PMID(sorted ascending)
[fecal iga antibody against rotavirus and clinical manifestations of acute viral gastroenteritis in children].we determined the presence or absence of rotavirus antigen by the enzyme-immunoassay in 126 fecal specimens obtained from infants with acute gastroenteritis, and also measured iga antibody titers against rotavirus in stool samples. rotavirus-positive specimens amounted to 72. thirty-five specimens in 126 stool samples were found to contain the iga antibody against rotavirus. the iga antibody against rotavirus was detected in 21% and 44% of fecal specimens obtained from age groups of less than 3 ...19902170543
detection and differentiation of picornaviruses in clinical samples following genomic amplification.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay was used to detect and differentiate picornaviruses (pvs), using primers homologous to the 5' non-coding and vp2 regions of the pv genome. the pcr resulted in a 530 bp pcr product for human rhinoviruses (hrvs) and a 650 bp product for polioviruses, coxsackieviruses (cv) or echoviruses. the pcr assay could detect as little as 1 p.f.u. of virus in either cerebrospinal fluid (csf) or stool, using ethidium bromide-stained gels. standard strains of poliovirus, ...19902170576
molecular characterization of a rotaviruslike virus isolated from striped bass (morone saxatilis).the characteristics of a rotaviruslike (sbr) virus isolated from striped bass (morone saxatilis) were examined following purification of viruses from infected cell cultures. virions had a double-layered capsid of icosahedral symmetry and a diameter of 75 nm. purified viruses contained five polypeptides ranging in molecular mass from 130 to 35 kda. none of the structural proteins were glycosylated. treatment with edta did not remove the outer capsid. by using enzymes and a chaotropic agent, it wa ...19902170670
nucleotide sequence of vp4 and vp7 genes of human rotaviruses with subgroup i specificity and long rna pattern: implication for new g serotype specificity.we sequenced the genes coding for the two neutralization proteins, vp4 and vp7, of human rotavirus strains l26 and l27 with subgroup i specificity but the long rna pattern. the deduced vp7 amino acid sequence of strains l26 and l27 showed a low homology (73.6 to 81.9%) to those of rotavirus strains of the established serotypes. this finding, together with the previous serological characterizations, suggests that the vp7 (g) serotype of the l26 and l27 strains is distinct from those of strains of ...19902170690
[molecular diagnosis and characterization of rotaviruses]. 19902170707
detection of rotavirus antigen in diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic piglets in nigeria.faecal samples from 96 piglets with acute gastroenteritis and 41 samples from non-diarrhoeic piglets were investigated for porcine rotavirus (prv) antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). prv was detected in 43 of 96 (44.8%) in the diarrhoeic group whilst none of the samples in the non-diarrhoeic group was positive for prv (p less than 0.01). age distribution of infection showed a higher infection rate of 30.2% in piglets aged 1-3 weeks, which was significantly higher (p less than ...19902171108
[rotavirus in newborns less than 24 hours of age].during 22 months, 687 samples, including feces and meconium of patients from the baby nursery (group a--236 samples) and from newborns seen in the outpatient clinic (group b--451 samples), were submitted to elisa, page, and me, searching for rotavirus and were also cultivated for bacteria, at the huap (uff). nonsymptomatic newborns were the only positive cases for rotavirus, a rate of 2.11%. contamination at delivery was suspected, but there was no correlation between either cesarean or vaginal ...19902171129
examination of sera from game birds for antibodies against avian viruses. 19902171182
sequence analysis of the gene (6) encoding the major capsid protein (vp6) of group c rotavirus: higher than expected homology to the corresponding protein from group a virus.two overlapping c-dna clones, which hybridized in northern blots to rna segment 6 of the prototype strain (cowden) of group c rotavirus, were selected from a c-dna library in pbr322 and sequenced. the gene 6 sequence obtained was 1349 nucleotides and contained a single long open reading frame encoding a protein of 394 amino acids (total mw, 44,479) which is in line with the size of the major capsid protein vp6. comparison of the group c sequence with that of the corresponding group a rotavirus g ...19902171196
identification of gene 4 alleles among human rotaviruses by polymerase chain reaction-derived probes.four different alleles of the gene encoding vp4, an outer capsid rotavirus protein, have been recognized among human rotaviruses. to investigate the relative frequency of these alleles, hybridization probes corresponding to a hyperdivergent region (nucleotides 205 to 554) of the fourth gene from three human rotavirus strains, wa, ds1, and m37 (each of which has a distinct gene four allele), were synthesized by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method, using as templates either cloned dna or cd ...19902171217
[the rna electrophoretypes of the rotaviruses circulating in moscow and leningrad in the winter of 1987-1988].analysis of electrophoretypes of rna of rotavirus which had circulated in moscow and leningrad in the winter of 1987-1988, detected by enzyme immunoassay (eia), was carried out. rna electrophoresis was performed in 10% polyacrylamide gel (pag) followed by silver staining, most of the strains isolated in moscow and leningrad had a long phoretype (67% and 77%, respectively. the greatest variations in pag mobility were found in segments 2, 3, and 7-9, segments 1, 4, 10, and 11 showed most unchangea ...19902171230
molecular biology of rotaviruses. 19902171301
presumptive seventh serotype of human rotavirus.four group a human rotaviruses having antigenic specificity of subgroup i and 'long' rna electropherotype were isolated in ma104 cell cultures. cross-neutralization tests with hyperimmune antisera suggested that they are serologically distinct from the six previously recognized human rotavirus serotypes.19902171461
importance of rotavirus and adenovirus types 40 and 41 in acute gastroenteritis in korean examine the role of rotavirus (rv) and adenovirus types 40 and 41 (ad40/41) in korean children with acute gastroenteritis, we evaluated 345 children with acute gastroenteritis and 90 children without acute gastroenteritis in seoul, korea, during a 29-month period. stools were tested for group a rv antigen and for ad40/41 by using monoclonal antibody (mab)-based assays. rv was found in 68% of the ill children and 19% of the controls (p less than 0.001), whereas ad40/41 was detected in 9% of th ...19902172286
