PMID(sorted ascending)
rotavirus serotype iv: nucleotide sequence of genomic segment nine of the st thomas 3 strain. 19892536151
effect of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, corynebacterium parvum and mycobacterium cell wall extract on in vitro blastogenic responses of bovine blood vivo inoculation of three-month-old calves with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (dtc), killed corynebacterium parvum or mycobacterium cell wall extract (mcwe) resulted in an enhancement of in vitro peripheral blood lymphocyte blastogenic responses to mitogens phytohemagglutinin (pha) and concanavalin a (con a) in the first three days after treatment. in a separate experiment, blood lymphocytes isolated from a healthy nontreated calf were incubated in vitro in presence of each of the same immuno ...19892536308
dot hybridization assay for distinction of rotavirus serotypes.we have developed a hybridization assay that permits distinction of rotavirus serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4. the serotype of rotaviruses from stool samples or tissue culture was recognized by hybridization of specific probes to (i) blots of viral double-stranded rnas electrophoresed in agarose gels (northern blots) or (ii) heat-denatured double-stranded rnas directly dotted on nylon membranes. the probes consisted of 32p-labeled cdna synthesized by reverse transcription of in vitro derived rotavirus ...19892536391
detection of human rotavirus by using an alkaline phosphatase-conjugated synthetic dna probe in comparison with enzyme-linked immunoassay and polyacrylamide gel alkaline phosphatase-conjugated synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide probe was compared with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) detection of rotavirus rna as well as an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of rotavirus in stools from young children with gastroenteritis. the synthetic probe did not cross-react with bacterial causative agents of diarrheal disease. extraction of viral rna from stool samples with a phenol-chloroform mixture was suitable for most sample ...19892536392
monoclonal antibody assay for detection of double-stranded rna and application for detection of group a and non-group a rotaviruses.fastidious viruses are generally detected in human body fluids by means of immunoassay or nucleic acid hybridization systems. these approaches can be difficult to apply to the detection of viruses which display variations in antigenic or genetic composition. rotaviruses are examples of viruses which can display such variations. recently identified antigenic variants, designated as non-group a rotaviruses, cannot be detected by immunoassays or nucleic acid hybridization assays which utilize reage ...19892536393
clinical and epidemiological features of acute gastroenteritis associated with human rotavirus subgroups 1 and 2 in northern india.rotavirus was detected in 111 (15.9%) of 694 children who presented to our hospital with acute diarrhoea over a period of 45 months (1982-1985). subgrouping for rotavirus was done on 87 children by elisa using specific monoclonal antibodies to find out any differences in the epidemiology and clinical profile of the two subgroups. twenty six (29.9%) were found to belong to subgroup 1 and 61 (70.1%) to subgroup 2. diarrhoea, vomiting and fever were present in both the subgroups in the same frequen ...19892536640
characterization of monoclonal antibodies to human group b rotavirus and their use in an antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.three monoclonal antibodies (mabs)--b5c9, b5e4, and b10g10--to human group b rotavirus, an agent implicated in epidemic outbreaks of diarrhea in the people's republic of china, primarily in adults, were prepared. mab reactivity was decreased when virus preparations were treated with edta, suggesting reactivity with the outer-capsid protein(s). competition experiments suggested that these mabs recognize overlapping epitopes within a single antigenic site. a simple antigen detection enzyme-linked ...19892536755
comparison of five enzyme immunoassays, electron microscopy, and latex agglutination for detection of rotavirus in fecal specimens.five different enzyme immunoassays, electron microscopy, and latex agglutination (slidex; biomerieux) were compared for the rapid detection of human rotavirus in fecal specimens. the enzyme immunoassay using rotavirus polyclonal antiserum (dakopatts) with simple in-house modifications was shown by the use of confirmatory tests to be the most sensitive and specific procedure.19892536758
rotavirus gastro-enteritis presenting as acute intestinal obstruction. 19892536776
rotavirus in vomit. 19892536777
solid-phase immune electron microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for typing of human rotavirus strains by using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies: a comparative study. 19892536784
protection of peruvian children against rotavirus diarrhea of specific serotypes by one, two, or three doses of the rit 4237 attenuated bovine rotavirus vaccine.a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind field trial of rit 4237 attenuated rotavirus vaccine in lima, peru, evaluated the protection against diarrheal illness by one, two, or three doses of vaccine. there were 391 children, 2-18 months old, studied for the occurrence of diarrhea during the 18 months after vaccination. three doses of the vaccine provided 40% protection against any diarrheal illness associated with rotavirus alone but 58%-75%; protection against the more severe rotaviral illn ...19892536789
rna-rna hybridization identifies a human rotavirus that is genetically related to feline rotavirus.a human rotavirus au228 strain which resembled the au-1 strain (o. nakagomi, t. nakagomi, y. hoshino, j. flores, and a. z. kapikian, j. clin. microbiol. 25:1159-1164, 1987) in its novel characteristics (that it belonged to subgroup i yet possessed a long rna pattern) was compared with various human and animal strains by rna-rna hybridization in solution. this strain showed a high degree of homology with the au-1 strain but not with either the wa (subgroup ii, long pattern) or the kun (subgroup i ...19892536843
