constraints to virus infection in nicotiana benthamiana plants transformed with a potyvirus amplicon.plant genomes have been transformed with full-length cdna copies of viral genomes, giving rise to what has been called 'amplicon' systems, trying to combine the genetic stability of transgenic plants with the elevated replication rate of plant viruses. however, amplicons' performance has been very variable regardless of the virus on which they are based. this has boosted further interest in understanding the underlying mechanisms that cause this behavior differences, and in developing strategies ...201020604920
performance of parallel screening of brazilian blood donors with two human immunodeficiency virus immunoassays: implications for sequential immunoassay testing algorithms in other brazil it is mandatory to screen donors for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) antibodies using two immunoassays (ias) in parallel. confirmatory testing is performed only on reactive donors who return for counseling. the goal of this analysis was to determine if concordant ia reactivity accurately predicts infection and can be used for hiv incidence and/or prevalence analyses.201120633245
the epitope of the vp1 protein of porcine parvovirus.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is the major causative agent in a syndrome of reproductive failure in swine. much has been learned about the structure and function of ppv in recent years, but nothing is known about the epitopes of the structural protein vp1, which is an important antigen of ppv. in this study, the monoclonal antibody c4 against vp1 of ppv was prepared and was used to biopan a 12-mer phage peptide library three times. the selected phage clones were identified by elisa and then sequencin ...201020637107
comparison of commercial and experimental porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) vaccines using a triple challenge with pcv2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), and porcine parvovirus (ppv).the efficacies of commercial porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) vaccines and a live pcv1-2a chimeric vaccine were compared in conventional, pcv2-positive piglets using a pcv2-porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv)-porcine parvovirus (ppv) coinfection challenge model. seventy-three, 2-week-old pigs were randomized into seven groups including five vaccinated and two control groups. pigs in the vaccinated groups were vaccinated at 3 weeks (one dose) or at 3 and 6 weeks (two dose) ...201020637768
benzothiadiazole and l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid reduce the severity of sharka symptoms in pea leaves: effect on antioxidative metabolism at the subcellular level.the effect of treatment with benzothiadiazole (bth) or l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (otc), and their interaction with plum pox virus (ppv) infection, on antioxidative metabolism of pea plants was studied at the subcellular level. ppv infection produced a 20% reduction in plant growth. pre-treatment of pea plants with otc or bth afforded partial protection against ppv infection, measured as the percentage of leaves showing symptoms, but neither bth nor otc significantly reduced the virus ...201020653891
o-glcnacylation of the plum pox virus capsid protein catalyzed by secret agent: characterization of o-glcnac sites by electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry.the capsid protein of plum pox virus (ppv-cp) is modified with o-linked β-n-acetylglucosamine (o-glcnac). in arabidopsis thaliana this modification is made by an o-glcnac transferase named secret agent (sec). modification of ppv-cp by sec is hypothesized to have a direct role in the infection process, because virus titer and rate of spread are reduced in sec mutants. previous studies used deletion mapping and site-directed mutagenesis to identify four o-glcnac sites on the capsid protein that ar ...201120676902
loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection and differentiation of wild-type pseudorabies and gene-deleted virus vaccines.a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay was developed specifically for detection and differentiation of pseudorabies virus (prv). one group of primers was designed to detect wild-type strains (i.e., strains with the ge gene) and the other group of primers was designed to detect both prv ge-vaccine and wild-type strains (i.e., strains with the gg gene and with or without the ge gene). after amplification by bst enzyme at a constant temperature of 65 degrees c, a laddering of bright ...201020691214
the chemokine cxcl13 is a prognostic marker in clinically isolated syndrome (cis).there is increasing recognition of the importance of b lymphocytes in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (ms), encouraging the evaluation of b cell-associated biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid (csf). we aimed to evaluate the relevance of the b cell chemoattractant cxcl13 as a prognostic marker in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (cis) regarding conversion to ms, and to compare it to barkhof criteria in magnetic resonance imaging (mri), oligoclonal bands (ocb) and the poly ...201020700489
audit of paired anal cytology and histopathology outcomes in patients referred to a public sexual health clinic.the level of agreement between anal cytology and histopathology is not clear with only a few studies evaluating the reliability of anal specimen reporting. australian data in relation to this are limited.201020719226
a randomized clinical trial comparing revaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to polysaccharide vaccine among hiv-infected adults.the risk of pneumococcal disease persists, and antibody responses to revaccination with the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (ppv) are low among human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected adults. we determined whether revaccination with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (pcv) would enhance these responses.201020795819
quantitative serum hbsag and hbeag are strong predictors of sustained hbeag seroconversion to pegylated interferon alfa-2b in hbeag-positive evaluate the usefulness of quantitative hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) and hepatitis b e antigen (hbeag) for predicting hbeag seroconversion in chronic hepatitis b patients treated with conventional interferon (ifn) alfa-2b or pegifn alfa-2b.201020796146
content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in fruits of apricot genotypes.research on natural compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health. in this study, we were interested in the evaluation of nutritional value expressed as content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of new apricot (prunus armeniaca l.) genotypes resistant against plum pox virus (ppv) cultivated on department of fruit growing of mendel university in brno. fruits of twenty one apricot genotypes were collected at the onset of consumption ripeness. antioxidant cap ...201020877223