homotypic serum antibody responses to rotavirus proteins following primary infection of young children with serotype 1 rotavirus.the class-specific antibody responses to serotype 1 rotavirus structural proteins were examined by immunoblotting with sera obtained from young children hospitalized with acute rotavirus diarrhea caused by serotype 1. all were believed to be primary infections. three consecutive samples were obtained from 16 patients during the acute and convalescent phases of the disease and then approximately 4 months later. immunoglobulin g (igg)-class antibody responses to two inner capsid proteins (vp2 and ...19902172292
an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis caused by a small round structured virus in a geriatric convalescent outbreak of acute gastroenteritis (age) occurred in a 201-bed geriatric convalescent facility in los angeles county during december 1988 through january 1989. the attack rate was 55% among residents and 25% among employees. illnesses were characterized by vomiting and diarrhea to a lesser extent, and the absence of fever. bacterial and parasitic tests in a sample of patients were negative. a 27 nm small round structured virus (srsv) was identified in one of 30 stools studied by immune electro ...19902172363
evaluation of wc3 rotavirus vaccine and correlates of protection in healthy infants.the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of wc3 rotavirus vaccine was evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of healthy infants 2-12 months of age; 103 received one dose of vaccine and 103 received placebo. vaccination appeared to be safe and induced an antibody response (wc3 neutralizing antibody) in 97% of vaccinees. only 9 (9%) of these, however, produced antibody to human rotavirus serotypes; at least 7 of the 9 were naturally infected before vaccination. neither the number of ...19902172394
effect of vaccination on serotype-specific antibody responses in infants administered wc3 bovine rotavirus before or after a natural rotavirus an evaluation of wc3 bovine rotavirus (serotype 6) vaccine in infants, some subjects experienced a natural serotype 1 rotavirus infection before vaccination and others after. therefore, the effects of both wc3 and natural rotavirus strains as either primary or boosting immunogens on serotype-specific neutralizing antibody responses could be determined. after primary natural infection (symptomatic or asymptomatic), neutralizing antibody titers were highest to serotype 1 but were consistently h ...19902172404
rotavirus-specific antibody response in saliva of infants with rotavirus diarrhea.the reliability of saliva as an indicator of rotavirus infection was assessed among 15 infants (3-12 months) with rotaviral and 15 with nonrotaviral diarrhea. paired salivary samples collected during acute and convalescent phases were tested for rotavirus-specific iga and igm by an elisa. the sensitivity of iga or igm alone to predict infection was 53.3% and 46.6%, respectively; used in conjunction, the sensitivity rose to 80%. it seems that infants with rotaviral diarrhea mount mucosal antibody ...19902172405
inhibition of the uncoating of bovine enterovirus by short chain fatty acids.short chain fatty acids inhibit the replication of bovine enterovirus but are almost ineffective against poliovirus type 1, coxsackievirus b5, encephalomyocarditis virus and human rhinovirus 1b. lauric acid binds to bovine enterovirus, thereby stabilizing the virus particle to heat degradation. fatty acid-bound virions attach to susceptible cells but fail to undergo cell-mediated uncoating. the inhibitory effect is reversible with chloroform and may result from a hydrophobic interaction between ...19902172446
six-year retrospective surveillance of gastroenteritis viruses identified at ten electron microscopy centers in the united states and identify the prevalence, seasonality and demographic characteristics of patients with viral gastroenteritis, we reviewed 6 years of retrospective data on viral agents of gastroenteritis screened by electron microscopy at 10 centers in the united states and canada. from 52,691 individual electron microscopic observations, a virus was detected in 16% of specimens, and the yearly positive detection rate among centers ranged from 8 to 34%. rotavirus was the agent most commonly observed (26 to 83% ...19902172903
[comparison of clinical features of rotavirus infection with rotavirus antigen titers in feces obtained during the acute phase].when fecal specimens obtained from infants with acute gastroenteritis during the acute phase between january 1986 and march 1987 were examined by enzyme immunoassay (eia), 72 cases were found to have the rotavirus antigen. such 3 clinical signs as diarrhea (d), fever (f) and vomiting (v) were all observed in 38 cases. these cases showing dfv syndrome demonstrated the highest geometric mean titer of rotavirus antigen among the rotavirus antigen-positive cases. geometric mean titers (gmts) were ca ...19902173728
[atypical rotavirus isolated from acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis in fukuoka].an outbreak of epidemic diarrhea (nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis) in fukuoka was studied electron microscopically and electrophoretically. from the result of electron microscopy, rotavirus particles about 70 nm in diameter were observed in fecal samples. however, the serological study did not reveal any antigenic relatedness to the ordinary rotaviruses by rpha. the outbreak appeared to be caused by group c rotaviruses, based on the pattern of the rna genome segments in polyacrylamide gels.19902173729
removal of pathogenic human viruses by insoluble pyridinium-type resin.cross-linked poly(n-benzyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide) (bvp resin) was found to be very efficient in removing pathogenic human viruses from aqueous solution. in batch removal experiments using 50 g/l of bvp resin at 35 degrees c, the level of infectivity in suspensions of enterovirus, herpes simplex virus, poliovirus, and human immunodeficiency virus was reduced 1000-100,000 fold during a 2 h period. those of coxsackievirus and echovirus were reduced 60-600 fold during 1 h contact. the haemagglut ...19902174373
