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magnetic resonance elastography and biomarkers to assess fibrosis from recurrent hepatitis c in liver transplant recipients.background.: imaging techniques evaluating liver stiffness (magnetic resonance elastography [mre]) and biomarkers may be useful indicators of fibrosis stage in hepatitis c virus (hcv)+patients. our aim was to compare the accuracy of mre and biomarkers in staging fibrosis because of recurrent hcv in liver transplant (lt) recipients with hepatocellular carcinoma. methods.: liver magnetic resonance imaging and mre, fibrospectii, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (aspartate aminotra ...201121822174
visualization of plant viral suppressor silencing activity in intact leaf lamina by quantitative fluorescent imaging.abstract: background: transient expression of proteins in plants has become a favoured method over the production of stably transformed plants because, in addition to enabling high protein yields, it is both fast and easy to apply. an enhancement of transient protein expression can be achieved by plant virus-encoded rna silencing suppressor proteins. since viral suppressor proteins differ in their efficiency to enhance transient protein expression in plants, we developed a whole-leaf green fluor ...201121812965
inactivation of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses on seeded human tissues by gamma irradiation.human tissue allografts are widely used in a variety of clinical applications with over 1.5 million implants annually in the us alone. since the 1990s, most clinically available allografts have been disinfected to minimize risk of disease transmission. additional safety assurance can be provided by terminal sterilization using low dose gamma irradiation. the impact of such irradiation processing at low temperatures on viruses was the subject of this study. in particular, both human tendon and co ...201121809182
high rate of viral evolution in the capsid protein of porcine parvovirus.in the last years, it has been shown that some parvoviruses exhibit high substitution rates, close to those of rna viruses. in order to monitor and determine new mutations of the porcine parvovirus (ppv), recent ppv field isolates from austria, brazil, germany and switzerland were sequenced and analyzed. these samples, together with sequences retrieved from genbank, were included in three datasets (consisting of vp2 complete gene, vp2 partial gene and ns1 complete gene). for each dataset, nucleo ...201121795474
the rna profile of porcine parvovirus 4, a boca-like virus, is unique among the parvoviruses.ppv4 transcribes its genome from a single promoter, and the rnas are generated via alternate splicing coupled with alternate polyadenylation, a strategy similar to that of the bocaviruses; however, several differences were detected. the ppv4 orf1 codes for four ns proteins, while the bocavirus orf1 codes for 1-3 ns proteins. whereas the vp1/vp2 capsid proteins of bocavirus are encoded by a single rna, vp1 and vp2 of ppv4 are encoded by two separate rnas. while orf3 of ppv4 encodes two np protein ...201121785854
porcine parvovirus removal using trimer and biased hexamer peptides.assuring the microbiological safety of biological therapeutics remains an important concern. our group has recently reported small trimeric peptides that have the ability to bind and remove a model non-enveloped virus, porcine parvovirus (ppv), from complex solutions containing human blood plasma. in an effort to improve the removal efficiency of these small peptides, we created a biased library of hexamer peptides that contain two previously reported trimeric peptides designated wrw and kyy. th ...201121751387
noninvasive diagnostic criteria for hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatic masses >2 cm in a hepatitis b virus-endemic area.background: noninvasive criteria for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) suggested by the american association for the study of liver diseases (aasld) in 2005 consisted of serum a-fetoprotein (afp) level >200 ng/ml or a typical enhancement pattern (arterial enhancement and portal/delayed washed out) on dynamic imaging of hepatic mass(es) >2 cm in a cirrhotic liver. aims: to validate these criteria in a korean population and to evaluate whether these criteria are applicable to patients with ...201121745284
narrowing down the apricot plum pox virus resistance locus and comparative analysis with the peach genome syntenic region.sharka disease, caused by the plum pox virus (ppv), is one of the main limiting factors for stone fruit crops worldwide. only a few resistance sources have been found in apricot (prunus armeniaca l.), and most studies have located a major ppv resistance locus (ppvres) on linkage group 1 (lg1). however, the mapping accuracy was not sufficiently reliable and ppvres was predicted within a low confidence interval. in this study, we have constructed two high-density simple sequence repeat (ssr) impro ...201121722293
phylogenetic analysis of porcine parvoviruses from swine samples in china.abstract:201121703005
Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome produced in gnotobiotic pigs following exposure to various amounts of porcine circovirus type 2a or type 2b.In late 2005, a postweaning, high mortality syndrome spread rapidly through finishing barns in swine dense areas of the United States. Diagnostic investigations consistently detected porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) from diseased tissues. Subsequent genetic analysis revealed that the infectious agent was a PCV2 type termed "PCV2b". Prior to late 2004, only the PCV2a type, but not PCV2b, had been reported in North America. In this communication, we produce severe postweaning multisystemic wasting ...201121684696
A novel recombinant pseudorabies virus expressing parvovirus VP2 gene: Immunogenicity and protective efficacy in swine.Porcine parvovirus (PPV) VP2 gene has been successfully expressed in many expression systems resulting in self-assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs) with similar morphology to the native capsid. Here, a pseudorabies virus (PRV) system was adopted to express the PPV VP2 gene.201121679423
diagnostic significance of plasma osteopontin in hepatitis c virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma.outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) depends mainly on its early diagnosis. the performance of traditional biomarkers is not satisfactory. osteopontin (opn) is of potential importance. this study aim to assess the diagnostic value of plasma opn compared with alpha-fetoprotein (afp) for the diagnosis of hcv- related hcc.201121677331
porcine bocaviruses: genetic analysis and prevalence in chinese swine population.summaryin members of the bocavirus genus, that contain three open reading frames (orfs) of the parvovirinae subfamily, porcine bocaviruses (pobovs) exhibit the most genetic diversity. based on the orf2-encoded viral protein (vp1) classification, the six reported porcine bocaviruses were grouped into four species: pobov1 (porcine boca-like virus or pbolv), pobov2 (porcine parvovirus 4 or ppv4), pobov3 (pbov1/pbov2) and pobov4 (6v/7v), with pobov3 and pobov4 each having two genotype viruses. all f ...201121676363