silencing of plum pox virus 5'utr/p1 sequence confers resistance to a wide range of ppv effective disease-control strategy should protect the host from the major economically important and geographically widespread variants of a pathogen. plum pox virus (ppv) is the causal agent of sharka, the most devastating viral disease of prunus species. we have shown previously that the hairpin rna expression driven by h-utr/p1, h-p1/hcpro, h-hcpro and h-hcpro/p3 constructs, derived from the ppv-m ispave44 isolate, confers resistance to the homologous virus in nicotiana benthamiana plants. ...201020963442
comparison of immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction for detection of west nile virus in naturally infected dead birds.credible vector-borne disease surveillance programs, especially in developing countries with limited resources, must include diagnostic tests that are efficient, inexpensive and simple and safe to administer while maintaining high levels of sensitivity and specificity. since immunohistochemistry (ihc) includes most of these features, its sensitivity, specificity, predictive positive value (ppv) and predictive negative value (pnv) for west nile virus (wnv) screening were compared to those of the ...201021045374
[construction and immunogenicity of recombinant porcine parvovirus-like particles with somatostatin].in order to obtain a virus-like particle vaccine both for porcine parvovirus (ppv) prevention and growth-promotion, vp2 gene of ppv nj-a strain was amplified with pcr, and four copies of synthetic somatostatin gene were fused to the n-terminal of vp2 gene. the fused gene was cloned into pfast-ht a to construct the recombinant plasmid pfast-ss4-vp2, then the pfast-ss4-vp2 was transformed into dh10bac competent cells and recombined with shuttle vector bacmid, followed by identification with blue-w ...201021090109
detection of porcine parvovirus using a taqman-based real-time pcr with primers and probe designed for the ns1 gene.a taqman-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay was devised for the detection of porcine parvovirus (ppv). two primers and a taqman probe for the non-structural protein ns1 gene were designed. the detection limit was 1 x 10² dna copies/μl, and the assay was linear in the range of 1 x 10² to 1 x 10⁹ copies/μl. there was no cross-reaction with porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), pseudorabies virus (prv), classical swine fever vir ...201021126330
production and purification of vp2 protein of porcine parvovirus expressed in an insect-baculovirus cell system.the porcine parvovirus (ppv) vp2 protein was expressed in an insect-baculovirus cell system and was purified using ni-nta affinity column chromatography. the recombinant 6-his-tagged vp2 protein with molecular mass (mr) of about 64 kda was detected by anti-his antibody and anti-ppv serum. electron microscopy showed that the purified vp2 protein assembled into spherical particles with diameters ranging from 20 to 22 nm. the expressed vp2 was antigenically similar to the native capsid protein acco ...201021143963
the diagnostic and prognostic significance of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) is a potentially fatal disease caused by a tick-borne virus from the bunyaviridae family. it has recently been reported that soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (supar), secreted from endothelial cells and the mononuclear phagocyte system, one of the main targets of the cchf virus, is a potential biomarker for several bacterial and viral infection diseases.201021167774
detection of a novel porcine parvovirus, ppv4, in chinese swine determine whether the novel porcine parvovirus type 4 (ppv4) recently reported in america is prevalent in china, a set of specific primers was designed and used for molecular survey of ppv4 among the clinical samples collected from various provinces of china between 2006 and 2010. the results showed that ppv4 is present in chinese swine herds at a rate of 2.09% (12/573) among the clinical samples examined and 0.76% (1/132) among the samples taken from healthy animals. we also noted that ppv4 ...201021092136
simple and efficient biolistic procedure for the plant transfection with cdna clones of rna viruses.simple, fast, low-cost, and efficient procedure for dna delivery to the cell nuclei of whole plants was developed. the procedure was optimized for the plum pox virus (ppv) and its host nicotiana benthamiana. it is based on the leaf bombardment with tungsten microparticles with bound dna using common air gun. the procedure did not require special equipment and source of driving gas. the transfection efficiency obtained by the newly developed procedure was close to 100%, but this level dropped wit ...201021175255
analysis of the epitope structure of plum pox virus coat protein.typing of the particular plum pox virus (ppv) strain responsible in an outbreak has important practical implications and is frequently performed using strain-specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs). analysis in western blots of the reactivity of 24 mabs to a 112-amino-acid n-terminal fragment of the ppv coat protein (cp) expressed in escherichia coli showed that 21 of the 24 mabs recognized linear or denaturation-insensitive epitopes. a series of eight c-truncated cp fragments allowed the mapping ...201121171886
molecular epidemiology of plum pox virus in japan.for a molecular epidemiological study based on complete genome sequences, 37 plum pox virus (ppv) isolates were collected from the kanto region in japan. pair-wise analyses revealed that all 37 japanese isolates belong to the ppv-d strain, with low genetic diversity (less than 0.8%). in phylogenetic analysis of the ppv-d strain based on complete nucleotide sequences, the relationships of the ppv-d strain were reconstructed with high resolution: at the global level, the american, canadian, and ja ...201121198358
role of simple biomarkers in predicting fibrosis progression in hcv examine the accuracy of the aspartate aminotransferase (ast)/platelet ratio index (apri) and fib-4, in predicting longitudinal changes in liver histology in hepatitis c virus (hcv) patients.201021128320
genetic elements in the vp region of porcine parvovirus are critical to replication efficiency in cell culture.factors controlling porcine parvovirus (ppv) replication efficiency are poorly characterized. two prototype strains of ppv, nadl-2 and kresse, differ greatly in pathogenic capacity both in vivo and in vitro, yet their genomic sequence is nearly identical (13 single-nucleotide substitutions and a 127-nucleotide noncoding repeated sequence). we have created a series of chimeras of these strains to identify the genetic elements involved in replication efficiency in the host porcine cell line. while ...201121209104
immunopathological characterization of porcine circovirus type 2 infection-associated follicular changes in inguinal lymph nodes using high-throughput tissue microarray.the immunopathogenesis of porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) infection in conventional pigs is complicated by various environmental factors and individual variation and is difficult to be completely reproduced experimentally. in the present field-based study, a tissue microarray (tma) consisting of a series of lymphoid follicles having different pcv2-loads was constructed using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded superficial inguinal lymph nodes (lns) from 102 pigs. using the tma, a wide range of ...201021126833
