different from those in two hospitals around kansai area in japan (ref. 6, 13), while, major serotypes were same among three hospitals. both of serotypes 1 and 4 in group a were mostly found around tokyo area. frequencies of type 2, 3, and 9 in group a were low, although the frequencies were various among periods. detail examinatio ...19892559123
presence of group a and non-a rotaviruses in neonatal piglets in campinas, sp, brazil.rotaviruses were detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) in 11 (84.6%) of 13 faecal specimens from neonatal piglets with acute diarrhoea in a piggery near the city of campinas, state of são paulo, brazil. an immunoenzimatic assay for group a rotavirus (iea-a) was positive in ten of the samples, all of which showed a page profile typical of that group. another sample was showed a group b profile in page. an immunoenzimatic assay specific for group b (iea-b) for this faecal sample wa ...19892559308
identification of rotaviruses by dot-blot hybridization using an alkaline phosphatase-conjugated synthetic oligonucleotide probe.we have evaluated a recently-developed dot-blot hybridization assay for the detection of human rotaviruses using an alkaline-phosphatase conjugated oligonucleotide probe. the lower detection limit of this assay was 1 ng (approximately 5 x 10(7) copies) of the double-stranded (ds) rna, when a purified preparation from serotype 1 human rotavirus was used but appeared to be much higher when applied on clinical specimens. this assay could detect dsrna from rotavirus strains belonging to serotypes 1 ...19892559322
role of rotavirus and enteric adenovirus in acute paediatric diarrhoea at an urban hospital in mexico.of 150 acute diarrhoea paediatric cases admitted to the general hospital augustín o'horán in mérida, yucatán, méxico between january 1986 and december 1986, human rotavirus was detected in the faeces of 48 (32%) either as the sole aetiological agent or in association with other viruses. adenovirus was detected in faeces of 18 (12%) patients. rotavirus of the long pattern type (antigenic subgroup ii) predominated. children aged 7 to 12 months were most commonly infected. rotavirus was detected th ...19892559506
lack of an association between acute gastroenteritis, acute respiratory infections and malaria in young gambian children.the incidence of acute gastrointestinal and acute respiratory infections was measured in 2 groups of approximately 750 gambian children aged 3-59 months during a 3-year period. one group of children was partially protected against malaria by fortnightly chemoprophylaxis with maloprim whilst children in the other group were infected much more frequently. mortality from acute gastroenteritis and from acute respiratory infections was similar in the 2 groups. the proportions of children in each grou ...19892559509
epidemiology and aetiology of acute childhood diarrhoea in burma: a rural community survey.identical epidemiological and microbiological surveys were carried out in a rural community at intakaw, burma, in 2 months, one in the hot wet and the other in the cool dry season. the incidence of diarrhoea was highest in children under 3 years old and in the hot wet month when enterotoxigenic escherichia coli was the predominant pathogen. rotavirus was the commonest pathogen in the cool dry month but was absent in the hot wet month. shigellae, salmonellae and campylobacter were isolated in bot ...19892559512
strategies for the development of a rotavirus vaccine against infantile diarrhea with an update on clinical trials of rotavirus vaccines. 19892559615
experimental rotavirus infection in three-week-old pigs.thirteen 3-week-old pigs that had been allowed to nurse for the first 16 to 18 hours after birth were orally inoculated with 1 x 10(6.5) tcid50 of porcine rotavirus. all developed diarrhea, anorexia, and vomiting by postinoculation (pi) hour 30. these signs had abated by pi day 6. villus blunting in the small intestine was most severe in the jejunum and ileum of pigs euthanatized between pi days 3 and 5. villi had returned to nearly normal length by pi day 6, although fused villi were seen in a ...19892559635
rotavirus replication in colostrum-fed and colostrum-deprived pigs.a porcine rotavirus isolate was titrated in neonatal colostrum-fed and colostrum-deprived pigs. the stock rotavirus suspension had a titer of 10(-6.5)/ml and was in its fifteenth cell culture passage in ma-104 cells. fourteen colostrum-fed pigs were orally inoculated with dilutions of the stock virus suspension ranging from undiluted to 10(-5). these pigs did not develop notable clinical signs during the 7-day experimental trial and no pathologic changes were found in intestine, liver, lung, kid ...19892559636
[rotaviruses: structure and function of the principal polypeptides].polypeptides have been defined by studying structural and nonstructural proteins. the rotavirus outer capsid is made up of three proteins: vp7, vp3 and vp9. vp7 is a glycoprotein involved in cell attachment and viral maturation. vp3 is associated with hemagglutination and trypsin activation of virus infectivity; both contain type-specific neutralization determinants. a biological function has not yet been completely defined for vp9. vp6, the main protein of the inner capsid is necessary for mrna ...19892559646