sequence analysis of the gene encoding the serotype-specific glycoprotein (vp7) of two new human rotavirus serotypes.human rotavirus strains 69m and wi61 are distinct from human rotavirus serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 and from each other by plaque reduction neutralization and have been proposed as new human rotavirus serotypes (serotype 8 and serotype 9, respectively). the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the serotype-specific capsid glycoprotein, vp7, of strains 69m and wi61 was determined. in addition, the sequence of the vp7 gene of strain f45 (serotypically indistinguishable from wi61) was determined. c ...19892536991
longitudinal study of rotavirus infections among children from belém, brazil.from december 1982 to march 1986 a group of 80 children between 0 and 3 years old who lived in the peripheral area of belém, brazil, were followed up for episodes of diarrhoea. a total of 441 diarrhoeal episodes were recorded and 36 (8.2%) were associated with rotavirus. this agent was the only pathogen in 50% of rotavirus-related episodes of acute diarrhoea, and strains were characterized by analysis of rna in polyacrylamide gels. forty-one belonged to subgroup ii (long pattern) and five to sub ...19892537221
parasitic, bacterial and viral pathogens isolated from diarrhoeal and routine stool specimens of urban bangladeshi children.few data exist in bangladesh on longitudinal, community-based studies of bacterial or parasitic pathogens identified in routine and diarrhoeal stools of urban dwelling children. we undertook the following study on 343 children of age less than 6 years who resided in one of 51 slum settings in dhaka, bangladesh, between october 1984 and february 1986. specimens from diarrhoeal episodes and from routine stools obtained at 3-monthly intervals were examined for parasites, rotavirus and pathogenic ba ...19892537431
rotavirus serology and breast-feeding in young children in rural hundred and forty-four children aged 9-20 months living in 14 villages in a rural area of guinea-bissau were examined for circulating rotavirus antibodies twice in a 15-month period. an immunofluorescence technique was used. about 3/4 of the children seroconverted, independent of age on entering the study. the age-specific proportion of seropositivity increased from 4/40 (10%) at 9-11 months to 26/29 (90%) at 33-35 months of age. all the initially seropositive children retained detectable an ...19892537555
detection of anti-rotavirus igg, igm, and iga antibodies in healthy subjects, rotavirus infections, and immunodeficiencies by immunoblotting.immune responses to individual simian rotavirus (sa 11) structural polypeptides were studied with emphasis on specific igg, igm, and iga in paired sera from four children with rotavirus infections. responses to simian rotavirus (sa 11) were also studied in 103 healthy children, 10 patients with primary immunodeficiency who received intravenous immunoglobulin, and 11 human immunodeficiency virus antibody-positive patients. all samples were immunoblotted for two major polypeptides--vp2 and vp6--of ...19892537874
nosocomial outbreak of infant rotavirus diarrhea due to the appearance of a new serotype 4 outbreak of acute gastroenteritis, involving 30 infants and young children aged 2 months to 4 years, took place in a pediatric ward of the university hospital of pavia, northern italy, in the period from november 9 to december 1, 1986. out of the 14 patients examined, ten were found to shed rotavirus with stools. all strains were characterized for serotype, using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and for electropherotype, by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of g ...19892537878
the signal peptide of the rotavirus glycoprotein vp7 is essential for its retention in the er as an integral membrane protein.the rotavirus glycoprotein vp7 has a cleavable signal peptide and is normally resident as an integral membrane protein in the er of infected cells. a gene was constructed in which the vp7 h2 signal peptide was replaced by one from influenza hemagglutinin. cos cells transfected with this gene produced vp7 with the correct amino terminus, but the protein was rapidly secreted. uncleaved vp7 from either precursor was not detected in cells after brief pulse-labeling, suggesting that the signal peptid ...19892538241
prolonged efficacy of rhesus rotavirus vaccine in swedish children. 19892538521
the rhesus rotavirus outer capsid protein vp4 functions as a hemagglutinin and is antigenically conserved when expressed by a baculovirus recombinant.rhesus rotavirus (rrv) gene 4 was cloned into lambda bacteriophage, inserted into a polyhedrin promoter shuttle plasmid, and expressed in sf9 cells by a recombinant baculovirus. the baculovirus-expressed vp4 protein made up approximately 5% of the spodoptera frugiperda-infected cell protein. monoclonal antibodies that neutralize the virus bound to the expressed vp4 polypeptide, indicating that the expressed vp4 protein was antigenically indistinguishable from viral vp4. in addition, we have dete ...19892538649
complete nucleotide sequence of the simian rotavirus sa11 vp4 gene. 19892538804
nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding for the rna binding protein (vp2) of rf bovine rotavirus. 19892538805
[objective evaluation of the immunogenic effectiveness of polyvalent vaccines against enteral infections of newborn calves under enzootic conditions].for evaluating the protective effect of polyvalent vaccine against diarrhoea in new born calves caused by rotaviruses, coronaviruses and enterotoxigenic e. coli the method was selected of mathematical and statistical analysis of the set of data characterizing the most important clinical symptoms of the disease during the first three weeks after birth. in two large-scale breeds with a mass occurrence of diarrhoea of the known etiology the state of health of calves before the vaccine application w ...19892538950
development of immunoglobulin class-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for measuring antibodies against avian rotavirus.immunoglobulin class-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were developed for detecting antibodies against avian rotavirus in serum, intestinal contents, and bile from experimentally infected specific-pathogen-free (spf) chickens. both indirect and antibody-capture (abc) assays were developed based on monoclonal antibodies specific for chicken igg, igm, and iga. treatment of purified rotavirus with sodium thiocyanate before coating the plate improved the rotavirus-specific reading in the i ...19892539075