a live-attenuated chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) vaccine is transmitted to contact pigs but is not upregulated by concurrent infection with porcine parvovirus (ppv) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) and is efficacious in a pcv2b-prrsv-ppv challenge model.the live chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) vaccine with the capsid gene of the emerging subtype 2b cloned in the genomic backbone of the nonpathogenic pcv1 is attenuated in vivo and induces protective immunity against pcv2. to further determine the safety and efficacy of this experimental vaccine, we tested for evidence of pig-to-pig transmission by commingling nonvaccinated and vaccinated pigs, determined potential upregulation by simultaneous vaccination and infection with porcine parv ...201121653745
optimal follow-up time to determine the sustained virological response in patients with chronic hepatitis c receiving peg-ifn and ribavirin.background: this study evaluated whether the assessment of hcv-rna at 12 weeks (fw+12) post treatment follow-up was as applicable as fw+24 to evaluate sustained virological response (svr) using the highly sensitive real-time pcr hcv assay. methods and results: two hundred twenty-two patients with chronic hepatitis c were included in this study. pegylated interferon (peg-ifn) and ribavirin were administered for 24-72 weeks based on the genotype and viral load. serum hcv-rna was measured using rea ...201121649727
intestinal gene expression in pigs experimentally co-infected with pcv2 and ppv.the objective of the present study was to characterize the local immune reaction in the intestine of pigs experimentally infected with pcv2 and ppv. archived intestinal material from an experimental study in which pigs were co-infected with a swedish isolate of pcv2 (s-pcv2) and ppv, or a reference isolate of pcv2 (pcv2-1010) and ppv, were used. the intestinal samples were analysed by qpcr for expression of a number of selected cytokines and the overall gene expression in the intestine was scree ...201121605916
field effectiveness of pandemic and 2009-2010 seasonal vaccines against 2009-2010 a(h1n1) influenza: estimations from surveillance data in france.in this study, we assess how effective pandemic and trivalent 2009-2010 seasonal vaccines were in preventing influenza-like illness (ili) during the 2009 a(h1n1) pandemic in france. we also compare vaccine effectiveness against ili versus laboratory-confirmed pandemic a(h1n1) influenza, and assess the possible bias caused by using non-specific endpoints and observational data.201121573005
intrahepatic response markers in chronic hepatitis b patients treated with peginterferon alfa-2a and adefovir.background: we investigated whether intrahepatic markers could predict response in chronic hepatitis b patients treated with peg-ifn and adefovir for 48 weeks. methods: intrahepatic cccdna, total intrahepatic hbv dna and the proportion of hbsag and hbcag positive hepatocytes in 16 hbeag positive and 24 hbeag negative patients were measured at baseline and at the end of treatment. results: baseline intrahepatic markers were not associated with sustained virological response (svr) defined as hbv d ...201121557773
age-stratified performance of the cervista hpv 16/18 genotyping test in women with asc-us cytology.background: the objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of the cervista hpv 16/18 genotyping test for detection of human papilloma virus (hpv) 16 and 18 in cervical cytology specimens in women stratified by age. methods: in a multicenter, prospective clinical study, thinprep specimens were tested for the presence of hpv 16 and 18 using the hpv 16/18 genotyping test. genotyping results from women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or greater cytolog ...201121527581
vitamin e and selenium levels are within normal range in pigs diagnosed with mulberry heart disease and evidence for viral involvement in the syndrome is lacking.mulberry heart disease (mhd) in pigs is characterized by lesions of acute haemorrhagic myocarditis and myocardial necrosis. the objectives of this study were to determine the levels of vitamin e and selenium and 13 other trace minerals in heart and liver tissues and to determine the prevalence of certain viral infections in heart tissues from mhd-affected and mhd-unaffected pigs and the vitamin e and selenium concentration in feed samples from selected farms with mhd. based on the pathological e ...201121518323
molecular detection of torque teno sus virus in lymphoid tissues in concomitant infections with other porcine viral pathogens.in this study, 40 pigs with respiratory and wasting disorders from cuban swine herds were screened by pcr for the presence of ttsuv1, ttsuv2, pcv-2, ppv and csfv in spleen samples. the variability of the porcine ttsuv sequences obtained was investigated by phylogenetic analysis. this study showed for the first time that ttsuv1 and ttsuv2 were present in cuban swine herds. the investigation revealed the following infection rates: ttsuv1 40%, ttsuv2 37.5%, pcv-2 70%, ppv 37.5% and csfv in 52.5%. t ...201121482428
the immune enhancement of propolis adjuvant on inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccine in guinea pig.two experiments were carried out. in immune response test, the immune enhancement of propolis, oilemulsion and aluminium salt were compared in guinea pig vaccinated with inactivated porcine parvovirus (ppv) vaccine. the result showed that three adjuvants could enhance antibody titer, t lymphocyte proliferation, il-2 and il-4 secretion of splenic lymphocyte. the action of propolis was similar to that of oilemulsion and superior to that of aluminium salt, especially in early period of vaccination ...201121482422
[coinfection effects of porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine parvovirus in vivo on phagocytosis and interferon mrna expression of porcine alveolar macrophages].our study is to analyse the coinfection effects of porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) and porcine parvovirus (ppv) in vivo on phagocytosis and interferon mrna expression level of porcine alveolar macrophages (pam).201121465796
in vitro evaluation of antiviral and virucidal activity of a high molecular weight hyaluronic acid.hyaluronic acid (ha), a non-sulphated glycosaminoglycan, is present in synovial fluid, vitreous humour serum and many connective tissues. pharmaceutical preparations of ha are used in clinical practice for wound healing, joint pain, kerato-conjunctivitis, asthma, mouth care, oesophageal-reflux, and gastritis. moreover, it is used as a filler to counteract ageing and facial lipoatrophy. our study aims at investigating the in vitro antiviral activity of a high molecular weight ha.201121439070
sequence variability, recombination analysis, and specific detection of the w strain of plum pox virus.plum pox virus (ppv), a member of the genus potyvirus, is the causal agent of sharka, the most detrimental disease of stone-fruit trees worldwide. ppv isolates are grouped into seven distinct strains. the minor ppv-w strain was established recently for the divergent w3174 isolate found in canada. here, the partial or complete genomic sequences of four ppv-w isolates from latvia have been determined. the completely sequenced isolates lv-141pl and lv-145bt share 93.1 and 92.1% nucleotide identity, ...201121425932