in vivo protocol for testing efficacy of hand-washing agents against viruses and bacteria: experiments with rotavirus and escherichia coli.ten antiseptic formulations, an unmedicated liquid soap, and tap water alone were compared for their capacities to eliminate human rotavirus from the finger pads of adult volunteers; three of the antiseptics, the soap, and the tap water alone were also tested against escherichia coli. a fecal suspension of virus or bacterium was placed on each finger pad and air dried. the contaminated site was exposed to the test product for 10 s, rinsed in tap water, and dried on a paper towel. the residual vi ...19892559658
rotavirus vaccines: science and politics. 19892559685
[rotavirus infections in traveler's diarrhea].we tried to isolate rotaviruses from travelers with diarrhea arriving at nagoya international airport. 1. ten cases revealed positive for rotavirus out of 334 diarrheal patients tested during a period from 1985 to 1988. 2. most of the rotavirus positive cases were in their forties or in their fifties. 3. geographic distribution of the infected area of the cases was not concentrated with specific countries. 4. diarrhea was the most frequent clinical manifestations of the cases. 5. there was no cl ...19892559935
pig erythrocyte ghost cells used for concentration of enteric viruses from experimentally contaminated clinical specimens.a simple, rapid and efficient procedure of virus concentration from urine, cerebrospinal fluid (csf), and feces was developed. pig erythrocyte ghost cells were used to adsorb and elute such viruses as poliovirus lsc-1, echovirus 6, and human rotavirus (clinical isolate). in urine and csf, the adsorption efficiency range was 80-100% and elution was from 85% to greater than 100%. in addition, poliovirus lsc-1 was used as an experimental model to examine this procedure under various clinical condit ...19892559952
[the isolation of a concentrated and purified rotavirus preparation by using bentonite].the preparation obtained when cultivating virus sa-11 in the transplantable cell culture spev has been purified and concentrated by means of bentonite. the virus adsorption at acidic values of ph (4.0-4.5) and elution at alkaline values of ph (8.5) were the main stages of production of the concentrated and purified rotavirus preparation. the paper embraces data on the infective activity of the virus protein content, amount of the rotavirus antigen, results of the electron and immunoelectron micr ...19892560132
[present status of vaccines in 1989].the authors describe 2 new vaccines now available in france: one is the genhevac, an hepatitis b vaccine, the first virus recombinant vaccine; the other one is the typhim vi, a polysaccharide typhoid vaccine. three other vaccines are currently used in foreign countries and will be soon available: the hemophilus influenzae vaccine, the acellular pertussis vaccine and the varicella vaccine. rotavirus and cytomegalovirus vaccines are studied for their clinical efficacy.19892560159
naturally occurring serotype 2/subgroup ii rotavirus reassortants in northern brazil.nine serotype 2 human rotavirus strains were isolated in a community-based longitudinal study in northern brazil. five of these strains had a 'long' rna electrophoretic pattern and all five strains were determined to belong to subgroup ii by elisa assay, in contrast to properties common to serotype 2 human rotaviruses previously characterized. hybridization studies of one of these unusual strains with 32p-labelled mrnas derived from the prototype human strains wa (serotype 1, subgroup ii) and s2 ...19892560292
[polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) as a method for detecting enteric adenovirus (ead)].this paper presents a method which could provide a simple, rapid, economical, and reliable means of detecting or identifying adenoviruses (advs), rotaviruses (rvs) and reoviruses (reovs) in stool suspensions or tissue cultures. the method is based on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) of the virus nucleic acids, but sample preparation does not need the use of radioactive label, specific dna probe or antisera. comparison of the results of page of adv, rv and reov with those of electron mic ...19892560412
[research on antibodies against bhv-1, bhv-2, bhv-4, bvd-md virus, bovine adenovirus a and b, rotavirus and coronavirus in cattle in western zaire: complementary results].two-hundred bovine sera from western zaire were screened for antibodies to 8 viruses: bhv-1, bhv-2, bhv-4, bvd-md virus, bovine adenovirus a and b, bovine rotavirus and bovine coronavirus. positive sera were found to all these viruses. for animals whose origin was undoubted, the main features were the high prevalence of infections by rotavirus and bhv-4 and the low prevalence of infections by coronavirus and bvd-md virus.19892560579