serotypic differentiation of group a rotaviruses with porcine rotavirus gene 9 probes.the serotypic specificities of gottfried and osu porcine rotavirus gene 9 probes were investigated in a dot hybridization assay. the probes were reacted with homologous and heterologous serotypes of group a rotaviruses of human and animal origin. hybridizations were conducted under relatively low-stringency (52 degrees c, no formamide, 5 x ssc) and high-stringency (52 degrees c, 50% formamide, formamide, 5 x ssc) conditions (1 x ssc is 0.15 m nacl plus 0.015 m sodium citrate). under conditions o ...19902174902
purification and characterization of the major group-specific core antigen vp7 of bluetongue virus synthesized by a recombinant baculovirus.the major core protein, vp7, of bluetongue virus serotype 10 (btv-10) has been purified from insect cells infected with a genetically manipulated recombinant baculovirus. the high level expression of vp7 (in excess of 100 mg per litre of culture) and its presence in the soluble fraction of infected cells following lysis by detergent has allowed the purification of the protein virtually to homogeneity (95%) by a simple two-step procedure of ammonium sulphate fractionation and ion-exchange chromat ...19902174958
[rotavirus infection--clinical symptoms and influence of climate].between january 1986 and december 1989, 957 fecal specimens were collected mainly from pediatric outpatients with acute gastroenteritis during the acute phase. rotavirus (rv) and adenovirus (av) antigens were found in 233 (24%) and 60 (6%) of these specimens, respectively. seventy-five % of 76 rv antigen-positive specimens collected in 1989 were determined to be serotype 1. although both rv and av infections occurred slightly more often in boys than in girls, there were no significant difference ...19902175329
development of specific nucleic acid probes for the differentiation of porcine rotavirus serotypes.a dot blot hybridization assay is described for the detection and differentiation of porcine rotavirus serotypes. recombinant complementary dna (cdna) representing gene 9 (the gene encoding the neutralization antigens in vp7 glycoprotein) from osu (porcine rotavirus serotype 1) and gottfried (porcine rotavirus serotype 2) strains were used to determine the optimal hybridization conditions which allow specific detection of group a porcine rotaviruses. probes were prepared by excision of the inser ...19902175528
hybridization probes for the detection and differentiation of two serotypes of porcine rotavirus.a dot hybridization assay was developed to detect and differentiate two serotypes of porcine rotavirus by hybridization of specific probes to rotavirus rna dotted onto nylon membranes. the assay was conducted using radiolabeled probes prepared from cdna clones of osu (serotype 5) and gottfried (serotype 4) rotavirus gene 9 segments. the probes were prepared by excision of full length cdna copies of gene 9 inserts from recombinant plasmids followed by nick translation and 32p-dctp labeling. rotav ...19902175529
presence of three p types (vp4 serotypes) and two g types (vp7 serotypes) among bovine rotavirus strains.cross neutralization tests with a panel of rotavirus strains representing previously described nine vp7 (g) serotypes revealed that bovine rotavirus strain kk-3, a prototype japanese bovine serotype 2, belonged to a new serotype (g10), confirming and extending the recent report of snodgrass et al. [j. clin. microbiol. 28: 504-507 (1990)] which showed that hyperimmune serum to the kk-3 strain neutralized the b223 strain, a proposed type strain of g10. further antigenic characteristics of the kk-3 ...19902175589
[a study of rotavirus infections in families].using the page method, we detected 194 stool samples collected in 72 families during the epidemic season of rotavirus infection. rotavirus was found in 29 of the 48 stool specimens of children with diarrhea, and for comparison, it was found in only 1 of the 24 stool specimens of children without diarrhea. rotavirus infections occurred significantly more often among adults having contacts with children infected by hrv (21.3%) than among adults having no contacts with children infected by hrv (4.5 ...19902175675
epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhoea in children under five years in bahrain.a case-control study in children under five years of age was undertaken in bahrain between february 1984 to march 1986 to study the aetiology of diarrhoea with special reference to rotavirus. during this period fecal samples were collected from 698 hospitalized and non-hospitalized diarrhoea cases and 532 from non-diarrhoea controls. rotavirus was the enteropathogen most commonly detected (20.8%) and represented 68.7% of the total positives from the cases. percentage rotavirus infection detected ...19902175734
nucleotide sequence of gene 1 of the uk tissue culture adapted strain of bovine rotavirus. 19902175888
gastroenteritis in suckling mice caused by human rotavirus can be prevented with egg yolk immunoglobulin (igy) and treated with a protein-bound polysaccharide preparation (psk).oral inoculation of human rotavirus mo strain (serotype 3) into 5-day-old balb/c mice cause gastroenteritis characterized by diarrhea. clinical symptoms, histopathological changes in the small intestine, and the detection of rotavirus antigen in enterocytes were all characteristic of rotavirus-induced gastroenteritis. using this small animal model, passive protection of suckling mice against human rotavirus infection was achieved with the use of immunoglobulin (igy) from the yolks of eggs of rot ...19902176268
a new immune complex dot assay for detection of rotavirus antigen in faeces.a new immune complex dot assay (icda) using immune gold/silver staining is described for the sensitive and rapid detection of rotavirus in cell culture and stool specimens. the method involves spotting preformed antigen-antibody complexes onto nitrocellulose paper, followed by incubation with colloidal gold-labelled secondary antibody and silver enhancement. icda was sensitive and specific and detected rotavirus antigens over a wide range of concentrations. it was more sensitive than a conventio ...19902176662
microbiological studies of the enterocolitis of hirschsprung's disease.the results of a prospective study of 20 cases of newly diagnosed hirschsprung's disease (nine of whom developed enterocolitis) and 10 normal controls showed no variations in the bacterial flora (including clostridium difficile) in the stools of the groups studied. viral studies showed that rotavirus was present in the stools of seven of the nine cases of enterocolitis during the episode. we suggest that hirschsprung's enterocolitis may have a complex infective aetiology and that rotavirus plays ...19902176779