twelve week post-treatment follow-up predicts sustained virological response to pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy in hiv/hepatitis c virus co-infected patients.the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the assessment of hepatitis c virus (hcv) rna serum at 12 weeks after the end of treatment (w12) was as informative as after 24 weeks (w24) for determining sustained virological response (svr) in hiv/hcv co-infected patients who received a combination of pegylated interferon (peg-inf) plus ribavirin (peg-inf/rbv) and had a virological response at the end of treatment.201121415037
validity of two rapid point of care influenza tests and direct fluorecence assay in comparison of real time pcr for swine of origin influenza virus.a novel swine origin influenza virus (s-oiv) is continue to spread worldwide and a global declaration of 2009 influenza pandemic was made by world health organization (who) june 2009, this along with approaching the winter season at the northern hemisphere, increase the interest to provide a quick, easy, affordable and available point of care testing for s-oiv.201121338954
performance of the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index for the staging of hepatitis c-related fibrosis: an updated meta-analysis.the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (apri), a tool with limited expense and widespread availability, is a promising noninvasive alternative to liver biopsy for detecting hepatic fibrosis. the objective of this study was to update the 2007 meta-analysis to systematically assess the accuracy of apri in predicting significant fibrosis, severe fibrosis, and cirrhosis stage in hepatitis c virus (hcv) monoinfected and hcv / human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) coinfected individuals. ...201121319189
interaction of plum pox virus with specific colloidal gold-labeled antibodies and development of immunochromatographic assay of the virus.two monoclonal antibodies (mabs) raised against plum pox virus (ppv) were shown to recognize its d, m, and c strains. conjugates of the antibodies with colloidal gold (cg) nanoparticles averaging 26 nm in diameter were synthesized. the binding constants of ppv with both the native and conjugated mabs were determined using a biacore x device. the complexes between the cg-mab conjugates and plum pox virions were examined by means of transmission electron and atomic force microscopy. using the conj ...201021314608
effects of varying virus-spiking conditions on a virus-removal filter planovaôäó 20n in a virus validation study of antibody solutions.we aimed to investigate the effect of virus-spiking conditions on the filter performance (flux, flux decay, and parvovirus reduction) of the small virus filter planovaôäó 20n. we used three kinds of porcine parvovirus (ppv) stocks: serum, serum-free, and purified. the flux profile with ppv spiking was similar to that without spiking for normal load filtration of about 250-300 l/m(2) . high volume (3 vol %) of serum-free ppv and 1 vol % serum ppv reduced the flux to some extent for high-load filt ...201121312364
false-positive human immunodeficiency virus enzyme immunoassay results in pregnant women.examine whether false-positive hiv enzyme immunoassay (eia) test results occur more frequently among pregnant women than among women who are not pregnant and men (others).201121304592
mediterranean and central-eastern european countries host viruses of two different clades of plum pox virus strain m.the genetic diversity of plum pox virus strain m (ppv-m) was assessed by analyzing 28 isolates collected in 8 european countries. two genomic fragments spanning the (cter)p3-6k1-(nter)ci coding region as well as the full coat protein coding region were sequenced directly from pcr products. phylogenetic analysis showed that the geographical origin of the collected isolates was clearly associated with two different ppv-m clades. moreover, the pattern of substitutions in the cp gene shed light on t ...201121293968
molecular, ultrastructural, and biological characterization of pennsylvania isolates of plum pox virus.plum pox virus (ppv) was identified in pennsylvania in 1999. the outbreak was limited to a four-county region in southern pennsylvania. initial serological and molecular characterization indicated that the isolates in pennsylvania belong to the d strain of ppv. the pennsylvania isolates were characterized by sequence analysis, electron microscopy, host range, and vector transmission to determine how these isolates related to their previously studied european counterparts. genetically, pennsylvan ...201121261466
two new subfamilies of dna mismatch repair proteins (muts) specifically abundant in the marine environment.muts proteins are ubiquitous in cellular organisms and have important roles in dna mismatch repair or recombination. in the virus world, the amoeba-infecting mimivirus, as well as the recently sequenced cafeteria roenbergensis virus are known to encode a muts related to the homologs found in octocorals and ɛ-proteobacteria. to explore the presence of muts proteins in other viral genomes, we performed a genomic survey of four giant viruses ('giruses') (pyramimonas orientalis virus (pov), phaeocys ...201121248859
thermal image scanning for influenza border screening: results of an airport screening study.infrared thermal image scanners (itis) appear an attractive option for the mass screening of travellers for influenza, but there are no published data on their performance in airports.201121245928
[seroprevalence of rubella virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus and parvovirus b19 among pregnant women in the sousse region, tunisia].the aim of the study is to evaluate seroprevalence of rubella virus (rv), cytomegalovirus (cmv), varicella zoster virus (vzv), and parvovirus b19 (pb19) in 404 tunisian pregnant women, and to determine reliability of maternal past history of eruption. sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors, and past history of eruption were collected through a questionnaire. serologic tests were performed using enzyme immunoassays. risk factors were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic reg ...201121243459
effects of varying virus-spiking conditions on a virus-removal filter planova™ 20n in a virus validation study of antibody solutions.we aimed to investigate the effect of virus-spiking conditions on the filter performance (flux, flux decay, and parvovirus reduction) of the small virus filter planova™ 20n. we used three kinds of porcine parvovirus (ppv) stocks: serum, serum-free, and purified. the flux profile with ppv spiking was similar to that without spiking for normal load filtration of about 250-300 l/m(2). high volume (3 vol %) of serum-free ppv and 1 vol % serum ppv reduced the flux to some extent for high-load filtrat ...201021213298