[combined detection of epstein-barr virus antibodies for serodiagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma].to investigate the value of combined detection of epstein-barr virus (ebv) vca/iga, ea/iga, rta/igg and ebna1/iga in serodiagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc).201021177196
pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage among infants born to human immunodeficiency virus-infected mothers immunized with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine during gestation.we have previously shown that 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (ppv) is immunogenic in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected mothers and provides vaccine-induced antibodies to the infant. we compared the nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization (npc) rates in <6-month-old infants born to hiv-infected mothers, according to immunization with ppv during pregnancy.201121200361
two new subfamilies of dna mismatch repair proteins (muts) specifically abundant in the marine environment.muts proteins are ubiquitous in cellular organisms and have important roles in dna mismatch repair or recombination. in the virus world, the amoeba-infecting mimivirus, as well as the recently sequenced cafeteria roenbergensis virus are known to encode a muts related to the homologs found in octocorals and ɛ-proteobacteria. to explore the presence of muts proteins in other viral genomes, we performed a genomic survey of four giant viruses ('giruses') (pyramimonas orientalis virus (pov), phaeocys ...201121248859
effects of varying virus-spiking conditions on a virus-removal filter planova™ 20n in a virus validation study of antibody solutions.we aimed to investigate the effect of virus-spiking conditions on the filter performance (flux, flux decay, and parvovirus reduction) of the small virus filter planova™ 20n. we used three kinds of porcine parvovirus (ppv) stocks: serum, serum-free, and purified. the flux profile with ppv spiking was similar to that without spiking for normal load filtration of about 250-300 l/m(2). high volume (3 vol %) of serum-free ppv and 1 vol % serum ppv reduced the flux to some extent for high-load filtrat ...201021213298
thermal image scanning for influenza border screening: results of an airport screening study.infrared thermal image scanners (itis) appear an attractive option for the mass screening of travellers for influenza, but there are no published data on their performance in airports.201121245928
molecular, ultrastructural, and biological characterization of pennsylvania isolates of plum pox virus.plum pox virus (ppv) was identified in pennsylvania in 1999. the outbreak was limited to a four-county region in southern pennsylvania. initial serological and molecular characterization indicated that the isolates in pennsylvania belong to the d strain of ppv. the pennsylvania isolates were characterized by sequence analysis, electron microscopy, host range, and vector transmission to determine how these isolates related to their previously studied european counterparts. genetically, pennsylvan ...201121261466
mediterranean and central-eastern european countries host viruses of two different clades of plum pox virus strain m.the genetic diversity of plum pox virus strain m (ppv-m) was assessed by analyzing 28 isolates collected in 8 european countries. two genomic fragments spanning the (cter)p3-6k1-(nter)ci coding region as well as the full coat protein coding region were sequenced directly from pcr products. phylogenetic analysis showed that the geographical origin of the collected isolates was clearly associated with two different ppv-m clades. moreover, the pattern of substitutions in the cp gene shed light on t ...201121293968
[seroprevalence of rubella virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus and parvovirus b19 among pregnant women in the sousse region, tunisia].the aim of the study is to evaluate seroprevalence of rubella virus (rv), cytomegalovirus (cmv), varicella zoster virus (vzv), and parvovirus b19 (pb19) in 404 tunisian pregnant women, and to determine reliability of maternal past history of eruption. sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors, and past history of eruption were collected through a questionnaire. serologic tests were performed using enzyme immunoassays. risk factors were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic reg ...201121243459
false-positive human immunodeficiency virus enzyme immunoassay results in pregnant women.examine whether false-positive hiv enzyme immunoassay (eia) test results occur more frequently among pregnant women than among women who are not pregnant and men (others).201121304592
validity of two rapid point of care influenza tests and direct fluorecence assay in comparison of real time pcr for swine of origin influenza virus.a novel swine origin influenza virus (s-oiv) is continue to spread worldwide and a global declaration of 2009 influenza pandemic was made by world health organization (who) june 2009, this along with approaching the winter season at the northern hemisphere, increase the interest to provide a quick, easy, affordable and available point of care testing for s-oiv.201121338954
effects of varying virus-spiking conditions on a virus-removal filter planovaôäó 20n in a virus validation study of antibody solutions.we aimed to investigate the effect of virus-spiking conditions on the filter performance (flux, flux decay, and parvovirus reduction) of the small virus filter planovaôäó 20n. we used three kinds of porcine parvovirus (ppv) stocks: serum, serum-free, and purified. the flux profile with ppv spiking was similar to that without spiking for normal load filtration of about 250-300 l/m(2) . high volume (3 vol %) of serum-free ppv and 1 vol % serum ppv reduced the flux to some extent for high-load filt ...201121312364
interaction of plum pox virus with specific colloidal gold-labeled antibodies and development of immunochromatographic assay of the virus.two monoclonal antibodies (mabs) raised against plum pox virus (ppv) were shown to recognize its d, m, and c strains. conjugates of the antibodies with colloidal gold (cg) nanoparticles averaging 26 nm in diameter were synthesized. the binding constants of ppv with both the native and conjugated mabs were determined using a biacore x device. the complexes between the cg-mab conjugates and plum pox virions were examined by means of transmission electron and atomic force microscopy. using the conj ...201021314608
in vitro evaluation of antiviral and virucidal activity of a high molecular weight hyaluronic acid.hyaluronic acid (ha), a non-sulphated glycosaminoglycan, is present in synovial fluid, vitreous humour serum and many connective tissues. pharmaceutical preparations of ha are used in clinical practice for wound healing, joint pain, kerato-conjunctivitis, asthma, mouth care, oesophageal-reflux, and gastritis. moreover, it is used as a filler to counteract ageing and facial lipoatrophy. our study aims at investigating the in vitro antiviral activity of a high molecular weight ha.201121439070
[coinfection effects of porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine parvovirus in vivo on phagocytosis and interferon mrna expression of porcine alveolar macrophages].our study is to analyse the coinfection effects of porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) and porcine parvovirus (ppv) in vivo on phagocytosis and interferon mrna expression level of porcine alveolar macrophages (pam).201121465796