antigenic and genetic analyses of human rotavirus with dual subgroup our previous study (s. urasawa, t. urasawa, k. taniguchi, f. wakasugi, n. kobayashi, s. chiba, n. sakurada, s. morita, o. morita, m. tokieda, t. kawamoto, k. minekawa, and m. oseto, j. infect. dis. 160:44-51, 1989) of antigenic characterization of about 300 human rotavirus (hrv) isolates collected at different localities in japan, we found 4 hrv isolates having unique antigenic and genetic constructions. the four strains possessed both subgroup i and subgroup ii antigens, serotype 3 antigen, ...19902177756
epizootiological and virological studies of foal diarrhea associated with serotype 3 rotavirus.epizootiological and virological studies were conducted on foal diarrhea occurring in 3 foal-raising locations in a light horse farm from march to july, 1987. at the first location, although 27 (75%) of 36 foals had developed diarrhea, the isolation rate of rotavirus (rv) was low (5/14 feces, 36%). many of the foals had the disease as early as 23 days after birth. at the second and third locations, 21 (27%) of 78 foals and 41 (76%) of 54 foals were affected with diarrhea. isolation rates of rv w ...19902177800
serotype analysis of group a human rotavirus related to acute gastroenteritis in winter in gifu city.a total of 348 fecal specimens collected from children with acute gastroenteritis in gifu city over three consecutive winter seasons (from november 1986 to march 1989) were examined for group a human rotavirus (hrv) by either a commercial test kit or a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sandwich elisa). one hundred twelve of the 173 group a hrv-positive specimens were further subjected to serotype determination by elisa with four serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies to vp7 (elisa-ser ...19902177831
improved detection of rotavirus rna in dot-blot hybridization assay by chromatographic extraction and acid denaturation of double-stranded of the commonest methods of denaturing nucleic acids, denaturation by heat, was found to be ineffective for double-stranded (ds)rna when rna preparations contain 200 mm or higher concentrations of nacl. we report acid denaturation of dsrna (incubation for 10 min in the presence of 80 mm hcl) was particularly useful for such preparations. when genomic dsrnas of rotavirus were extracted by ion-exchange chromatography columns (extractor) and then denatured by acid, the detection of rotavirus rn ...19902177847
new vaccines and vaccination policies. 19902177872
prospects of a rotavirus vaccine. 19902177875
prevalence of antibodies to four bovine rotavirus strains in different age groups of cattle.neutralizing antibody titers to four bovine rotavirus strains, representing three serotypes, were measured in 160 sera from cattle of different age groups. age-specific seroprevalence analysis revealed serotype 6, represented by bovine rotavirus (brv) ncdv, as the predominant rotavirus serotype infecting german cattle and serotype 10, represented by brv v1005, as the least prominent. infections with serotype 8, represented by brv 678, occurred with intermediate frequency. antibodies of young cal ...19902177934
group c rotavirus infection and infiltration.we recently found many cases of gastroenteritis involving older children and sometimes other members of their families. we suspected epidemiological infiltration of an atypical rotavirus (rv). page analysis of 130 cases in 1985 and 1986 revealed that the rna profiles were similar to that of group c rv in 12 cases. we performed iem analysis on one of the strains and found it to be group c. the group c rv was detected for 2 months toward the end of the outbreak of group a rv infection. the ages of ...19902178304
attaching and effacing escherichia coli infection as a cause of diarrhea in young calves.a form of enteric escherichia coli infection was identified in 60 calves from 59 farming operations. the e coli responsible for these infections principally colonized the colon, inducing a distinctive lesion described as attaching and effacing. hemorrhagic enterocolitis or blood in the feces was observed on 40% of the farms. of affected calves, 86.6% were dairy calves (average age, 11.8 days). forty-four calves were infected concurrently with other enteropathogens (cryptosporidia, rotavirus, cor ...19902179181
microbiological agents associated with childhood diarrhoea in the dry zone of sri lanka.between march and july, 1987, faecal specimens from 371 diarrhoeal children reporting to four hospitals in the district of kurunegala, sri lanka and from 121 controls with other diseases were investigated for enteric pathogens. all specimens were tested for shigella spp, salmonella spp and enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec). in addition, parasitic pathogens, heat labile enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec lt), campylobacter and rotavirus were sought among subsamples of the cases and con ...19902187225
studies of oral rehydration solutions in animal models.ideas about the optimal composition of oral rehydration solutions (ors) continue to evolve. a controlled clinical trial is the only way to determine whether a new ors is superior to an established solution, but attempts have been made to prescreen new ors in a variety of animal models, most of which involve intestinal perfusion. most of the work has been performed in the healthy small intestine of rats, either in short segments or in its entirety, or in the diseased small intestine that has been ...19902187612
vaccine-preventable disease and immunization in the developing world.vaccines have given health care providers control over a substantial portion of the morbidity and mortality in the developing world. global efforts have immunized two-thirds of the world's children with dtp and polio vaccines; 72% have received bcg and 59% measles vaccine; but only 29% of pregnant women have received two doses of tetanus toxoid. in addition, vaccines against yellow fever, japanese encephalitis, hepatitis b, rubella, and mumps and meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine are being us ...19902190145
laboratory criteria in the diagnostics of intestinal infections of staphylococcal etiology in children.faecal samples were investigated from 948 children hospitalized with the diagnose of acute intestinal infection. the authors studied the isolation and properties of a broad spectrum of microorganisms from children's faeces: salmonella, shigella, e. coli, s. aureus, rotaviruses, klebsiella, morganella, proteus. as a result, laboratory criteria were formulated of diagnosing in children intestinal infection of staphylococcal etiology.19902191037