genetic elements in the vp region of porcine parvovirus are critical to replication efficiency in cell culture.factors controlling porcine parvovirus (ppv) replication efficiency are poorly characterized. two prototype strains of ppv, nadl-2 and kresse, differ greatly in pathogenic capacity both in vivo and in vitro, yet their genomic sequence is nearly identical (13 single-nucleotide substitutions and a 127-nucleotide noncoding repeated sequence). we have created a series of chimeras of these strains to identify the genetic elements involved in replication efficiency in the host porcine cell line. while ...201121209104
pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage among infants born to human immunodeficiency virus-infected mothers immunized with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine during gestation.we have previously shown that 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (ppv) is immunogenic in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected mothers and provides vaccine-induced antibodies to the infant. we compared the nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization (npc) rates in <6-month-old infants born to hiv-infected mothers, according to immunization with ppv during pregnancy.201121200361
molecular epidemiology of plum pox virus in japan.for a molecular epidemiological study based on complete genome sequences, 37 plum pox virus (ppv) isolates were collected from the kanto region in japan. pair-wise analyses revealed that all 37 japanese isolates belong to the ppv-d strain, with low genetic diversity (less than 0.8%). in phylogenetic analysis of the ppv-d strain based on complete nucleotide sequences, the relationships of the ppv-d strain were reconstructed with high resolution: at the global level, the american, canadian, and ja ...201121198358
[combined detection of epstein-barr virus antibodies for serodiagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma].to investigate the value of combined detection of epstein-barr virus (ebv) vca/iga, ea/iga, rta/igg and ebna1/iga in serodiagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (npc).201021177196
simple and efficient biolistic procedure for the plant transfection with cdna clones of rna viruses.simple, fast, low-cost, and efficient procedure for dna delivery to the cell nuclei of whole plants was developed. the procedure was optimized for the plum pox virus (ppv) and its host nicotiana benthamiana. it is based on the leaf bombardment with tungsten microparticles with bound dna using common air gun. the procedure did not require special equipment and source of driving gas. the transfection efficiency obtained by the newly developed procedure was close to 100%, but this level dropped wit ...201021175255
analysis of the epitope structure of plum pox virus coat protein.typing of the particular plum pox virus (ppv) strain responsible in an outbreak has important practical implications and is frequently performed using strain-specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs). analysis in western blots of the reactivity of 24 mabs to a 112-amino-acid n-terminal fragment of the ppv coat protein (cp) expressed in escherichia coli showed that 21 of the 24 mabs recognized linear or denaturation-insensitive epitopes. a series of eight c-truncated cp fragments allowed the mapping ...201121171886
the diagnostic and prognostic significance of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) is a potentially fatal disease caused by a tick-borne virus from the bunyaviridae family. it has recently been reported that soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (supar), secreted from endothelial cells and the mononuclear phagocyte system, one of the main targets of the cchf virus, is a potential biomarker for several bacterial and viral infection diseases.201021167774
production and purification of vp2 protein of porcine parvovirus expressed in an insect-baculovirus cell system.the porcine parvovirus (ppv) vp2 protein was expressed in an insect-baculovirus cell system and was purified using ni-nta affinity column chromatography. the recombinant 6-his-tagged vp2 protein with molecular mass (mr) of about 64 kda was detected by anti-his antibody and anti-ppv serum. electron microscopy showed that the purified vp2 protein assembled into spherical particles with diameters ranging from 20 to 22 nm. the expressed vp2 was antigenically similar to the native capsid protein acco ...201021143963
role of simple biomarkers in predicting fibrosis progression in hcv infection.to examine the accuracy of the aspartate aminotransferase (ast)/platelet ratio index (apri) and fib-4, in predicting longitudinal changes in liver histology in hepatitis c virus (hcv) patients.201021128320
immunopathological characterization of porcine circovirus type 2 infection-associated follicular changes in inguinal lymph nodes using high-throughput tissue microarray.the immunopathogenesis of porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) infection in conventional pigs is complicated by various environmental factors and individual variation and is difficult to be completely reproduced experimentally. in the present field-based study, a tissue microarray (tma) consisting of a series of lymphoid follicles having different pcv2-loads was constructed using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded superficial inguinal lymph nodes (lns) from 102 pigs. using the tma, a wide range of ...201021126833
detection of porcine parvovirus using a taqman-based real-time pcr with primers and probe designed for the ns1 gene.a taqman-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay was devised for the detection of porcine parvovirus (ppv). two primers and a taqman probe for the non-structural protein ns1 gene were designed. the detection limit was 1 x 10² dna copies/μl, and the assay was linear in the range of 1 x 10² to 1 x 10⁹ copies/μl. there was no cross-reaction with porcine circovirus 2 (pcv2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), pseudorabies virus (prv), classical swine fever vir ...201021126330
detection of a novel porcine parvovirus, ppv4, in chinese swine herds.to determine whether the novel porcine parvovirus type 4 (ppv4) recently reported in america is prevalent in china, a set of specific primers was designed and used for molecular survey of ppv4 among the clinical samples collected from various provinces of china between 2006 and 2010. the results showed that ppv4 is present in chinese swine herds at a rate of 2.09% (12/573) among the clinical samples examined and 0.76% (1/132) among the samples taken from healthy animals. we also noted that ppv4 ...201021092136
[construction and immunogenicity of recombinant porcine parvovirus-like particles with somatostatin].in order to obtain a virus-like particle vaccine both for porcine parvovirus (ppv) prevention and growth-promotion, vp2 gene of ppv nj-a strain was amplified with pcr, and four copies of synthetic somatostatin gene were fused to the n-terminal of vp2 gene. the fused gene was cloned into pfast-ht a to construct the recombinant plasmid pfast-ss4-vp2, then the pfast-ss4-vp2 was transformed into dh10bac competent cells and recombined with shuttle vector bacmid, followed by identification with blue-w ...201021090109