sequence variability, recombination analysis, and specific detection of the w strain of plum pox virus.plum pox virus (ppv), a member of the genus potyvirus, is the causal agent of sharka, the most detrimental disease of stone-fruit trees worldwide. ppv isolates are grouped into seven distinct strains. the minor ppv-w strain was established recently for the divergent w3174 isolate found in canada. here, the partial or complete genomic sequences of four ppv-w isolates from latvia have been determined. the completely sequenced isolates lv-141pl and lv-145bt share 93.1 and 92.1% nucleotide identity, ...201121425932
molecular detection of torque teno sus virus in lymphoid tissues in concomitant infections with other porcine viral this study, 40 pigs with respiratory and wasting disorders from cuban swine herds were screened by pcr for the presence of ttsuv1, ttsuv2, pcv-2, ppv and csfv in spleen samples. the variability of the porcine ttsuv sequences obtained was investigated by phylogenetic analysis. this study showed for the first time that ttsuv1 and ttsuv2 were present in cuban swine herds. the investigation revealed the following infection rates: ttsuv1 40%, ttsuv2 37.5%, pcv-2 70%, ppv 37.5% and csfv in 52.5%. t ...201121482428
the immune enhancement of propolis adjuvant on inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccine in guinea pig.two experiments were carried out. in immune response test, the immune enhancement of propolis, oilemulsion and aluminium salt were compared in guinea pig vaccinated with inactivated porcine parvovirus (ppv) vaccine. the result showed that three adjuvants could enhance antibody titer, t lymphocyte proliferation, il-2 and il-4 secretion of splenic lymphocyte. the action of propolis was similar to that of oilemulsion and superior to that of aluminium salt, especially in early period of vaccination ...201121482422
performance of the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index for the staging of hepatitis c-related fibrosis: an updated meta-analysis.the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (apri), a tool with limited expense and widespread availability, is a promising noninvasive alternative to liver biopsy for detecting hepatic fibrosis. the objective of this study was to update the 2007 meta-analysis to systematically assess the accuracy of apri in predicting significant fibrosis, severe fibrosis, and cirrhosis stage in hepatitis c virus (hcv) monoinfected and hcv / human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) coinfected individuals. ...201121319189
twelve week post-treatment follow-up predicts sustained virological response to pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy in hiv/hepatitis c virus co-infected patients.the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the assessment of hepatitis c virus (hcv) rna serum at 12 weeks after the end of treatment (w12) was as informative as after 24 weeks (w24) for determining sustained virological response (svr) in hiv/hcv co-infected patients who received a combination of pegylated interferon (peg-inf) plus ribavirin (peg-inf/rbv) and had a virological response at the end of treatment.201121415037
vitamin e and selenium levels are within normal range in pigs diagnosed with mulberry heart disease and evidence for viral involvement in the syndrome is lacking.mulberry heart disease (mhd) in pigs is characterized by lesions of acute haemorrhagic myocarditis and myocardial necrosis. the objectives of this study were to determine the levels of vitamin e and selenium and 13 other trace minerals in heart and liver tissues and to determine the prevalence of certain viral infections in heart tissues from mhd-affected and mhd-unaffected pigs and the vitamin e and selenium concentration in feed samples from selected farms with mhd. based on the pathological e ...201121518323
intestinal gene expression in pigs experimentally co-infected with pcv2 and ppv.the objective of the present study was to characterize the local immune reaction in the intestine of pigs experimentally infected with pcv2 and ppv. archived intestinal material from an experimental study in which pigs were co-infected with a swedish isolate of pcv2 (s-pcv2) and ppv, or a reference isolate of pcv2 (pcv2-1010) and ppv, were used. the intestinal samples were analysed by qpcr for expression of a number of selected cytokines and the overall gene expression in the intestine was scree ...201121605916
age-stratified performance of the cervista hpv 16/18 genotyping test in women with asc-us cytology.background: the objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of the cervista hpv 16/18 genotyping test for detection of human papilloma virus (hpv) 16 and 18 in cervical cytology specimens in women stratified by age. methods: in a multicenter, prospective clinical study, thinprep specimens were tested for the presence of hpv 16 and 18 using the hpv 16/18 genotyping test. genotyping results from women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or greater cytolog ...201121527581
intrahepatic response markers in chronic hepatitis b patients treated with peginterferon alfa-2a and adefovir.background: we investigated whether intrahepatic markers could predict response in chronic hepatitis b patients treated with peg-ifn and adefovir for 48 weeks. methods: intrahepatic cccdna, total intrahepatic hbv dna and the proportion of hbsag and hbcag positive hepatocytes in 16 hbeag positive and 24 hbeag negative patients were measured at baseline and at the end of treatment. results: baseline intrahepatic markers were not associated with sustained virological response (svr) defined as hbv d ...201121557773
visualization of plant viral suppressor silencing activity in intact leaf lamina by quantitative fluorescent imaging.abstract: background: transient expression of proteins in plants has become a favoured method over the production of stably transformed plants because, in addition to enabling high protein yields, it is both fast and easy to apply. an enhancement of transient protein expression can be achieved by plant virus-encoded rna silencing suppressor proteins. since viral suppressor proteins differ in their efficiency to enhance transient protein expression in plants, we developed a whole-leaf green fluor ...201121812965
optimal follow-up time to determine the sustained virological response in patients with chronic hepatitis c receiving peg-ifn and ribavirin.background: this study evaluated whether the assessment of hcv-rna at 12 weeks (fw+12) post treatment follow-up was as applicable as fw+24 to evaluate sustained virological response (svr) using the highly sensitive real-time pcr hcv assay. methods and results: two hundred twenty-two patients with chronic hepatitis c were included in this study. pegylated interferon (peg-ifn) and ribavirin were administered for 24-72 weeks based on the genotype and viral load. serum hcv-rna was measured using rea ...201121649727