a prospective study of persistent diarrhea among children in an urban brazilian slum. patterns of occurrence and etiologic agents.persistent diarrhea is a major health problem among children in developing areas of the world. since few community-based studies have addressed the epidemiology or etiology of this condition, we undertook prospective diarrheal surveillance among a cohort of 175 children less than 5 years of age over a 28-month period in an urban slum in northeastern brazil. very high diarrhea illness burdens were found. the children in this cohort had an average of 11 episodes per year and spent 82 days per year ...19902192547
epidemiology and potential methods for prevention of neonatal intestinal viral infections.viral infections of the gastrointestinal tract remain a major problem during the neonatal period. in addition to causing acute diarrhea, rotaviruses and other enteric viruses may be involved in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis and other neonatal enteric diseases. there are several potential methods for the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal viral infections. antiviral immunoglobulins might be used to inhibit intestinal viral replication. since only small concentrations of ...19902194268
aetiology of diarrhoea in pre-term neonates at kenyatta national hospital nursery, nairobi, kenya.the aetiology of two outbreaks of diarrhoea in pre-term neonates (march-august; september, 1987), at kenyatta national hospital was studied. the first outbreak involved 98 neonates and enteropathogenic e. coli of different serotypes were the most commonly isolated agents (54%), with serotype 086a:k61 dominating. these were followed by salmonella (16%) also of different groups, and then rotavirus (6%). two campylobacter and two shigella were isolated from four individual neonates. mixed infection ...19902194778
comparison of three enzyme immunoassays to tissue culture for the diagnosis of rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants and young children.three enzyme immunoassays (eias), rotazyme ii, idl, and pathfinder, were evaluated for rotavirus detection in stool and rectal swab specimens from children with symptomatic gastroenteritis and compared with virus isolation in primary african green monkey kidney cells. of 125 specimens tested, 49 were rotavirus positive by tissue culture isolation; of these 49, 40 were positive by rotazyme ii, 43 were positive by idl, and 46 were positive by pathfinder eias. as compared with tissue culture isolat ...19902199504
glycine, glycyl-glycine and maltodextrin based oral rehydration solution. assessment of efficacy and safety in comparison to standard ors.we evaluated the efficacy and safety of an oral rehydration solution containing glycyl-glycine, glycine, and maltodextrin (ggg-ors), in comparison to the glucose based ors (standard ors). the osmolality of the ggg-ors (305 mosm/l) and standard ors (311 mosm/l) was similar. ninety-two children presenting with acute gastroenteritis and moderate dehydration, aged 3 months to 3 years, were randomly assigned to receive standard ors or ggg-ors. all the patients were successfully rehydrated orally. the ...19902201165
some infectious causes of diarrhea in young farm animals.escherichia coli, rotaviruses, and cryptosporidium parvum are discussed in this review as they relate to enteric disease in calves, lambs, and pigs. these microorganisms are frequently incriminated as causative agents in diarrheas among neonatal food animals, and in some cases different strains or serotypes of the same organism cause diarrhea in humans. e. coli causes diarrhea by mechanisms that include production of heat-labile or heat-stable enterotoxins and synthesis of potent cytotoxins, and ...19902224836
[a thermostable toxin-producing e. coli and infantile diarrhea].an e. coli strain producing only a thermostable toxin (st) and belonging to serogroup 0153 (etec 0153; st) was isolated from the stools of 9 infants with diarrhea, 4 of them premature, during the last half of august, 1988. all the 4 prematures passed frequent fluid stools. in 5 of the 9 infants, other pathogens were found in addition to the etec strain, including rotavirus, plesiomonas and shigella sonnei. until recently, etec strains like that described were considered rare all over the world. ...19902227649
behavior of urban based child caretakers in the home treatment of diarrheal diseases.behaviors of low income urban mothers and child caretakers in the treatment of childhood less than 5 year diarrhea were analysed from a surveillance study conducted between august 1988 and july 1989. help seeking behaviors of mothers and caretakers for 412 episodes of child diarrhea were as follows: investigators 37.1%, drug stores 18.2%, wait and see or self treatment 17.0%, private clinics 12.6%, near by hospital 10.2%, and local health center 4.9%. major treatment practices included ort alone ...19902237599
disease in young pheasants. 19902238411
[acute gastroenteritis of viral etiology].retrospective analysis of own experiences and investigations concerning the role of the viral etiology in acute gastroenteritis were presented. stools of children and soldiers with acute gastroenteritis were examined by electron microscopy. the most frequent causative agents were rotaviruses and much less frequently found were other viral particles of: coronaviruses, adenoviruses, norwalk-like viruses, astroviruses, caliciviruses and "small round viruses".19902238514
comparison of latex agglutination test with an elisa to diagnose rotavirus-associated diarrhoea in infants and young agglutination (la) test, using latex beads sensitised with anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin g, was evaluated to detect human rotavirus in 200 stool specimens by comparing its results with those of an elisa (rotazyme, abbott laboratory, diagnostic div., north chicago, il). the specimens were collected from a systematic sample of 200 infants and pre-school children attending the diarrhoeal disease research and rehydration centre at the bab-el-sha'reya university hospital, egypt. of the 200 stool s ...19902243180
rotavirus infection in children hospitalised with diarrhoea in sri lanka.seasonal and clinical aspects of rotavirus-associated diarrhoea in 98 of the 326 children hospitalised for diarrhoea are described. rotavirus infection was detected (30% overall) throughout the year from may 1980 to april 1981, but the prevalence was higher during the rainy season (40-50%). the age group in which rotavirus was detected most frequently was from 4 months to 2 years (34.6%). watery diarrhoea and vomiting were significantly commoner in children with rotavirus diarrhoea (75% and 71% ...19902243181