comparison of immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction for detection of west nile virus in naturally infected dead birds.credible vector-borne disease surveillance programs, especially in developing countries with limited resources, must include diagnostic tests that are efficient, inexpensive and simple and safe to administer while maintaining high levels of sensitivity and specificity. since immunohistochemistry (ihc) includes most of these features, its sensitivity, specificity, predictive positive value (ppv) and predictive negative value (pnv) for west nile virus (wnv) screening were compared to those of the ...201021045374
silencing of plum pox virus 5'utr/p1 sequence confers resistance to a wide range of ppv strains.an effective disease-control strategy should protect the host from the major economically important and geographically widespread variants of a pathogen. plum pox virus (ppv) is the causal agent of sharka, the most devastating viral disease of prunus species. we have shown previously that the hairpin rna expression driven by h-utr/p1, h-p1/hcpro, h-hcpro and h-hcpro/p3 constructs, derived from the ppv-m ispave44 isolate, confers resistance to the homologous virus in nicotiana benthamiana plants. ...201020963442
content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in fruits of apricot genotypes.research on natural compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health. in this study, we were interested in the evaluation of nutritional value expressed as content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of new apricot (prunus armeniaca l.) genotypes resistant against plum pox virus (ppv) cultivated on department of fruit growing of mendel university in brno. fruits of twenty one apricot genotypes were collected at the onset of consumption ripeness. antioxidant cap ...201020877223
quantitative serum hbsag and hbeag are strong predictors of sustained hbeag seroconversion to pegylated interferon alfa-2b in hbeag-positive patients.to evaluate the usefulness of quantitative hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) and hepatitis b e antigen (hbeag) for predicting hbeag seroconversion in chronic hepatitis b patients treated with conventional interferon (ifn) alfa-2b or pegifn alfa-2b.201020796146
a randomized clinical trial comparing revaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to polysaccharide vaccine among hiv-infected adults.the risk of pneumococcal disease persists, and antibody responses to revaccination with the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (ppv) are low among human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected adults. we determined whether revaccination with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (pcv) would enhance these responses.201020795819
audit of paired anal cytology and histopathology outcomes in patients referred to a public sexual health clinic.the level of agreement between anal cytology and histopathology is not clear with only a few studies evaluating the reliability of anal specimen reporting. australian data in relation to this are limited.201020719226
the chemokine cxcl13 is a prognostic marker in clinically isolated syndrome (cis).there is increasing recognition of the importance of b lymphocytes in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (ms), encouraging the evaluation of b cell-associated biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid (csf). we aimed to evaluate the relevance of the b cell chemoattractant cxcl13 as a prognostic marker in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (cis) regarding conversion to ms, and to compare it to barkhof criteria in magnetic resonance imaging (mri), oligoclonal bands (ocb) and the poly ...201020700489
loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection and differentiation of wild-type pseudorabies and gene-deleted virus vaccines.a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay was developed specifically for detection and differentiation of pseudorabies virus (prv). one group of primers was designed to detect wild-type strains (i.e., strains with the ge gene) and the other group of primers was designed to detect both prv ge-vaccine and wild-type strains (i.e., strains with the gg gene and with or without the ge gene). after amplification by bst enzyme at a constant temperature of 65 degrees c, a laddering of bright ...201020691214
o-glcnacylation of the plum pox virus capsid protein catalyzed by secret agent: characterization of o-glcnac sites by electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry.the capsid protein of plum pox virus (ppv-cp) is modified with o-linked β-n-acetylglucosamine (o-glcnac). in arabidopsis thaliana this modification is made by an o-glcnac transferase named secret agent (sec). modification of ppv-cp by sec is hypothesized to have a direct role in the infection process, because virus titer and rate of spread are reduced in sec mutants. previous studies used deletion mapping and site-directed mutagenesis to identify four o-glcnac sites on the capsid protein that ar ...201120676902
benzothiadiazole and l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid reduce the severity of sharka symptoms in pea leaves: effect on antioxidative metabolism at the subcellular level.the effect of treatment with benzothiadiazole (bth) or l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (otc), and their interaction with plum pox virus (ppv) infection, on antioxidative metabolism of pea plants was studied at the subcellular level. ppv infection produced a 20% reduction in plant growth. pre-treatment of pea plants with otc or bth afforded partial protection against ppv infection, measured as the percentage of leaves showing symptoms, but neither bth nor otc significantly reduced the virus ...201020653891
comparison of commercial and experimental porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) vaccines using a triple challenge with pcv2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), and porcine parvovirus (ppv).the efficacies of commercial porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) vaccines and a live pcv1-2a chimeric vaccine were compared in conventional, pcv2-positive piglets using a pcv2-porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv)-porcine parvovirus (ppv) coinfection challenge model. seventy-three, 2-week-old pigs were randomized into seven groups including five vaccinated and two control groups. pigs in the vaccinated groups were vaccinated at 3 weeks (one dose) or at 3 and 6 weeks (two dose) ...201020637768
the epitope of the vp1 protein of porcine parvovirus.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is the major causative agent in a syndrome of reproductive failure in swine. much has been learned about the structure and function of ppv in recent years, but nothing is known about the epitopes of the structural protein vp1, which is an important antigen of ppv. in this study, the monoclonal antibody c4 against vp1 of ppv was prepared and was used to biopan a 12-mer phage peptide library three times. the selected phage clones were identified by elisa and then sequencin ...201020637107