a serological investigation of rotavirus infections in a shanty town population in rio de janeiro.the presence of antibodies against rotavirus was investigated by enzyme immunosorbent assay (elisa) in two distinct groups of children living in a shanty town in rio de janeiro. one hundred and thirty six plasma samples were randomly collected from children of 0 to 33 months (first group) and 255 serum samples were collected from other 85 children at ages of 2, 6 and 9 months (second group). a high percentage of antibodies were found in the newborn children and this rate decreased progressively ...19892560587
[uv-inactivation of microorganisms in water].uv-inactivation of escherichia coli, bacillus subtilis spores, staphylococcus-phage a 994, poliovirus type mahoney and rotavirus sa 11 was tested under controlled physical conditions. b. subtilis-spores were found to be the most resistant of these microorganisms, followed by rotavirus, bacteriophage and poliovirus. e. coli required the lowest irradiation dose for inactivation. causes and meaning of these dose-survival-reactions are discussed.19892560633
rotavirus identification in jejunal juice and stools of acute and chronic forms of infantile gastroenteritis.1. the present study investigates, by means of a combined enzyme immunoassay for rotaviruses and adenoviruses (eiara), the occurrence of rotaviruses in stools and jejunal juices from 31 children with acute diarrhea and 18 with chronic diarrhea. 2. stools from 8 acute cases contained rotaviruses (26%). in two of these cases rotaviruses were also detected in the jejunal juice. 3. in the chronic diarrhea group we identified rotaviruses in the stools of one patient and in the jejunal juice of anothe ...19892560940
infection and cross-infection in a paediatric gastro-enteritis unit.a two month study to investigate the incidence of nosocomial infection was conducted in a paediatric gastroenteritis ward of a black academic hospital. enteric pathogens were identified on admission in 61 (47.2%) of 129 patients; 56 bacterial and 25 viral. six per cent of patients had a combination of bacterial and viral pathogens. enteric pathogens most frequently identified on admission were campylobacter jejuni in 22%. rotavirus in 19.3%, epec in 10.8% and shigella spp. in 6.9% patients. twen ...19892561089
suggested mechanism by which a film of agar gel purifies and concentrates rotavirus from a faecal suspension before electron microscopy. 19892561130
[filtration-chromatographic method of purification of rotaviruses]. 19892561240
[electrophoretypes of the genome of rotaviruses isolated from senegalese children].polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis allowing study of rotavirus genome was applied to 213 faecal specimens from children with acute gastroenteritis living in dakar area, senegal. we were able to define an electrophoretype in 41 cases (19.2%). five different rna electrophoretypes were shown. the electrophoretype 4 was the most frequent (41.4%). "long" and "short" electrophoretic migration patterns were found in 36 and 5 cases, respectively. we found 34.1% of electrophoretypes in children aged from ...19892561271
rotavirus vaccines. 19892561284
local and systemic antibody response to rotavirus wc3 vaccine in adult evaluation of the safety and immunogenicity of wc3 rotavirus vaccine was evaluated in adult volunteers. pre- and post-vaccination titers of neutralizing antibody to wc3 and to the four human rotavirus serotypes as well as serum and stool rotavirus iga levels were measured. vaccination was safe and did not induce elevation of liver enzymes. none of the 12 volunteers receiving wc3 vaccine shed detectable amounts of virus although antibody rises were detected in 11 of 12 vaccines. nine developed ...19892561335
[rotavirus in the feces of children with acute diarrhea in cochabamba, bolivia].eighty patients with acute diarrheal disease from cochabamba, bolivia, were investigated for rotavirus infection by rotapheresis. rotavirus arn was detected in 18 (22.5%) of the cases, thus suggesting that this agent is also a frequent cause of acute diarrhea in the studied population as reported from other places of the world.19892561382
molecular epidemiology of human rotavirus infection in coro, venezuela.from december 1984 to december 1987, rotaviruses were detected in 115 (24%) of 470 hospitalized children, by electrophoretic analysis of viral rna. three peaks of increased incidence were observed, coincident with the cooler months of each year. rotavirus was found in 31% of the children with diarrhea and in 47% of those who were severely dehydrated. vomiting was significantly associated with rotavirus shedding in diarrheic children. eleven electropherotypes were identified, showing a sequential ...19892561547
pattern of acquisition of rotavirus antibody in children followed up from birth to the age of three years.nine hundred and forty-eight serum samples from 83 children living in belem, brazil, collected within their first three years of life, were tested for the presence of group-specific rotavirus-antibody by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) blocking-test. passively transferred maternal antibody lasted about two and half months; subsequently, low levels of rotavirus antibody started to appear at seven months, reaching a peak at eleven months of age. from one year onwards positivity gradua ...19892561615
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