[epidemiologic studies of the detection of viral infection agents in calf losses in the weser-ems region].in 961 calves up to an age of 6 months which were sent to the animal health center in oldenburg between march 1987 and march 1990 for necropsy the results of determination of different viruses were calculated: bvd-, rota-, corona-, parainfluenza-3- (pi-3)-, bovine herpes-1 (bhv-1)- and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv). in 122 and 104 randomly collected health calves of 22 farms antibodies against brsv and bovine adeno virus-types 5, 7 and 8 were determined. 50.1% of the necropsied calve ...19902245783
importance of salmonellae and campylobacter jejuni in the etiology of diarrheal disease among children less than 5 years of age in a community in bangkok, thailand.the etiology of diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age in a low-income housing project in bangkok, thailand, was determined over 1 year. nontyphoidal salmonellae (13%), campylobacter jejuni (12%), rotavirus (12%), enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (7%), shigellae (6%), e. coli that hybridized with the enteropathogenic e. coli adherence factor probe (3%), and enteroinvasive e. coli (1%) were identified in 345 episodes of diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age. salmonellae were identi ...19902254427
disease in young pheasants. 19902256247
emporiatrics: diarrhea in travelers.the degree of discomfort and inconvenience caused by travelers' diarrhea highlights the need to prepare the international traveler thoroughly. in addition to observing food and water precautions, most travelers should carry antibiotics and antimotility agents to be started if diarrhea occurs. used judiciously, these precautions may prevent an unplanned tour of bathrooms and outhouses in foreign countries.19902258602
[epidemiological study of group c rotavirus].by electron microscopy survey of acute gastroenteritis of children in matsuyama, rotaviruses were detected in 561 of 2479 fecal samples obtained between october, 1984 and september, 1988, in which 60 atypical and 259 typical rotaviruses, so far tested, were detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) of viral rna. out of 60 atypical rotaviruses, 5 were observed in 1985, 7 in 1986, none in 1987 and 48 in 1988. these atypical rotaviruses were morphologically indistinguishable from typica ...19902258643
disease in young pheasants. 19902260256
natural killer cell activity of chicken intraepithelial leukocytes against rotavirus-infected target cells.intraepithelial leukocytes (iel) and splenocytes collected from uninfected and rotavirus-infected chickens were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against a natural killer (nk) cell-susceptible lymphoblastoid cell line (lscc-rp9) and against rotavirus-infected chick kidney cells in 4-h chromium-release assays. both splenocytes and iels from uninfected and rotavirus-infected chickens were cytotoxic for lscc-rp9, and the levels of this nk cell activity were not altered by infection of the host with ...19902260281
rotavirus diarrhoea in apache children: a case-control study.a case-control study of rotavirus diarrhoea in apache children up to two years old was conducted at the white mountain apache reservation from 1 may through 15 december 1985 to identify risk factors for rotavirus diarrhoea. the mothers of fifty cases, forty-five hospital controls and twenty-five neighbourhood controls participated in this study. exposure to other children with diarrhoea stood out as the single most important factor for acquiring rotavirus diarrhoea (odds ratio = 14.0). other sig ...19902262270
survey of enteropathogenic agents in children with and without diarrhoea in ghana.a survey was carried out over 1 year in a rural area of ghana on the isolation, detection and/or identification of enteric pathogens from children under 5 years of age with and without diarrhoea. the isolation and detection rate of shigella flexneri, shigella dysenteriae, giardia lamblia and rotavirus were higher in children with diarrhoea than in controls. yersinia enterocolitica, vibrio cholerae and vibrio parahaemolyticus were not isolated during the period of this survey. the incidence of ot ...19902270006
multinucleate enterocytes associated with experimental group a porcine rotavirus infection. 19902278133
neutral fat in stool as clinical indicator of rotavirus diarrhoea in under-five children. 19902283698
new vaccines against bacterial enteric infections.during the last 10 years, rapid progress in basic research and biotechnology related to enteric infection has now begun to have a substantial impact on vaccine development against these infections. two new typhoid vaccines, one for oral administration and the other for injection, which have much fewer and milder side effects than previous whole-cell parenteral vaccines, have become available. an oral cholera vaccine has been developed which, without any adverse reactions at all, confers long-las ...19902287897
management of pregnant women with diarrhoea at term and of healthy carriers of infectious agents in stools at delivery. 19902287923
detection by immune electron microscopy of 27-nm viral particles associated with community-acquired diarrhea in children.the proportion of diarrheal illnesses of unknown origin that were associated with small round virus (srv, 23-38 nm) particles among children less than 2 years old attending an outpatient clinic in baltimore was determined. during a 9-month period, stool specimens from 188 patients with acute diarrhea and 108 healthy age-matched control children were examined for enteric bacterial pathogens, protozoa, enteric adenovirus, and rotavirus. an enteropathogen was identified in 75 patients (40%) and in ...19902313134
effect of rotavirus infection and malnutrition on uptake of a dietary antigen in the intestine.intestinal absorption of ovalbumin (ova), a dietary macromolecule, was studied in malnourished and normally nourished suckling mice after experimentally induced infection with rotavirus. all mice developed diarrhea within 24 to 48 h postinoculation. the malnourished animals exhibited more severe symptoms and an increased number of rotavirus-containing enterocytes in intestinal sections as compared to well-nourished mice when examined 3 d postinoculation, at the peak of diarrhea. histopathologic ...19902314944
the incidence of viral-associated diarrhea after admission to a pediatric hospital.for determination of the incidence of viral-associated diarrhea after admission to a pediatric hospital, all patients admitted to general pediatrics, cardiology, and neurosurgery wards without diarrhea between january 1 and july 31, 1985 were followed 5 days per week for presence of diarrhea, etiologic agent, and possible risk factors. a total of 1,530 patients were followed for 3,642 days. of these patients, 69 developed 80 nosocomial diarrhea episodes after 72 hours in hospital for a nosocomia ...19902316499