performance of parallel screening of brazilian blood donors with two human immunodeficiency virus immunoassays: implications for sequential immunoassay testing algorithms in other countries.in brazil it is mandatory to screen donors for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) antibodies using two immunoassays (ias) in parallel. confirmatory testing is performed only on reactive donors who return for counseling. the goal of this analysis was to determine if concordant ia reactivity accurately predicts infection and can be used for hiv incidence and/or prevalence analyses.201120633245
constraints to virus infection in nicotiana benthamiana plants transformed with a potyvirus amplicon.plant genomes have been transformed with full-length cdna copies of viral genomes, giving rise to what has been called 'amplicon' systems, trying to combine the genetic stability of transgenic plants with the elevated replication rate of plant viruses. however, amplicons' performance has been very variable regardless of the virus on which they are based. this has boosted further interest in understanding the underlying mechanisms that cause this behavior differences, and in developing strategies ...201020604920
reproductive failure in wild boars associated to porcine parvovirus infection and in vivo and in vitro characterization of the causal isolate.investigations were made to identify the causal agent of an acute outbreak of abortions in a domesticated herd of wild boar. only porcine parvovirus (ppv) was isolated from samples of organs from the still-born sucklings and mummified aborted fetuses. the isolated virus hemagglutinated erythrocytes of guinea pig, murine, rat, and chicken. identity of the virus, designated the bq strain, was confirmed by the production of a specific cytopathic effect on susceptible cells and by the results from e ...201020596774
the utility of dobutamine stress echocardiography for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease in the hiv population.the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart) has increased human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) patient longevity by 10-15 years. this increased longevity has habituated new cardiovascular complications, in particular, accelerated coronary artery disease (cad). although dobutamine stress echocardiography (dse) is a highly sensitive and specific test for the noninvasive detection of underlying cad in the general population, its utility in the hiv population remains unknown.201020584060
validation of the cepheid xpert flu a real time rt-pcr detection panel for emergency use authorization.in april 2009, the united states secretary of the department of health and human services declared a public health emergency concerning the 2009 influenza h1n1 outbreak. this declaration allowed the fda to issue emergency use authorization (eua) of approved in vitro diagnostics to detect the 2009 influenza h1n1 in clinical specimens.201020580600
[rapid influenza diagnostic tests for detection of novel influenza a (h1n1) virus in children].accuracy of rapid bd directigen(®) ez flu a+b diagnostic test against influenza a (h1n1) virus in children.201020579777
selected swine viral pathogens in indoor pigs in spain. seroprevalence and farm-level characteristics.a serosurvey on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), swine influenza virus (siv), aujeszky's disease virus ge protein (adv ge), porcine parvovirus (ppv) and porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) was carried out in spanish pig herds. the serosurvey consisted of two studies. first, a retrospective study assessed the proportion of seropositive boar, sow and fattening pig herds and their seroprevalences to prrsv, siv, adv ge and ppv from 2003 to 2005 and to pcv2 from 2000 to 2005. ...201020569418
expression of a modified nucleocapsid-protein of tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) confers resistance against tswv and groundnut ringspot virus (grsv) by blocking systemic spread.summary tobacco transformed with a construct comprising the nucleocapsid-protein (n) gene of tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) and the 5' non-translated leader sequence of plum pox virus (ppv) as a translation enhancer displays unusually broad resistance against tospoviruses. contrary to expectations, the transgenic plants did not express a higher level of tswv n protein than control plants harbouring the n gene without the ppv enhancer. instead, expression of an n-terminally elongated n protein, ...200420565598
studies of porcine circovirus type 2, porcine boca-like virus and torque teno virus indicate the presence of multiple viral infections in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome pigs.in a previous study, using random amplification and large-scale sequencing technology, we identified a novel porcine parvovirus belonging to the genus bocavirus in the background of porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv-2) in swedish pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws). in addition to bocavirus we demonstrated the presence of torque teno virus (ttv) genogroups 1 and 2 in these cases of pmws, indicating the simultaneous presence of several viruses in this disease complex. in the ...201020542066
evaluation of anti-varicella antibody in young women before their marriage: a sero-epidemiologic study in iran.chickenpox during pregnancy can cause severe complications in both the mother and her baby. however, no complications will occur in a mother with proper immunity. therefore, physicians and health systems can make better decisions when they know the immunologic status of the women in a community.201020538515
improving the immunogenicity of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in hiv-infected adults with a toll-like receptor 9 agonist adjuvant: a randomized, controlled trial.persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) are often hyporesponsive to immunization, including pneumococcal vaccines. we hypothesized that adding cpg 7909, a toll-like receptor 9 (tlr9) agonist and vaccine adjuvant, to 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vpnc) would increase its immunogenicity in hiv-infected adults.201020504165
combined use of aspartate aminotransferase, platelet count and matrix metalloproteinase 2 measurements to predict liver fibrosis in hiv/hepatitis c virus-coinfected patients.noninvasive tests that can be used in place of liver biopsy to diagnose fibrosis have major limitations. they either leave a significant proportion of patients without a definitive diagnosis or produce inaccurate results. moreover, the performance of these tests is lower in hiv/hepatitis c virus (hcv) coinfection. against this background, we examined the utility of serum matrix metalloproteinase 2 (mmp-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (timp-1) measurements in combination with routi ...201120497249
multiple pathways involved in porcine parvovirus cellular entry and trafficking toward the nucleus.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is a major cause of reproductive failure in swine. the mechanisms implicated in the first steps of infection that lead to the delivery of the ppv genome to the nucleus are poorly understood. in the present work, a panel of chemical inhibitors was used to dissect the cellular mechanisms involved in establishing a ppv infection. the results demonstrated that following binding to sialic acids on cell surface glycoproteins, the virus used both clathrin-mediated endocytosis a ...201020484503