viruses in acute gastroenteritis in children in pune, india.a 2-year study from january 1981 to december 1982 was undertaken to determine the role of viruses in the causation of diarrhoea in hospitalized children in pune, maharashtra state, india. the stool samples of 426 children (213 diarrhoeal and 213 non-diarrhoeal controls) were investigated by electron microscopy and elisa for the presence of viruses. six morphologically distinct viruses were visualized: rotavirus, coronavirus-like particles (cvlp), adenovirus, astrovirus, calicivirus and small rou ...19892539300
molecular biology of rotaviruses. viii. quantitative analysis of regulation of gene expression during virus replication.a sensitive and quantitative solution hybridization assay recently developed in this laboratory has been applied to the study of the regulation of viral gene expression in rotavirus-infected cells. measurement of the cumulative level of viral plus-strand (mrna) synthesis at hourly intervals throughout the growth cycle has provided evidence for both quantitative and qualitative regulation of transcription. qualitative control was found only when cycloheximide was used to block protein synthesis i ...19892539501
purification and characterization of adult diarrhea rotavirus: identification of viral structural diarrhea rotavirus (adrv) is a newly identified strain of noncultivable human group b rotavirus that has been epidemic in the people's republic of china since 1982. we have used sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western (immuno-) blot analysis to examine the viral proteins present in the outer and inner capsids of adrv and compared these with the proteins of a group a rotavirus, sa11. edta treatment of double-shelled virions removed the outer capsid and resulted ...19892539512
[electron microscopy in the diagnosis of enteritis in cats].over a five-year period (1981-1985) 346 faecal and intestinal samples of cats affected with diarrhoea were studied by electron microscopy. this method revealed the presence of virus in 144 out of 346 (41.6 per cent) samples studied. 117 (81.3 per cent) of these samples contained parvoviruses which were identified by using a specific immune serum (immuno electron microscopy). in addition, rotaviruses (two samples), coronaviruses (thirteen samples), coronavirus-like (ten samples) and picornavirus- ...19892539659
biological and immunological characterization of a simian rotavirus sa11 variant with an altered genome segment 4.we have studied a variant virus isolated from a stock of sa11 virus (h. g. pereira, r. s. azeredo, a. m. fialho, and m. n. p. vidal, 1984, j. gen. virol. 65, 815-818). this virus, designated 4f, was initially identified by its faster electrophoretic mobility for genome segment 4. the variant was analyzed to determine if the altered electrophoretic mobility of genome segment 4 could be correlated with phenotypic changes. comparison of our standard laboratory sa11 virus (clone 3) with the 4f varia ...19892539699
[infectious gastroenteritis in the immunocompetent child. significance of cryptosporidium spp. and aeromonas ssp].over a one-year period we have examined 390 stool specimens from 210 children hospitalized for infectious gastroenteritis or in whom infectious gastroenteritis occurred during hospitalization. the most prevalent pathogens were rotaviruses (22.4%), followed by enteric salmonella (8.1%), campylobacter jejuni/coli (2.4%), cryptosporidium spp. (2.4%) and aeromonas spp. (1.9%). both cryptosporidium spp. and aeromonas spp. are important pathogens of infectious gastroenteritis in immunocompetent childr ...19892540525
multicentre evaluation of a new commercial latex agglutination test using a monoclonal antibody for rotavirus detection.a new commercial latex-agglutination test using a monoclonal antibody for detection of rotavirus (slidex rota-kit 2) was compared with three other tests (slidex rota-kit, rotalex, rotazyme ii) using immunoelectron microscopy and a monoclonal enzyme immunoassay as reference tests. slidex rota-kit 2 was more sensitive and specific than the other tests, and would thus appear to be a practical and accurate rotavirus assay for use in routine laboratory work.19892540979
detection of group b rotavirus in fecal specimens by dot hybridization with a cloned cdna probe.cloned cdna copies were synthesized from the genomic rna of the idir strain of group b rotavirus (gbr) isolated in baltimore, md. these clones were screened for hybridization with heterologous gbr to identify cdna for use in dot hybridization experiments. in multiple screening experiments, cdna clones derived from gene segment 3 provided the most intense hybridization signals. 32p-labeled probes were produced from one of the gene 3 clones, and these were employed in dot hybridization assays. pur ...19892541164
reactions to and antigenicity of two human-rhesus rotavirus reassortant vaccine candidates of serotypes 1 and 2 in venezuelan infants.the reactions to and antigenicity of two human-rhesus rotavirus (rrv) reassortants (human rotavirus strain d x rrv and human rotavirus strain ds1 x rrv) with the vp7 neutralization specificity of a serotype 1 or serotype 2 rotavirus were evaluated in a placebo-controlled double-blind trial in 116 1- to 5-month-old infants in caracas, venezuela. the children were randomly divided into five groups to receive orally the following inocula: (i) 10(4) pfu of d x rrv reassortant; (ii) 10(4) pfu of ds1 ...19892541168
direct identification of serotypes of natural human rotavirus isolates by hybridization using cdna probes derived from segment 9 of the rotavirus genome.under stringent hybridization conditions, cdna of segment 9 of the rotavirus genome, which codes for the viral protein vp7, permitted differentiation of serotypes of culture-grown rotaviruses and natural isolates of human rotaviruses directly from clinical specimens. this was evident for the following reasons. (i) the cdna of one serotype selectively hybridized with the rna of the same serotype of culture-grown rotaviruses. (ii) natural isolates of the virus thus identified as serotype 2 were al ...19892541169
experience with an enzyme immunoassay for serotyping human group a enzyme immunoassay utilizing neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to vp7 of four human group a rotavirus serotypes successfully typed rotaviruses in 71.4% (568 of 796) of fecal specimens. sensitivity was enhanced by using homologous capture and detector antibodies. serotyping was most successful with specimens stored for less than 3 years and containing 10(4) or more particles per ml.19892541171