factors influencing the duration of acute diarrheal disease in infancy.the majority of episodes of acute infectious diarrhea in infancy are of relatively short duration. prolongation of the diarrhea presents problems in management, deterioration of the infant's nutritional status, and an increased mortality. as part of a prospective study of the etiology of acute infectious diarrhea, some factors associated with the probability (more or less) of having self-limiting disease have been identified. the well-nourished infant over 6 months of age is more likely to have ...19902324877
an in vitro model to study aspects of the pathophysiology of murine rotavirus-induced in vitro system is described and validated for studying transport of solutes and water in both uninfected and rotavirus-infected neonatal mouse intestine. control intestine exhibited stable water absorption for periods of up to 40 min. water absorption was temperature-dependent. na-dependent, and enhanced by glucose-containing perfusion solutions. theophylline induced net secretion of water by control intestinal tissue. water transport by rotavirus-infected lower small intestine was significa ...19902324898
an efficacy trial of the rhesus rotavirus vaccine in maryland. the clinical study group.a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral rhesus rotavirus vaccine at a dose of 10(4) plaque-forming units was performed in 114 young infants in maryland. significantly more vaccinees than controls had fever and vomiting during the week after vaccination, but these reactions were mild. of the vaccinees, 83% had a fourfold or greater rise in neutralizing antibody to rhesus rotavirus vaccine and 69% shed vaccine virus. seventeen percent of the vaccinees and 24% of controls had rotavirus-pos ...19902330930
effect of undernutrition on the immune response to rotavirus infection in mice.the effect of moderate and severe undernutrition on the immune response to edim rotavirus was studied in mice. a moderate state of undernutrition was produced by feeding weanling mice either 15 or 30% less diet than the control group had eaten on the previous day, for 7 weeks. after 6 weeks, mice were given 30 microliters/mouse of edim rotavirus orally and the antibody production was measured 1 week later. the delayed-type hypersensitivity (dth) response to picryl chloride (pc) was measured as a ...19902331137
the interaction of vitamin a deficiency and rotavirus infection in the mouse.weanling mice were fed on a control diet ad lib., a vitamin a-deficient diet ad lib. or pair-fed to the intake of the vitamin a-deficient group. vitamin a deficiency was induced by 63-70 d of age. on day 77 mice were given 30 microliters rotavirus/mouse orally and examined histologically 1 week later. there were no changes in relative liver weight in any of the groups, but following infection animals deficient in vitamin a showed a significant increase in spleen weight compared with the other gr ...19902334670
longitudinal study of giardia lamblia infection in a day care center enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect giardia lamblia in stool specimens collected during a 15-month longitudinal study of diarrhea in 82 children 1 to 24 months old attending a day care center (dcc) in houston. a total of 2727 stool specimens were collected on a weekly basis from the dcc children and were evaluated for rotavirus and giardia. for dcc children who developed diarrhea stool specimens were also cultured for bacterial enteropathogens. during the 15-month study perio ...19902336299
group c rotavirus associated with fatal enteritis in a family outbreak.a family outbreak of gastroenteritis involving three adults and three children is described in which diarrhoea and vomiting were the main clinical features. one infant died in whom no pathogens could be detected in either small or large intestinal postmortem samples. stool samples from two symptomatic siblings contained rotaviruses as demonstrated by electron microscopy. both of these faecal samples were negative when assayed in a group a specific rotavirus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (eli ...19902341836
[incidence of diarrhea among groups of children in the city of seville].we studied prospectively the cases of diarrhoea that were produced during one year of follow-up in three groups of children (31 newborn, 62 of 1 year and 51 of 2 years) selected randomly from the civil register of sevilla. the incidence of diarrhoea was 47 episodes for every 100 children per year, with a peak of higher incidence detected in july and august. diarrhoea was more frequent in children of low socioeconomic level. the most common producers of diarrhoea were rotavirus (30%) and enteropa ...19902346243
ecological studies on intestinal microbial flora of kenyan children with diarrhoea.the intestinal microflora was analysed together with short-chain fatty acids (scfa) and bile acids in faeces from nine children with acute diarrhoeal disease in lari, kenya. enteric pathogens such as enteroinvasive e. coli, enteropathogenic e. coli, yersinia enterocolitica, rotavirus, giardia lamblia and entamoeba histolytica were isolated either singly or in combination from diarrhoeal faecal specimens. the most striking finding in these patients was a marked reduction of anaerobes. analysis of ...19902348500
[clinical therapy and etiology of viral diarrhea in children].158 cases of autumnal diarrhea in children were probed into their aetiology, determination of siga content and verification of the effect chinese herbs by using electron microscope and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis techniques. the result indicated that therapeutic effect of chinese herbs on rotavirus diarrhea was more effective than western medicine. the inhibitory rate of virus was 71.43%.19902350833
x-ray microanalysis of rotavirus-infected mouse intestine: a new concept of diarrhoeal secretion.neonatal mice were infected at 7 days of age with rotavirus [epizootic diarrhea of infant mice (edim) virus] and killed at 24-h intervals postinfection (pi). cytoplasmic concentrations of na, mg, p, s, cl, k, and ca intestinal epithelial cells from infected and age-matched control animals were measured by x-ray microanalysis. in villus tip cells, ca concentration increased at 24-96 h pi; na concentration increased at 24-72 h pi; ca and na concentrations were near normal by 168 h pi. k concentrat ...19902358985