the need for culture collections to support plant pathogen diagnostic networks.plant-pathogenic microorganisms, by virtue of their size, similarity in disease symptoms and closely related morphologies, are notoriously difficult to diagnose and detect. diagnosis gives proof as to the causal agent of disease and is important for developing appropriate control measures. detection shows the presence of a microorganism and is of importance for safeguarding national and international trade. live reference collections are required to characterize the taxonomy and function of micr ...201020457251
a single amino acid mutation alters the capsid protein electrophoretic double-band phenotype of the plum pox virus strain ppv-rec.plum pox virus (ppv) isolates differ by their capsid protein (cp) mobility in sds-page. these electrophoretic phenotypes are likely to result from post-translational modifications of the cp. we demonstrated that the cp mobility was solely determined by the cp n-terminal region. sequence comparison pinpointed a possible role of mutations at position 66 in determining the cp phenotype of ppv-rec isolates. site-directed mutagenesis of a chimeric clone demonstrated that gly(66) in the cp resulted in ...201020422234
diagnosis and phylogenetic analysis of orf virus from goats in china: a case report.orf virus (orfv) is the etiological agent of contagious pustular dermatitis and is the prototype of the genus parapoxvirus (ppv). it causes a severe exanthematous dermatitis that afflicts domestic and wild small ruminants.201020416112
assessment of alpha-fetoprotein in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in middle eastern patients.alpha-fetoprotein (afp) levels for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) may vary by geographical region and racial background. no data exists for this test in the middle eastern population. in addition, there is limited data on the impact of virological status on afp levels.201020397051
correlation between the composition of multivalent antibody conjugates with colloidal gold nanoparticles and their affinity.interactions between multivalent preparations of antibodies (conjugated with colloidal gold nanoparticles (gnp) as a carrier system) and a multivalent ligand were investigated. the aim of the present study was to reveal the relationship between the affinity of the conjugate and its composition (i.e., the valency). surface plasmon resonance was applied to study the affinity and the kinetics of the interaction of multivalent conjugates and multivalent virus (on the example of the plum pox virus (p ...201020347832
fat mass ratio: an objective tool to define lipodystrophy in hiv-infected patients under antiretroviral therapy.human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection and its treatment with antiretroviral therapy (art) have been associated with lipodystrophy. different clinical methodologies have been used to define the syndrome. the aim of this study was to propose gender-specific reference values using objective measurements for defining lipodystrophy in hiv-infected patients. using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (dxa), total body composition was analyzed in 221 hiv-infected patients under art (146 men). we use ...201020347364
identification and molecular cloning of a novel porcine parvovirus.a novel porcine parvovirus, ppv4, was identified in the lung lavage of a diseased pig coinfected with porcine circovirus type 2. this virus exhibits limited similarity to its closest relative, bovine parvovirus 2, but resembles viruses of the genus bocavirus (bovine parvovirus, canine minute virus and human bocavirus) that encode an additional orf3. the orf3 of ppv4 is predicted to encode a protein of 204 amino acid residues, which is similar in size to the orf3-encoded proteins of the bocavirus ...201020339886
on-treatment serum hbsag level is predictive of sustained off-treatment virologic response to telbivudine in hbeag-positive chronic hepatitis b patients.effective management of chronic hepatitis b infection is still very challenging, despite decades of clinical research. telbivudine is one of the most frequently used antiviral drug at the current stage, but its long-term effectiveness, particularly at off-treatment, is still unclear.201020233672
comparison of the immune responses induced by oral immunization of mice with lactobacillus casei-expressing porcine parvovirus vp2 and vp2 fused to escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin b subunit protein.the major structural protein vp2 of porcine parvovirus (ppv) was used as the model parvovirus antigen, which has been expressed in lactobacillus casei fusing with escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin b subunit (ltb) as mucosal adjuvant. the vp2-ltb dna fragment was cloned into vector ppg611 or ppg612 to generated inducible surface-displayed and secretion expression systems based on xylose promoter, designated as rlc:ppg611-vp2-ltb (recombinant l. casei) and rlc:ppg612-vp2-ltb, respectively. ...201120226529
[evaluation of the virus-elimination efficacy of nanofiltration (viresolve nfp) for the parvovirus b19 and hepatitis a virus].the safety of plasma derivatives has been reinforced since 1980s by variable pathogen inactivation or elimination techniques. nucleic acid amplification test (nat) for the source plasma has also been implemented worldwide. recently nanofiltration has been used in some country for ensuring safety of plasma derivatives to eliminate non-enveloped viruses such as parvovirus b19 (b19v) and hepatitis a virus (hav). we evaluated the efficacy of nanofiltration for the elimination of b19v and hav.201020197722
use of simple noninvasive biomarkers to predict liver fibrosis in hiv/hcv coinfection in routine clinical practice.simple noninvasive tests to predict fibrosis, as an alternative to liver biopsy (lb), are needed. of these, the aspartate aminotransferase (ast) to platelet ratio index (apri) and the forns index (fi) have been validated in hiv/hepatitis c virus (hcv) coinfection. however, these indexes may have lower diagnostic value in situations other than the circumscribed conditions of validation studies. we therefore examined the value of the apri and fi in hiv/hcv-coinfected patients for the detection of ...201020180868
ykl-40 and hyaluronic acid (ha) as noninvasive markers of liver fibrosis in kidney transplant patients with hcv chronic infection.hepatitis c is highly prevalent among kidney transplant (kt) recipients. in this population, the natural history of hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection and its proper management remains controversial. the invasiveness of the procedure and the interpretation variability of liver biopsy limit its use in these patients. we sought to evaluate the performance of ykl-40 and ha as markers of liver fibrosis in kt patients with hcv infection.201020163287