atypical rotavirus and villous epithelial cell syncytia in piglets.histopathological examination of small and large intestine from piglets with enteritis has shown the presence of epithelial multinucleate syncytia. syncytia were associated with a specific type of atypical rotavirus infection, determined by electron microscopy and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of viral rna. the observations are consistent with similar previously described natural or experimental infections in other animals.19892541179
[microbiological study results (bacteriology and electron microscopy) of diarrhea in dog whelps].bacteriological examinations of 159 faeces and intestinal contents of dogs with diarrhoea revealed e. coli in 157 specimens. 73 of these samples contained non haemolytic strains, 18 haemolytic isolates, and 66 haemolytic, as well as non haemolytic strains. klebsiella sp. and staphylococcus aureus were found in 9 cases, and salmonella sp. (group b) was isolated once only. by electron microscopy parvovirus could be detected in 19 samples. ten were positive for coronavirus and one for rotavirus. mo ...19892541519
the vp7 gene of a new g serotype of human rotavirus (b37) is similar to g3 proteins in the antigenic c region.the human rotavirus isolate b37 has a characteristic "super-short" rna electropherotype and has been shown to represent a new vp7 serotype (m. j. albert, l. e. unicomb, and r. f. bishop, 1987, j. clin. microbiol. 25, 183-185). the vp7 gene was cloned, and its nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences were compared to other published vp7 gene sequences. consistent with the serological evidence, two major antigenic regions of the b37 vp7 (i.e., regions a and b) differ in sequence from those of ...19892541556
simple method for the detoxification of wastewater ultrafiltration concentrates for rotavirus assay by indirect immunofluorescence.a simple method for the detoxification of ultrafiltration concentrates of wastewaters for rotavirus assay by the indirect immunofluorescence technique has been developed. polyacrylamide (bio-gel) or dextran (sephadex g50) beads were mixed with concentrates (0.5 g/10 ml, wt/vol) of wastewaters seeded with simian rotavirus sa11 and allowed to stand for 2 h. the supernatant was decontaminated with antibiotics and then assayed for rotaviruses. concentrates from raw sewage and treated effluents seede ...19892541662
detection of a large number of subgroup 1 human rotaviruses with a "long" rna electropherotype.the long or short electrophoretic migration patterns of group a human rotaviruses are linked to their subgroup antigenic specificities. long pattern isolates usually belong to subgroup 2 (sg2) and short pattern to subgroup 1 (sg1). to date detection of only 4 isolates which do not follow this linkage, have been reported. in the present communication we report the detection of unusually large number (39 isolates) of long pattern human isolates with sg1 specificities.19892541674
comparison of a new rapid test (testpack rotavirus) with standard enzyme immunoassay and electron microscopy for the detection of rotavirus in symptomatic hospitalized children.we compared a new, rapid, qualitative test for rotavirus (testpack rotavirus; abbott laboratories, north chicago, ill.) with another enzyme immunoassay (pathfinder rotavirus; kallestad laboratories, inc., austin, tex.) and electron microscopy to determine its clinical utility in a population of symptomatic hospitalized children. in the first part of the study, 100 frozen stool samples were tested. the results after resolution with a blocking reagent showed a sensitivity of only 50% and a specifi ...19892542368
antigenic characterization of swine rotaviruses in argentina.fecal samples from 156 diarrheic piglets were collected from several herds located in two main breeding areas of argentina. rotaviruses were detected in 60 samples (38.4%) by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in 55 samples by a group a-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). all samples which were positive by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and negative by elisa had elicited atypical electropherotypes resembling those of group b or c. elisa-positive samples showing genome rea ...19892542369
on the drinking water situation on the cape verde islands (island of santiago).on the cape verde islands drinking water investigations were made. the drinking water was tested in chemical and bacteriological respects as well as on amebas and rotaviruses. the isolated germs were investigated on their reaction against several antibiotics and chemotherapeutics by means of the agar diffusion test. the changing of drinking water quality from water-supply-places to the households was investigated as well. according to the fact, that only 10.6% of 207 public water supplies invest ...19892542397
complement-fixing antibodies against rotaviruses in healthy children in the czech socialist republic and people's democratic republic of yemen.levels of complement-fixing antibodies against rotaviruses were evaluated in the sera of 900 healthy children aged 1-9 years 300 sera were collected in the people's democratic republic of yemen in september-october 1985, 300 sera were obtained in the czech socialist republic in the same period and another 300 also in the czech socialist republic in september-october 1986. the latter two groups were investigated in the framework of immunological surveys. a complement-fixation antigen was prepared ...19892542398
detection of group c rotaviruses in tokyo.four human group c rotaviruses were detected in tokyo in 1987 and 1988 during a survey over 7 years. among the four rotaviruses, two electrophoretic patterns were indicated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic (page) analyses. clinical symptoms, signs, family history, and patients' ages varied. group c rotaviruses were found also in other parts of japan in 1988. it was suspected that group c rotaviruses would continue to spread throughout japan within the near future.19892542437
phenotypes of rotavirus reassortants depend upon the recipient genetic background.we have previously characterized the biological and immunological properties of a simian rotavirus sa11 variant (4f) with an altered genome segment 4. the sa11-4f variant formed large plaques in the presence of protease, formed small clear plaques in the absence of protease, and grew to high titer in the presence of protease when compared to our standard wild type (sa11 clone 3). to determine the genome segment of the rotavirus sa11 variant 4f that encoded the unique protease-associated phenotyp ...19892542946