transfer of maternal antibody against group a rotavirus from sows to piglets and serological responses following natural enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for the measurement of antirotaviral antibody in sera and faeces from pigs and used to study the dynamics of antirotaviral antibody responses in three cohorts of pigs. piglets acquired antirotaviral antibody by sucking their dams soon after birth. antirotaviral antibodies of iga and igg classes were detected in both colostrum and milk of all sows tested but igm class antibodies were not. the antibody levels in colostrum were eight to 32 ...19902359885
non-immunological facets of poliovirus vaccines.failures of oral poliovirus vaccine lots in developing countries are explained by interference during their 'take' by other enteroviruses colonizing the host intestinal system. oral poliovirus vaccines, on their part, have also exerted an interfering effect on multiplication of other enteroviruses. apart from the intrafamilial enterovirus interference, oral poliovirus vaccine has not spared rotaviruses.19902363296
rotavirus disease in finnish children: use of numerical scores for clinical severity of diarrhoeal episodes.65 episodes of rotavirus diarrhoea, detected during a longitudinal follow-up of 336 infants from birth to 24-32 months of age, were analyzed for clinical symptoms. rotavirus gastroenteritis was characterized by watery diarrhoea, vomiting (particularly in older children), fever and dehydration. a 0-20 point numerical score was devised according to the distribution of clinical features in the patients. using this system, the mean severity score for the 65 episodes of rotavirus diarrhoea was 11.0 + ...19902371542
annual rotavirus epidemic patterns in north america. results of a 5-year retrospective survey of 88 centers in canada, mexico, and the united states. rotavirus study group.rotavirus is the major cause of severe diarrhea in children. a recent study of hospitalizations for diarrhea in the united states suggested that the annual rotavirus epidemic may follow a regional sequence from west to east. as part of a program to establish active surveillance of rotavirus prior to the introduction of vaccines, we obtained 5 years of retrospective data on rotavirus detections from 88 centers throughout north america. analysis of 34,644 detections indicates that the peak of the ...19902376890
microscopic examination of stools and a latex slide agglutination test for the rapid identification of bacterial enteric infections in khmer children.eighty-five stools collected from 50 children with diarrhea at an evacuation site on the thai-kampuchean border were (1) examined microscopically for fecal leukocytes, (2) tested after 24 hr enrichment in brain/heart infusion broth by a latex slide agglutination test for detection of salmonella and shigella, and (3) examined with microbiological techniques to identify bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens. if the 65 specimens in which one or no pathogens are considered, 6 or more fecal leuko ...19902383976
[histological findings of the small intestinal mucosa in rotavirus infections in infants and young children].in a prospective study we performed small intestinal mucosal biopsies in 40 children with acute rotavirus diarrhoea. biopsies were taken from these children between the 2nd to 10th day of acute phase. the children were at an age of less than 18 month. 95% of the patients had normal histological findings of the small intestinal mucosa. only 2 children (5%) had well defined injuries of intestinal mucosa. correlations were not found between clinical findings, morphological results and therapy. in o ...19902385094
transport of water and electrolytes by rotavirus-infected mouse intestine: a time course study.the movement of water and transport of na+ and cl- by mid-small intestine (m-si) of rotavirus-infected neonatal mice was investigated by an in vitro perfusion technique. the concentrations of na+, k+, and cl- in the luminal contents of upper, middle, and lower small intestine and colon of infected mice were determined by flame photometry (na+, k+) and an ion selective microelectrode (cl-). in m-si, maximal disturbance of water transport occurred at 72 h postinfection (pi): infected tissue exhibi ...19902395065
the role of leucocytes in the induction of fluid secretion by salmonella typhimurium.nitrogen mustard (n2m) treatment of rabbits induced neutropenia, and, in ligated ileal loops, it inhibited fluid secretion induced by salmonella or by cholera toxin (ct). pretreatment of rabbits with indomethacin almost abolished salmonella-induced fluid secretion and significantly reduced that induced by ct. similar effects of n2m and indomethacin on fluid secretion induced by salmonella, but not by ct, have been reported by other workers and used to implicate prostaglandins, from the salmonell ...19902404124
salmonella enteritidis infection in pheasant chicks and poults. 19902405576
cow's milk-based formula, human milk, and soya feeds in acute infantile diarrhea: a therapeutic trial.acute infantile diarrhea is often managed by introducing lactose-free diets empirically from the time of diagnosis, in addition to conventional rehydration therapy. in order to assess the efficacy of this, a therapeutic trial was undertaken in which hospitalized gastroenteritis patients previously on milk-formula feeds were randomly fed, from the time of admission, either their original feed or a lactose-free soya preparation; patients previously on human milk with or without a supplement contin ...19902406406
diarrhea in developed and developing countries: magnitude, special settings, and etiologies.diarrheal diseases are major causes of morbidity, with attack rates ranging from two to 12 or more illnesses per person per year in developed and developing countries. in addition, diarrheal illnesses account for an estimated 12,600 deaths each day in children in asia, africa, and latin america. the causes of diarrhea include a wide array of viruses, bacteria, and parasites, many of which have been recognized only in the last decade or two. while enterotoxigenic escherichia coli and rotaviruses ...19902406855
use of bismuth subsalicylate in acute diarrhea in children.results of a pilot study suggest that bismuth subsalicylate (bss) favorably altered the course of rotavirus-associated diarrhea in children. this was more evident in those who also had a bacterial pathogen. subsequently, 123 infants and children with acute diarrhea were admitted to a randomized, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. patients received either bss at a dosage of 100 mg/(kg.d) for 5 days or a placebo. patients in the two groups were comparable with respect to ag ...19902406856
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