a live-attenuated chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) vaccine is transmitted to contact pigs but is not upregulated by concurrent infection with porcine parvovirus (ppv) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) and is efficacious in a pcv2b-prrsv-ppv challenge model.the live chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) vaccine with the capsid gene of the emerging subtype 2b cloned in the genomic backbone of the nonpathogenic pcv1 is attenuated in vivo and induces protective immunity against pcv2. to further determine the safety and efficacy of this experimental vaccine, we tested for evidence of pig-to-pig transmission by commingling nonvaccinated and vaccinated pigs, determined potential upregulation by simultaneous vaccination and infection with porcine parv ...201121653745
field effectiveness of pandemic and 2009-2010 seasonal vaccines against 2009-2010 a(h1n1) influenza: estimations from surveillance data in this study, we assess how effective pandemic and trivalent 2009-2010 seasonal vaccines were in preventing influenza-like illness (ili) during the 2009 a(h1n1) pandemic in france. we also compare vaccine effectiveness against ili versus laboratory-confirmed pandemic a(h1n1) influenza, and assess the possible bias caused by using non-specific endpoints and observational data.201121573005
high rate of viral evolution in the capsid protein of porcine the last years, it has been shown that some parvoviruses exhibit high substitution rates, close to those of rna viruses. in order to monitor and determine new mutations of the porcine parvovirus (ppv), recent ppv field isolates from austria, brazil, germany and switzerland were sequenced and analyzed. these samples, together with sequences retrieved from genbank, were included in three datasets (consisting of vp2 complete gene, vp2 partial gene and ns1 complete gene). for each dataset, nucleo ...201121795474
noninvasive diagnostic criteria for hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatic masses >2 cm in a hepatitis b virus-endemic area.background: noninvasive criteria for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) suggested by the american association for the study of liver diseases (aasld) in 2005 consisted of serum a-fetoprotein (afp) level >200 ng/ml or a typical enhancement pattern (arterial enhancement and portal/delayed washed out) on dynamic imaging of hepatic mass(es) >2 cm in a cirrhotic liver. aims: to validate these criteria in a korean population and to evaluate whether these criteria are applicable to patients with ...201121745284
the rna profile of porcine parvovirus 4, a boca-like virus, is unique among the parvoviruses.ppv4 transcribes its genome from a single promoter, and the rnas are generated via alternate splicing coupled with alternate polyadenylation, a strategy similar to that of the bocaviruses; however, several differences were detected. the ppv4 orf1 codes for four ns proteins, while the bocavirus orf1 codes for 1-3 ns proteins. whereas the vp1/vp2 capsid proteins of bocavirus are encoded by a single rna, vp1 and vp2 of ppv4 are encoded by two separate rnas. while orf3 of ppv4 encodes two np protein ...201121785854
inactivation of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses on seeded human tissues by gamma irradiation.human tissue allografts are widely used in a variety of clinical applications with over 1.5 million implants annually in the us alone. since the 1990s, most clinically available allografts have been disinfected to minimize risk of disease transmission. additional safety assurance can be provided by terminal sterilization using low dose gamma irradiation. the impact of such irradiation processing at low temperatures on viruses was the subject of this study. in particular, both human tendon and co ...201121809182
porcine bocaviruses: genetic analysis and prevalence in chinese swine population.summaryin members of the bocavirus genus, that contain three open reading frames (orfs) of the parvovirinae subfamily, porcine bocaviruses (pobovs) exhibit the most genetic diversity. based on the orf2-encoded viral protein (vp1) classification, the six reported porcine bocaviruses were grouped into four species: pobov1 (porcine boca-like virus or pbolv), pobov2 (porcine parvovirus 4 or ppv4), pobov3 (pbov1/pbov2) and pobov4 (6v/7v), with pobov3 and pobov4 each having two genotype viruses. all f ...201121676363
porcine parvovirus removal using trimer and biased hexamer peptides.assuring the microbiological safety of biological therapeutics remains an important concern. our group has recently reported small trimeric peptides that have the ability to bind and remove a model non-enveloped virus, porcine parvovirus (ppv), from complex solutions containing human blood plasma. in an effort to improve the removal efficiency of these small peptides, we created a biased library of hexamer peptides that contain two previously reported trimeric peptides designated wrw and kyy. th ...201121751387
genetically engineered resistance to plum pox virus infection in herbaceous and stone fruit hosts.plum pox virus (ppv), a potyvirus, is the causal agent of sharka, the most detrimental viral disease affecting stone fruittrees. this review focuses on research carried out to obtain ppv- resistant transgenic plants and on how biotechnological strategies evolved in light of the scientific advances made during the last several years. successful rna silencing strategies that confer high level of resistance to strains of ppv have been developed and tested under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. ...201121844696
narrowing down the apricot plum pox virus resistance locus and comparative analysis with the peach genome syntenic region.sharka disease, caused by the plum pox virus (ppv), is one of the main limiting factors for stone fruit crops worldwide. only a few resistance sources have been found in apricot (prunus armeniaca l.), and most studies have located a major ppv resistance locus (ppvres) on linkage group 1 (lg1). however, the mapping accuracy was not sufficiently reliable and ppvres was predicted within a low confidence interval. in this study, we have constructed two high-density simple sequence repeat (ssr) impro ...201121722293
diagnostic significance of plasma osteopontin in hepatitis c virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma.outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) depends mainly on its early diagnosis. the performance of traditional biomarkers is not satisfactory. osteopontin (opn) is of potential importance. this study aim to assess the diagnostic value of plasma opn compared with alpha-fetoprotein (afp) for the diagnosis of hcv- related hcc.201121677331
phylogenetic analysis of porcine parvoviruses from swine samples in china.abstract:201121703005
A novel recombinant pseudorabies virus expressing parvovirus VP2 gene: Immunogenicity and protective efficacy in swine.Porcine parvovirus (PPV) VP2 gene has been successfully expressed in many expression systems resulting in self-assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs) with similar morphology to the native capsid. Here, a pseudorabies virus (PRV) system was adopted to express the PPV VP2 gene.201121679423
Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome produced in gnotobiotic pigs following exposure to various amounts of porcine circovirus type 2a or type 2b.In late 2005, a postweaning, high mortality syndrome spread rapidly through finishing barns in swine dense areas of the United States. Diagnostic investigations consistently detected porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) from diseased tissues. Subsequent genetic analysis revealed that the infectious agent was a PCV2 type termed "PCV2b". Prior to late 2004, only the PCV2a type, but not PCV2b, had been reported in North America. In this communication, we produce severe postweaning multisystemic wasting ...201121684696
A multiple SYBR Green I-based real-time PCR system for the simultaneous detection of porcine circovirus type 2, porcine parvovirus, pseudorabies virus and Torque teno sus virus 1 and 2 in pigs.Multiple viral infections are common in pigs under intensive production conditions. All five of the viruses included in this study are associated with multifactorial diseases that cause significant economic losses in swine farming worldwide. The development is described of a novel multiple real-time PCR system based on the use of SYBR Green I that allows the simultaneous detection and differentiation of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2), porcine parvovirus (PPV), pseudorabies virus (PRV) and Torque t ...201222119629
magnetic resonance elastography and biomarkers to assess fibrosis from recurrent hepatitis c in liver transplant recipients.background.: imaging techniques evaluating liver stiffness (magnetic resonance elastography [mre]) and biomarkers may be useful indicators of fibrosis stage in hepatitis c virus (hcv)+patients. our aim was to compare the accuracy of mre and biomarkers in staging fibrosis because of recurrent hcv in liver transplant (lt) recipients with hepatocellular carcinoma. methods.: liver magnetic resonance imaging and mre, fibrospectii, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (aspartate aminotra ...201121822174
development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of porcine boca-like virus.the porcine boca-like virus (pbo-likev) was recently discovered in swedish pigs with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws). in this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay was developed for rapid, specific and sensitive detection of pbo-likev. a set of four primers specific for six regions of pbo-likev vp1/2 genes was designed with the online software. the reaction temperature and time were optimized to 65°c and 60min, respectively. lamp products were detected b ...201122172971
evaluation of the human host range of bovine and porcine viruses that may contaminate bovine serum and porcine trypsin used in the manufacture of biological products.current u.s. requirements for testing cell substrates used in production of human biological products for contamination with bovine and porcine viruses are u.s. department of agriculture (usda) 9cfr tests for bovine serum or porcine trypsin. 9cfr requires testing of bovine serum for seven specific viruses in six families (immunofluorescence) and at least 2 additional families non-specifically (cytopathicity and hemadsorption). 9cfr testing of porcine trypsin is for porcine parvovirus. recent con ...201122000165
low reproductive performance and high sow mortality in a pig breeding herd: a case study.sow performance is a key component of the productivity of commercial pig farms. reproductive failure in the sow is common in pig production. for every 100 sows served, 89 should farrow. in absence of specific diseases such as porcine parvovirus, pseudo-rabies, swine fever, leptospirosis and brucellosis, management failures are the most important causes of loss. a syndrome associated with reproductive inefficiency, and post-service vaginal discharge and high sow mortality in a commercial pig farm ...200821851706
detection of porcine circovirus type 1 in commercial porcine vaccines by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) method with a real-time monitoring system was developed for the detection of porcine circovirus type 1 (pcv1) in commercial swine vaccines. this method was highly specific for pcv1. no cross-reaction to porcine circovirus type 2, porcine parvovirus, pseudorabies virus, classical swine fever virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus was observed. the analytical sensitivity of the lamp for pcv1 dna was 10 copies/μl in the case of ...201121948286
Relative size selection of a conjugated polyelectrolyte in virus-like protein structures.A conjugated polyelectrolyte poly[(2-methoxy-5-propyloxy sulfonate)-phenyl-ene vinylene] (MPS-PPV) drives the assembly of virus capsid proteins to form single virus-like particles (VLPs) and aggregates with more than two VLPs, with a relative selection of high molecular weight polymer in the latter.201122121498
comparison of conventional cervical cytology versus visual inspection with acetic acid among human immunodeficiency virus-infected women in western kenya.objective: this study aimed to determine the accuracy of visual inspection with acetic acid (via) versus conventional pap smear as a screening tool for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia/cancer among human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected women. materials and methods: a total of 150 hiv-infected women attending the moi teaching and referral hospital hiv clinic in eldoret underwent conventional pap smear, via, colposcopy, and biopsy. both via and pap smears were done by nurses, whereas colpo ...201122126834
using polymer conformation to control architecture in semiconducting polymer/viral capsid assemblies.cowpea chlorotic mottle virus is a single-stranded rna plant virus with a diameter of 28 nm. the proteins comprising the capsid of this virus can be purified and reassembled either by themselves to form hollow structures or with polyanions such as double-stranded dna or single-stranded rna. depending on ph and ionic strength, a diverse range of structures and shapes can form. the work presented here focuses on using these proteins to encapsulate a fluorescent polyanionic semiconducting polymer, ...201121942298
immunogenicity of recombinant classic swine fever virus cd8(+) t lymphocyte epitope and porcine parvovirus vp2 antigen coexpressed by lactobacillus casei in swine via oral vaccination.classical swine fever virus (csfv) and porcine parvovirus (ppv) are highly contagious pathogens, resulting in enormous economic losses in pig industries worldwide. because vaccines play an important role in disease control, researchers are seeking improved vaccines that could induce antiviral immune responses against csfv and ppv at the mucosal and systemic levels simultaneously. in this study, a genetically engineered lactobacillus strain coexpressing the csfv-specific cytotoxic t lymphocyte (c ...201121940406
isolated anti-hbc-igm antibody among blood donors in the semi-arid region of nigeria.laboratory screening for the diagnosis of hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection in blood donors currently consists of testing for hepatitis b surface (hbsag) antigen alone. the prevalence of isolated anti-hbc-igm is not yet known in the semi arid region of nigeria. the major objective of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of antibody to hepatitis b core antigen (anti-hbc-igm) and other infectious agent markers; hbsag, hcv, hiv and syphilis among blood donors in the north eastern region ...201122129677