evidence of duplication and deletion in super short segment 11 of rabbit rotavirus alabama strain.the complete nucleotide sequence of genome segment 11, of the alabama strain of rabbit rotavirus, was determined by sequencing dsrna and mrna using the dideoxy chain termination method. this strain has a "super short" rna pattern. its segment 11 is 1036 bp in length, 369 nucleotides longer than that reported for rotavirus strains with a "long" electropherotype. sequence analysis indicated that the shift in genome segment 11 of alabama strain to a "super short" rna pattern results from a simple d ...19892543133
[the etiologic role of rotaviruses in intestinal pathology in adults and children]. 19892543137
[immunoenzyme analysis and latex agglutination reaction: use in diagnosing rotavirus gastroenteritis]. 19892543138
immunity to rotaviruses.a potent, multivalent, serotype-specific rv vaccine and improved tests for measuring vaccine potency would help eliminate the necessity to pretest for vaccine efficacy in every country selected for its deployment. until then, the need will continue for vaccine trials in various countries because the pathogenesis and epidemiology of rv and rv serotypes differ between and within countries. although rv vaccinology is complex, it has forged ahead of our knowledge of rv immunopathogenesis and epidemi ...19892543542
effect of nutritional deprivation on mucosal viral infections.suckling balb-c mice, subjected to nutritional deprivation in artificially expanded litters (18 to 20 pups), were compared to normally nourished pups (7-9 per litter) in a series of experiments designed to provide data on morphologic and functional alterations of the small intestine during malnutrition and infection. the effects of protein calorie malnutrition (pcm) on the viral replication pattern and severity of clinical disease were examined in suckling mice infected with murine rotavirus (mr ...19892543624
survey of human rotavirus serotypes in different locales in japan by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with monoclonal investigate the relative frequency of individual human rotavirus serotypes prevailing in japan, 562 stool specimens collected from patients with rotavirus gastroenteritis between november 1986 and march 1988 in seven districts were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with serotype 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-specific monoclonal antibodies. serotype 1 was the predominant serotype in the winter of 1986-1987; however, both serotypes 1 and 2 were detected frequently in the winter of 19 ...19892543711
structure of rearranged genome segment 11 in two different rotavirus strains generated by a similar mechanism.the structures of the rearranged genomic segment 11 of two spontaneous swine rotavirus strains were determined. we found that the rearrangements involved the duplication of normal segment 11 in a head-to-tail orientation, and partial deletions in both monomers. the open reading frame for vp11, the protein encoded by normal segment 11, was maintained. we also showed that the two rearranged genes were transcribed into rna molecules of the same length as their corresponding genomic segments.19892543781
evidence for a new rotavirus subgroup in india.monoclonal antibodies specific for rotavirus subgroup 1 (sg1) and subgroup 2 (sg2) were used to analyse by enzyme immunoassay (eia) the subgroups of human rotavirus isolates obtained from three different parts of india during the period september 1985 to july 1987. we identified one isolate which failed to react with either sg1 or sg2 specific monoclonal antibodies, although it reacted well with a monoclonal antibody specific for group a rotaviruses. this finding suggests that it belongs to a ne ...19892544441
electrophoretic study of the genome of human rotavirus in rural indian community.a rural cohort of 507 children, less than 3 yr of age was kept under weekly surveillance for 12 months, for morbidity due to diarrhoea. stool specimens for rotavirus detection were obtained in 346 of the 360 diarrheal episodes occurring in 354 children and in 211 children without diarrhoeal symptoms. rotavirus was detected by an elisa test in 4 per cent of children with diarrhoea and 6.6 per cent of control subjects. viral genome rna was extracted by phenol chloroform method from all the positiv ...19892544517
genotypic selection following coinfection of cultured cells with subgroup 1 and subgroup 2 human rotaviruses.the purpose of this study was to determine why identifiable reassortants between subgroup 1 and subgroup 2 rotaviruses have been so rarely isolated from human specimens. cultured cells were coinfected with pairs of subgroup 1 and 2 human rotaviruses and passaged multiple times to simulate natural reassortant formation and selection in vivo. after coinfection of ma-104 cells with subgroup 1 (ds-1) and subgroup 2 (either wa or p) strains, approximately 14% of the plaque-picked progeny were shown t ...19892544661
induction and persistence of local rotavirus antibodies in relation to serum antibodies.the induction and persistence of local rotavirus antibodies, including stool iga, jejunal iga, and jejunal neutralizing antibody, were evaluated in 14 adult volunteers infected with the cjn strain of human rotavirus. in addition, the relationships between local rotavirus iga and serum rotavirus iga, igg, and neutralizing antibody were determined. both stool and serum rotavirus iga appeared to have similar kinetics. both antibodies peaked by days 14-17 after inoculation in all subjects, then decr ...19892544681
protection against bovine rotaviruses in newborn calves by continuous feeding of immune colostrum.three pregnant cows were inoculated intramuscularly with inactivated vaccine to bovine rotavirus (brv) serotype 1 (brv-1) and serotype 2 (brv-2). serum neutralizing antibody (na) titers against both serotypes increased significantly after immunization. na titers of colostrum obtained from immunized cows against brv-1 and brv-2 were 29286 and 38109, respectively, which were significantly higher than those from non-immunized control cows. nine and 6 colostrum deprived calves were orally challenged ...19892544759
nucleotide sequence of genomic segment 2 of the human rotavirus wa. 19892544861