colostral transmission of porcine circovirus 2 (pcv-2): reproduction of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs fed milk from pcv-2-infected sows with post-natal porcine parvovirus infection or immunostimulation.post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws) was reproduced in pigs fed colostrum and milk from porcine circovirus 2 (pcv-2)-infected sows and infected post-natally with porcine parvovirus (ppv) or immunostimulated. pregnant sows were inoculated intranasally with either pcv-2 (n=5) or pcv-2-free pk-15 cell lysates (control, n=10) 3 weeks before the expected farrowing date. newborn piglets from five of the control sows were introduced to pcv-2-infected sows (n=6 for each sow) and allowed to ...201020147521
[association between igg antibody against the c-terminal region of the pres1 protein of hepatitis b virus and the early response to interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis b].to determine the relationship between igg antibody against the c-terminal region of the pres1 protein of hepatitis b virus and the early response to interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis b.201020128959
the genome of pseudocowpoxvirus: comparison of a reindeer isolate and a reference strain.parapoxviruses (ppv), of the family poxviridae, cause a pustular cutaneous disease in sheep and goats (orf virus, orfv) and cattle (pseudocowpoxvirus, pcpv and bovine papular stomatitis virus, bpsv). here, we present the first genomic sequence of a reference strain of pcpv (vr634) along with the genomic sequence of a ppv (f00.120r) isolated in finland from reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus). the f00.120r and vr634 genomes are 135 and 145 kb in length and contain 131 and 134 putative genes, re ...201020107016
prevalence of antibodies to selected viral and bacterial pathogens in wild boar (sus scrofa) in campania region, italy.serum samples were collected from wild boars (sus scrofa) harvested during the 2005-2006 hunting season in campania, southern italy. samples were tested for antibodies to leptospira interrogan, brucella spp., salmonella spp., aujeszky disease virus (adv), porcine reproductive and respiratory stress syndrome virus (prrsv), porcine parvovirus (ppv), classical swine fever virus (csfv), and swine vesicular disease virus (svdv). of the 342 serum samples tested, 15 (4.4%) were seropositive to brucella ...201020090052
[comparison and evaluation of enzyme-linked immunization assay kits with plague reduction neutralization test for detection of measles igg antibody].to evaluate and comparison of 2 commercial elisa kits (vrion/serion kit and ibl kit) which elisa kit will be used in sero-epidemiological survey in china in 2006 by plaque reduction neutralization test (prnt).200920084884
twelve weeks posttreatment follow-up is as relevant as 24 weeks to determine the sustained virologic response in patients with hepatitis c virus receiving pegylated interferon and ribavirin.a sustained virologic response (svr) in patients with chronic hepatitis c receiving pegylated interferon (peg-ifn) plus ribavirin is defined as undetectable serum hcv-rna at 24 weeks (w+24) posttreatment follow-up. viral load outcome in patients with virological relapse (vr) has not been explored. this study evaluated whether the assessment of serum hcv-rna 12 weeks (w+12) after the end of treatment was as relevant as w+24 to evaluate svr in 573 patients who received combination peg-ifn and riba ...201020069649
first report of porcine circovirus type 2 infections in cuba.to obtain information about the porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) infection status of pigs in cuba and the probable association of pcv2 with other porcine viruses, tissue samples collected from ill pigs were evaluated using polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the pcr analysis showed that 67.7% of the samples (23/34) from seven swine herds of six different geographic regions were detected to be positive for pcv2. ten of the 23 pcv2 positive samples (43.5%) shown a concurrent infection with porcine pa ...201020031180
cellular adaptive immune response against porcine circovirus type 2 in subclinically infected pigs.porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) is a dominant causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws), a multifactorial disease complex with putative immunosuppressive characteristics. little is known about adaptive pcv2-specific immune responses in infected pigs. therefore, the t and b cell responses following pcv2 infection in 3-week old spf piglets infected with pcv2 or pcv2 plus porcine parvovirus (ppv) were studied.200920028550
atypical glandular cells (agc): thinprep imaging system (tis), manual screening (ms), and correlation with hybrid capture 2 (hc2) hpv dna testing.the aim of the study was to determine if the thinprep imaging system (t1s) improves the positive predictive value (ppv) of atypical glandular cell (agc) diagnosis for identifying hpv-related squamous and/or glandular lesions over manual screening (ms), and if human papilloma virus (hpv)-dna testing improves the diagnostic yield.201020014311
enhancing the scope of conventional cervical cytology for detecting hpv infection.cervical neoplasia is attributed to a persistent human papilloma virus infection. the pap smear being the mainstay of cervical cancer screening in low-resource settings, we studied the nonclassical features which might indicate hpv infection. these included abortive koilocytes, mild dyskeratosis, parakeratosis, mild nuclear hyperchromasia, bi/multinucleation, measles cells, and keratohyaline-like granules. two hundred and eight women with a satisfactory pap smear and a hybrid capture ii test wer ...201019950400
identification and phylogenetic analysis of an orf virus isolated from an outbreak in sheep in the jilin province of china.this study investigated an acute outbreak of contagious ecthyma dermatitis that occurred in november 2008 in a herd of 180 small-tailed han sheep in the jilin province of china. the pathological findings of this case revealed severe vascular proliferation, viral cytopathic changes in keratinocytes by vacuolar degeneration, ballooning degeneration, and eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, suggesting that the disease could have been caused by an orf virus (orfv) infection. immunohistochemistry, in ...201019948384
dengue fever scoring system: new strategy for the early detection of acute dengue virus infection in taiwan.dengue fever is an important public health problem in southern taiwan. the purpose of this study was to develop a dengue scoring system using a three-stage process, which may be used as a guidance tool for the early diagnosis of dengue fever.200919933032
development and evaluation of rapid detection of classical swine fever virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp).a one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) was developed for the detection of classical swine fever virus (csfv) and a set of primers designed based on the e2 gene reference sequences of the csfv. the assay was optimized to amplify csfv rna by incubation at 63 degrees c for 50 min. the rt-lamp amplification products had a ladder-like appearance when electrophoresed on an agarose gel. the rt-lamp assay showed higher sensitivity than the conventional rt-pcr, ...201019931578
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