validation of a norovirus multiplex real-time rt-pcr assay for the detection of norovirus gi and gii from faeces samples.norovirus is a leading cause of infectious non-bacterial gastroenteritis. the virus is highly contagious and has multiple modes of transmission, presenting a growing challenge to hospital-based healthcare. in this study, a total of 120 stool samples are tested for the presence of norovirus gi and gii by the roche two-step lightcycler 2.0 assay incorporating primers and probes produced by tib molbiol, and the results are compared with results from the national virus reference laboratory. the roch ...201121950202
[treatment of chronic hepatitis c virus infection. a study of best predictors for response.]objective: the aim of this study was evaluate the rate of sustained viral response (svr) and the influence of different factors on the svr in patients with chronic hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection treated with pegylated interferon alfa 2a and ribavirin. methods: we retrospectively analysed 272 naïve patients with chronic hepatitis c who had been treated for 24 weeks or 48 weeks and had been followed for an additional 6 months thereafter. results: out of 272 patients, 243 completed the entire tr ...201122173189
Seroprevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, Aujeszky's disease, and porcine parvovirus in replacement gilts in Thailand.The present study investigated the seroprevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), and porcine parvovirus (PPV) in replacement gilts from selected five swine herds in Thailand. The study consisted of three parts. First, a retrospective data analysis on the seroprevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and ADV glycoprotein I (gI) in gilts, sows, boars, nursery, and fattening pigs in five herds (n?=?7,030). Seco ...201122068636
rapid, early and sustained virological responses in a cohort of irish patients treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis c virus infection.the response to the treatment with pegylated interferon (peg ifn)-α combined with ribavirin in chronic hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection varies with some patients having a rapid or early response which is not sustained.201122038749
Prediction of sustained response to low-dose pegylated interferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin in patients with genotype 1b and high hepatitis C virus level using viral reduction within 2 weeks after therapy initiation.Aim: Continuation of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin at the recommended dose is difficult in elderly patients and/or patients with cytopenia or complications. Whether the therapeutic efficacy of low-dose PEG-IFN plus ribavirin therapy could be predicted based on virological response within 2 weeks of therapy initiation was evaluated. Methods: A total of 106 patients with a high viral load of genotype-1b hepatitis C virus (HCV) underwent low-dose PEG-IFN plus ribavirin therapy. PE ...201121951330
the cucumber vein yellowing virus silencing suppressor p1b can functionally replace hcpro in plum pox virus infection in a host-specific manner.plant viruses of the genera potyvirus and ipomovirus (potyviridae family) use unrelated rna silencing suppressors (rss) to counteract antiviral rna silencing responses. hcpro is the rss of potyvirus spp., and its activity is enhanced by the upstream p1 protein. distinctively, the ipomovirus cucumber vein yellowing virus (cvyv) lacks hcpro but contains two p1 copies in tandem (p1ap1b), the second of which functions as rss. using chimeras based on the potyvirus plum pox virus (ppv), we found that ...201121970691
Detection of plum pox potyviral protein-protein interactions in planta using an optimized mRFP-based bimolecular fluorescence complementation system.In previous studies, protein interaction maps of different potyviruses have been generated using yeast two-hybrid (YTH) systems, and these maps have demonstrated a high diversity of interactions of potyviral proteins. Using an optimized bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) system, a complete interaction matrix for proteins of a potyvirus was developed for the first time under in planta conditions with ten proteins from plum pox virus (PPV). In total, 52 of 100 possible interactions we ...201121880839
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of porcine circovirus type 2.ABSTRACT:201122044506
studies on porcine circovirus type 2 vaccination of 5-day-old piglets.porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) vaccines have become widely used since they became available in 2006. it is not uncommon for producers to use pcv2 vaccines in pigs younger than what is approved by manufacturers. the objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a chimeric and a subunit pcv2 vaccine administered at 5 or 21 days of age. forty-eight pcv2-naïve piglets were randomly divided into six groups of eight pigs each. vaccination was done at day 5 or day 21, followed by triple ch ...201121940407
Identification of improved IL28B SNPs and haplotypes for prediction of drug response in treatment of hepatitis C using massively parallel sequencing in a cross-sectional European cohort.BACKGROUND: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects nearly 3% of the World's population, causing severe liver disease in many. Standard of care therapy is currently pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin (PegIFN/R), which is effective in less than half of those infected with the most common viral genotype. Two IL28B single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs8099917 and rs12979860, predict response to (PegIFN/R) therapy in treatment of HCV infection. These SNPs were identified in genome wide analys ...201121884576
diagnostic capacity of rapid influenza antigen test: reappraisal with experience from the 2009 h1n1 pandemic.background: the rapid influenza antigen test (riat) has been questioned because of its poor sensitivity. clinicians are confused as to what diagnostic help it may provide. riat was reappraised by other laboratory confirmatory tests for its diagnostic capacity. methods: records of riat, rt-pcr and virus culture, performed for upper respiratory tract samples during the period from july 2009 to january 2010, were reviewed. the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (ppv) and negative p ...201122177367
prevalence of antibodies to selected viral pathogens in wild boars (sus scrofa) in croatia in 2005-06 and 2009-10.we determined prevalence of antibody to selected viral pathogens important for domestic pigs and livestock in 556 wild boar (sus scrofa) sera collected during 2005-06 and 2009-10 in four counties in croatia. these counties account for an important part of the croatian commercial pig production and have a high density of wild boars. samples were tested for antibodies to porcine parvovirus (ppv), aujeszky's disease virus (adv), porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), swine influenza virus, porcine respi ...201222247381