natural transmission of group a rotavirus within a pig population.five litters of piglets born within two days of each other, together with their dams, were investigated for faecal excretion of group a rotavirus antigen from birth to two months old. all the 50 piglets in these litters became infected with the virus between 19 and 35 days old. rotavirus excretion was first seen in one litter which was housed with other litters not included in this study. two days later, piglets of the second litter in another farrowing room began to excrete rotavirus, and then ...19892544970
nucleotide sequence of bovine rotavirus gene 1 and expression of the gene product in baculovirus.the nucleotide sequence of the gene that encodes for the structural viral protein vp1 of bovine rotavirus (rf strain) has been determined. the sequence data indicate that segment 1 contains 3302 bp and is a + t rich (65.3%). the positive strand of segment 1 contains a single open reading frame that extends 1088 codons and possesses 5'- and 3'-terminal untranslated regions of 18 and 20 bp, respectively. the first aug conforms to the kozak consensus sequence and if utilized, would yield a protein ...19892545026
interaction of rotavirus cores with the nonstructural glycoprotein ns28.the nonstructural rotavirus receptor glycoprotein ns28 is 175 amino acids long and oriented in the rer membrane with the nh2 terminus on the luminal side and approximately 131 amino acids accessible from the cytoplasmic side. au et al. (1988) have demonstrated that ns28 is able to interact with rotavirus single-shelled particles (cores) in a receptor:ligand interaction in which ns28 appears to act as the receptor and the rotavirus core as the ligand. this interaction appears to model the events ...19892545040
a trial of rit-4237 rotavirus vaccine in 1-month-old a double blind placebo-controlled study rotavirus vaccine rit 4237 was offered to young infants after the fourth week of life. the vaccine was very well tolerated. fifty-seven out of 100 vaccine recipients and 10 out of 103 placebo recipients developed rotavirus-igm-antibodies during the 1 month follow-up period. during a 6 month follow-up, stool samples from 2 out of 12 vaccinees and from 5 out of 12 placebo recipients contained rotavirus.19892545451
noninfectious rotavirus (strain rrv) induces an immune response in mice which protects against rotavirus challenge.we found that female adult mice parenterally inoculated with noninfectious rotavirus (simian strain rrv) developed virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in the serum; newborn mice from these dams were protected against rrv-induced gastroenteritis. in addition, mice parenterally inoculated with noninfectious rrv developed virus-specific cytotoxic t-lymphocyte precursors in the spleen. replication of rotavirus in intestinal epithelial cells was apparently not required to induce rotavirus-neutrali ...19892545743
rotavirus-specific protein synthesis is not necessary for recognition of infected cells by virus-specific cytotoxic t lymphocytes.we found that rotavirus-specific protein synthesis was not necessary for recognition by virus-specific cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctls). in addition, ctls lysed rotavirus-infected target cells prior to production of infectious virus. target cell processing of rotavirus antigens for presentation to ctls was enhanced by treatment of rotavirus with trypsin prior to infection; trypsin-induced cleavage of the viral hemagglutinin (vp4) has previously been found to facilitate rotavirus entry into target ...19892545904
rotavirus-specific cytotoxic t lymphocytes appear at the intestinal mucosal surface after rotavirus infection.the gastrointestinal tract is constantly exposed to a variety of potentially invasive bacteria and viruses. the first line of defense of the host against these pathogens is the intestinal mucosal surface, which consists of epithelial cells, intraepithelial lymphocytes (iels), mucus, and secretory immunoglobulins. little is known about the function, memory, or trafficking of iels after intestinal infection. we found that iels obtained 6 days after oral inoculation of mice with the intestinal path ...19892545920
neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against three serotypes of porcine rotavirus.using three serotypes (four strains) of cultivable porcine rotavirus as immunizing antigens, 10 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies were characterized. one vp4-specific monoclonal antibody directed against porcine rotavirus ben-144 (serotype g4) neutralized human rotavirus strain st-3 in addition to the homologous porcine virus. all nine vp7-specific monoclonal antibodies were highly specific for viruses of the same serotype as the immunizing rotavirus strain. one exception was the vp7-specific m ...19892545925
biological function of the rotavirus protein vp4: observations on porcine isolates from china.rotaviruses isolated from pigs in china were grown in ma104 cells. one tissue-culture-adapted isolate consisted of two subpopulations (variants), the rna profiles of which differed in the relative migration of rna segment 4 only. the variants were separated by plaque purification and by recovery from limiting dilutions and remained genetically stable. the variant possessing the slower migrating rna segment 4, called 4s, grew faster and formed large plaques after 4-6 days incubation, whereas the ...19892546024
[electrophoretic analysis of genome rna of human rotaviruses].the schemes for profiles of migration of rna segments from human rotaviruses isolated in gorky city in 1981-1987 are presented. the groups of the "long", "short" and "wide" electrophoretypes were identified. the dominant rotaviral phoretypes are determined. the possibilities of electrophoretyping and prospects of the future research are discussed.19892546071
enteric adenovirus infection and childhood diarrhea: an epidemiologic study in three clinical settings.during a 2-year prospective study of gastroenteritis in children less than 2 years of age, the role of enteric adenovirus as a cause of infantile diarrhea was examined in three clinical settings in a case-control fashion. using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with specificity for adenovirus serotypes 40 and 41, enteric adenovirus was identified in 10 of 246 episodes of diarrhea in outpatients (4.1%), 13 of 211 children admitted to the hospital with diarrhea (6.2%), ...19892546121
possible impairment of rotavirus immune response in cattle infected with blv. 19892546318
coronavirus as agent of neonatal calf diarrhea in southern chile.neonatal calf diarrhea is one of the most serious problems of cattle industry all over the world. although the aetiology is complex, it is possible to assess that viruses play a very important role. during an investigation to study the importance of rotavirus in enteric problems in calves and piglets, it was possible to demonstrate the presence, for the first time in southern chile, of coronavirus-like particles in a faecal sample of a 15 day old calf by means of electron microscopy. the importa ...19892546341
evaluation of assay systems for the detection of rotavirus in stool specimens.we tested 41 rotavirus positive and 42 negative specimens as determined by electron microscopy. the assays systems used were an indirect nih-elisa, meritec-rotavirus, virogen rotatest, and rotazyme ii. meritec and virogen (latex agglutination assays) were the most sensitive tests, detecting 95% of the positive specimens. the nih-elisa detected 81% and rotazyme detected 63%. rotazyme was the most specific (100%), followed by the nih-elisa (95%) and the two latex agglutination systems (91%). to de ...19892546712
detection of rotavirus by hybridization with a nonradioactive synthetic dna probe and comparison with commercial enzyme immunoassays and silver-stained polyacrylamide gels.three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) (rotavirus enzyme immunoassay [eia; international diagnostic laboratories], pathfinder [kallestad laboratories], and rotaclone [cambridge bioscience, inc.]) and hybridization of viral rna with a nonradioactive, synthetic oligonucleotide dna probe (snap; molecular biosystems, inc.) were compared with silver-stained polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) of viral rna for the detection of rotavirus in fecal specimens. hybridization was performed ...19892546974
molecular identification of a novel human rotavirus in relation to subgroup and electropherotype of genomic rna.a total of 41 stool rotavirus specimens collected from children with acute diarrhea at four different locations in akita prefecture, japan, during the peak of the winter diarrhea epidemic in 1988 were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of viral rna in conjunction with subgrouping assay. we found that a single strain predominated, with cocirculating strains with less common electropherotypes at a given location, and that two different strains could predominate at geographically close ...19892547020
infection by enteric adenoviruses, rotaviruses, and other agents in a rural african environment.from february 1985 to january 1986, 432 stool samples, 310 from rural african children with diarrhea and 122 from controls, were analysed for the presence of enteric viruses known to be associated with diarrhea. group a rotavirus elisa indicated 12.9% positivity among patients and 2.5% positivity among controls. only 23 of the 43 rotavirus elisa-positive stools were also positive by electron microscopy. nine children, three of whom were controls, were found to be shedding coronavirus-like partic ...19892547021
reactogenicity and immunogenicity of rotavirus wc3 vaccine in 5-12 month old infants.rotavirus is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants worldwide and there is need for an effective vaccine. rotavirus wistar calf 3 (wc3) is a strain of bovine origin attenuated by 12 passages in cell culture. a lyophilized candidate vaccine containing 1 x 10(7) pfu of wc3 has been developed. an oral dose was given to 25 french infants 5-12-months old (mean age 8.6 months). no diarrhoea was observed within 2 weeks after vaccination. unexplained vomiting was reported once and isolated fe ...19892547237
latex kits for detection of rotavirus. 19892547310
determination of rotavirus serotype-specific antibodies in sera by competitive enhanced enzyme immunoassay.a method is described for the specific detection of antibody to individual rotavirus serotypes in sera. a competitive enzyme immunoassay (eia) was developed in which rotavirus serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies against vp7 compete with antibodies in test sera for rotavirus serotype-specific antigen bound to a solid phase. there was an excellent correlation between serotype-specific eia results and serotype-specific neutralization titres (r = 0.915, p = less than 0.001). the value of this me ...19892547808
an improved method for the concentration of rotaviruses from large volumes of water.a microporous filter method for the concentration and reconcentration of rotaviruses from large volumes of water was developed. this method allows for the processing of large volumes of water with high recoveries of rotaviruses. averages of 49% and 41% of seeded viruses were recovered from 20 and 400 l of water, respectively. of the various eluents evaluated, a mixture of 10% tryptose phosphate broth and 3% beef extract at a ph value of 10.0 was found to give the greatest elution efficiency. the ...19892547811
rapid detection of human rotavirus strains in stools by single-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay systems using monoclonal antibodies.using murine monoclonal antibodies (mabs) raised against the common antigen of group a rotavirus (rv), two single-sandwich elisa systems were developed for detection of rv in stools: one using polyclonal antibody (pab) as capture and a mab as detector antibody (referred to as pab-mab assay); and the other based on the use of two different mabs as capture and detector antibodies (referred to as mab-mab assay). in each single-sandwich elisa system, samples and peroxidase-labeled mab were incubated ...19892547818
group c rotavirus infections in patients with diarrhea in thailand, nepal, and england.atypical rotavirus obtained from fecal specimens of six patients with diarrhea from thailand, nepal, and england were characterized by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immune electron microscopy. the electropherotypes were characteristic of the porcine reference group c rotavirus strain but demonstrated considerable strain-to-strain variation. human convalescent group c sera had a high titer (1:320) when tested against the human isolates and a low titer (1:40) when tested against a p ...19892547880
rotavirus sa11 genome segment 11 protein is a nonstructural phosphoprotein.we investigated properties of the rotavirus genome segment 11 protein. a rotavirus sa11 genome segment 11 cdna which contains the entire coding region was sequenced and inserted into the baculovirus transfer vector pvl941. recombinants containing gene 11 cdna were selected, and the gene 11 product expressed in spodoptera frugiperda cells infected with these recombinants was inoculated into guinea pigs to produce hyperimmune antiserum. characterization of the antiserum showed that it recognized a ...19892548010