virus survival in slurry: analysis of the stability of foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, bovine viral diarrhoea and swine influenza slurry can be highly contaminated with viral pathogens. the survival of these pathogens within slurry is important since this material is often distributed onto farm land either directly or after heat treatment. there is clearly some risk of spreading pathogens in the early stages of an outbreak of disease before it has been recognized. the survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and swine influenza virus, which belong to three dif ...201122226541
[High-risk human papilloma virus DNA detection kit (cervista HPV HR) should be highly validated clinically in cervical cancer screening programs].The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of High-risk Human Papilloma virus DNA Detection Kit (Cervista HPV HR) designed to the utilized in cervical cancer screening programs.201121863645
decreasing levels of hbsag predict hbsag seroclearance in patients with inactive chronic hepatitis b virus infection.background & aims: serum levels of hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) decrease gradually during chronic hepatitis b virus infection. we investigated the association between levels of hbsag and hbsag seroclearance. methods: we studied data from 46 patients who underwent spontaneous seroclearance of hbsag (median age at seroclearance, 48 y; 87% male; 76% infected with genotype b). there were 46 controls matched for age, sex, and hepatitis b virus genotype, and e antigen status with persistently n ...201121893131
twelve-week posttreatment follow-up to predict sustained virologic response for recurrent hepatitis c infection in liver recipients.background: the current standard for determining sustained virologic response (svr) in patients treated for hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection is undetectable serum hcv-rna 24 weeks after treatment. this study evaluates the value of hcv-rna determination at 12 weeks posttreatment (w+12) to predict svr in liver transplant (lt) patients treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for recurrent hcv infection. methods: this study, performed in 2001 to 2010, included hcv-lt patients with an end-of ...201222262129
[effect of the glycine-rich region deleted ppv vp2 to the vlps].the n-terminal of porcine parvovirus (ppv) viral protein 2 (vp2) links a glycine-rich domain which is a cleavage site of ppv order to confirm that the glycine-rich domain was essential for the self-assembling of virus-like particles (vlps).the vp2 gene with glycine-rich domain deleted and the complete vp2 gene were inserted to eukaryotic expression vector pci-neo and were named pci-avp2 and pci-vp2. then, pci-delta vp2, pci-vp2 and pci-neo were transferred into vero cells by liposome and ...201122506413
efficacy of the confidential unit exclusion option in blood donors in tehran, iran, determined by using the nucleic acid testing method in 2008 and recent years, the confidential unit exclusion (cue) option has been used to increase blood safety at blood transfusion centers in several countries. the epidemiologic characteristics of diseases and demographic characteristics of patients vary in different countries; therefore, we investigated whether the cue option is useful in iran. in this study, we determined the prevalences of hepatitis b virus (hbv) and hepatitis c virus (hcv) in cue-positive and cue-negative units, as well as the effic ...201122308155
presence of porcine parvovirus in sera from pigs is independent of antibody titers.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is a widespread dna virus that causes reproductive failure in swine. the aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of ppv in sera of nursery piglets (healthy n = 191 and wasting n = 132) and regularly vaccinated sows (with different parity rank [pr] n = 129), collected from different herds. altogether, 452 animals were sampled in 27 herds owned by five companies. all sera were analyzed for the presence of ppv dna by nested-pcr. the samples from sows were i ...201122059296
half-life of porcine antibodies absorbed from a colostrum supplement containing porcine immunoglobulins.absorption of immunoglobulins (ig) at birth from colostrum is essential for piglet survival. the objective was to evaluate the half-life of antibodies absorbed in the bloodstream of newborn piglets orally fed a colostrum supplement (cs) containing energy (fat and carbohydrates) and igg from porcine plasma. viable piglets (n = 23; 900 to 1,800 g bw) from 6 sows were colostrum deprived and blood sampled and within the next 2 h of life randomly allocated to either control group (n = 9) providing 30 ...201223365363
emergence of a novel mutant pcv2b variant associated with clinical pcvad in two vaccinated pig farms in the u.s. concurrently infected with ppv2.porcine circovirus (pcv) type 2b (pcv2b) emerged in north america in 2005-2006. during may of 2012, pcvad occurred in 10-18-week-old pigs in two farms within a production system that routinely vaccinated against pcv2. both farms received replacement gilts from the same multiplier. a mutant pcv2b strain not previously present in north america was identified. the strain was found to be 99.9% identical to a recently described mutant pcv2 isolate reported in china in 2010 and thought to be more viru ...201223305615
in vitro antimicrobial activities of animal-used quinoxaline 1,4-di-n-oxides against mycobacteria, mycoplasma and fungi.the quinoxaline 1,4-di-n-oxides (qdnos) were known as potent antibacterial agents. for the purpose of evaluating the bioactivity of existing animal-used qdnos drugs against representative pathogenic microorganism, the representative drugs of quinoxalines including cyadox, mequindox, quinocetone and their metabolites were submitted to the in vitro evaluation for antituberculosis, antimycoplasma, antifungal and antiviral activities.201627600955
[eukaryotic expression of ns1 major antigen region of ppv and development of an indirect elisa based on the expressed protein].to construct secretory expression vector of ppv ns1 gene, the fragment of ppv ns1 gene coding for major antigen region of the ns1 protein was amplified by pcr and inserted into multiple clone site of eukaryotic expression vector ppiczalpha-a. the recombinant ppiczalpha-a-ns1 plasmid was transferred into p. pastoris strain gs115 mediated by electro transform. recombinant p. pastoris strain gs115 was induced to express the fusion protein by methanol. the expressed and purified protein was analyzed ...201223367561
rapid and specific detection of porcine parvovirus using real-time pcr and high resolution melting (hrm) analysis.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is the important causative agent for infectious infertility, which is a fairly tough virus that multiplies normally in the intestine of pigs without causing clinical signs in the world.201525879634
identification and genomic characterization of a novel porcine parvovirus (ppv6) in china.parvoviruses are classified into two subfamilies based on their host range: the parvovirinae, which infect vertebrates, and the densovirinae, which mainly infect insects and other arthropods. in recent years, a number of novel parvoviruses belonging to the subfamily parvovirinae have been identified from various animal species and humans, including human parvovirus 4 (parv4), porcine hokovirus, ovine partetravirus, porcine parvovirus 4 (ppv4), and porcine parvovirus 5 (ppv5).201425442288
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