some attributes of a rotavirus detected in cat feces. 19892548029
prospects for development of a rotavirus vaccine against rotavirus diarrhea in infants and young children.major advances have been made in elucidating the etiologic agents of severe infantile diarrhea, and it is clear that rotaviruses are the single most important etiologic agents. progress in the development of rotavirus vaccine candidates has also moved swiftly with the "jennerian" approach, in which a related live, attenuated rotavirus strain from a nonhuman host is used as the immunizing antigen. if this strategy is not effective against all rotavirus serotypes, reassortant rotaviruses hold grea ...19892548276
sequences of vp9 genes from short and supershort rotavirus strains.segment 10 genes from a short (rv-5, serotype g2) and a supershort (b37, a new g serotype) strain were cloned and their sequences compared to the (corresponding) segment 11 sequences of wa, sa11, and uk rotaviruses. the determined nucleotide sequences were 817 (rv-5) and 947 (b37) bases in length and showed extensively conserved 5' noncoding and protein coding regions. the major open reading frame codes for a protein of 200 (rv-5) or 198 (b37) amino acids, and the newly proposed second open read ...19892548328
[a comparison of laboratory diagnostic methods for rotavirus gastroenteritis in a practical laboratory]. 19892548346
[use of the indirect hemagglutination reaction for the diagnosis of rotavirus gastroenteritis]. 19892548347
comparative virulence of two porcine group-a rotavirus isolates in gnotobiotic pigs.the virulence of 2 porcine group-a rotavirus isolates was compared. forty hysterotomy-derived 3-day-old gnotobiotic pigs were inoculated orally with 2 ml of intestinal homogenate containing either the ohio state university (osu) or the south dakota state university (sdsu) strain of porcine rotavirus or were inoculated with medium only. clinical signs of disease, body weight, distribution of viral antigen, fecal excretion of virus, and histologic lesions (observed by light and scanning electron m ...19892548420
characterization of a canine rotavirus strain by neutralization and molecular hybridization assays.a canine rotavirus, rs-15, previously isolated in japan was determined to be subgroup i and serotype 3. when compared with prototype human and animal rotavirus strains by rna-rna hybridization assay, the rs-15 strain showed a high degree of homology only with the canine cu-1 strain isolated in the united states of america, suggesting that canine rotaviruses constitute a distinct gene family, which we have elsewhere proposed to term "genogroup".19892548456
epidemiology of rotavirus strains infecting children throughout australia during 1986-1987. a study of serotype and rna electropherotype.the epidemiology of human rotaviruses throughout australia was studied by examining 344 rotavirus positive faecal specimens using an enzyme immunoassay incorporating serotype specific monoclonal antibodies. specimens were collected from children less than 5 years old admitted to urban hospitals for treatment of acute diarrhoea during the winter months of 1986 and/or 1987 in queensland, new south wales, victoria, tasmania, south australia, and western australia. the infecting rotavirus serotype w ...19892548458
topology of the non-structural rotavirus receptor glycoprotein ns28 in the rough endoplasmic reticulum.the rotavirus non-structural glycoprotein (ns28), the receptor for the virus core during budding into the lumen of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rer), is 175 amino acids long and possesses an uncleaved signal sequence and two amino-terminal glycosylation sites. utilizing one of three potential hydrophobic domains, the protein spans the membrane only once, with the glycosylated amino-terminal region oriented to the luminal side of the er and the carboxy-terminal region to the cytoplasmic side. ...19892548854
four-year study of rotavirus electropherotypes from cases of infantile diarrhea in rome.rotavirus infections were detected in 210 of 675 children with acute diarrhea admitted to a major pediatric hospital in rome from january 1982 through december 1985. most of the patients with rotavirus infections were admitted during the winter season in both 1982 and 1985, whereas during the two intermediate years, cases occurred in all months. among 84 rotavirus samples examined, 14 different electropherotypes were recognized, 2 of which largely predominated over the others. the two electrophe ...19892549088
characterization by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using subgroup- and serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies of human rotavirus obtained from diarrheic patients in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with group a-, subgroup-, and serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs), we tested 414 stool specimens collected from pediatric and adult patients hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis between january and june 1988. of 414 specimens tested, 124 (30%) were positive for group a rotavirus. the subgroup was determined in 110 specimens (88.7%); 16.1% were subgroup i, and 72.6% were subgroup ii. two specimens reacted with both subgroup i- and subgroup ii-spe ...19892549093
[detection of rotavirus rna by a dot hybridization using rna probe]. 19892549289
viral enteritis in the 1980s: perspective, diagnosis and outlook for prevention. 19892549497
porcine osu rotavirus segment ii sequence shows common features with the viral gene of human origin. 19892549514
[infection caused by rotavirus in children hospitalized because of gastroenteritis in yucatan, mexico].a one year study was performed in patients hospitalized by gastroenteritis. the purpose of this study was to determine the rate of gastroenteritis by rotavirus, as well as which subgroups and electropherotypes are the prevailing ones. electrophoresis technique in polyacrylamide gel was used to detect ribonucleic acid of rotavirus directly obtained from feces. results indicated that rotavirus was the cause of gastroenteritis in 28.8% of the patients studied; prevailing subgroup ii. four electroph ...19892549588
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